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# 1.

## 2. continuity equation for compressible flow:

3.Joukowski Airfoil : A Joukowsky airfoil is generated in the complex plane (-plane by
applying the Joukowsky transform to a circle in the -plane. The coordinates of the centre of the
circle are variables, and varying them modifies the shape of the resulting airfoil. The circle
encloses the point (where the derivative is zero) and intersects the point This can be achieved for
any allowable centre position by varying the radius of the circle.

Joukowsky airfoils have a cusp at their trailing edge. A closely related conformal mapping,
the KrmnTrefftz transform, generates the much broader class of KrmnTrefftz airfoils by
controlling the trailing edge angle. When a trailing edge angle of zero is specified, the Krmn
Trefftz transform reduces to the Joukowsky transform.

4. Induced Drag:

In aerodynamics, lift-induced drag, induced drag, vortex drag, or sometimes drag due to lift,
is an aerodynamic drag force that occurs whenever a moving object redirects the airflow coming
at it. This drag force occurs in airplanes due to wings or a lifting body redirecting air to
cause lift and also in cars with airfoil wings that redirect air to cause a downforce. With other
parameters remaining the same, induced drag increases as the angle of attack increases

5. Helmhotz Theorem:
Helmholtzs first theorem:
o The strength of a vortex filament is constant along its length.
Helmholtzs second theorem:
o A vortex filament cannot end in a fluid; it must extend to the boundaries of the
fluid or form a closed path.

## o Helmholtzs third theorem:

o In the absence of rotational external forces, a fluid that is initially irrotational
remains irrotational.
6. MAGNUS EFFECT:

## First described in 1852 by Heinrich Magnus,

the Magnus effect is a force generated by a spinning object traveling through a viscus
fluid. The force is perpindicular to the velocity vector of the object. The direction of
spin dictates the orientation of the Magnus force on the objecc. The orientation of the
force can change but it is important to remmeber that it is always perpindicualr to the
direction of fluid.