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TEACHING ENGLISH VOCABULARY TO YOUNG LEARNERS

USING STORY TELLING TECHNIQUE


(A Case Study at the Fifth Grade Students of SD Kebon Sari 1 Cimahi)

SUTINI
Email: dermayu_sweety@yahoo.com

English Education Study Program Language and Arts Department of


STKIP Siliwangi Bandung

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this research entitled Teaching English Vocabulary to Young Learners Using Story
Telling Technique (A Case Study at the Fifth Grade Students of SD Kebon Sari 1 Cimahi) were to
elaborate the students responses toward the use of storytelling technique in teaching vocabulary. In this
research the writer used qualitative research method and the subjects of this research was the fifth grade
students of SD Kebon sari 1 Cimahi consisted of 30 students. The data analysis of this research were
conducted with some stages. The first stage, teaching vocabulary using story telling technique for students
and the second stage, students responses toward the use of storytelling technique in teaching vocabulary.
To get the data, the writer used writing test. This test should be completed by the subject in order to find
out the errors in their writing. In conducting this research, the writer did the following steps: developing the
research instrument (written test), selecting the sample of population, administering individual test to the
students and concluding the result of the study. The findings showed that using story telling technique in
teaching vocabulary at the fifth grade students of SD Kebonsari 1 Cimahi was conducted in two parts of
activities. The first part was preparation activity and the second one was follow-up activity. The results in
this research showed that: in the first observation the students responses were toward telling vocabulary
using stories was 90% and in the second interview the students responses positively toward the use of
storytelling.

Keywords: Teaching Vocabulary, Young Learners, Story Telling Technique

A. Background textbooks or when given by teachers during


In the recent years, English becomes a classroom lessons. From the explanations above,
compulsory subject in elementary school. It has we can conclude that learning vocabulary is
been taught from the first year to sixth year. important as the basic need to encounter a new
Even though students realize the importance of language.
vocabulary when learning language, most of Vocabulary is taught in many different ways
them learn vocabulary passively due to several in Indonesia and there are many kinds of
factors. First, they consider the teacher's techniques to teach them to young learners such
explanations for meaning or definition, as teaching vocabulary by using story telling
pronunciation, spelling and grammatical with picture, songs, games, cartoon video etc.
functions were boring. In this case, language The writer is interested in doing research on
learners have nothing to do in a vocabulary the technique used in teaching vocabulary to
learning section but to listen to their teacher. young learners. This research is important
Second, students only think of vocabulary because it concerns technique used to teach
learning as knowing the primary meaning of vocabulary to young learners. This research
new words. Third, students usually only acquire described the teaching technique used in the fifth
new vocabulary through new words in their grade students of Kebon Sari 1 Cimahi in

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teaching vocabulary. That is why the teacher has not mean only translating or giving meaning
to find a kind of technique that can be used to directly words with dictionary but also
teach vocabulary in a fun way. People also giving meaning of the words.
believe if the students can perceive English as a
fun subject, it is easy for them to absorb the 3. Types of Vocabulary
material. According to Brown (2011:11), there are
some types of vocabulary they are:
B. Theoretical Foundation a. Reading vocabulary.
1. Teaching Approach, Method, Technique, A persons reading vocabulary is all the
and Strategy words he or she can recognize when reading.
According to Donald (1985:2) Teaching is b. Listening vocabulary
nothing more than the simple application of the A person listening vocabulary is all the
correct reinforces so that appropriate learner words he or she can recognize when listening to
behaviors are elicited. Moreover, approach speech. This vocabulary is aided in size by
according to Brown (2001:16) is theoretically context and tone of voice.
well informed positions and beliefs about the c. Writing vocabulary
nature of language, the nature of language A person writing vocabulary is all the words
learning and the applicability of both to he or she can employ in writing. Contrary to the
pedagogical settings. Regarding method, he previous two vocabulary types, the writing
stated that vocabulary is stimulated by its user.
Method is a generalized of classroom d. Speaking vocabulary
specifications for accomplishing linguistic A person speaking vocabulary is all the
objectives. Method tend to be concerned words he or she can use in speech. Duo to the
primarily with teacher and student roles and spontaneous nature of the speaking vocabulary,
behavior and secondarily with such features as words are often misused- though slight and
linguistic and subject matter objectives, unintentional- may be compensated by facial
sequencing and materials. expressions, tone of voice, or hand gestures.
While technique, he defined it as: Any of a
wide variety of exercises, activities, or tasks 4. The Characteristics of Young Learners
used in the language classroom for realizing Cameron (2001:1) stated that children have a
lesson objectives. Techniques are the specific number of characteristic that teachers of English
activities manifested in the classroom that were need to keep in mind when they are planning to
consistent with a method and therefore were in set up activities. They are high-motivated,
harmony with an approach as well. enthusiastic and lively learners. On the other
Furthermore, about strategy, Oxford hand, they do not find it easy to use language to
(1990:1) argued Strategies are especially talk about something because they do not have
important for language learning because they are the same access as the older learners to reach
tool for active, self-directed involvement, which meanings (Cameron, 2001:1).
is essential for developing communicative Teachers are the one who can help them
competence. maximizing their ability to acquire the given
knowledge.
2. The Importance of Teaching Vocabulary
According to Cameron (2001:73) 5. Using Story Telling Technique in
Vocabulary is about learning words, children Teaching-Learning Process
are not only expected to know the word but also It is very important for teacher knowing the
they have to know what the meaning of that technique of storytelling. Teacher needs to know
word. the following technique in order to make the
Vocabulary is very important in learning story nice to listen. The procedure of using
English we cannot communicate and write storytelling is fairly simple. According to
better and if vocabulary our down. It does Brewster (2002: 196) the techniques are as
follows:

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a. If students are unfamiliar with storytelling, 1995:63). In this research the sample was the
begin with short sessions which do not entire population.
demand too much from them.
b. If possible, have younger children to sit on 4. Research Data Collection
the floor around you, making sure everyone a. Observation
can see you and the illustrations and can hear This study used observation to investigate in the
you clearly. teaching of English, especially in activities that
c. Read slowly and clearly. teacher used in teaching by using stories at inclusive
d. Use gestures, mime, facial gestures to help classroom in the natural setting. Thus, the researcher
could know teachers strategies in the setting.
convey the meaning. In this study, the researcher used pre-
e. Vary the pace, tone and volume of your observation and then observation. The observation
voice. was carried out to find out what problems occurred in
f. Pause where appropriate to add dramatic teaching of special needs students. Then, after
effect or to give children time to relate what knowing the problem in that field, the researcher
they hear to what they see, and to assimilate compiled the proposal and started the observation.
details in the illustrations. The teaching process was recorded without having a
g. Disguise your voice for the different participation in teaching.
characters as much as you can to signal when b. Document Analysis
different characters are speaking and help This study used document analysis as the
convey meaning. instrument in order to find out the insight of
h. Make sound effects where possible. relevant information about the research question.
Document analysis could be the real evidence of
Based on the statement above, the technique the activities which were given to the students.
of storytelling could run effectively, especially In this study, documents used are lesson plans
in teaching vocabulary to young learners. and syllabus that were asked to complete the
data.
C. Research Methodology c. Interview
1. Research Method The interview in this study was addressed to
This study employed qualitative method. all students to discover their response regarding
Actually, it is a way to gain insights through the story telling technique. This was also
discovering meanings by improving our conducted to confirm the students behavior in
comprehension of the whole. Qualitative the research.
research explores the richness, depth, and
complexity of phenomena. (McMillan & 5. Research Data Analysis
Schumacher, 2001:395). In analyzing the collected data, the writer
2. Research Instrument analyzed each research instruments: observation,
The instruments used for gathering the data document analysis, and interview process.
were; observation, document analysis, and Firstly, all of the observation data were written
interview. into the field note and observation sheet, but
3. Research Population and Sample only the selected data were analyzed. Secondly,
According to Burns (1995:62) Population to fully understand situation from many aspects
is an entire group of people or objects or events and to get more data, there were some
which all have at least one characteristic in documents used as the source data in this study
common, and must be defined specially and namely lesson plans, syllabus, observation
unambiguously. The population of this research
sheets, teachers field notes, and the result of the
was the Fifth Grade students of SD Kebon Sari 1 students work. Lastly, the stages in analyzing
Cimahi which consisted of 30 students. the data from interview were the same as the
A sample is any parts of population
analyzing the data from observation. First, the
regardless of whether it is representative or not. data from tape recorder were transcribed so that
Research sample is part of population that the data could be categorization and the
becomes the object of the study (Burns, additional information of the data was

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eliminated. The last step was to interpret the data to all students. While in the follow
follow-up activity, it
into some main issues based on the research was found that the combination of the stories
question of this study. telling with a picture activity hardly occurred in
teaching vocabulary. It might be because there
6. Research Procedures were many aspects needed by this activity.
In conducting
nducting this research, some stages In the second observation it was found that
were applied in this study. The stages were as reading stories was the preparation activity that
follows: mostly used by the teacher. The preparation
1. Finding out some theories and concepts activity might
ight be used as bridging and it was
related to the research: young learners aimed to make students get more familiar with
characteristics, teaching vocabulary to young the story. While in the follow-up
follow activity, it was
learners,
s, and storytelling technique. found that telling story with picture. This
2. Selecting students from SD of Kebon Sari 1 activity divided into two activities, there were
Cimahi as participants. modeling activities and practicing
practi activities.
3. Preparing observation sheet and questions for The first and the second observation were
the interview. administered to gather the information about
4. Selecting stories as teaching vocabulary students responses telling vocabulary in stories
technique to be given to the students. and students responses telling story with
5. Observing students s progress in learning. picture. There were two closed questions which
6. Evaluating students responses. were delivered to the students.
7. Interviewing students to elaborate their In giving the percentage to the students
response and to confirm what actually responses, the writer counted the responses
happened. through formula as follow:
follow
8. Analyzing the obtained data by referring to In calculating the data, the writer used
theories.
formula: P = (Sudijono, 2009:43)
D. The Research Findings P = percentage of the students responses
a. Using Story Telling Technique in Teaching f = the number of responses
Vocabulary n = the number of student
In implementing story telling in teaching
vocabulary, the teacher divided the activities
10%
into parts. The first part was preparation activity
and the second part was follow-upup activity. 90% like don't like
The table below shows the illustration of the
activities.

Table 1. The Activities in Two Observations


Part of Observation 1 Observation 2 Figure 1. The Result of the Observation.
activities (Mei 22, 2012) (Mei 23, 2012)
.
Preparation Telling Story Reading Stories
Telling
Based on the chart, it showed that 90% of
Follow-up vocabulary in Telling story liked Students Responses toward Telling
Stories vocabulary in Stories and Telling story
story. There
were 10% of students who stated that they did
The first part was preparation activity and not like in the story.
the second part was follow-up up activity. These
activities were divided into two observations. In b. Students Responses toward Teaching
the first observation found that the preparation Vocabulary Using Story Telling
activity employed telling story. In this activity, The first asked whether English lesson
the teacher introduced the stories by telling the was fun or not. All students (100%) gave
topic and reading whole stories by using pictures positive answer; they agreed that English
E was a
fun lesson. Meanwhile, on the second question,

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students gave varied responses as could be seen Table 3. Students Responses toward the Use of
on the following chart. Storytelling in Helping them to Memorize the
Vocabulary
Responses
10% Like Question
Yes No
Don't Like
90% By
By storytelling, English
English 66.67% 33.33%
vocabulary was easy

Figure 2.. The Result of the Interview. The table 4.6 showed that 33.33% of
students perceived that English vocabulary was
The chart presented that 90% of students not easy to be remembered by storytelling.
were interested in learning by using story telling. However, the use of this method could motivate
Many of them liked story telling because it them to learn.
could create fun atmosphere. There were Based on the result of interview, 100% or all
86.67% of students who stated story telling as a students stated that they were more motivated to
fun technique, table 4.5
.5 shows the percentage of learn English by storytelling.
those students responses. Then, the last question observed whether
Table 2. Students Responses toward the Use of students liked to be involved in the story or not.
Storytelling in English Lesson The following chart presents
prese the result.
Responses
Question
Yes No
By storytelling, learning 86.67%
86.67% 13.33
% 46,67% 53,33%
English vocabulary was Like
fun Don't Like
Furthermore, almost all of the students
responded that story telling could make the
process of learning easier. It could be seen from
the chart of the interview analysis result that Figure 4. Students Responses on Their Interest
showed students responses on the use of the in Taking Part in the Story.
Story
method.
The chart presented that 53.33% of students
liked to take part in the story. On the contrary,
16,67% there were 46.67% of students who stated that
Easier they did not like to be involved in the story.
83,33% In giving the percentage to the students
Not Easier
responses, the writer counted the responses
through formula as follow:
P=
Figure 3 Students Responses on the Use of P = percentage of the students responses
Story Telling toward the Difficulty in f = the number of responses
Learning English n = the numberer of students

According to the chart, 83.33% of the 1. Discussion


students perceived that by storytelling learning There were two activities in two
English vocabulary become easier. On the other observations: those were preparation activity and
side, 16.67% of students responde
responded that the follow-up
up activity. In the first observation, the
method could not help them in reducing the preparation activity employed telling story. The
difficult in learning English. teacher introduced the stories by telling the topic
and reading whole stories by using pictures to all

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students. While follow-up activity employed Harmer, J. (2001). The Practice of English
telling vocabulary in stories. Teaching (3rd edition). London:
In the second observation, the preparation Longman.
activity employed reading story. It was aimed to Orlich, Donald C, et.al. (1985). Teaching
make students get more familiar with the story. Strategies (A Guide To Better
This activity did not make students bored, and Instruction)
all the students enjoyed the activity. McMillan, James H & Sally Schumacher.
In interviewing process, there were seven (2001). Research in Education (A
results from the questionnaire about students Conceptual Introduction). New York:
responses toward the use of storytelling in Addison Wesley Longman Inc.
teaching English vocabulary. Brewster, J. & G Ellis (2002). The Primary
E. Conclusion And Suggestion English Teachers Guide. Penguin nglish
This chapter presents a brief summary of the : Harmondsworth.
result of research. The writer would like to draw
some conclusions and suggestions that may be
useful for the next research.
1. Conclusions
a. Using story telling in teaching vocabulary at
the fifth grade students of Elementary School
Kebonsari 1 Cimahi was conducted in two parts
of activities. The first part was preparation
activity and the second part was follow-up
activity. In the second observation it was found
that reading stories was the preparation activity
that mostly used by the teacher.
b. The results of the interview showed that the
students responded positively toward the use of
storytelling.
2. Suggestion
a. The teacher should present the language in an
enjoyable, relaxed and understandable way.
b. The students are hoped not to be shy in acting
out their role.
c. The students are hoped to be active and
creative in enriching their vocabularies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cameron, Lynne. (2001). Teaching Languages


to Young Learners. New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Brown, H. Douglas. (1987). Principles of
language Learning and Teaching. New
Jersey: Prentice hall
Brown, H. Douglas. (2001). Principles of
language learning and teaching. New
Jersey: Prentice hall.