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PROJECT

IN
MAPEH
Submitted by:
Katheren F. Marquez
Submitted to:
Mrs. Clemefe T. Fillarca
Francisco Goya
Francisco goya- A famed painter in his own
lifetime, Francisco de Goya was born on March
30, 1746, in Fuendetodos, Spain. He began his
art studies as a teenager and even spent time in
Rome, Italy, to advance his skills. In 1770s,
Goya began to work for Spanish royal court.Apr
2, 2014

Famous of Paintings by Francisco


Goya
Francisco de Goya was a Spanish painter and printmaker who rose to prominence
in the artistic scene through his series of tapestry cartoons and became the court
painter to the Spanish Crown. He later developed a penchant for portrayals of a dark
nature for which he is most known today. Goya is renowned for highly imaginative
elements in his art and bold use of paint. His style became an inspiration for later
generations of artists. Here are his 10 most famous paintings and prints including The
Third of May, The Nude Maja, Witches Sabbath and the Disasters of War series.
1. The Third of May 1808
Spanish Title: El tres de mayo de 1808 en Madrid
Year: 1814

On May 2, 1808, the people of Madrid rebelled


against the occupation of the city by Napoleons
French army. Goya has captured this uprising in
his painting The Second of May 1808. The Third of
May 1808, the most famous painting by the artist,
depicts the retaliation by the French the following
day, during which hundreds of Spaniards were
rounded up and shot. The painting is considered
one of the first great paintings of the modern era; has been called revolutionary in its
style, subject and intention; and has inspired several famous painting by future artists
most prominently Pablo Picassos masterpiece Guernica.
2. The Nude Maja
Spanish Title: La Maja Desnuda
Year: 1797 1800

The Nude Maja is famous as the first totally profane


life-size female nude in Western art and the first
large Western painting to depict female pubic hair
without obvious negative connotations. The painting
was most likely commissioned by Prime Minister of
Spain Manuel de Godoy. The identity of the model is
not known with certainty. Likely candidates are Godoys mistress Pepita Tudo and Mara
Cayetana de Silva, 13th Duchess of Alba. Known for the straightforward and
unashamed view of the model towards the viewer, it is considered a revolutionary work
which expanded the horizons of Western art.

3. Saturn Devouring His Son


Spanish Title: Saturno devorando a su hijo
Year: c. 1819 1823

This masterpiece is based on the Roman myth by which the


titan Saturn ate his children as it was prophesied that one of
his sons would overthrow him, just like he had overthrown his
father Caelus. The Prophesy does come to be true as his
wife Ops deceives him and saves one of their sons. This
disturbing portrait of Saturn consuming one of his children is
the most famous of the 14 Black Paintings by Francisco
Goya. It was one of the six paintings decorating his dining
room.

4. The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters


Spanish Title: El sueo de la razn produce monstrous
Year: 1799
Los Caprichos are a set of 80 prints which were created by
Goya in 1797 and 1798. He published them as an album
the following year. According to Goya the series depicted
the innumerable foibles and follies to be found in any
civilized society; and from the common prejudices and
deceitful practices which custom, ignorance or self-interest
have made usual. This print, which depicts the artist
asleep amid his drawing tools with monsters symbolizing
the vices of society invading his mind, is the most famous
print of the series.

5. The Disasters of War Series


Spanish Title: Los Desastres de la Guerra
Year: 1810 1820

Created between 1810 and 1820, this series of 82


prints ranks among the most important works of
Francisco Goya. Art historians have divided the
series into three parts. The first 47 prints depict the
horrors of war; the middle series (prints 48 to 64)
depict the effects of the famine that hit Madrid in
181112; and the last 17 reflect the disappointment
following the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy
in 1814. Goyas dark portrayal of the consequences
of war is considered a prodigious visual outrage against war and a bold political
statement.

6. Charles IV of Spain and His Family


Year: 1801
This life size depiction of ostentatiously dressed
King Charles IV of Spain and his family is one
Goyas most famous works. It is noted for the artists
disinclination to flatter and most modern interpreters
see the style and placement as depicting the
corruption behind the rule of the monarch. The
positioning of the kings wife Louisa at the center of
the portrait is considered a hint to where the real
power lied during his reign. The barely visible man
in the background is Goya himself.

7. Witches Sabbath (The Great He-Goat)


Spanish Title: Aquelarre
Year: c. 1821 1823

Witches Sabbath, which is seen by art


historians as a satire on the tendency of
the age to believe in things too easily and
condemnation of superstition, is a one of
the most renowned Black Painting of
Goya. It shows Satan with goat like features and dressed in clerical clothing, delivering
a lecture to what appears a gathering of witches.

8. The Clothed Maja


Spanish Title: La maja vestida
Year: 1800 1805
Majo (masc.) or maja (fem.) were terms used to
refer to the people of the lower classes of Spanish
society who were known for their sense of style in
dresses and manners. They were among the
favorite subjects of several 19th-century Spanish
artists. This painting is usually displayed alongside
its more famous companion of the same size The Nude Maja. The clothes worn by the
model in this painting are responsible for the names given to these two famous works of
art. The identity of the model remains unknown.
9. the dog
Spanish Title: El Perro
Year: 1819 1823

The Black Paintings is a name given to the group of 14


paintings created by Francisco Goya in the later stage of
his life probably between 1819 and 1823. The paintings,
which are well known for depicting intense dark themes,
were painted by Goya as murals on the walls of his house
and were transferred to canvas years after his death. This
well-known work depicts a dog, almost lost in the vastness
of the scene; and looking skywards perhaps hoping for divine intervention after all
seems lost. It is usually interpreted as a symbol of mans struggle against malevolent
forces.

10. The Parasol


Spanish Title: El Quitasol
Year: c. 1777

This work of art is from Francisco Goyas series of 63 large tapestry cartoons. Goya was
commissioned to paint the series by the Spanish crown during early part of his career.
Though he later regretted spending so much time on the cartoons, the series is

considered important in his artistic development and helped him study human behavior
which would later prove important for painting his masterpieces. This painting which
merges French and Spanish fashion is perhaps the most famous work of his cartoon
series.

Joseph Mallord William Turner


Joseph Mallord William Turner, RA (baptised 14 May 1775 19
December 1851) was an English Romanticist landscape painter. Turner
was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded
as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence
rivalling history painting.

Famous Paintings by
J.M.W Turner
Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775 1851) is one of the greatest
landscape artists of all time and perhaps the most renowned British artist ever. His
mastery in capturing the effects of color and light made him famous as the painter of
light; and his application of poetic and imaginative approach to landscape art, elevated
the genre to rival history painting. Turner precisely captured architectural and natural
details in his early works but in his mature stage, his compositions became more fluid
with mere suggestion of movement. These abstractions are considered ahead of his
time and were a forerunner to the artistic movement Impressionism. Know more about
the art of J.M.W. Turner by studying his 10 most famous paintings.

1. The Fighting Temeraire


Full Name: The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up
Year: 1839
HMS Temeraire was a 98-gun second-rate warship of
the Royal Navy which is famous for its heroic
performance in the 1805 Battle of Trafalgar between
U.K. and the combined fleets of French and Spanish
Navies. J.M.W. Turner depicts the warship, years
after its glorious days, being pulled by a tugboat, to
be broken into scraps. The painting pays a tribute to
sailing ships as they were going to be replaced by
steam-powered vessels. Turner uses symbolism, like the setting sun, to suggest the
demise of the subject and its mortality despite its heroic past. Painted by Turner at the
prime of his career, The Fighting Temeraire is his most famous painting and the one he
referred to as his darling. In 2005, it was voted as Britains favourite painting in a poll
organized by the BBC.

2. Rain, Steam and Speed


Full Name: Rain, Steam and Speed The Great Western Railway
Year: 1840

In this famous artwork, Turner


masterfully combines the elements of
nature and the industrial revolution.
The painting depicts a train
approaching the viewer at high speed.
The rain blends into the steam of the
speeding train to leave the powerful
black engine of the locomotive as the
only visibly sharp object on the canvas. The location of the scene is the Maidenhead
Railway Bridge which crosses River Thames. Rain, Steam and Speed is an outstanding
example of J.M.W. Turners late works, which gained in popularity with time to become
his most cherished masterpieces and are considered a forerunner to Impressionism.

3. The Slave Ship


Full Name: Slavers Throwing overboard the Dead and Dying, Typhon coming
on
Year: 1840
In the 1781 Zong massacre, 133 enslaved Africans were thrown into the sea to drown
by the crew of the slave ship Zong. This was done partly to ensure the survival of the
ships remaining inhabitants and partly to cash on the insurance on the slaves. This
event is considered the inspiration behind this masterpiece, which was first exhibited on

the same day as a meeting of the British Anti-Slavery Society. The painting depicts a
ship struggling in the stormy sea while a number of bodies with dark skin, and chained
hands and feet, are floating in water. The picture is blurry without defined brush strokes
and Turner brilliantly uses color to create a dramatic effect for the viewer. The Slave
Ship focuses on the power of nature over man and the vices of the Industrial
Revolution.

4. Hannibal crossing the Alps


Full Name: Snow Storm: Hannibal and his Army Crossing the Alps
Year: 1812

Hannibal is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. He led his
Carthaginian army over the Alps and into Italy to take the war directly to the Roman
Republic. Hannibals crossing of the Alps in 218 BC is one of the most celebrated
military achievements in ancient warfare. As much as this painting captures this historic
event, it brings to the fore the destructive power of natural forces, a prevalent theme in
many of Turners later works. Hannibal crossing the Alps, known for parallels between
Hannibal and Napoleon, is one of the most ambitious and renowned artworks of
Turners early career.

5. The Dort
Full Name: Dort or Dordrecht: The Dort packet-boat from Rotterdam
becalmed
Year: 1818
J.M.W. Turner first visited the Netherlands in 1817. This painting shows a view of the
harbour of Dordrecht, a city in western Netherlands. It is the finest example of the
influence of Dutch marine painting on Turners work and a tribute to Dutch artist Aelbert
Cuyp, one of Turners formative influences. On its exhibition, The Dort was hailed as
one of the most magnificent pictures ever exhibited by the Morning Chronicle and
Turners contemporary, English Romantic painter John Constable, called it the most
complete work of a genius I ever saw.

6. Norham Castle, Sunrise


Year: 1845
Norham Castle is situated on the River Tweed on the border between England and
Scotland. J.M.W. Turner first visited Norham in 1797 and over the years, he captured
the castle in several well-known artworks. This painting was created in the mature stage
of his career when his compositions became more fluid with mere suggestion of
movement. These works were more appreciated by later generations. Norham Castle,
Sunrise is considered one of Turners greatest paintings of light and atmosphere. While
some regard the painting as an unfinished work, it is more widely viewed as proof of
Turners genius. It is the most abstract and most modern of Turners paintings.

7. Venice, from the Porch of Madonna della Salute


Year: 1835
J.M.W. Turner travelled extensively in search of inspiration for his work. He was
particularly inspired by Venice, which he first visited in 1819. Turners love affair with
Venice produced several masterpieces and this painting is the most famous among
them. It captures the Grand Canal along with buildings of Venice; and is based on the
artists sketches from his trips to the city. Turners command over marine painting, his
brilliance as a colourist and his pristine ability to capture the effects of atmosphere and
light, all come together in this renowned artwork.

8. Dido building Carthage


Full Name: Dido building Carthage, or The Rise of the Carthaginian Empire
Year: 1815
Carthage was the capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization while Dido,
according to ancient sources, was thefounder and first queen of Carthage. In 1814,
Turner began a series on Carthaginian subjects and this painting is one of its most
famous. The subject of the painting is inspired by Aeneid, a Latin epic poem written
by Virgil. It depicts the building of the North African city of Carthage with Dido being the
blue and white figure on the left. In his early period, Turner emulated the achievements
of French artist Claude Lorrain and this artwork is a direct tribute to ClaudesSeaport
with the Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba (1648).

9. The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons


Year: 1835
On 16th October 1834, fire accidentally broke out in Englands Houses of Parliament
leading to the biggest conflagration in London since the Great Fire of 1666. Like tens of
thousands of Londoners, Turner too witnessed the fire. He used the sketches of the
scene which he had drawn on the spot to create two famous canvases of the
conflagration with the same title. Painted by J.M.W. Turner in the period he created
some of his most renowned masterpieces, this painting is considered a captivating
visual record of the event and is symbolic of natures power over man.

10. Rome, From Mount Aventine


Year: 1835
This painting depicts the city of Rome from the Aventine Hill, one of the Seven Hills on
which ancient Rome was built. It is one among several paintings of the city by Turner
and on first being exhibited it was described by the Morning Post as one of those
amazing pictures by which Mr Turner dazzles the imagination and confounds all
criticism: it is beyond praise. Rome, From Mount Aventine was sold at Sothebys in
London in December 2014 for 30.3m which, as of June 2016, is the auction record for
Turner. It was also the highest price for any pre-20th century British artist ever sold at
auction.

Eugene Delacroix
Eugene Delacroix- was born in 1798, the son of
Charles Delacroix who had served briefly as minister of
foreign affairs under the Directory and who was on a
mission to Holland, as the ambassador of the French
Republic, at the time of his son's birth. His mother,
Victoire Oeben, was descended from a family of
artisans and craftsmen. Both parents died early, the
father in 1805, the mother in 1814, leaving Eugne in
the care of his older sister, Henriette de Verninac, wife of
a former ambassador to Turkey and minister-
plenipotentiary to Switzerland. The fall of Napoleon's
empire spelled the temporary ruin of this family of high officials, and with it that of young
Delacroix. But the influential relations among which his birth and childhood had placed
him were to protect his subsequent career, particularly in those periods, after 1830 and
again after 1850, when Bonapartist interests were on the rise. As a child he had played
on the knees of Talleyrand, his father's successor in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and a
family friend. It has been suggested, but not proven, that Talleyrand, to whom Delacroix
in later life bore a marked facial resemblance, was in fact his actual father.
In 1815 Delacroix, aged seventeen, began to take painting lessons from Pierre Gurin
(1774-1833) through whose studio Thodore Gericault had briefly and turbulently
passed a little earlier. Gurin was a tolerant teacher who attracted the sons of the
middle class. His classicist instruction had little effect on Delacroix; it was less important
for his development than the literary education that he had received at the lyce. The
example of Gericault with whom he was acquainted and for whose Raft of the Medusa
(Louvre) he posed in 1818 left its mark on him, but in every essential respect he was,
like many of his contemporaries, a self-taught artist, whose real school was the Louvre,
where, even after the removal of the Napoleonic loot, the splendor of Titian, Veronese,
and Rubens shone brightly enough to eclipse the school of David. Among his fellow
copyists in its galleries he met the young Englishman Richard Parkes Bonington (1801-
1828) who, together with his friend Raymond Soulier, was to introduce him to watercolor
painting and a British tradition of colorism, and who helped to awaken his interest in
Shakespeare, Byron, and Scott, the main literary sources of his romanticism.
Delacroix' student work did not show extraordinary promise, but in 1822 his Salon
debut, the Bark of Dante (Louvre), attracted some attention. Though it has a deserved
place in the history of art, as the start of a great career, it is still an immature effort,
heavy-handed in its combination of reminiscences of Gericault, Rubens, and
Michelangelo, and incoherent in its composition. Two years later, his Massacres of
Chios (Louvre) burst upon the Salon of 1824 as "a terrifying hymn in honor of doom and
irremediable suffering" (Charles Baudelaire, "L'Oeuvre et la vie d'Eugne Delacroix,"
published as L'Art romantique, Paris, 1869). The picture's resonant harmonies gave an
early indication of Delacroix' mastery of color, and its lustful stress on horror and death
struck a note that was to sound throughout much of his subsequent work. The
government's purchase of the work enabled Delacroix to visit England in the spring and
summer of 1825. He had already seen landscapes by John Constable (1776-1837) in
Paris while at work on Massacres of Chios. Further impressions of English art and
literature gathered during his months in London were to influence him in the following
years, as is evident in his Portrait of Baron Switer (1826, National Gallery, London), a
bravura performance in the manner of Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830), and in his use of
subjects from Scott and Byron. His Execution of the Doge Marino Faliero (1826,
Wallace Collection, London), based on a play by Byron and painted with something of
Bonington's nervous brilliance, is the crowning achievement of his English phase.
After these paintings of exquisite finish and relatively small format, the colossal,
orgiastic Death of Sardanapalus (Louvre), shown at the Salon of 1827, came as a shock
to the public. Delacroix had taken the subject from a play by Byron but supplied the
voluptuous cast of this scene of slaughter from his own imagination. He paid for his
audacity with a temporary loss of official favor. The following years were a difficult but
productive period during which he experimented with a variety of subjects: studies of
lions and tigers, oriental scenes, sensuous nudes, and turbulent battles.
The Revolution of 1830 inspired his one truly popular work, Liberty Leading the People
(Louvre). In the place of the febrile romanticism of his paintings of the 1820s, he now
used a larger, soberer manner and colors of muted intensity. Dealing with this modern
subject he achieved poetic effect without morbidity or false grandeur: even Liberty,
abundantly physical, has the effect of adding a note of actuality rather than allegorical
artifice to the tumult on the barricade. For once, public and critics united in praise of the
artist, and the government of Louis-Philippe awarded him the Legion of Honor.
In early 1832 Delacroix visited North Africa in the suite of a French embassy to the
sultan of Morocco. Islamic Africa surpassed all his expectations. The classical beauty
for which he had vainly looked among the plaster casts in Gurin's studio he now
encountered along roadsides under the African sky. He filled sketchbooks with
observations of Arab life and gathered a store of ideas that served him for the rest of his
life. On his return to Paris, he began a series of oriental subjects, not Byronic fantasies
now but recollections of actual experience. Algerian Women in Their Apartment (1834,
Louvre) records his recollection of a visit to a harem with the quiet authority of fact
rather than the fictions of romantic exoticism. The sensuous intensity of the painting
results from stylistic means that seem simpler but are in fact more complex than those
that produced the sensational Sardanapalus. It signals the attainment of his mature
style, quieter but grander than his earlier manner, more monumental yet no less
expressive, more restrained but more powerful.
Early in his career, Delacroix had been hailed by the young French romantics as their
leader. During the 1830s he outgrew this affiliation, not because he had changed his
course, but because his fellow romantics were failing to keep up with him. The "romantic
battle" had been won too easily. After 1830 French romanticism became popular and
died. Its followers, agreeable but minor talents for the most part, rapidly declined into
picturesqueness and mannerism. Delacroix, by contrast, increasingly identified himself
with the grand traditions of the Venetians and Flemings, with Veronese and Rubens
above all. His later works expressed a growing concern with traditional subject matter
and monumental form. In his Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Louvre),
shown at the Salon of 1840, he resumed compositional devices that he had used earlier
in Massacres of Chios, but the former violence is stilled by the somber harmony of the
colors and the weight of the great colonnade that dominates the scene. In his Justice of
Trajan (Muse des Beaux-Arts, Rouen) shown at the same Salon, an even more
elaborate architectural setting contains, with its strong verticals and diagonals, the
animation of the figures.
Behind Delacroix' new concern with compositional structure and balance lay the
experience he had gained in carrying out the architectural decorations that occupied
him during the latter part of his life. The governments of Louis-Philippe and Napoleon III
favored him with important monumental commissions, beginning in 1833 with the
allegorical decorations of the Salon du Roi in the Palais Bourbon (Chamber of
Deputies). This was closely followed by the even larger enterprise of the Palais
Bourbon's library (1838-1847), where Delacroix covered a succession of domes and
pendentives with scenes celebrating the heroic lineage of the arts and sciences, in a
dramatic succession beginning with Orpheus' gift of civilization to mankind and ending
with Attila's destruction of Italy. Before this was finished, he received the further
commission of decorating the library of the Senate in the Luxembourg Palace (1840-
1846), where, in the central dome, he painted the presentation of Dante to Homer and
the other great men of Greek and Roman antiquity, to symbolize the meeting of the
classical pagan with the modern Christian culture. There followed the ceiling of the
Galerie d'Apollon in the Louvre (1850-1851), the decorations in the Salon de la Paix of
the Htel de Ville of Paris (1852-1854, destroyed in 1871), and the Chapel of the Holy
Angels in the church of Saint-Sulpice (1854-1861). No other painter of the time was so
continuously employed in monumental work on the grandest scale, none was given
such opportunities to triumph in public on ceilings, domes, and walls. His murals,
exceptional achievements in a time when monumental painting languished, prove that
this nervously frail artist had the energy to compose on immense surfaces and the
mental vigor to invent images that dominate those walls. His superiority rested in part on
his mastery of color that provided both the emotional force and the formal structure of
his murals, in part on his command of expressive pantomime, of the movement, tension,
and clash of bodies. He was the most versatile of the painters of his time, including in
the range of his subjects battlefield and barricade, Faust and Hamlet, royal tiger and
odalisque.

Famous Paintings by Eugene


Delacroix
1. Woman with a parrot (1827, oil on canvas)
2. Women of Algiers in their apartment (1834, oil on canvas)
3. The bride of Abydos (1857, oil on canvas)
4. The crusaders into Constantinople (1840, oil on canvas)
5. The death of Sardanapalus (1827-28, oil on canvas)
6. The fanatics of Tangiers (1837-38, oil on canvas)
7. The massacre at Chios (1824, oil on canvas)
8. Portrait of George Sand (unfinished,1838, oil on canvas)
9. Self-portrait (1837, oil on canvas)
10. The abduction of Rebecca (1846, oil on canvas)

Gaspar David Friedrich


Caspar David Friedrich (5 September 1774
7 May 1840) was a 19th-century German
Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the
most important German artist of his generation.
He is best known for his mid-period allegorical landscapes
which typically feature contemplative figures silhouetted
against night skies, morning mists, barren trees or Gothic
ruins. His primary interest as an artist was the
contemplation of nature, and his often symbolic and anti-
classical work seeks to convey a subjective, emotional
response to the natural world. Friedrich's paintings
characteristically set a human presence in diminished
perspective amid expansive landscapes, reducing the figures to a scale that, according
to the art historian Christopher John Murray, directs "the viewer's gaze towards their
metaphysical dimension".
Friedrich was born in the Pomeranian town of Greifswald at the Baltic Sea, where he
began his studies in art as a young man. He studied in Copenhagen until 1798, before
settling in Dresden. He came of age during a period when, across Europe, a growing
disillusionment with materialistic society was giving rise to a new appreciation of
spirituality. This shift in ideals was often expressed through a reevaluation of the natural
world, as artists such as Friedrich, J. M. W. Turner (17751851) and John Constable
(17761837) sought to depict nature as a "divine creation, to be set against the artifice
of human civilization".

Friedrich's work brought him renown early in his career, and contemporaries such as
the French sculptor David d'Angers (17881856) spoke of him as a man who had
discovered "the tragedy of landscape".[5] Nevertheless, his work fell from favors
during his later years, and he died in obscurity, and in the words of the art historian
Philip B. Miller, "half mad".[6] As Germany moved towards modernization in the late
19th century, a new sense of urgency characterized its art, and Friedrich's
contemplative depictions of stillness came to be seen as the products of a bygone
age. The early 20th century brought a renewed appreciation of his work, beginning
in 1906 with an exhibition of thirty-two of his paintings and sculptures in Berlin. By
the 1920s his paintings had been discovered by the Expressionists, and in the 1930s
and early 1940s Surrealists and Existentialists frequently drew ideas from his work.
The rise of Nazism in the early 1930s again saw a resurgence in Friedrich's
popularity, but this was followed by a sharp decline as his paintings were, by
association with the Nazi movement, interpreted as having a nationalistic aspect.
was not until the late 1970s that Friedrich regained his reputation as an icon of the
German Romantic movement and a painter of international importance.

Famous Paintings by Caspar David


Friedrich

Friedrich was a prolific artist who produced more than 500 attributed works. In line with
the Romantic ideals of his time, he intended his paintings to function as pure aesthetic
statements, so he was cautious that the titles given to his work were not overly
descriptive or evocative. It is likely that some of today's more literal titles, such as The
Stages of Life, were not given by the artist himself, but were instead adopted during one
of the revivals of interest in Friedrich. Complications arise when dating Friedrich's work,
in part because he often did not directly name or date his canvases. He kept a carefully
detailed notebook on his output, however, which has been used by scholars to tie
paintings to their completion dates.
1. Old Heroes' Graves, (1812), 49.5 x 70.5 cm. Kunsthalle, Hamburg. A
dilapidated monument inscribed "Arminius" invokes the Germanic chieftain, a
symbol of nationalism, while the four tombs of fallen heroes are slightly ajar,
freeing their spirits for eternity. Two French
soldiers appear as small figures before a cave,
lower and deep in a grotto surrounded by rock, as
if farther from heaven.

2. The Cross Beside The Baltic (1815), 45 33.5 cm.


Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. This painting marked a move away by Friedrich
from depictions in broad daylight, and a return to nocturnal scenes, twilight and a
deeper poignancy of mood.

3. Moonrise Over the Sea (1822). 55 71 cm. Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin.


During the early 1820s, human figures appear with increasing frequency in his
paintings. Of this period, Linda Siegel writes, "the importance of human life,
particularly his family, now occupies his thoughts more and more, and his friends
appear as frequent subjects in his art.

4. Graveyard under Snow (1826). 31 25 cm. Museum der bildenden Knste,


Leipzig. Friedrich sketched memorial monuments and sculptures for
mausoleums, reflecting his obsession with death and the afterlife. He also
created some of the funerary art in Dresden's cemeteries.

5. The Oak Tree in the Snow (1829). 71 48 cm. Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin.
Friedrich was one of the first artists to portray winter landscapes as stark and
dead. His winter scenes are solemn and stillaccording to the art historian
Hermann Beenken, Friedrich painted winter scenes in which "no man has yet set
his foot".

6. The Stages of Life (Die Lebensstufen (1835). Museum der Bildenden


Knste, Leipzig. The Stages of Life is a meditation on the artist's own mortality,
depicting five ships at various distances from the shore. The foreground similarly
shows five figures at different stages of life.

7. The Giant Mountains (183035). 72 102 cm. Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin.


Friedrich sought not just to explore the blissful enjoyment of a beautiful view, as
in the classic conception, but rather to examine an instant of sublimity, a reunion
with the spiritual self through the contemplation of nature.

8. Seashore by Moonlight (183536). 134 169 cm. Kunsthalle, Hamburg. His


final "black painting", Seashore by Moonlight, is described by William Vaughan as
the "darkest of all his shorelines."
William Blake

William Blake (28 November 1757 12 August 1827) was an English


poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognized during his lifetime, Blake is now
considered a seminal figure in the history of the
poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. His
prophetic works have been said to form "what is
in proportion to its merits the least read body of
poetry in the English language". His visual artistry
led one contemporary art critic to proclaim him
"far and away the greatest artist Britain has ever
produced". In 2002, Blake was placed at number
38 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons.
Although he lived in London his entire life (except
for three years spent in Felpham), he produced a
diverse and symbolically rich uvre, which
embraced the imagination as "the body of God" or
"human existence itself".
Although Blake was considered mad by contemporaries for his idiosyncratic views, he is
held in high regard by later critics for his expressiveness and creativity, and for the
philosophical and mystical undercurrents within his work. His paintings and poetry have
been characterized as part of the Romantic movement and as "Pre-Romantic".
Reverent of the Bible but hostile to the Church of England (indeed, to almost all forms of
organized religion), Blake was influenced by the ideals and ambitions of the French and
American Revolutions.Though later he rejected many of these political beliefs, he
maintained an amiable relationship with the political activist Thomas Paine; he was also
influenced by thinkers such as Emanuel Swedenborg. Despite these known influences,
the singularity of Blake's work makes him difficult to classify. The 19th-century scholar
William Rossetti characterised him as a "glorious luminary", and "a man not forestalled
by predecessors, nor to be classed with contemporaries, nor to be replaced by known
or readily surmisable successors".
William Blake was born on 28 November 1757 at 28 Broad Street (now Broadwick St.)
in Soho, London. He was the third of seven children, two of whom died in infancy.
Blake's father, James, was a hosier. He attended school only long enough to learn
reading and writing, leaving at the age of ten, and was otherwise educated at home by
his mother Catherine Blake (ne Wright). Even though the Blakes were English
Dissenters, William was baptised on 11 December at St James's Church, Piccadilly,
London. The Bible was an early and profound influence on Blake, and remained a
source of inspiration throughout his life. Blake started engraving copies of drawings of
Greek antiquities purchased for him by his father, a practice that was preferred to actual
drawing. Within these drawings Blake found his first exposure to classical forms through
the work of Raphael, Michelangelo, Maarten van Heemskerck and Albrecht Drer. The
number of prints and bound books that James and Catherine were able to purchase for
young William suggests that the Blakes enjoyed, at least for a time, a comfortable
wealth. When William was ten years old, his parents knew enough of his headstrong
temperament that he was not sent to school but instead enrolled in drawing classes at
Pars's drawing school in the Strand.[19] He read avidly on subjects of his own choosing.
During this period, Blake made explorations into poetry; his early work displays
knowledge of Ben Jonson, Edmund Spenser, and the Psalms.

Famous Paintings by William


Blake

1. The Angels Hovering Over the Body of Christ in the Sepulchre, c1805

This watercolour with pen and ink is one of around 80 biblical topics commissioned by
Blakes patron Thomas Butts, a civil servant. It depicts the moment Mary Magdalene
visited the tomb of Jesus after the crucifixion and found two angels hovering where the
body had lain. Blakes imagery comes from the Old Testament book of Exodus, when
the Israelites make a mercy seat flanked by golden angels. The colours are so delicate
that the picture is almost monochrome. Aged eight, Blake told his mother he had seen a
tree full of angels bespangling every bough like stars. The vision occurred on
Peckham Rye, one of south-east Londons more ethereal green spaces.
2. The Ancient of Days, 1794
Blake loved this image, the frontispiece to Europe a Prophecy, and made several
copies. The old man is Urizen, in Blakes mythology the embodiment of reason and law
and a repressive, satanic force trying to bring uniformity to mankind. (In America a
Prophecy, Urizen is the evil god who rules during the Enlightenment.) Here he is seen
kneeling in a flaming discus surrounded by dark cloud, hand held over a compass,
apparently measuring the black void. A copy was commissioned from Blake during the
final days of his life. He worked on it, tinting the colours, as he was propped up on his
sickbed.
3. Adam Naming the Beasts, 1810
A youthful Adam, who closely resembles portraits of the curly-haired young Blake,
names the beasts after the fall. The serpent is entwined, in surprisingly friendly fashion,
around Adams left arm. He stares out, as if deep in thought. The animals, behind him,
graze in a pastoral landscape, as if still unscathed by mans transgression in the garden
of Eden. Above Adams head, an acorn indicates winter, but in Blakes mythology the
oak is also the druidical tree on which Christ was crucified. The fall of man, the serpent,
Adam and Eve are central to Blakes vision. This tempera-on-wood painting is in Pollok
House, Glasgow.
4. Newton, 1795-c1805
Art is the Tree of Life. Science is the Tree of Death, the visionary Blake wrote. He
condemned the scientific trio of Isaac Newton, John Locke and Francis Bacon as sterile
and materialistic. Here Newton the idea rather than a portrait sits on a rock covered
in algae, making calculations with a compass, like Urizen in Ancient of Days. He might
be at the bottom of the sea, or perhaps in a black hole. Now in the Tate, the picture is
one of a dozen of Blakes large colour prints. Eduardo Paolozzis vast 1995 bronze
sculpture, inspired by Blake, stands in front of the British Library, visible from Euston
Road.
5. Satan, c1789
Satan, who looks like a man tortured in hell, with gagging mouth and rolling eyes, is an
undated engraving after Henry Fuseli. The flames of hell, depicted by fine wavy lines,
show Blake experimenting with the oval-pointed echoppe needle, a French engraving
method of the 18th century. Satans flesh is made with flicks tiny incisions enmeshed
in the crosshatching in a dot-and-lozenge pattern. Blake was apprenticed to an
engraver aged 14. He is regarded a master of the medium, but in 2005 an art historian,
Mei-Ying Sung, claimed Blakes plates show evidence of endless toil, bungles and
repeated error.
6. Blakes Cottage, c1804-10
An angel floats above Blake in the garden of his thatched cottage in Felpham, Sussex,
his home from 1800 to 1803: Away to sweet Felpham, for Heaven is there/ The ladder
of Angels descends through the air, he wrote. Only two of the nine properties in which
he lived have survived. The Blake Society is fundraising to buy this house, where he is
reputed to have sat naked in the garden reading Paradise Lost to his wife. Among
campaigners is the novelist Philip Pullman, who names Blake as a key influence on His
Dark Materials. 520,000 has to be found by 28 November; see
blakesociety.org/blakecottage for ways to help.
7. The Ghost of a Flea, c1819-20
Obsessed with the supernatural, Blake claimed to have seen visions daily since his
boyhood. He and his astrologer friend John Varley used to try to summon spirits. This
monstrous creature appeared to Blake in a seance, stating that all fleas were inhabited
by the souls of men who were by nature bloodthirsty to excess. The scaly, vampire-
man creature is salivating over a cup for blood-drinking. The curtains between which he
stands add drama. Painted in Blakes own special tempera method mixed with gold leaf
on wood, it measures only 214 x 162mm. The art world of Blakes day assumed he was
mad.
8. Songs of Innocence and of Experience, 1789
Songs of Innocence and Experience is a double set of illustrated poems showing the
Two Contrary States of the Human Soul, the childlike and pure versus the angry and
disillusioned. The most famous song of innocence is The Lamb (Little Lamb who
made thee/ Dost thou know who made thee ?), its counterpart The Tyger (Tyger
Tyger burning bright). Blakes implied question is how could one God have created
both creatures, the one benign, the other ferocious? The Lamb was set to music by
Vaughan Williams (who claimed to hate the poem), John Tavener and Allen Ginsberg.
The Tyger has inspired songs by Joni Mitchell and Tangerine Dream.
9. The Dance of Albion, c1796
A naked youth, part Christ figure, part Vitruvian man, stands on a rock, casting aside
worldly shackles to greet the radiant dawn. Also known as Albion Rose or Glad Day, and
existing as drawing, engraving, colour printed etching and watercolour, this utopian
image dates back to 1780: The American Revolution was in mid-flow. Blake had been
caught up in a street mob in the anti-Catholic Gordon riots. Albion is the ancient name
for Britain and is central to Blakes own mythology, via his Four Zoas (characters called
Urizen, Tharmas, Luvah, Urthona), created by the fall of Albion, obscure to all but the
most hardened Blake fans.
10. Jerusalem, c1804
The poem that opens And did those feet in ancient time appeared in the preface to
Blakes epic poem Milton. A radical Christian, Blake may be attacking orthodoxy or
industry with the phrase dark Satanic Mills, thought in part to refer to the Albion flour
mills in Lambeth, which burned down spectacularly in 1791. Of the countless references
in popular culture, the film Chariots of Fire wins for having borrowed as its title the
poems most uplifting phrase. Jerusalem is also Blakes last prophetic book. On its
frontispiece, a figure carrying a mysterious orb invites us through a door, as if into the
poem, or towards death itself.