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MZ

sets and systems


ELSEVIER Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

Fuzzy controller: design, evaluation, parallel and hierarchical


combination with a PID controller s
R. K e t a t a a, D . D e G e e s t b, A. T i t l i b'*
a Centre de Recherche et de Transfert de Technologie Gary Oceanis BP 152, F-44603 St. Nazaire cedex, France
b Laboratoire d'Analyse et d'Architecture des Systbmes du CNRS; 7, avenue du colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse cedex, France

Received April 1994; revised June 1994

Abstract

Fuzzy techniques still remain ill-accepted in the control community. As a matter of fact, they rely on a new relation
between the real world and the scientists. Whereas some theoretical studies are carried out on this subject, experiments on
processes show what fuzzy techniques can bring to the control theory. This paper deals with some implementations of
control structures using fuzzy techniques. Our goal is to study the ways to include fuzzy techniques into existing control
tools in order to improve the closed-loop performances. The experiments are carried out on different processes with
disturbances: a DC motor and industrial furnaces. They allow to study the design and properties of structures such as
fuzzy control, commutation between fuzzy and PID controllers and fuzzy supervision of PID controller. After having
described two fuzzy controller implementations (fuzzy proportional-derivative and fuzzy proportional-integral control-
lers), the comparison with a PID algorithm is a base for the design of the parallel PID-fuzzy controllers combination.
Even though this strategy is interesting, another hierarchical combination of PID and fuzzy tools is considered. The
proposed fuzzy supervisor leads to promising results concerning the development of combined control structures.

Keywords: Fuzzy control; Fuzzy commutation; Fuzzy supervision

1. Introduction known, fuzzy techniques can be used to improve


the closed-loop performances for linear or non-lin-
During these last years, a specific interest for ear plants. When fuzzy controllers are used, the
fuzzy techniques in control has emerged. They ability to generate non-linear control laws with the
allow to generate numerical data from approximate various degree of freedom is interesting [1]. Al-
reasoning based on linguistic knowledge. The use though it is not always straightforward to tune
of such techniques is principally relevant in the their numerous parameters, their rule-based nature
following cases. Firstly, if the process model is relies on a new approach introducing a convenient
way of designing and understanding the controller
*A short version has been presented at IFSA World [9]. Secondly, if the process model is unknown,
Congress, South Korea, July 1993. fuzzy techniques are useful for modelling human
* Corresponding author. operator knowledge [6, 8,9, 1]. In all cases, fuzzy

0165-0114/95/$09.50 1995 - Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved


SSDI 0165-01 14(94)00189-8
114 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

techniques are attractive for processing imprecise 2. The processes


data of some control loop signals [9].
The most usual applications of fuzzy techniques 2.1. D C motor
in control are fuzzy controller, see [5] for some
examples. Experimentally, they have provided in- The first bench test is a motor-alternator group.
teresting control results, often better than PID con- The process is modelled by a first-order system
trol results (for instance the fuzzy automatic train with a static gain of 23.6 and a time constant of 3 s
operation system applied to the Sendai subway by when there is no load, and a static gain of 22 and
Hitachi Ltd. [5]). In this paper, we will describe a time constant of 1.4 s when there is a load; see Eq.
some fuzzy control applications and emphasize one (1). This model has been identified with the MAT-
of their main advantages. However, some of the LAB software. The change in the motor load is
fuzzy controller implementations lead to partially considered as a disturbance
good results. Moreover, it is still difficult to study
the closed-loop stability with such linguistic F(k + 1) = alF(k) + bt
controllers. Furthermore, algorithmic PID
controllers have also some advantages, such as the x [U(k) + G ( k + 1)aU(k + 1)], (1)
dynamical performances reached in some nominal
where F(k + 1) is the angular speed, U(k) is the
operating conditions [2], reliability based on po-
control voltage of the rotor supply chopper,
ssible stability studies and their industrial wide-
al = - Te/Tm, bl = kin(1 - al), Te = 12ms is the
spread use [2,7,3]. Therefore, other relevant
sampling period, Tm is the mechanical time con-
applications of fuzzy techniques can be considered
stant and km is the static gain.
in order to complete the PID controller. Then, the
aim of fuzzy techniques is to push back the limits of
conventional techniques, and to improve existing 2.2. Industrial furnaces
tools [3] by optimizing the closed-loop dynamical
performances of some concrete experiments [1]. Some experiments are carried out on furnaces.
Thus, fuzzy techniques are considered here in order The control tests are performed on an electronic
to build different kind of control structures. We simulator modelling first- and third-order pro-
consider mixed control structures combining a PID cesses, see Eq. (2). An internal disturbance can be
controller and fuzzy techniques, such as a parallel applied on the static gain Gf for testing the robust-
structure and a hierarchical structure. The parallel ness of the controllers. The disturbance is simulated
control structure development is motivated by the using a gain increase of factor two at some time
idea of taking advantage of each controllers de- during the experiment.
pending on the current dynamical functioning do-
main [4]. The design of the hierarchical structure m Gf
,
[1,6,8,9,11,3] is mainly justified by the wish 6 ( p ) = 1 + Tsp
to define more precisely control goals with a refer-
ence model expressing the desired dynamical Gf
performances. G ( p ) - (1 + Tsp)2(1 + Tup ) ' (2)
For each control algorithm, design methods and
properties are given. In some cases, some improve- where Gf is the static gain, Ts is the time constant
ments compared with PID control are emphasized. and T~ is a smaller time constant.
Therefore, the goal of the present work is to evalu-
ate the advantages of using combinations of non-
conventional and conventional control techniques 3. Fuzzy controller
by using them on different plants, some industrial
furnaces and a DC motor, on which external or This first study is devoted to point out some of
internal disturbances are applied. the main advantages of fuzzy control.
R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 115

3.1. Structure and design The bounds of the real universes of discourse are
deduced from the analysis of the physical signal
The fuzzy controller computes values of either variations in the chosen operating conditions.
the control signal (fuzzy PD controller) or the con- Some heuristic techniques allow to tune precisely
trol increment signal (fuzzy PI controller), as the scaling factors on-line. The fuzzy controller
a function of the values of the process output error is particularly sensitive to these factors and to
and its increment. A description of the fuzzy con- the fuzzy rule base content. The method used in this
troller components is given in this section, see [5] work to derive the fuzzy rules is described now.
for an exhaustive synthesis of fuzzy controllers. The desired closed-loop trajectory is defined in
First of all, a quantization module discretizes the phase plane or in the temporal domain. The
and normalizes the universes of discourse of the graphic is divided into several regions, each
various manipulated variables. Then, a numerical- of which corresponds to a specific pair of error
fuzzy converter maps crisp data to fuzzy numbers and error increment fuzzy values. Each pair is
characterized by a fuzzy set and a linguistic label. mapped to the necessary fuzzy value of the control
These two first modules can be combined in one signal or control increment that will make the
numerical-symbolic interface. During the next process output converge towards the desired tra-
step, the inference engine applies the compositional jectory. This mapping leads to the definition of
rule of inference to the rule base in order to derive linguistic planes.
fuzzy values of the control signal from the input The parameters of the inference module are,
facts of the controller. Finally, a fuzzy-numerical respectively, Mamdani implication function,
converter and a dequantization module, forming the Sup_min compositional rule of inference,
a symbolic-numerical interface, provide a numer- the discretized center of gravity defuzzification
ical value of the control signal or of the control method, the interpretation of the And and Or
increment. connectors with the operators M i n i m u m and
Thus, the various parameters of the fuzzy con- Maximum.
troller can be enumerated: they are the scaling When the process state is near the phase plane
factors and the number of quantization levels origin, the base length of the fuzzy set zero leads to
needed to define the universes of discourse, the some imprecisions in the computation of the con-
fuzzification and defuzzification methods, the num- trol signal. The strategy used to overcome this
ber, shape and definition of the fuzzy sets on the problem consists of defining two types of tuning:
normalized universes of discourse, the mathemat- a coarse tuning during the transient and a fine
ical operators necessary for the fuzzy inference tuning during the steady-state. The fine tuning is
mechanism and the syntax and meaning of the characterized by a specific definition of the quantiz-
fuzzy rules. ation matrix.
The factors of the numerical-symbolic interface The numerical control law can be effectively
are defined in the quantization matrix: the first computed with the quantization matrix, the rule
column contains the quantization levels for the base, and the mathematical operators of the infer-
various signals on their normalized universe of dis- ence mechanism. Each kind of tuning procedure,
course, the following columns correspond to the coarse or fine, is computed off-line and used on-line
quantization levels on the real discretized universes with two look-up tables that link the quantized and
of discourse for all the variables, and the last one normalized values of the three considered signals, e,
gives the labels of the fuzzy sets which are centered Ae and U or A U. This control implementation is
on a quantization level. The choice of the nor- motivated by the need of quick computation capa-
malized universes of discourse is arbitrary, it is bilities for the fast DC motor.
motivated by the easiness of manipulation of the Depending on the fuzzy controller output,
fuzzy sets; the fuzzy sets are regularly distributed on the controller is of the PD or PI type; the next
those domains. The number of quantization levels subsection describes these two different implemen-
depends on the discretization accuracy required. tations.
116 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

3.1.1. Fuzzy PD controller Ae. Fig. 1 shows the structure of this controller used
The fuzzy P D controller computes the values of off-line to generate the numerical look-up tables
the control signal U from some values of the pro- with the inference mechanism. Fig. 2 gives an illus-
cess output error e and of the error increment Ae. tration of the closed-loop implementation of this
Figs. 1 and 2 can be considered as an illustration if control strategy with two tuning operating do-
the output of the defuzzification module is U in- mains [4"1. Tables 3 and 4 show, respectively,
stead of AU. Tables 1 and 2 show, respectively, the the rule base and look-up table derived for this
rule base and the look-up table derived for this controller.
controller; see [4] for more details. A special control strategy is used; see [10] for
more details. It consists of using a fuzzy gain on the
control increment in order to improve the control
3.1.2. Fuzzy PI controller law; formula (3) expresses the control actions per-
The fuzzy PI controller computes the values of formed. The reasons for this control increment tu-
the control increment AU from some values of the ning are as follows. In the first place, it compensates
process output error e, and of the error increment the various numerical approximations performed
during the fuzzy controller computing, mainly due
to the quantization. Consequently, the convergence
speed towards the reference signal can be increased
and the dynamical performances can be improved.

[,...o,oo.1 1 Table 1
The rule base for the fuzzy PD controller

eJ~Ae-~ NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

NB NB NB NB NB NM NS ZE
NM NB NB NB NM NS ZE PS
NS NB NB NM NS ZE PS PM
ZE NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB
PS NM NS ZE PS PM PB PB
PM NS ZE PS PM PB PB PB
PB ZE PS PM PB PB PB PB
Fig. 1. The controller components for off-line inference.

F/////////////////~A

Fig. 2. Fine and coarse look-up tables for closed-loop fuzzy control.
R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 117

Table 2
The look-up table for the fuzzy P D controller

e~ A e - , -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

-6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 --6 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0
-5 -6 --6 -6 -6 -6 -5 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
-4 -6 -6 -6 -6 --6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
-3 --6 -6 -6 -5 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-2 -6 -6 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 --l 0 l 2 3 4
-1 -6 -5 -5 -4 -3 -2 -l 0 l 2 3 4 5
0 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 6
2 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 6
3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 6
4 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6
5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 6
6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Table 3 Table 5
The rule base for the fuzzy PI controller The rule base for the control increment gain

e ~ Ae--, NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB eJ, A U ~ NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

NB NB NB NB NM NS ZE PS NB PB PM PS ZE NS NM NB
NM NB NB NM NS ZE PS PM NM PM PM PS ZE NS NM NM
NS NB NM NS NS PS PM PB NS PS PS PS ZE NS NS NS
ZE NB NM NS PS PS PM PB ZE ZE ZE ZE ZE ZE ZE ZE
PS NB NM NS PS PS PM PB PS NS NS NS ZE PS PS PS
PM NM NS ZE PS PM PB PB PM NM NM NS ZE PS PM PM
PB NS ZE PS PM PB PB PB PB NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

Table 4 However, it is necessary to respect a compromise


The look-up table for the fuzzy PI controller concerning this adjustment; its value must not be
too large in order to avoid stability problems, and
e~Ae~ - 5 - 4 - 3 - 2 - 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
not be too small in order not to decrease the rise
--5 --5--5--4--4--3--101122 time. The gain is obtained from a look-up table
--4 -5--5--5--4--3--101122 depending on the values of the process output error
--3 - - 5 - 5 - 5 - 4 - - 3 - - 1 0 1 2 2 2 (reference value - process output) and of the con-
--2 --5 -5 --4 --4 --3 - - 1 1 2 3 3 3 trol increment. The rules used to derive this numer-
--1 --5 --5 --4 --3 --2 0 1 2 3 3 4
ical table are based on the fact that it is necessary to
0 --5 --4 --4 --2 -2 0 1 3 4 4 4
1 --4 --4 --3 --2 --l 0 2 3 4 4 4 diminish the power if the error is negative, then, the
2 -4--4--3--2--1 1 2 3 5 4 5 gain has to be positive if the control increment is
3 --3 -4 --2 --1 0 1 2 3 5 4 5 negative, or positive in the other case, etc. The rule
4 --2 --3 --2 --1 0 1 3 3 5 5 5 base is shown in Table 5. The resulting look-up
5 -2--3--1-1 0 1 3 3 5 5 5
table is given in Table 6.

U(k+ 1)-- U(k)+a(k+ 1) x A U ( k + 1), (3)


In the second place, this adjustment has a redund-
ant effect on the control result: it introduces a kind where U(k + l) is the control signal, AU(k + 1) is
of security, a new degree of freedom, because it the control increment and G(k + l) is the control
allows to correct some eventually ill-defined rules. increment gain.
118 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

3.2. Simulations, comparison with a P I D controller m a t r i x is s h o w n in T a b l e 7. T h e l o o k - u p t a b l e h a s


b e e n g i v e n i n T a b l e 4.
Some experiments have been performed in simu- The studies aim at observing the influence of the
lation and in real time application using the ap- universe of discourse of the control increment
proaches described before. The tests on the DC gain G on the control quality. The two choices
motor allow to validate the fuzzy PI design method for the bounds of the universes of discourse of
by studying the influence of a tuning factor on the G are: [ - 0 . 0 4 , 0 . 0 4 ] for the coarse tuning,
c o n t r o l q u a l i t y w h e n a n e x t e r n a l d i s t u r b a n c e is [ - 0.004, 0 . 0 0 4 ] for t h e fine t u n i n g , a n d [ - 0.08,
a p p l i e d . T h e f u z z y P D c o n t r o l is a p p l i e d o n t h e 0.08] f o r t h e c o a r s e t u n i n g , [ - 0.004, 0 . 0 0 4 ] f o r t h e
industrial furnaces with an internal disturbance; the fine t u n i n g . Figs. 3 a n d 4 ( w h e r e C d e n o t e s coarse
results are compared with those of a PID control in a n d F fine) s h o w t h e r e s u l t s . I n all t h e r e s u l t s , t h e
order to stress one of the main advantage of fuzzy temporal axes are graduated in number of sampling
control. p e r i o d ; t h e r e f e r e n c e s p e e d is h e r e fixed a t
1 5 7 r a d / s , a n d t h e c o n t r o l s i g n a l is s a t u r a t e d b e -
3.2.1. Experiments on a D C motor t w e e n [0, 10 V ] .
T h e f u z z y c o n t r o l l e r u s e d is o f t h e P I t y p e a n d T h e r e s u l t s e m p h a s i z e t h a t t h e rise t i m e is i m -
h a s first b e e n u s e d i n s i m u l a t i o n . T h e q u a n t i z a t i o n proved whereas the overshoot increases when the

Table 6
The look-up table for the control increment gain

e~Ae~ -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

-5 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 --4 -5
--4 4 4 3 2 1 0 --1 -2 --3 -4 -4
-3 3 3 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -3 --3
-2 2 2 2 2 1 0 -1 -2 -2 --2 -2
-1 1 1 1 1 1 0 --l -1 -1 -1 -1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 -1 -1 -1 --1 --1 -1 -1 --1 -I -1 -I
2 --2 --2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 2
3 --3 -3 -3 -2 --1 0 1 2 3 3 3
4 -4 -4 -3 --2 --l 0 1 2 3 4 4
5 --5 --4 --3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Table 7
Quantization matix for the DC motor control

Coarse tuning Fine tuning

Q e Ae Au G FS e Ae Au G FS

--5 -15 -1.5 -1 -0.04 NB . . . .


- 4 - 12 - 1.2 - 0.8 - 0.032 - - 1.4 - 0.14 - 0.8 - 0.008 NB
- 3 - 9 - 0.9 -- 0.6 - 0.024 - -- 1.05 - 0.105 - 0.6 - 0.006 -
-- 2 - 6 -- 0.6 - 0.4 - 0.016 - 0.7 -- 0.07 - 0.4 -- 0.004 -
-- 1 - 3 - 0.3 - 0.2 - 0.008 - - 0.35 - 0.035 - 0.2 - 0.002 -
0 0 0 0 0 ZE 0 0 0 0 ZE
1 3 0.3 0.2 0.008 - 0.35 0.035 0.2 0.002 -
2 6 0.6 0.4 0.016 - 0.7 0.07 0.4 0.004 -
3 9 0.9 0.6 0.024 - 1.05 0.105 0.6 0.006 -
4 12 1.2 0.8 0.032 - 1.4 0.14 0.8 0.008 PB
5 15 1.5 1 0.04 PB . . . . .
R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 119

(a) (a)

flw~'$

I
501/
i-, "'- t..'"
I~2
oof; Le~ |

0 11300 2000 3000 4(300 513130 60130 7000 8000 ~ 10000 0o t~ 2~ ~o ,=o ~ o ~o ~ ,~o 9=0 ,==

(b) (b)
v V

/
10

7
6
6

5 4
o 10130
IG 2QO0 3000 4000 5(100 6000 7000 moo ~ 0 s0m0

(c) (c)
2 2, , -.

I l
-2 .2

,
0 1000 2000 3060 4000 50~0 GO00 7000 $0013 ~00 I~ o ~ ~ ~oo ,=o ~ ~0 ~=, ~, ~, I~

(d) (d)

0 10130 2000 3000 4000 5000 61300 7000 8000 9000 10~0 ~o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~lo ~ ~ =~o ~oo , I

Fig. 3. GC,x = 0.04, G ~ = 0.004. (a) Process output. (b) C o n - Fig. 4. Gm=xc= 0,08, G,~,xv= 0.004. (a) Process output. (b) Con-
trol signal. (c) C o n t r o l increment (QL). (d) Control increment trol signal. (c) Control increment (QL). (d) Control increment
gain (QL). Q L denotes quantization levels. gain (QL).
120 R. Ketata etal. /Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

(a) (c)

0 SO0 1000 ISO0 2000 2~ 3000 3~ ~ ~00

(b) (d)

U7"27"3~7"46.
..... 117"I? !
i.7

'~'~
V ~, ,*** , ~ 2*** 2~ ~ 3;** a ,/~
I 2

' '
I
Fig. 5. Real time control of the DC motor. (a) Process output. (b) Control signal. (c) Control increment (QL). (d) Control increment
gain (QL).

A comparative study between a PID control and


bound of the gain universe of discourse is increas- a fuzzy control is performed. Figs. 6 show the
ing. The steady-state errors are not exactly zero results. In the first one, a first-order process with
because the integral action is very small, specially in a time constant of 100 s and a gain of 1 has been
the case when Gma c x is 0.04, but the goal of these used. In the second case, a third-order process with
experiments was to study the influence of the gain time constants of 100 and 10 s and a gain of 1 has
universe of discourse and not to optimize the fuzzy been considered. In the two cases, a disturbance is
controller tuning. applied on the gain.
Figs. 5 shows the results of the real time motor The following conclusions can be stated. Firstly,
control with the universes of discourse of the con- both controllers are able to handle the disturbance.
trol increment gain belonging to [ - 0.08,0.08] for Secondly, during the steady state, some oscillations
the coarse tuning and [ - 0.004, 0.004] for the fine appear with the fuzzy controller, whereas the PID
tuning. The results are different from those ob- controller is much more stable. Thirdly, during the
tained in simulation mainly because of the experi- transients, at the beginning of a step change or after
mental constraints: the motor is functioning near a disturbance, the fuzzy controller is quicker to
the saturation voltage of the chopper. The rise time converge to the setpoint than the PID controller.
is small, about 150 ms. Some oscillations appear in These results show the ability of the considered fuzzy
steady state when the motor has no load: this controller to improve the closed-loop performances
phenomenon is caused by the mechanical disturb- during the transient. Nevertheless, during the steady
ances of the motor axe, the control signal is very state, only the PID controller can give no steady
sensitive to these vibrations. state error by means of the integral time constant.
The first idea of combining fuzzy and algorithmic
3.2.2. Experiments on industrial furnaces techniques emerges from these remarks. Fuzzy tech-
The fuzzy controller used is of the P D type. The niques replace the PID controller during the transi-
quantization matrix is shown in Table 8. The look- ent; consequently, the advantages of each technique
up table has been given in Table 2. are used depending on the current dynamical phase.
R. Ketata et al. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 121

Table 8
Q u a n t i z a t i o n m a t i x for the furnace c o n t r o l

Coarse tuning Fine tuning

Q e Ae u FS e Ae u FS

-6 -12 -1.2 0 NB -1.8 -0.18 20 NB


-5 - l0 -1 0 - 1.5 -0.15 25 -
-4 -8 -0.8 0 NM -1.2 -0.12 30 NM
-3 -6 -0.6 0 -0.9 -0.09 35
- 2 - 4 - 0.4 0 NS - 0.6 - 0.06 40 NS
- 1 - 2 - 0.2 21 - - 0.3 - 0.03 45
0 0 0 50 ZE 0 0 50 ZE
I 2 0.2 81 0.3 0.03 55
2 4 0.4 100 PS 0.6 0.06 60 PS
3 6 0.6 100 - 0.9 0.09 65
4 8 0.8 100 PM 1.2 0.12 70 PM
5 10 1 100 - 1.5 0.15 75
6 12 1.2 100 PB 1.8 0.18 80 PB

(a) (b)
"C ----~
tO0 --~ ~ ~ --~ I00

FLOU

50 lid . 50

[ 0 2,0 ,00 [ 0 250 ,00/

Fig. 6. F u z z y a n d P1D c o n t r o l of the furnaces. (a) First o r d e r model. (b) T h i r d o r d e r model.

4. Parallel structure: PID and fuzzy controllers The main point during the design of this control
structure is the commutation logic. For this pur-
4.1. General principle pose, fuzzy rules express the switching strategy. An
additional fuzzy variable is defined. The selection of
A first idea to combine conventional and non- a controller is based on the state of this variable: for
conventional control techniques consists of build- a value of 1 the fuzzy controller is chosen, and for
ing a parallel structure; see Fig. 7. According to the a value of 0 the PID controller is activated. The
current dynamical state, either the PID or the fuzzy state of the fuzzy commutation variable is defined
controller is selected. The fine tuning of the fuzzy in terms of the error and of the error increment
controller is somewhat replaced by the PID sign. The method developed is based on the follow-
control. ing definition of the transient: the product of the
122 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

error (process o u t p u t - reference signal) and its transients. The operating domain around the origin
increment is strictly negative. When the error in- for the PID controller must be dependent on
crement is equal to the fuzzy value zero and the the process dynamic. The resulting commutation
error is small, and not only zero, the PID controller strategy is illustrated in the phase plane and with
is selected. This definition prevents a lot of useless a rule base in Fig. 8. An example of one commuta-
commutations between the two controllers. Thus, tion rule is
the linear conventional controller is selected when
the temporal response is near the steady state, IF e IS ZE AND Ae IS ANY T H E N V~IS ZE.
whereas the fuzzy controller is chosen during the (4)

4.2. Results

The experiments are carried out on the motor-


alternator group. The Ziegler-Nichols method is
used to tune optimally the PID controller para-
meters: the control quality is stated in terms of
rapid recovery from oscillations. We use the PI
fuzzy controller described before. The results are
shown in the Figs. 9 (the PID control is represented
_ f - IR
T ~COIl~lllOtt with the dotted line). The reached performances
are: a rise time of 150 ms for the parallel control
structure and 225 ms for the PID controller. The
graphic of the commutation variable (Fig. 9b)
Fig. 7. The parallel control structure. shows that the fuzzy controller is used during all

e [ Ae ~ NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB
NB PID PID PID F F F F !
NM PID PID PID F F F F
NS PID PID PID PID F F F i...... S

ZE PID PID PID PID PID PID PID


PS F F F PID PID PID PID
PM F F F F PID PID PID
PID ! ~ E
PB F F 'F F PID PID PID

PID I'-'1 FLrZZY

Fig. 8. The commutation strategy (F means fuzzy).

(a) (b)
radN

'~l~,dl Load2 Load3

0v , , , , , i 4.,I0 100 200 300 400 ~0 8o0 700 800 200 1001

Fig. 9. Parallel fuzzy-P1D control of the DC motor speed. (a) Motor speed response. (b) Commutation variable.
R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 123

the transients. The proposed parallel control struc- advantages of rule-based systems, and the interest
ture is effectively able to combine the rapidity of the of incorporating fuzzy concepts.
fuzzy controller during the transient with the accu- The main reason for supervising PID controllers
racy of the PID controller during the steady state. is that they are widely used in many industrial
However, the problem of the precise determination control applications. However the tuning methods,
of the commutation points between PID and fuzzy such as the Ziegler-Nichols one, can lead to some
controllers is not straightforward. The supple- unacceptable results, for example, in terms of over-
mentary fuzzy variable has to be well defined: the shoot; then, the process operators do about 50% of
functioning domains for each controllers should be the control in open loop [6]. Moreover this con-
chosen so that the dynamical performances are troller is robust in low disturbed conditions but
optimal. Furthermore, two static controllers are becomes under-optimal when large variations of
used. It would be more interesting to state more some control loop parameters occur, such as inter-
precisely the control goals in terms of dynamical nal disturbances, when there are changes in the
performances with a reference model. Then, operating conditions, or when a process has impor-
another kind of combination of conventional and tant non-linearities [11, 8]. Consequently, a mod-
non-conventional techniques is considered in the ule with some degree of intelligence is necessary to
next section in order to improve a linear improve the abilities of the PID controllers to con-
PID control law. A dynamical controller combin- trol optimally systems in highly disturbed context
ing fuzzy and algorithmic techniques is now and according to the user's wishes [9].
proposed. The main reasons for using preferably a super-
vision module over a PID controller are enu-
merated now. Firstly, adaptive controllers are able
5. Fuzzy supervision of a PID controller to cope with most of the cases that leave the PID
under-optimal, but they require specialized design
5.1. General presentation methods using some a priori model structure
5.1.1. Justification of the use of fuzzy supervisors knowledge [9]; PID supervisors are easier to im-
A hierarchical structure is built up: the PID plement because they need very little knowledge
parameters are tuned in order to improve the dy- about the process. Secondly, the combination of
namical response on-line; see Fig. 10. a linear PID control law and a supervision strategy
There are several reasons for supervising a PID can lead to a highly non-linear control law; then it
controller. In this section is successively justified can allow to increase significantly the robustness of
the necessity of using supervision techniques, the the control system [1]. And lastly, the supervisor

i
i
I
i
i
J

II
i

Fig. 10. The fuzzy supervisor over the closed loop.


124 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

can provide an interface with the user for express- 5.1.2. Different kinds of fuzzy supervisors
ing precisely the specifications in terms of closed- The internal structure of a supervisor is the same
loop performances [7]. as the one of a fuzzy controller. The supervisor
The advantages to use a PID supervisor having outputs are the PID parameter increments. The
been emphasized, the question is now to find the inputs can be of two natures, which defines two
best choice between an algorithmic or a linguistic kinds of supervisors.
supervision module. Process operators are able to In the first case, the inputs are the process output
optimize the PID control results on-line, they act as error and its increment. The goal of the PID para-
system supervisor [9]. Their knowledge is very meters tuning is to adapt the control law at each
useful for the tuning of hardly modelled system [6]. sampling time. Some examples of this supervision
Thus, it appears very attractive to build the PID technique are given in [8, 1, 11, 3]. The main differ-
supervisors from this human heuristic knowledge. ences between these implementations are the num-
It is more convenient to design linguistic expert ber of rule tables. In [8, 1], one rule base has been
supervisor because a knowledge-based system defined for each PID parameters, whereas in
is a mean of integrating the intuitive and often [11, 3], one rule base was derived for the three
necessary knowledge of a human operator in the parameters. More precisely, in [11], three PID
control system; it is easier to integrate heuristic parameter tuning equations using the output vari-
knowledge in linguistic rules than in equations [1]. able of the rule base are defined, whereas in [3], the
This choice results in lower design and implement- Ziegler-Nichols equations are changed according
ation costs than conventional techniques [8]. to the fuzzy supervisor output.
Moreover, the linguistic formalism is more easily In the second case, the supervisor inputs are the
understood by the users, which leads to a low use performance values reached after a transient. The
cost [8]. The combination of mathematical and measure of the control quality during a time inter-
linguistic knowledge, like the association of a PID val and the user wishes allow to compute the con-
algorithm and a rule-based supervisor, allow to trol law tuning for the future. Some examples of this
combine the interesting performances of the PID supervision technique are given in [9, 6]. The main
controller in the nominal conditions with the flexib- difference between these implementations is the
ility of a linguistic formalism to new situations [8]. way the supervision rules are built. In [9], two
The question is now to point out what the fuzzy different rule bases are adapting independently the
techniques can bring to an expert system aiming at proportional gain in function of the rise time, and
optimizing a process control. The use of fuzzy vari- the integral parameter in function of the overshoot.
ables in the linguistic formalism is justified by the In [6], two rule bases are used in the following way:
facts that they introduce a greater flexibility in the the first one deduces the changes to be applied to
tuning actions of the PID parameters; as a matter the various controller parameters depending on
of fact, the fuzzy formalism is nearer to the human five performance indexes, the second one solves the
perception of the real world and to the human compromise if the action on one controller para-
reasoning way. Indeed, fuzzy sets allow to model meter has a contradictory effect on several desired
subjective, uncertain and imprecise concepts like dynamical characteristics.
the human language does [9]; the incorporation of
possibilistic informations is much more difficult 5.2. Description of the proposed fuzzy supervisor
with classical techniques. Moreover, the inference
mechanism with fuzzy rules offers an important The supervision technique developed in this
flexibility in information processing, it allows to work is of second type. The values of the rise time
perform approximate reasoning. Finally, an inter- T~, overshoot Or, and stability factor Sf (ratio of the
esting consequence of the use of fuzzy concepts in first undershoot to the first overshoot) are used to
the supervisor linguistic rules is a quicker conver- tune the PID parameters at the end of each transi-
gence of the PID parameters to their optimal ent response. Fig. 11 shows the fuzzy supervisor
values than with a classical expert system [6]. implementation in closed loop. The goal of the
R. Ketata et al, / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 125

Seven quantization levels have been chosen, from


- 6 to +6, for the supervisor outputs, and three
levels, 2,4 and 6, for the supervisor inputs. The
fuzzy sets have been defined on the normalized
universes of discourse. For the supervisor outputs,
~UZZO~OCA~'O@N D~3~g~O~TOOH several trapezoidal fuzzy sets are regularly distrib-

% 1 J
uted (their labels are: NB, NM, NS, ZE, PS, PM
.l ,.I and PB). For the supervisor inputs, four trap-
ezoidal positive fuzzy sets (ZE, PS, PM and PB) are
COMI~II'A'nON I non-linearly distributed depending on the desired
kp TI t Td t closed-loop performances.
.f -f The linguistic knowledge is elaborated as de-
scribed in the following approach. The supervision
Fig. 11. The fuzzy supervisor components. law translates the fact that the control law has to
make the process response converge towards a ref-
supervision is to make the process response con- erence model. This reference trajectory is character-
verge towards a reference profile considered as ized by some performance characteristic fuzzy
optimal. values labelled medium. The antecedents of the
The main supervisor parameters to be tuned are supervision rules contain the fuzzy values of the
those of the numerical-symbolic interface and of dynamical performances, and the conclusions give
the fuzzy rules. the corresponding linguistic meaning for the PID
The parameters of the N - S module are given in parameter increments; relationship (6) shows an
the quantization matrix for the different supervisor example of a fuzzy supervision rule.
signals. Their choice is explained now. The IF T~ IS FSTr AND Ov IS FSov AND Sr IS FSs,
universes of discourse of the various variables (the THEN AK IS FSK (6)
supervisor input signals are the performance char-
acteristics, and the supervisor output variables are where FSr,, FSov and FSsf are, respectively, the
the PID parameters) are normalized and dis- linguistic labels of the fuzzy sets describing the
cretized. It is first necessary to define the physical performance indexes: T~, the rise time, Or, the over-
domain of variation of the various signals. The shoot and Sf, the stability factor; they belong to
bounds of the real universes of discourse are de- {PP, PM, PB}; FSk is a linguistic label of the fuzzy
duced from the desired values of the closed-loop sets describing one of the PID parameter in-
performances, and, in the case of the supervisor crement; it belongs to {NB, NM, NS, ZE, PP, PM,
PB .
inputs, these bounds are also tied to some stability
analysis. The resulting formula for the definition of In order to build up the supervision rules, some
the maximal values of the supervisor outputs is transient responses are obtained and the influences
given in (5). The idea is to define some parameter of each PID parameter on the dynamical perfor-
increments which prevent from going towards in- mances are evaluated. Then, three linguistic models
stability. For the supervisor inputs, the desired relating the fuzzy values of the PID parameters
values of the dynamical performances correspond with the fuzzy values of the performance character-
to the fuzzy sets PM. istics are built. They express the adjustments to be
applied to each PID parameter separately in order
to make the dynamical characteristics converge to
valuemax = I ( k ' - kd) J, (5) their fuzzy value medium. Table 9 shows these in-
formations for the three tuning cases.
where k] is the stability limit value of each PID The next step consists of deriving the resulting
parameter and kd is its desired value, allowing to fuzzy tuning action to be applied independently on
reach a specified closed-loop behaviour. each controller parameter so that the dynamical
126 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

response converges globally to the reference re- Ziegler-Nichols method. The desired dynamical
sponse. According to the various performances response has the following characteristics: a rise
chosen (the values of overshoot, rise time and stab- time of 36 ms (three sampling periods), an over-
ility factor), the different variations to be applied to shoot of 0.2 and a stability factor of 750. Table 11 is
each PID parameter can be conflicting. Then, the the quantization matrix used for the designed fuzzy
issue is to evaluate satisfactory increment values supervisor. The reference signal is varying in order
that allow a global convergence of the three perfor- to evaluate the PID parameters tuning ability of
mance characteristics towards their linguistic the supervisor during the transients and the control
values medium. To solve this compromise, an arith- quality during the steady states.
metic average is calculated over the different Three simulations are performed. During the
actions for each parameter. All the informations first one, the PID controller is not supervised; dur-
concerning the PID parameters tuning are pres- ing the second one, the three PID parameters are
ented in Table 10. tuned on-line; during the third one, the propor-
tional and integral parameters are optimized. These
5.3. Results results are, respectively, shown in Figs. 12, 13 and
14. When no PID parameters tuning is done, the
The experiments are carried out on the motor- rise time is 48 ms; see Fig. 12. The overshoot of the
alternator group. The results are compared with first transient is about 0.5 rad/s, and the following
those of classical PID control in order to emphasize overshoots are rather important because of a non-
the improvement due to the supervisor. optimal control signal generation and the control
The control signal belongs to [0V, 15V]. saturation. When the three PID parameters are
The PID parameters are initialized with the adapted, the control signal keeps on commuting

Table 9
Adjustments of the P I D parameters

T~-* PS PM PB O~ PS PM PB Sf~ PS PM PB

AKp NM ZE PM - NS ZE PB - PM ZE PB
ATI PS ZE NS - NM ZE PM - ZE ZE NS
A Td ZE ZE ZE - NB ZE PB - NB ZE PB

Table 10
Fuzzy supervision rules for the three PID parameters

Sf~T~.Ov---, PS.PS PS.PM PS.PB PM.PS PM.PM PM.PB PB.PS PB.PM PB.PB

AKp
PS ZE ZE PS ZE PS PM PS PM PB
PM NS NS ZE ZE ZE PS ZE PS PM
PB ZE ZE PM PS PS PM PM PM PB
AT~
PS ZE ZE PS NS ZE PS NS ZE ZE
PM ZE ZE PS NS ZE PS NS ZE ZE
PB NS ZE PS NS ZE ZE NM NS ZE
AT~
PS NM NS ZE NM NS ZE NM NS ZE
PM NS ZE ZE NS ZE ZE NS ZE ZE
PB ZE PS PM ZE PS PM ZE PS PM
R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 127

because of the derivative term; see Figs. 13 and 15. specifications have been reached; see Figs. 14 and
It should be necessary to change the tuning strategy 15(a) and (b). The comparison between a PID con-
for this parameter. The results obtained with the trol and a supervised PI control points out the
fuzzy supervisor of the PI controller show that the advantage of using a fuzzy supervisor. The rise time

T a b l e 11
Q u a n t i z a t i o n m a t r i x o f the fuzzy s u p e r v i s o r

Q T~ O~ Sf AKp ATd ATi FS

- 6 - - - 1.8 - 0.0018 - 0.018 NB


- 4 - - - 1.2 - 0.0012 - 0.012 NM
- 2 - - 0.6 - 0.006 - 0.06 NS
0 - - 0 0 0 ZE
2 2 0.1 250 0.6 0.006 0.06 PS
4 3 0.2 750 1.2 - 0.0012 0.012 PS
6 4 0.3 1000 1.8 0.0018 0.018 PB

(a) (b)
fmdl$ (v)
0

2oo

Fig. 12. P I D c o n t r o l w i t h o u t s u p e r v i s i o n . (a) P r o c e s s o u t p u t . (b) C o n t r o l signal.

(a) (b)
rad~

iI0 IOOO 2(]00 ~ 4000 ~

Fig. 13. S u p e r v i s e d P I D c o n t r o l o f the D C m o t o r speed. (a) P r o c e s s o u t p u t . (b) C o n t r o l signal.

(a) (b)
(v)

1.

o :t
Q

Fig. 14. S u p e r v i s e d P I c o n t r o l of the D C m o t o r speed. (a) P r o c e s s o u t p u t . (b) C o n t r o l signal.


128 R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129

(a) (b)

J I i,, I
-2
o ~000 2000 2~ ,tO00 $000 6000

(c)
2

4000 ~ 6000

Fig. 15. The parameter tunings: (a) [AKp] and (b) [ATI] correspond to the two experiments with a supervisor, (c) [ATd] corresponds
only to the results of Fig. 13.

has decreased to 36 ms, the overshoot is 0.2 and the 6. Conclusions and perspectives
stability factor is 750. The overshoot and osicilla-
tions are strongly decreased. This improvement is In this work, fuzzy logic has been used in differ-
principally due to the integral term tuning. Indeed, ent control structures, direct control and super-
it is possible to notice that some important changes vision. The comparison between fuzzy control and
are applied on the integral time constant after the PID control emphasizes the facts that the fuzzy PD
third, fourth and fifth level of the reference signal, controller is more interesting for the transient re-
which correspond to important overshoots when sponses, and it is worse during the steady state.
no supervisor is used. In fact, the supervision rules This result can be improved with a fuzzy controller
express that the overshoot is very sensitive to the by introducing an integral action; moreover, the
integral time constant variations; see Table 9. closed-loop performances can be improved if an
Moreover, the rise time is decreased. The propor- auto-tuning method of the fuzzy controller para-
tional action is mainly responsible for this improve- meters (for example of the rule base) is used.
ment: the rise time is above all sensitive to the However, in order to combine the advantages of
proportional gain changes; see Table 9. each techniques (mainly because PID controllers
The simulation results show some interesting as- are reliable and used widely), a parallel control
pects of fuzzy supervision of PID controllers. One structure commuting between a PID and a fuzzy
advantage is that the user can specify a reference controller has been proposed. It was possible to
dynamical model. The process is then controlled so reach good performances during the transient and
that its response converges globally to the desired the steady state because of the contribution of each
trajectory under more or less disturbed control type of controllers. The difficult point for the design
conditions. of this structure is the fuzzy switching logic between
The two combination techniques of PID and the two algorithms; some more studies are now
fuzzy tools have been designed and tuned. How- performed on this problem in order to improve this
ever, it is not possible here to compare these two control structure.
techniques because the parameters values on the In order to generate a dynamical control law,
DC motor experiments are different. and to state more precisely the control objectives,
R. Ketata et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 71 (1995) 113-129 129

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[2] I. French, C. Cox, M.J. Willis and G.A. Montague, Intelli-
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