Design of PID controller

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Design of PID controller

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ELSEVIER Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

combination with a PID controller s

R. K e t a t a a, D . D e G e e s t b, A. T i t l i b'*

a Centre de Recherche et de Transfert de Technologie Gary Oceanis BP 152, F-44603 St. Nazaire cedex, France

b Laboratoire d'Analyse et d'Architecture des Systbmes du CNRS; 7, avenue du colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse cedex, France

Abstract

Fuzzy techniques still remain ill-accepted in the control community. As a matter of fact, they rely on a new relation

between the real world and the scientists. Whereas some theoretical studies are carried out on this subject, experiments on

processes show what fuzzy techniques can bring to the control theory. This paper deals with some implementations of

control structures using fuzzy techniques. Our goal is to study the ways to include fuzzy techniques into existing control

tools in order to improve the closed-loop performances. The experiments are carried out on different processes with

disturbances: a DC motor and industrial furnaces. They allow to study the design and properties of structures such as

fuzzy control, commutation between fuzzy and PID controllers and fuzzy supervision of PID controller. After having

described two fuzzy controller implementations (fuzzy proportional-derivative and fuzzy proportional-integral control-

lers), the comparison with a PID algorithm is a base for the design of the parallel PID-fuzzy controllers combination.

Even though this strategy is interesting, another hierarchical combination of PID and fuzzy tools is considered. The

proposed fuzzy supervisor leads to promising results concerning the development of combined control structures.

the closed-loop performances for linear or non-lin-

During these last years, a specific interest for ear plants. When fuzzy controllers are used, the

fuzzy techniques in control has emerged. They ability to generate non-linear control laws with the

allow to generate numerical data from approximate various degree of freedom is interesting [1]. Al-

reasoning based on linguistic knowledge. The use though it is not always straightforward to tune

of such techniques is principally relevant in the their numerous parameters, their rule-based nature

following cases. Firstly, if the process model is relies on a new approach introducing a convenient

way of designing and understanding the controller

*A short version has been presented at IFSA World [9]. Secondly, if the process model is unknown,

Congress, South Korea, July 1993. fuzzy techniques are useful for modelling human

* Corresponding author. operator knowledge [6, 8,9, 1]. In all cases, fuzzy

SSDI 0165-01 14(94)00189-8

114 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

data of some control loop signals [9].

The most usual applications of fuzzy techniques 2.1. D C motor

in control are fuzzy controller, see [5] for some

examples. Experimentally, they have provided in- The first bench test is a motor-alternator group.

teresting control results, often better than PID con- The process is modelled by a first-order system

trol results (for instance the fuzzy automatic train with a static gain of 23.6 and a time constant of 3 s

operation system applied to the Sendai subway by when there is no load, and a static gain of 22 and

Hitachi Ltd. [5]). In this paper, we will describe a time constant of 1.4 s when there is a load; see Eq.

some fuzzy control applications and emphasize one (1). This model has been identified with the MAT-

of their main advantages. However, some of the LAB software. The change in the motor load is

fuzzy controller implementations lead to partially considered as a disturbance

good results. Moreover, it is still difficult to study

the closed-loop stability with such linguistic F(k + 1) = alF(k) + bt

controllers. Furthermore, algorithmic PID

controllers have also some advantages, such as the x [U(k) + G ( k + 1)aU(k + 1)], (1)

dynamical performances reached in some nominal

where F(k + 1) is the angular speed, U(k) is the

operating conditions [2], reliability based on po-

control voltage of the rotor supply chopper,

ssible stability studies and their industrial wide-

al = - Te/Tm, bl = kin(1 - al), Te = 12ms is the

spread use [2,7,3]. Therefore, other relevant

sampling period, Tm is the mechanical time con-

applications of fuzzy techniques can be considered

stant and km is the static gain.

in order to complete the PID controller. Then, the

aim of fuzzy techniques is to push back the limits of

conventional techniques, and to improve existing 2.2. Industrial furnaces

tools [3] by optimizing the closed-loop dynamical

performances of some concrete experiments [1]. Some experiments are carried out on furnaces.

Thus, fuzzy techniques are considered here in order The control tests are performed on an electronic

to build different kind of control structures. We simulator modelling first- and third-order pro-

consider mixed control structures combining a PID cesses, see Eq. (2). An internal disturbance can be

controller and fuzzy techniques, such as a parallel applied on the static gain Gf for testing the robust-

structure and a hierarchical structure. The parallel ness of the controllers. The disturbance is simulated

control structure development is motivated by the using a gain increase of factor two at some time

idea of taking advantage of each controllers de- during the experiment.

pending on the current dynamical functioning do-

main [4]. The design of the hierarchical structure m Gf

,

[1,6,8,9,11,3] is mainly justified by the wish 6 ( p ) = 1 + Tsp

to define more precisely control goals with a refer-

ence model expressing the desired dynamical Gf

performances. G ( p ) - (1 + Tsp)2(1 + Tup ) ' (2)

For each control algorithm, design methods and

properties are given. In some cases, some improve- where Gf is the static gain, Ts is the time constant

ments compared with PID control are emphasized. and T~ is a smaller time constant.

Therefore, the goal of the present work is to evalu-

ate the advantages of using combinations of non-

conventional and conventional control techniques 3. Fuzzy controller

by using them on different plants, some industrial

furnaces and a DC motor, on which external or This first study is devoted to point out some of

internal disturbances are applied. the main advantages of fuzzy control.

R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 115

3.1. Structure and design The bounds of the real universes of discourse are

deduced from the analysis of the physical signal

The fuzzy controller computes values of either variations in the chosen operating conditions.

the control signal (fuzzy PD controller) or the con- Some heuristic techniques allow to tune precisely

trol increment signal (fuzzy PI controller), as the scaling factors on-line. The fuzzy controller

a function of the values of the process output error is particularly sensitive to these factors and to

and its increment. A description of the fuzzy con- the fuzzy rule base content. The method used in this

troller components is given in this section, see [5] work to derive the fuzzy rules is described now.

for an exhaustive synthesis of fuzzy controllers. The desired closed-loop trajectory is defined in

First of all, a quantization module discretizes the phase plane or in the temporal domain. The

and normalizes the universes of discourse of the graphic is divided into several regions, each

various manipulated variables. Then, a numerical- of which corresponds to a specific pair of error

fuzzy converter maps crisp data to fuzzy numbers and error increment fuzzy values. Each pair is

characterized by a fuzzy set and a linguistic label. mapped to the necessary fuzzy value of the control

These two first modules can be combined in one signal or control increment that will make the

numerical-symbolic interface. During the next process output converge towards the desired tra-

step, the inference engine applies the compositional jectory. This mapping leads to the definition of

rule of inference to the rule base in order to derive linguistic planes.

fuzzy values of the control signal from the input The parameters of the inference module are,

facts of the controller. Finally, a fuzzy-numerical respectively, Mamdani implication function,

converter and a dequantization module, forming the Sup_min compositional rule of inference,

a symbolic-numerical interface, provide a numer- the discretized center of gravity defuzzification

ical value of the control signal or of the control method, the interpretation of the And and Or

increment. connectors with the operators M i n i m u m and

Thus, the various parameters of the fuzzy con- Maximum.

troller can be enumerated: they are the scaling When the process state is near the phase plane

factors and the number of quantization levels origin, the base length of the fuzzy set zero leads to

needed to define the universes of discourse, the some imprecisions in the computation of the con-

fuzzification and defuzzification methods, the num- trol signal. The strategy used to overcome this

ber, shape and definition of the fuzzy sets on the problem consists of defining two types of tuning:

normalized universes of discourse, the mathemat- a coarse tuning during the transient and a fine

ical operators necessary for the fuzzy inference tuning during the steady-state. The fine tuning is

mechanism and the syntax and meaning of the characterized by a specific definition of the quantiz-

fuzzy rules. ation matrix.

The factors of the numerical-symbolic interface The numerical control law can be effectively

are defined in the quantization matrix: the first computed with the quantization matrix, the rule

column contains the quantization levels for the base, and the mathematical operators of the infer-

various signals on their normalized universe of dis- ence mechanism. Each kind of tuning procedure,

course, the following columns correspond to the coarse or fine, is computed off-line and used on-line

quantization levels on the real discretized universes with two look-up tables that link the quantized and

of discourse for all the variables, and the last one normalized values of the three considered signals, e,

gives the labels of the fuzzy sets which are centered Ae and U or A U. This control implementation is

on a quantization level. The choice of the nor- motivated by the need of quick computation capa-

malized universes of discourse is arbitrary, it is bilities for the fast DC motor.

motivated by the easiness of manipulation of the Depending on the fuzzy controller output,

fuzzy sets; the fuzzy sets are regularly distributed on the controller is of the PD or PI type; the next

those domains. The number of quantization levels subsection describes these two different implemen-

depends on the discretization accuracy required. tations.

116 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

3.1.1. Fuzzy PD controller Ae. Fig. 1 shows the structure of this controller used

The fuzzy P D controller computes the values of off-line to generate the numerical look-up tables

the control signal U from some values of the pro- with the inference mechanism. Fig. 2 gives an illus-

cess output error e and of the error increment Ae. tration of the closed-loop implementation of this

Figs. 1 and 2 can be considered as an illustration if control strategy with two tuning operating do-

the output of the defuzzification module is U in- mains [4"1. Tables 3 and 4 show, respectively,

stead of AU. Tables 1 and 2 show, respectively, the the rule base and look-up table derived for this

rule base and the look-up table derived for this controller.

controller; see [4] for more details. A special control strategy is used; see [10] for

more details. It consists of using a fuzzy gain on the

control increment in order to improve the control

3.1.2. Fuzzy PI controller law; formula (3) expresses the control actions per-

The fuzzy PI controller computes the values of formed. The reasons for this control increment tu-

the control increment AU from some values of the ning are as follows. In the first place, it compensates

process output error e, and of the error increment the various numerical approximations performed

during the fuzzy controller computing, mainly due

to the quantization. Consequently, the convergence

speed towards the reference signal can be increased

and the dynamical performances can be improved.

[,...o,oo.1 1 Table 1

The rule base for the fuzzy PD controller

eJ~Ae-~ NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

NB NB NB NB NB NM NS ZE

NM NB NB NB NM NS ZE PS

NS NB NB NM NS ZE PS PM

ZE NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

PS NM NS ZE PS PM PB PB

PM NS ZE PS PM PB PB PB

PB ZE PS PM PB PB PB PB

Fig. 1. The controller components for off-line inference.

F/////////////////~A

Fig. 2. Fine and coarse look-up tables for closed-loop fuzzy control.

R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 117

Table 2

The look-up table for the fuzzy P D controller

e~ A e - , -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

-6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 --6 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0

-5 -6 --6 -6 -6 -6 -5 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1

-4 -6 -6 -6 -6 --6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

-3 --6 -6 -6 -5 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

-2 -6 -6 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 --l 0 l 2 3 4

-1 -6 -5 -5 -4 -3 -2 -l 0 l 2 3 4 5

0 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 6

2 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 6

3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 6

4 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6

5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 6

6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Table 3 Table 5

The rule base for the fuzzy PI controller The rule base for the control increment gain

e ~ Ae--, NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB eJ, A U ~ NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

NB NB NB NB NM NS ZE PS NB PB PM PS ZE NS NM NB

NM NB NB NM NS ZE PS PM NM PM PM PS ZE NS NM NM

NS NB NM NS NS PS PM PB NS PS PS PS ZE NS NS NS

ZE NB NM NS PS PS PM PB ZE ZE ZE ZE ZE ZE ZE ZE

PS NB NM NS PS PS PM PB PS NS NS NS ZE PS PS PS

PM NM NS ZE PS PM PB PB PM NM NM NS ZE PS PM PM

PB NS ZE PS PM PB PB PB PB NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

The look-up table for the fuzzy PI controller concerning this adjustment; its value must not be

too large in order to avoid stability problems, and

e~Ae~ - 5 - 4 - 3 - 2 - 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

not be too small in order not to decrease the rise

--5 --5--5--4--4--3--101122 time. The gain is obtained from a look-up table

--4 -5--5--5--4--3--101122 depending on the values of the process output error

--3 - - 5 - 5 - 5 - 4 - - 3 - - 1 0 1 2 2 2 (reference value - process output) and of the con-

--2 --5 -5 --4 --4 --3 - - 1 1 2 3 3 3 trol increment. The rules used to derive this numer-

--1 --5 --5 --4 --3 --2 0 1 2 3 3 4

ical table are based on the fact that it is necessary to

0 --5 --4 --4 --2 -2 0 1 3 4 4 4

1 --4 --4 --3 --2 --l 0 2 3 4 4 4 diminish the power if the error is negative, then, the

2 -4--4--3--2--1 1 2 3 5 4 5 gain has to be positive if the control increment is

3 --3 -4 --2 --1 0 1 2 3 5 4 5 negative, or positive in the other case, etc. The rule

4 --2 --3 --2 --1 0 1 3 3 5 5 5 base is shown in Table 5. The resulting look-up

5 -2--3--1-1 0 1 3 3 5 5 5

table is given in Table 6.

In the second place, this adjustment has a redund-

ant effect on the control result: it introduces a kind where U(k + l) is the control signal, AU(k + 1) is

of security, a new degree of freedom, because it the control increment and G(k + l) is the control

allows to correct some eventually ill-defined rules. increment gain.

118 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

b e e n g i v e n i n T a b l e 4.

Some experiments have been performed in simu- The studies aim at observing the influence of the

lation and in real time application using the ap- universe of discourse of the control increment

proaches described before. The tests on the DC gain G on the control quality. The two choices

motor allow to validate the fuzzy PI design method for the bounds of the universes of discourse of

by studying the influence of a tuning factor on the G are: [ - 0 . 0 4 , 0 . 0 4 ] for the coarse tuning,

c o n t r o l q u a l i t y w h e n a n e x t e r n a l d i s t u r b a n c e is [ - 0.004, 0 . 0 0 4 ] for t h e fine t u n i n g , a n d [ - 0.08,

a p p l i e d . T h e f u z z y P D c o n t r o l is a p p l i e d o n t h e 0.08] f o r t h e c o a r s e t u n i n g , [ - 0.004, 0 . 0 0 4 ] f o r t h e

industrial furnaces with an internal disturbance; the fine t u n i n g . Figs. 3 a n d 4 ( w h e r e C d e n o t e s coarse

results are compared with those of a PID control in a n d F fine) s h o w t h e r e s u l t s . I n all t h e r e s u l t s , t h e

order to stress one of the main advantage of fuzzy temporal axes are graduated in number of sampling

control. p e r i o d ; t h e r e f e r e n c e s p e e d is h e r e fixed a t

1 5 7 r a d / s , a n d t h e c o n t r o l s i g n a l is s a t u r a t e d b e -

3.2.1. Experiments on a D C motor t w e e n [0, 10 V ] .

T h e f u z z y c o n t r o l l e r u s e d is o f t h e P I t y p e a n d T h e r e s u l t s e m p h a s i z e t h a t t h e rise t i m e is i m -

h a s first b e e n u s e d i n s i m u l a t i o n . T h e q u a n t i z a t i o n proved whereas the overshoot increases when the

Table 6

The look-up table for the control increment gain

e~Ae~ -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

-5 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 --4 -5

--4 4 4 3 2 1 0 --1 -2 --3 -4 -4

-3 3 3 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -3 --3

-2 2 2 2 2 1 0 -1 -2 -2 --2 -2

-1 1 1 1 1 1 0 --l -1 -1 -1 -1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 -1 -1 -1 --1 --1 -1 -1 --1 -I -1 -I

2 --2 --2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 2

3 --3 -3 -3 -2 --1 0 1 2 3 3 3

4 -4 -4 -3 --2 --l 0 1 2 3 4 4

5 --5 --4 --3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Table 7

Quantization matix for the DC motor control

Q e Ae Au G FS e Ae Au G FS

- 4 - 12 - 1.2 - 0.8 - 0.032 - - 1.4 - 0.14 - 0.8 - 0.008 NB

- 3 - 9 - 0.9 -- 0.6 - 0.024 - -- 1.05 - 0.105 - 0.6 - 0.006 -

-- 2 - 6 -- 0.6 - 0.4 - 0.016 - 0.7 -- 0.07 - 0.4 -- 0.004 -

-- 1 - 3 - 0.3 - 0.2 - 0.008 - - 0.35 - 0.035 - 0.2 - 0.002 -

0 0 0 0 0 ZE 0 0 0 0 ZE

1 3 0.3 0.2 0.008 - 0.35 0.035 0.2 0.002 -

2 6 0.6 0.4 0.016 - 0.7 0.07 0.4 0.004 -

3 9 0.9 0.6 0.024 - 1.05 0.105 0.6 0.006 -

4 12 1.2 0.8 0.032 - 1.4 0.14 0.8 0.008 PB

5 15 1.5 1 0.04 PB . . . . .

R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 119

(a) (a)

flw~'$

I

501/

i-, "'- t..'"

I~2

oof; Le~ |

0 11300 2000 3000 4(300 513130 60130 7000 8000 ~ 10000 0o t~ 2~ ~o ,=o ~ o ~o ~ ,~o 9=0 ,==

(b) (b)

v V

/

10

7

6

6

5 4

o 10130

IG 2QO0 3000 4000 5(100 6000 7000 moo ~ 0 s0m0

(c) (c)

2 2, , -.

I l

-2 .2

,

0 1000 2000 3060 4000 50~0 GO00 7000 $0013 ~00 I~ o ~ ~ ~oo ,=o ~ ~0 ~=, ~, ~, I~

(d) (d)

0 10130 2000 3000 4000 5000 61300 7000 8000 9000 10~0 ~o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~lo ~ ~ =~o ~oo , I

Fig. 3. GC,x = 0.04, G ~ = 0.004. (a) Process output. (b) C o n - Fig. 4. Gm=xc= 0,08, G,~,xv= 0.004. (a) Process output. (b) Con-

trol signal. (c) C o n t r o l increment (QL). (d) Control increment trol signal. (c) Control increment (QL). (d) Control increment

gain (QL). Q L denotes quantization levels. gain (QL).

120 R. Ketata etal. /Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

(a) (c)

(b) (d)

U7"27"3~7"46.

..... 117"I? !

i.7

'~'~

V ~, ,*** , ~ 2*** 2~ ~ 3;** a ,/~

I 2

' '

I

Fig. 5. Real time control of the DC motor. (a) Process output. (b) Control signal. (c) Control increment (QL). (d) Control increment

gain (QL).

bound of the gain universe of discourse is increas- a fuzzy control is performed. Figs. 6 show the

ing. The steady-state errors are not exactly zero results. In the first one, a first-order process with

because the integral action is very small, specially in a time constant of 100 s and a gain of 1 has been

the case when Gma c x is 0.04, but the goal of these used. In the second case, a third-order process with

experiments was to study the influence of the gain time constants of 100 and 10 s and a gain of 1 has

universe of discourse and not to optimize the fuzzy been considered. In the two cases, a disturbance is

controller tuning. applied on the gain.

Figs. 5 shows the results of the real time motor The following conclusions can be stated. Firstly,

control with the universes of discourse of the con- both controllers are able to handle the disturbance.

trol increment gain belonging to [ - 0.08,0.08] for Secondly, during the steady state, some oscillations

the coarse tuning and [ - 0.004, 0.004] for the fine appear with the fuzzy controller, whereas the PID

tuning. The results are different from those ob- controller is much more stable. Thirdly, during the

tained in simulation mainly because of the experi- transients, at the beginning of a step change or after

mental constraints: the motor is functioning near a disturbance, the fuzzy controller is quicker to

the saturation voltage of the chopper. The rise time converge to the setpoint than the PID controller.

is small, about 150 ms. Some oscillations appear in These results show the ability of the considered fuzzy

steady state when the motor has no load: this controller to improve the closed-loop performances

phenomenon is caused by the mechanical disturb- during the transient. Nevertheless, during the steady

ances of the motor axe, the control signal is very state, only the PID controller can give no steady

sensitive to these vibrations. state error by means of the integral time constant.

The first idea of combining fuzzy and algorithmic

3.2.2. Experiments on industrial furnaces techniques emerges from these remarks. Fuzzy tech-

The fuzzy controller used is of the P D type. The niques replace the PID controller during the transi-

quantization matrix is shown in Table 8. The look- ent; consequently, the advantages of each technique

up table has been given in Table 2. are used depending on the current dynamical phase.

R. Ketata et al. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 121

Table 8

Q u a n t i z a t i o n m a t i x for the furnace c o n t r o l

Q e Ae u FS e Ae u FS

-5 - l0 -1 0 - 1.5 -0.15 25 -

-4 -8 -0.8 0 NM -1.2 -0.12 30 NM

-3 -6 -0.6 0 -0.9 -0.09 35

- 2 - 4 - 0.4 0 NS - 0.6 - 0.06 40 NS

- 1 - 2 - 0.2 21 - - 0.3 - 0.03 45

0 0 0 50 ZE 0 0 50 ZE

I 2 0.2 81 0.3 0.03 55

2 4 0.4 100 PS 0.6 0.06 60 PS

3 6 0.6 100 - 0.9 0.09 65

4 8 0.8 100 PM 1.2 0.12 70 PM

5 10 1 100 - 1.5 0.15 75

6 12 1.2 100 PB 1.8 0.18 80 PB

(a) (b)

"C ----~

tO0 --~ ~ ~ --~ I00

FLOU

50 lid . 50

4. Parallel structure: PID and fuzzy controllers The main point during the design of this control

structure is the commutation logic. For this pur-

4.1. General principle pose, fuzzy rules express the switching strategy. An

additional fuzzy variable is defined. The selection of

A first idea to combine conventional and non- a controller is based on the state of this variable: for

conventional control techniques consists of build- a value of 1 the fuzzy controller is chosen, and for

ing a parallel structure; see Fig. 7. According to the a value of 0 the PID controller is activated. The

current dynamical state, either the PID or the fuzzy state of the fuzzy commutation variable is defined

controller is selected. The fine tuning of the fuzzy in terms of the error and of the error increment

controller is somewhat replaced by the PID sign. The method developed is based on the follow-

control. ing definition of the transient: the product of the

122 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

error (process o u t p u t - reference signal) and its transients. The operating domain around the origin

increment is strictly negative. When the error in- for the PID controller must be dependent on

crement is equal to the fuzzy value zero and the the process dynamic. The resulting commutation

error is small, and not only zero, the PID controller strategy is illustrated in the phase plane and with

is selected. This definition prevents a lot of useless a rule base in Fig. 8. An example of one commuta-

commutations between the two controllers. Thus, tion rule is

the linear conventional controller is selected when

the temporal response is near the steady state, IF e IS ZE AND Ae IS ANY T H E N V~IS ZE.

whereas the fuzzy controller is chosen during the (4)

4.2. Results

alternator group. The Ziegler-Nichols method is

used to tune optimally the PID controller para-

meters: the control quality is stated in terms of

rapid recovery from oscillations. We use the PI

fuzzy controller described before. The results are

shown in the Figs. 9 (the PID control is represented

_ f - IR

T ~COIl~lllOtt with the dotted line). The reached performances

are: a rise time of 150 ms for the parallel control

structure and 225 ms for the PID controller. The

graphic of the commutation variable (Fig. 9b)

Fig. 7. The parallel control structure. shows that the fuzzy controller is used during all

e [ Ae ~ NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

NB PID PID PID F F F F !

NM PID PID PID F F F F

NS PID PID PID PID F F F i...... S

PS F F F PID PID PID PID

PM F F F F PID PID PID

PID ! ~ E

PB F F 'F F PID PID PID

(a) (b)

radN

0v , , , , , i 4.,I0 100 200 300 400 ~0 8o0 700 800 200 1001

Fig. 9. Parallel fuzzy-P1D control of the DC motor speed. (a) Motor speed response. (b) Commutation variable.

R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 123

the transients. The proposed parallel control struc- advantages of rule-based systems, and the interest

ture is effectively able to combine the rapidity of the of incorporating fuzzy concepts.

fuzzy controller during the transient with the accu- The main reason for supervising PID controllers

racy of the PID controller during the steady state. is that they are widely used in many industrial

However, the problem of the precise determination control applications. However the tuning methods,

of the commutation points between PID and fuzzy such as the Ziegler-Nichols one, can lead to some

controllers is not straightforward. The supple- unacceptable results, for example, in terms of over-

mentary fuzzy variable has to be well defined: the shoot; then, the process operators do about 50% of

functioning domains for each controllers should be the control in open loop [6]. Moreover this con-

chosen so that the dynamical performances are troller is robust in low disturbed conditions but

optimal. Furthermore, two static controllers are becomes under-optimal when large variations of

used. It would be more interesting to state more some control loop parameters occur, such as inter-

precisely the control goals in terms of dynamical nal disturbances, when there are changes in the

performances with a reference model. Then, operating conditions, or when a process has impor-

another kind of combination of conventional and tant non-linearities [11, 8]. Consequently, a mod-

non-conventional techniques is considered in the ule with some degree of intelligence is necessary to

next section in order to improve a linear improve the abilities of the PID controllers to con-

PID control law. A dynamical controller combin- trol optimally systems in highly disturbed context

ing fuzzy and algorithmic techniques is now and according to the user's wishes [9].

proposed. The main reasons for using preferably a super-

vision module over a PID controller are enu-

merated now. Firstly, adaptive controllers are able

5. Fuzzy supervision of a PID controller to cope with most of the cases that leave the PID

under-optimal, but they require specialized design

5.1. General presentation methods using some a priori model structure

5.1.1. Justification of the use of fuzzy supervisors knowledge [9]; PID supervisors are easier to im-

A hierarchical structure is built up: the PID plement because they need very little knowledge

parameters are tuned in order to improve the dy- about the process. Secondly, the combination of

namical response on-line; see Fig. 10. a linear PID control law and a supervision strategy

There are several reasons for supervising a PID can lead to a highly non-linear control law; then it

controller. In this section is successively justified can allow to increase significantly the robustness of

the necessity of using supervision techniques, the the control system [1]. And lastly, the supervisor

i

i

I

i

i

J

II

i

124 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

can provide an interface with the user for express- 5.1.2. Different kinds of fuzzy supervisors

ing precisely the specifications in terms of closed- The internal structure of a supervisor is the same

loop performances [7]. as the one of a fuzzy controller. The supervisor

The advantages to use a PID supervisor having outputs are the PID parameter increments. The

been emphasized, the question is now to find the inputs can be of two natures, which defines two

best choice between an algorithmic or a linguistic kinds of supervisors.

supervision module. Process operators are able to In the first case, the inputs are the process output

optimize the PID control results on-line, they act as error and its increment. The goal of the PID para-

system supervisor [9]. Their knowledge is very meters tuning is to adapt the control law at each

useful for the tuning of hardly modelled system [6]. sampling time. Some examples of this supervision

Thus, it appears very attractive to build the PID technique are given in [8, 1, 11, 3]. The main differ-

supervisors from this human heuristic knowledge. ences between these implementations are the num-

It is more convenient to design linguistic expert ber of rule tables. In [8, 1], one rule base has been

supervisor because a knowledge-based system defined for each PID parameters, whereas in

is a mean of integrating the intuitive and often [11, 3], one rule base was derived for the three

necessary knowledge of a human operator in the parameters. More precisely, in [11], three PID

control system; it is easier to integrate heuristic parameter tuning equations using the output vari-

knowledge in linguistic rules than in equations [1]. able of the rule base are defined, whereas in [3], the

This choice results in lower design and implement- Ziegler-Nichols equations are changed according

ation costs than conventional techniques [8]. to the fuzzy supervisor output.

Moreover, the linguistic formalism is more easily In the second case, the supervisor inputs are the

understood by the users, which leads to a low use performance values reached after a transient. The

cost [8]. The combination of mathematical and measure of the control quality during a time inter-

linguistic knowledge, like the association of a PID val and the user wishes allow to compute the con-

algorithm and a rule-based supervisor, allow to trol law tuning for the future. Some examples of this

combine the interesting performances of the PID supervision technique are given in [9, 6]. The main

controller in the nominal conditions with the flexib- difference between these implementations is the

ility of a linguistic formalism to new situations [8]. way the supervision rules are built. In [9], two

The question is now to point out what the fuzzy different rule bases are adapting independently the

techniques can bring to an expert system aiming at proportional gain in function of the rise time, and

optimizing a process control. The use of fuzzy vari- the integral parameter in function of the overshoot.

ables in the linguistic formalism is justified by the In [6], two rule bases are used in the following way:

facts that they introduce a greater flexibility in the the first one deduces the changes to be applied to

tuning actions of the PID parameters; as a matter the various controller parameters depending on

of fact, the fuzzy formalism is nearer to the human five performance indexes, the second one solves the

perception of the real world and to the human compromise if the action on one controller para-

reasoning way. Indeed, fuzzy sets allow to model meter has a contradictory effect on several desired

subjective, uncertain and imprecise concepts like dynamical characteristics.

the human language does [9]; the incorporation of

possibilistic informations is much more difficult 5.2. Description of the proposed fuzzy supervisor

with classical techniques. Moreover, the inference

mechanism with fuzzy rules offers an important The supervision technique developed in this

flexibility in information processing, it allows to work is of second type. The values of the rise time

perform approximate reasoning. Finally, an inter- T~, overshoot Or, and stability factor Sf (ratio of the

esting consequence of the use of fuzzy concepts in first undershoot to the first overshoot) are used to

the supervisor linguistic rules is a quicker conver- tune the PID parameters at the end of each transi-

gence of the PID parameters to their optimal ent response. Fig. 11 shows the fuzzy supervisor

values than with a classical expert system [6]. implementation in closed loop. The goal of the

R. Ketata et al, / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 125

- 6 to +6, for the supervisor outputs, and three

levels, 2,4 and 6, for the supervisor inputs. The

fuzzy sets have been defined on the normalized

universes of discourse. For the supervisor outputs,

~UZZO~OCA~'O@N D~3~g~O~TOOH several trapezoidal fuzzy sets are regularly distrib-

% 1 J

uted (their labels are: NB, NM, NS, ZE, PS, PM

.l ,.I and PB). For the supervisor inputs, four trap-

ezoidal positive fuzzy sets (ZE, PS, PM and PB) are

COMI~II'A'nON I non-linearly distributed depending on the desired

kp TI t Td t closed-loop performances.

.f -f The linguistic knowledge is elaborated as de-

scribed in the following approach. The supervision

Fig. 11. The fuzzy supervisor components. law translates the fact that the control law has to

make the process response converge towards a ref-

supervision is to make the process response con- erence model. This reference trajectory is character-

verge towards a reference profile considered as ized by some performance characteristic fuzzy

optimal. values labelled medium. The antecedents of the

The main supervisor parameters to be tuned are supervision rules contain the fuzzy values of the

those of the numerical-symbolic interface and of dynamical performances, and the conclusions give

the fuzzy rules. the corresponding linguistic meaning for the PID

The parameters of the N - S module are given in parameter increments; relationship (6) shows an

the quantization matrix for the different supervisor example of a fuzzy supervision rule.

signals. Their choice is explained now. The IF T~ IS FSTr AND Ov IS FSov AND Sr IS FSs,

universes of discourse of the various variables (the THEN AK IS FSK (6)

supervisor input signals are the performance char-

acteristics, and the supervisor output variables are where FSr,, FSov and FSsf are, respectively, the

the PID parameters) are normalized and dis- linguistic labels of the fuzzy sets describing the

cretized. It is first necessary to define the physical performance indexes: T~, the rise time, Or, the over-

domain of variation of the various signals. The shoot and Sf, the stability factor; they belong to

bounds of the real universes of discourse are de- {PP, PM, PB}; FSk is a linguistic label of the fuzzy

duced from the desired values of the closed-loop sets describing one of the PID parameter in-

performances, and, in the case of the supervisor crement; it belongs to {NB, NM, NS, ZE, PP, PM,

PB .

inputs, these bounds are also tied to some stability

analysis. The resulting formula for the definition of In order to build up the supervision rules, some

the maximal values of the supervisor outputs is transient responses are obtained and the influences

given in (5). The idea is to define some parameter of each PID parameter on the dynamical perfor-

increments which prevent from going towards in- mances are evaluated. Then, three linguistic models

stability. For the supervisor inputs, the desired relating the fuzzy values of the PID parameters

values of the dynamical performances correspond with the fuzzy values of the performance character-

to the fuzzy sets PM. istics are built. They express the adjustments to be

applied to each PID parameter separately in order

to make the dynamical characteristics converge to

valuemax = I ( k ' - kd) J, (5) their fuzzy value medium. Table 9 shows these in-

formations for the three tuning cases.

where k] is the stability limit value of each PID The next step consists of deriving the resulting

parameter and kd is its desired value, allowing to fuzzy tuning action to be applied independently on

reach a specified closed-loop behaviour. each controller parameter so that the dynamical

126 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

response converges globally to the reference re- Ziegler-Nichols method. The desired dynamical

sponse. According to the various performances response has the following characteristics: a rise

chosen (the values of overshoot, rise time and stab- time of 36 ms (three sampling periods), an over-

ility factor), the different variations to be applied to shoot of 0.2 and a stability factor of 750. Table 11 is

each PID parameter can be conflicting. Then, the the quantization matrix used for the designed fuzzy

issue is to evaluate satisfactory increment values supervisor. The reference signal is varying in order

that allow a global convergence of the three perfor- to evaluate the PID parameters tuning ability of

mance characteristics towards their linguistic the supervisor during the transients and the control

values medium. To solve this compromise, an arith- quality during the steady states.

metic average is calculated over the different Three simulations are performed. During the

actions for each parameter. All the informations first one, the PID controller is not supervised; dur-

concerning the PID parameters tuning are pres- ing the second one, the three PID parameters are

ented in Table 10. tuned on-line; during the third one, the propor-

tional and integral parameters are optimized. These

5.3. Results results are, respectively, shown in Figs. 12, 13 and

14. When no PID parameters tuning is done, the

The experiments are carried out on the motor- rise time is 48 ms; see Fig. 12. The overshoot of the

alternator group. The results are compared with first transient is about 0.5 rad/s, and the following

those of classical PID control in order to emphasize overshoots are rather important because of a non-

the improvement due to the supervisor. optimal control signal generation and the control

The control signal belongs to [0V, 15V]. saturation. When the three PID parameters are

The PID parameters are initialized with the adapted, the control signal keeps on commuting

Table 9

Adjustments of the P I D parameters

T~-* PS PM PB O~ PS PM PB Sf~ PS PM PB

AKp NM ZE PM - NS ZE PB - PM ZE PB

ATI PS ZE NS - NM ZE PM - ZE ZE NS

A Td ZE ZE ZE - NB ZE PB - NB ZE PB

Table 10

Fuzzy supervision rules for the three PID parameters

Sf~T~.Ov---, PS.PS PS.PM PS.PB PM.PS PM.PM PM.PB PB.PS PB.PM PB.PB

AKp

PS ZE ZE PS ZE PS PM PS PM PB

PM NS NS ZE ZE ZE PS ZE PS PM

PB ZE ZE PM PS PS PM PM PM PB

AT~

PS ZE ZE PS NS ZE PS NS ZE ZE

PM ZE ZE PS NS ZE PS NS ZE ZE

PB NS ZE PS NS ZE ZE NM NS ZE

AT~

PS NM NS ZE NM NS ZE NM NS ZE

PM NS ZE ZE NS ZE ZE NS ZE ZE

PB ZE PS PM ZE PS PM ZE PS PM

R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 127

because of the derivative term; see Figs. 13 and 15. specifications have been reached; see Figs. 14 and

It should be necessary to change the tuning strategy 15(a) and (b). The comparison between a PID con-

for this parameter. The results obtained with the trol and a supervised PI control points out the

fuzzy supervisor of the PI controller show that the advantage of using a fuzzy supervisor. The rise time

T a b l e 11

Q u a n t i z a t i o n m a t r i x o f the fuzzy s u p e r v i s o r

- 4 - - - 1.2 - 0.0012 - 0.012 NM

- 2 - - 0.6 - 0.006 - 0.06 NS

0 - - 0 0 0 ZE

2 2 0.1 250 0.6 0.006 0.06 PS

4 3 0.2 750 1.2 - 0.0012 0.012 PS

6 4 0.3 1000 1.8 0.0018 0.018 PB

(a) (b)

fmdl$ (v)

0

2oo

(a) (b)

rad~

(a) (b)

(v)

1.

o :t

Q

128 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

(a) (b)

J I i,, I

-2

o ~000 2000 2~ ,tO00 $000 6000

(c)

2

4000 ~ 6000

Fig. 15. The parameter tunings: (a) [AKp] and (b) [ATI] correspond to the two experiments with a supervisor, (c) [ATd] corresponds

only to the results of Fig. 13.

has decreased to 36 ms, the overshoot is 0.2 and the 6. Conclusions and perspectives

stability factor is 750. The overshoot and osicilla-

tions are strongly decreased. This improvement is In this work, fuzzy logic has been used in differ-

principally due to the integral term tuning. Indeed, ent control structures, direct control and super-

it is possible to notice that some important changes vision. The comparison between fuzzy control and

are applied on the integral time constant after the PID control emphasizes the facts that the fuzzy PD

third, fourth and fifth level of the reference signal, controller is more interesting for the transient re-

which correspond to important overshoots when sponses, and it is worse during the steady state.

no supervisor is used. In fact, the supervision rules This result can be improved with a fuzzy controller

express that the overshoot is very sensitive to the by introducing an integral action; moreover, the

integral time constant variations; see Table 9. closed-loop performances can be improved if an

Moreover, the rise time is decreased. The propor- auto-tuning method of the fuzzy controller para-

tional action is mainly responsible for this improve- meters (for example of the rule base) is used.

ment: the rise time is above all sensitive to the However, in order to combine the advantages of

proportional gain changes; see Table 9. each techniques (mainly because PID controllers

The simulation results show some interesting as- are reliable and used widely), a parallel control

pects of fuzzy supervision of PID controllers. One structure commuting between a PID and a fuzzy

advantage is that the user can specify a reference controller has been proposed. It was possible to

dynamical model. The process is then controlled so reach good performances during the transient and

that its response converges globally to the desired the steady state because of the contribution of each

trajectory under more or less disturbed control type of controllers. The difficult point for the design

conditions. of this structure is the fuzzy switching logic between

The two combination techniques of PID and the two algorithms; some more studies are now

fuzzy tools have been designed and tuned. How- performed on this problem in order to improve this

ever, it is not possible here to compare these two control structure.

techniques because the parameters values on the In order to generate a dynamical control law,

DC motor experiments are different. and to state more precisely the control objectives,

R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 129

another combination of classical and fuzzy tech- Time Control, Delft, Netherlands (1992, June 16-18)

niques is considered. In the last structure con- 263 268.

[2] I. French, C. Cox, M.J. Willis and G.A. Montague, Intelli-

sidered, the fuzzy logic is used for supervision. The

gent tuning of P + I controllers for bioprocess application,

goal is to improve the closed-loop performances in: PREPRINTS of the I F A C / I F I P / I M A C S lnternat.

obtained with a PID controller by tuning its Syrup. on Artificial Intelligence in Real-Time Control, Delft,

parameters. It has been possible to reach some Netherlands (1992, June 16-18) 697-702.

user-specified goals for a motor speed control. The [3] S.Z. He, S.H. Tan, F.L. Xu and P.Z. Wang, PID self-tuning

results obtained are encouraging; however, it is control using a fuzzy adaptative mechanism, 1EEE (1993)

708-713.

necessary to study further, specially for the derivat- [4] R. Ketata, Mrthodologies de rggulation numbrique in-

ive parameter tuning. At the present time, PID cluant la logique floue, Thrse de Doctorat INSA,

fuzzy supervisor of the first type (adaptation of the Toulouse, LAAS. (J 1992).

controller parameters depending on the location in [5] C.C. Lee, Fuzzy logic in control systems: fuzzy logic con-

the phase plane at each sampling time) is now troller parts 1 and 2, IEEE Trans. Systems Man Cyber-

net. 20 (1990) 404-435.

considered for a combination of the two sorts of [6] J. Litt, An expert system to perform on-line controller

supervisor in order to improve their efficiency. tuning, IEEE Control Systems (April 1991) 18-23.

Moreover, some experimental comparison tests 1-7] H.R. van Nauta Lemke and A.J. Krijgsman, Design of

of the two proposed combination techniques could fuzzy PID supervisor for systems with different perfor-

be performed. Globally, the obtained results em- mance requirements, 1200-1203.

I-8] H.R. van Nauta Lemke, Design of fuzzy control systems,

phasize the fact that fuzzy techniques can effectively Journbe Commande FIoue, Paris (15 / 11 / 91).

be used to enhance conventional control methods, [9] P. Oliveira, P. Lima and J. Sentieiro, Fuzzy supervision on

even though specific points have to be examined intelligent control systems, European Control Conf.,

further. Grenoble, France (1991) 1226-1231.

1-10] A. Titli and R. Ketata, Design and application of fuzzy

algorithm for the speed control of motor-alternator group,

References 13 I M A C S Worm Congress on Computation and Applied

Mathematics, Dublin, Ireland (1991).

1-1] R. Babuska and P. Horacek, Laboratory evaluation of [11] S. Tzafestas and N. Papanikolopoulos, Incremental fuzzy

fuzzy controllers, in: PREPRINTS of the I F A C / I F I P / expert PID control, IEEE Trans. on Ind. Electronics 37

IMACS Internat. Syrup. on Artificial Intelligence in Real- (1990) 365 371.

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