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a limit; that means that the partial sums become closer and closer to a given number when the

number of their terms increases. More precisely, a series converges, if there exists a number

L such that for any arbitrarily small positive number , there is a (sufficiently

large) integer N such that for all n N,

S nL

Theorems:

lim an 0

If n then our series will diverge

lim an=0

If series converges then n

1. If series an is absolutely convergent and its value is s then any reaarrangment of series

an will also have a value of s.

Example:

Determine if the following series is convergent or divergent. If it converges determine its value

n

n use the general term in the sequence of partial sums, S n = n so we get =

n=1 i=1

n(n+1) n(n+1) +1

, we need see if the sequence of sums=lim , replcae n with = =

2 n 2 2

Since limit of series equal infinity than the series also diverges

Another Example:

Determine if the following series converges or diverges. If it converges determine its

sum

(1)n , write down the first few partial sums

n=1

S 0=1

S 1=11=0

S 2=11+1=1

S 3=11+ 11=0

Take a limit of S n which does not exist, so our series are diverges

There is only going to be one type of series where we will need to determine this formula

and the process in that case is not too bad

There are two ways to find if our series is convergies or diverges are ratio and root test.

As a result, I picked ratio test because I dont want you/student to be confused about many

different and similar tests, so let me talk about it.

Ratio Test

First of all,

1. If r < 1, then the series converges

2. If r > 1, then the series diverges

3. If r = 1, the ratio test is inconclusive

In mathematics, the ratio test is a test (or "criterion") for the convergence of a series where

each term is a real or complex number and an is nonzero when n is large. The test was first

published by Jean le Rond d'Alembert and is sometimes known as d'Alembert's ratio test or as

the Cauchy ratio test

I will provide you only with one example, but very complicated example that helps oyu to

understand the rest of problems. This problem was taking from Wikipedia, and by the way, do

not mind to use Wikipedia. I know that your professor might hate it, but it is not rear when only

Wikipedia might help you my dear reader.

Example:

n

en , so put this into ratio test which means take a limit

n=1

||

e n+1

lim

n | |

an+1

an

= Lopita l ' sRule=lim

n

n+ 1

e

n

=eit is greater than1

So we can apply second rule and we will get that the series is diverges

1

Nevertheless, if we flip it over our series will converges because isless than 1

e

However, if you still interesting in what root test is than I would like to represent some

information about it a spatial for future Albert Einstein. So, root test is same as integral test and

the series can be compared to integral to establish convergence of divergence.

Alternating series test

In mathematical analysis, the alternating series test is the method used to prove that

an alternating series with terms that decrease in absolute value is a convergent series. The test

was used by Gottfried Leibniz and is sometimes known as Leibniz's test, Leibniz's rule, or

the Leibniz criterion do not mix it with The Integral Test and of course we will talk about it little

bit latter by the end of the material just for an lighting understanding.

lim bn=0

1. n or

Example:

cos ( n )

n

n

, so first of all we should know that cos ( n ) = (1) . As a result we get

n=2

(1)n 1

n , break it a parts and assume that bn = n . Know as we can see we can apply

n=2

lim bn=0

first rule n , so

lim 1 1 1 1

lim bn= n

=0 , since we know that is greater than we can write down

n n 2 2+1 3

1 1

it as bn = n greater than n+1 its equal bn+ 1

The Integral Test

The method used to prove that the harmonic series diverges lead to an alternate

approach to the question of convergence called the Integral Test that very useful when we work

with curves. The fact that infinite series are sums and that integral are limits of sums suggests a

connection between series and integrals. The Integral Test exploits this connection.(pg. 647,

Calculus, William Briggs, Lyle Cochran, Bernard Gillett)

Here is a theorem of the Integral Test:

f is a continuous, positive, decreasing function, for x greater or equal 1, and

infinity f ( x)dx either both converge or both diverge. In the case of convergence, the value of

the integral is not, in general, equal to the value of the series.

Example:

Determine whether the following series converge

1 1

4 k 7 , first of all we need to take integral = 4 k 7 dx , imagine it as a limit

k=4 4

b

1 4 x 7b4

= blim

4 4 k 7

dx , use basic integration = lim , plug our numbers in x

b

4 4 7

( 4 7 ) lim (3)

and we will get = )) = b , using basic knowledge of =

lim

b

By applying Integral Test theorem we can conclude that the integral diverges the series

also diverges

Work Cited

William Briggs, Lyle Cochran, Bernard Gillett, Calculus, 2011, pg. 636, pg. 657, pg. 666.

http://web.mit.edu/kayla/www/calc/12-series-convergence-tests.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convergent_series

http://web.mit.edu/kayla/www/calc/12-series-convergence-tests.pdf

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