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THE PLACE OF COAL IN THE NIGERIAN ELECTRICITY

GENERATION SCHEME

BY
A. S. SAMBO
DIRECTOR-GENERAL,
ENERGY COMMISSION OF NIGERIA, ABUJA

ABSTRACT

This paper covers the coal resources in various locations in Nigeria including their type,
reserves and other important technical details. Electricity generation using coal, across the
world, and information on countries that use it as their major source of electricity generation is
also provided. The methods of converting coal to electricity and technologies that can be used to
obtain a cleaner energy from coal are discussed. The economic assessment of generating
electricity using various sources is also highlighted.

INTRODUCTION

Access to energy, and specifically briquettes can be used for cooking. The total
electricity, is a driving force behind global hard coal production in the year 2006
economic and social development. was 5370 Mt, an 8.8 % increase over the
Dependable and affordable access to previous year and 92% growth over the past
electricity is essential for improving public 25 years. While the total global brown
health, providing modern information and coal/lignite production in 2006 was 914 Mt
education services, and saving people from with an annual growth of 0.9%.Global coal
subsistence tasks, such as gathering production is expected to reach 7 Bt in 2030
firewood. with China accounting for about half of
Coal has played this important role for the increase. Steam coal production is
centuries not only providing electricity, projected to have reached around 5.2 Bt,
but also as an essential fuel for steel and coking coal 624 Mt and brown coal 1.2 Bt
cement production, and other industrial by 2030. The world currently consumes over
activities. Even at the domestic front, instead 4050 Mt of coal annually. As at 2005, coal
of using firewood to cook, smokeless coal provides 25% of global primary energy

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needs, oil 35%, Gas 21%, combustible open cast mine at Obwetti, Enugu. It was
renewable 10%, Nuclear 6%, Hydro 2% and used for supplies to Marine Department to
others 1%. Fig.1 shows the world top ten power stream boats, Nigerian Railway
hard coal producing countries as at 2006. Corporation (NRC), Nkalagu Cement works,
Coal was first discovered in Nigeria in 1909. National Electric Power Authority and
Coal Production commenced in 1916 from household.

Countries Production
(Mt)
PR China 2482
USA 990
India 427
Australia 309
South Africa 244
Russia 233
Indonesia 169
Poland 95
Kazakhstan 92
Colombia 64

Table 1.0: World Top Ten (10) Hard Coal Producers


coalmines but the NCC Amendment Act
Coal resources in Nigeria (26) of 1998 transformed it to a regulatory
body for the coal mining industries.
Nigeria is a country that is blessed with a
variety of resources that can be used to Sub-bituminous coal is the major type found
generate electricity. This includes oil & gas, in Nigeria. It is important as fuel because it
coal, hydropower, solar energy, wind and burns slowly and produces a lot of heat. The
biomass. Presently, exploration and coal resources in Nigeria are estimated to be
exploitation of coal deposits in Nigeria have in excess of 2.5 billion tones. but there is
been intensified with a view to enhance the other one too, lignite, which is the immature
energy security of the country. coal. That one has not been fortified. It has a
very large deposit at the same time.
Coal mining in Nigeria began in 1916. The Peak annual production of some 1 million
Nigerian Coal Corporation (NCC) was tonnes was achieved in the mid-1960s, until
responsible for most of the existing civil war disrupted the mining operations.

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The industrys production further declined
following the discovery of oil in Nigeria.
Coal deposit is found in thirteen state of the
federation namely; Adamawa, Anambra,
Bauchi, Benue, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi,
Edo, Enugu, Gombe, Imo, Kogi, Kwara,
Nassarawa, Ondo and Plateau states. The
majority of coal mining industry was based
around Enugu city. Generally the seams in
the Enugu area are thin by South African
standards, (1.2 to 1.8 meters thick) although
the coal qualities are reported in a variety of
bases (calorific value on a dry ash free basis
of 27.5 MJ/kg, volatile content of some
38%, ash content of some 8% and sulphur
content of less than 1%).

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Table 2.0: Existing Coal Mine Sites With Reserves In Nigeria
S/N Mine Location State Type of Coal Estimated Proven Reserve Borehole Coal Outcorp Depth Mining
Reserve (Mil. ton) (mil. ton) Records And Seam Of coal Methods
Thickness (M) (M)
1 Okpara mine Enugu Sub- bituminous 100 24 20 Many (1.5m) 180 Underground
2 Onyeama mine Enugu Sub- bituminous 150 40 Many Many (1.5m) 180 Underground
3 Ihioma Imo Lignite 40 N.A Nil Many 20-80 Open Cast
4 Ogboyoga Kogi Sub-Bituminous 427 107 31 17(0.0-2.3m) 20-100 Open Cast &
Underground
5 Ogwashi Azagba Delta Lignite 250 63 7 4(3.5m) 15-100 Open Cast &
Obomkpa Underground
6 Ezimo Enugu Sub- Bituminous 156 56 4 10(0.6-2.0m) 30-45 Open Cast &
Underground
7 Inyi Enugu Sub Bituminous 50 20 4 (0.9-2.0m) 25-78 Open Cast &
Underground
8 Lafia/Obi Nassarawa Bituminous 156 21.42 123 (1-3m) 80 Underground
(Cokable)
9 Oba/Nnewi Anambra Lignite 30 N.A 2 14(0.3-4.5m) 18-38 Underground
10 Afikpo/Okigwe Ebonyi/Imo Sub- Bituminous 50 N.A Nil N.A 20-100 Underground
11 Amasiodo Enugu Bituminous 1000 N.A 3 N.A 563 Underground
12 Okaba Kogi Sub Bituminous 75 57 Many (0.8-2.3m) 20-100 Underground
13 Owukpa Benue Sub Bituminous 75 57 Many (0.8-2.3m) 20-100 Open Cast &
Underground
14 Ogugu/Awgu Enugu Sub Bituminous N.A N.A Nil N.A. N.A. Open Cast &
Underground
15 Afuji Edo Sub- Bituminous N.A N.A Nil N.A. N.A. Underground
16 Ute Ondo Sub Bituminous N.A N.A Nil N.A. N.A. Underground
17 Doho Gombe Sub Bituminous N.A N.A Nil N.A. N.A. Underground
18 Kurumu Gombe Sub Bituminous N.A N.A Nil N.A. N.A. Underground
19 Lamja Adamawa Sub Bituminous N.A N.A Nil N.A. N.A Underground
20 Garin maigungu Bauchi Sub Bituminous N.A N.A Nil N.A. N.A. Underground
21 Gindi Akwati Plateau Sub Bituminous N.A N.A Nil N.A. N.A. Underground
22 Jamato koji Kwara Sub Bituminous N.A N.A Nil N.A. N.A. Underground

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Global Use of Coal for Electricity
Generation
one region unlike Oil & Gas the top
It has been estimated that there are
ten coal producers are China, USA,
over 984 billion tonnes of proven coal
India, Australia, South Africa, Russia,
reserves worldwide. At current
Indonesia, Poland, Kazakhstan and
production levels, proven coal reserves
Colombia. As at the year 2005 coal
are estimated to last 147 years. In
generate 40% of worlds electricity.
contrast, proven oil and gas reserves
Fig 1.0 shows the chart of global
are equivalent to around 41 and 63
electricity generation by fuel type
years respectively at current
while fig 2.0 shows the projection for
production levels. The largest coal
the year 2030.
producing countries are not confined to

Total World Electricity Generation (%by fuel- 2005)

Other*
Hydro 2%
16%

Coal
40%
Nuclear
15%

Gas Oil
20% 7%

*Others includes geothermal,solar,wind,combustible renewables & waste

Fig. 1.0: Total World Electricity Generation


by fuel type for the year 2005

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T otal W orld Electricity G eneration (% by fuel, projected
to 2030)

N uclear
9%
H ydro
1 3% C oal
38%
O ther*
6%
O il
4%

G as
30%
*O ther Inclu des geotherm al, solar, wind, com bustible renewables
& waste

Fig 2.0: Total World Electricity Generation by fuel type projected to 2030

There are several developing and


developed countries that use coal to
generate electricity.

For instance the following are


countries with their various percentage
of electricity generation using coal.
Poland 93%, South Africa 93%*,
Australia 80%, China 78%, Israel
71%*, Kazakhstan 70%*, India 69%*,
Morocco 69%, Czech republic 59%,
Greece 58%, USA 50%, and Germany
47%*. Fig 3.0 shows the chart of
some countries that are using coal to
generate electricity.

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100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

an

y
lic
nd

co
lia

e
na

a
el

SA
a

an
di

ec
ric

ra

ub
ra

st

oc
la

hi

In

m
re
Af

Is

kh
Po

st

ep
or

er
G
Au

za
S.

G
Ka
P

ch
ze
C
Fig. 3.0: Some Selected Countries that use
Coal to Generate Electricity

Method of converting coal to


electricity
turbine, transforming heat energy from
The pulverizer mills the coal into a fine burning coal into mechanical energy
powder and is blown into the boiler by pushing the turbine blades causing
with hot air. As a powder, the coal has the turbine shaft to rotate at high
a large surface area and the mixture speed. The spinning turbine is used to
with hot air will help the coal burn power a generator, a machine that turns
more efficiently. In these pulverized mechanical energy into electric energy.
coal combustion (PCC) systems, the This happens when magnets inside a
powdered coal is burnt at a very high copper coil in the generator spin
temperature. This provides the heat rapidly. A condenser cools the steam
that is used to produce superheated moving through the turbine. As the
steam from the water in the tube lining steam is condensed, it turns back into
the boiler. Steam released from the water and is returned into the boiler to
boiler powers an engine called a repeat the cycle once again.

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Fig. 4.0: Typical Method of Converting Coal to Electricity

CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY technologies from the Clean Coal


Technology program are 30-to-40%
Clean Coal Technologies are
higher than from conventional coal
technologies designed to enhance both
plants.
the efficiency and the environmental
acceptability of coal extraction, CCT programmes are being vigorously
preparation and use. Among other pursued by many countries like USA,
aspects, they meet various regulations Australia, India, China with hundreds
covering emissions, effluents, and of millions of dollars being spent
residues. A basic approach to the annually on developments in
cleaner use of coal is to reduce utilization techniques. The following
emissions by reducing the formation of are technologies in use to obtain a
pollutants such as NOx, SOx and/or cleaner energy from coal.
cleaning the flue gases after
Pulverized Fuel (PF) Combustion
combustion. A second alternative is to
develop more thermally efficient Pulverized Fuel (PF) combustion is the

systems so that less coal is used to most widely used method for burning

generate the same amount of power, coal for power generation. Emissions

together with improved techniques for from PF combustion can be reduced by

flue gas cleaning, for effluent post-combustion CCTs. Electrostatic

treatment and for re-use or disposal of Precipitators and/or fabric filters can

residues. Improved operating remove more than 99% of fly ash from

efficiencies of new power generation flue gases. Flue Gas Desulphurization

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(FGD) methods can remove 90-97% of poor quality coals can be as low as
the oxides of sulphur (SOx) from flue 30%. A commonly used assumption
gases, and can convert it into gypsum for the average efficiency of large
for use in the building trade. Low-NOx existing plants with sub critical steam
burners allow coal-fired plants to burning somewhat higher quality coals,
reduce nitrogen oxide emissions by up is that it is in the region of 35-36%.
to 40%. Coupled with re-burning New plants, however, with
techniques NOx can be reduced 70% supercritical steam can now achieve
and selective catalytic reduction can overall thermal efficiencies in the 43-
clean up 90% of NOx emissions. 45% range.
The overall thermal efficiency of some
older, smaller units burning, possibly,

Fig. 5.0: A Schematic Diagram of a Typical Fluidised Bed Coal Power Plant

Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC) added with the coal. They can also use
a wider range of fuels than PF
Fluidised bed combustion is a method
combustion.
of burning coal in a bed of heated
particles suspended in a gas flow. The By elevating pressures within a bed, a
advantages of fluidised beds are they high-pressure gas stream can be used
produce less NOx in the outlet gas, to drive a gas turbine, generating
because of lower combustion electricity. Fluidised bed combustion
temperatures, and they produce less technologies include atmospheric
SOx when limestone is continuously pressure fluidized bed combustion in

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both bubbling (BFBC) and circulating bed (CFBCs). The efficiency of most
(CFBC) beds, pressurized fluidized fluidized beds used for power
bed combustion (PFBC), whilst generation is similar to that of
pressurized circulating fluidized bed conventional plant. However, use of
combustion (PCFBC) is being this technology has been stimulated by
demonstrated. its better environmental performance
when utilising lower grade fuels.
Atmospheric pressure fluidised beds
are commercially available now as two Pressurized fluidized beds can achieve
types, bubbling-bed (known as efficiencies of 45%. As with PF plants,
Atmospheric Fluidised Bed employing higher steam conditions
Combustion - AFBCs) and circulating- would further boost efficiency

Fig. 6.0: Pressurized Fluidised Bed Combined Cycle Coal Power Plant

Integrated Coal Gasification systems give increased efficiencies by


Combined Cycle (IGCC)
using waste heat from the product gas
An alternative to coal combustion is to produce steam to drive a steam
coal gasification. When coal is brought turbine, in addition to a gas turbine.
into contact with steam and oxygen,
Using IGCC, more of the power comes
thermochemical reactions produce a
from the gas turbine. Typically 60-
fuel gas, largely carbon monoxide and
70% of the power comes from the gas
hydrogen, which when combusted can
turbine with IGCC.
be used to power gas turbines. These

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The fundamental advantages of IGCC sensible heat from the syngas as
are: possible before cleanup.
Reduced gasifier size, and hence
The disadvantage of IGCC is that
cost;
controlling and operating the plant is
The heating value of the cooled
more like running a complex chemical
and purified syngas is higher;
plant than a traditional power station
The syngas volume is about half
that for an air blown unit for the Existing commercial systems achieve

same amount of coal gasification efficiencies close to 45%. With recent

energy, thus gas handling and advances in gas turbine technologies

cleanup requires smaller units; these systems are now capable of

Smaller heat exchangers are reaching above 50%.

required to recover as much of the

Fig. 7.0: Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plant

The Role of Coal in the National viable energy resources for sustainable
Energy Policy & National Energy national development and their
Master Plan
utilization to foster regional and
The fundamental principle of the international cooperation. The NEP,
National Energy Policy (NEP) is the approved by Government in April
optimal utilization of the nation's 2003, provides a powerful set of

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recommendations to address the the National Energy Policy. NEM is a
nations energy challenges. blueprint for the sustainable
development, supply and utilization of
The translation of the provisions of the
the various sources of energy available
NEP into a long-term National Energy
within the country, and for the use of
Masterplan (NEM), for
these resources in international trade
implementation over the period 2007
and co-operation.
2030 (24 years) is in keeping with
Article 5(d) of Decree No. 62 of 1979. Policies
This decree empowers the Energy i. The nation shall pursue vigorously
Commission of Nigeria (ECN) to a comprehensive programme of
prepare, after consultation with such resuscitation of the coal industry.
agencies of government whose ii. Extensive exploration activities to
functions relate to the field of energy maintain a high level of coal reserves
development or supply as the shall be carried out.
Commission considers appropriate, iii. Private sector as well as indigenous
periodic Masterplans for the balanced participation in the coal industry shall
and coordinated development of be actively promoted.
energy in Nigeria. iv. The exploitation and utilization of
the coal reserves shall be done in an
The National Energy Master Plan
environmentally acceptable manner.
(NEM) directly responds to the
challenges noted in the National Objectives
Energy Policy and puts the
i. To promote production of coal for
governments commitment to this
export
policy into action. It seeks to achieve
ii. To promote effective utilization of
the goals of the NEP by converting the
coal for complementing the nations
strategies to actionable programmes,
energy needs and as industrial
activities and projects. The NEM has
feedstock.
been developed to capture all factors
iii. To attract increased investment
germane to the balanced development
into, and promote indigenous
of the energy sector. It also specifies
participation in the coal industry.
procedures for implementation,
iv. To utilize coal in meeting the
monitoring and evaluation of the level
critical national need of providing a
of compliance with the objectives of

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viable alternative to fuelwood in order Re-introducing the use of coal for
to conserve our forests. power generation.
v. To minimize environmental
The Place of Coal in the National
pollution arising from the utilization of Electricity Supply Projection
coal In order to produce reasonable

Strategies electricity supply targets and

Intensifying the drive for coal milestones, it is imperative to have

exploration and production energy demand and supply projections

activities. for the country using internationally

Providing adequate incentives to accepted energy modeling techniques.

indigenous and foreign Accordingly, the Energy Commission

entrepreneurs so as to attract of Nigeria enrolled in the IAEAs

investments in coal exploration and project Sustainable Energy

production. Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

Providing adequate incentives for and acquired the competence in the use

the large-scale production of coal of the following international Energy

stoves at affordable prices. Modeling tools:

Providing adequate incentives to MAED: Model for Analysis of

indigenous and foreign Energy Demand

entrepreneurs for the establishment WASP: Wien Automatic System

of coal-based industries. Planning Package (for electricity

Developing adequate infrastructure generation expansion planning)

for handling and transporting of MESSAGE: Model for Energy


coal within and out of the country. Supply Strategy Alternatives and
Organizing awareness programmes General Environmental Impacts
for the use of smokeless coal SIMPACTS: Simplified Approach
briquettes as an alternative to fuel for Estimating Environmental
wood. Impacts of Electricity Generation
Encouraging R & D in the
ECN is carrying out the Sustainable
production, processing and
Energy Development Project for Sub
utilization of coal.
Saharan Africa that has the following
Introducing clean coal technologies
objectives:
into coal utilization.

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To develop an energy supply for demography, socio-economy and
the period of 30years technology. And the result of MAED is
To optimize energy supply mix used in the MESSAGE software to
To diversified energy supply optimize the energy supply of the
sources country. Three scenarios were used

To enhance the reliability energy namely:

supply system Reference Growth Scenario: GDP


To determine investment growth of 7% p.a.
requirements High Growth Scenario: GDP

The energy demand projections were growth of 10% p.a.

computed using MAED with the key Optimistic Growth Scenario: I &

drivers of energy demand, namely II: GDP growth of 12 & 13% p.a.

Tables 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 show the projected electricity supply for the
Reference, High and Optimistic Scenarios I & II, respectively.
Table 3.0: Supply Projections in MW for Reference Growth Scenario
2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
Coal 0 2,393 6,515 9,305 15,815
Gas 13,555 23,617 37,733 56,086 85,585
Hydro 3,702 4,962 6,479 9,479 11,479
Nuclear 0 0 3,530 7,005 11,872
Small Hydro 40 90 140 227 701
Solar 5 10 34 75 302
Wind 0 126 1471 3019 5369
Total Supply 17303 31197 55903 85196 131122

Table 4.0: Supply Projections by Fuel Mix in MW for High Growth Scenario
2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
Coal 0 3193 9915 16745 37885
Gas 13755 24817 41758 77086 132695
Hydro 3702 4962 6479 9479 11479
Nuclear 0 0 3530 10005 18872
Small Hydro 50 99 250 456 1253
Solar 5 17 94 171 1560
Wind 0 144 1971 3501 7457
Total Supply 17513 33231 63998 117443 211200

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Table 5.0: Supply Projections by Fuel Mix in MW for Optimistic Growth
Scenario I
2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
Coal 0 3318 12913 24794 49885
Gas 13835 25817 51717 97816 172495
Hydro 3702 4962 6479 9479 11479
Nuclear 0 0 3530 11005 26872
Small Hydro 58 99 420 1556 2253
Solar 5 17 204 1571 2560
Wind 0 152 2572 5516 9457
Total Supply 17601 34364 77836 151107 275000

Table 6.0: Supply Projections by Fuel Mix in MW for Optimistic Growth


Scenario II
2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
Coal 0 7629 16913 30874 63896
Gas 31935 52860 78717 120286 192895
Hydro 3902 4962 6479 9479 11479
Nuclear 0 3530 11005 18005 36891
Small Hydro 208 360 1000 1956 2353
Solar 30 80 750 2670 4610
Wind 500 1200 3971 6920 15567
Total Supply 36576 70620 118836 190190 327690

Economic analysis in each year as well as the discount


This section will show the economic rate to be applied to future years
comparison of various source of expenditures and plant output are
electricity generation. For the purpose required.
of this comparison coal, nuclear, and
gas are to be assessed. A discount rate
of 5% and 10% is used for the purpose
of this analysis.

Levelised cost can be defined as the


ratio of total lifetime expenses versus
total expected outputs, expressed in
terms of the present value equivalent
(IEA 2005). In calculating Levelised
cost Investment expenditures in each
year, Operational and maintenance
expenditures in each year, Fuel
expenditure and Electricity generated

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Table 7.0: Comparison of Cost of Generating Electricity Using
Various Fuel Types
Coal-fired Gas-fired Nuclear
generating generating generating
technology technologies technologies
Capital cost (US$/kWe) 1000 - 1500 400-800 1000-2000

Construction time (years) 4 2 5


At a 5% discount Levelised 25-50 37-60 21-31
rate cost (US$)
Investment 8.75-17.5 <5.55-<9.0 10.5-15.5
costs (US$)
O&M cost 5-10 <3.7-<6.0 6.3-9.3
(US$)
Fuel costs 11.25-22.5 29.6-48 4.2-6.2
(US$)
At a 10 % Levelised 35-60 40-63 30-50
discount rate cost (US$)
Investment 17.5-30 8-12.6 21-35
costs (US$)
O&M cost 5.25-9.0 2.8-4.41 6.0-7.0
(US$)
Fuel costs 12.25-21 29.2-45.99 3.0-5.0
(US$)

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Host community discontent in the attract investment in coal exploration
mining area is one of the challenges and utilization projects will solve this
that have affected the development of problem.
coal in Nigeria. This can be overcome
Looking at coal from economic
through the provision of incentives to
perspective, it is indeed a good source
the local community and
of electricity generation. Though its
encouragement of grass root
capital cost, when compared to gas, is
participation, enhancing public
higher but its Levelised cost is less.
enlightenment & discouraging
This is due to the high price of gas,
community agitation. This can also be
which is about 2.5 times higher than
resolved through Community
that of coal. The capital cost of coal is
Development Agreements (Respect the
still less when compared to nuclear but
Nigerian Mining and Minerals Act
its Levelised cost is higher. It is still
(2007)).
preferable to use coal direct to world
Environmental degradation in the politics behind nuclear technology and
mining area and health & safety the nature of maintaining it coupled
practice in the mining industry are with Nigerias maintenance culture.
other factors that affect the mining of CONCLUSION
coal in Nigeria. This can be overcome
Considering Nigerias coal reserves
through Provision of Health facilities,
and the current electricity situation, it
enforcing environmental protection
is a wise idea to use coal as a primary
rule and development of coal
source of electricity by implementing
properties in line with Equator
one of the clean coal technologies.
Principles - guidelines for managing
With 40% of total world electricity
environmental and social issues.
generation from coal, Nigeria too
Inadequate financial & fiscal should not be left out. This will be a
Incentives in the mining Industry are sure way to expand the nations
major problems that have contributed security of supply.
to the decline of coal mining in this
country. Improving the legal,
regulatory, financial, and institutional
and other conditions necessary to

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References 7. World Nuclear Association- Clean

1. An Mbedi Profile: Nigeria-Coal Coal Technologies http://www.world-

Mining nuclear.org/info/inf83.html

http://www.mbendi.co.za/indy/ming/co 8. AUSTRALIAN COAL


al/af/ng/p0005.htm ASSOCIATION- Clean Coal

2. Methane to Market-Nigerias Technologies

Country Report on Coal Mine Methane http://www.australiancoal.com.au/clea

Recovery and Use ntech.htm

http://www.methanetomarkets.org/eve 9. IEA and OECD-NEA (2005) -


nts/2006/coal/docs/nigeria.pdf Projected Costs of Generating

3. Mining Review Africa (Issue 6 Electricity UKERC -A Review Of

2005) -Coal In Africa Electricity Unit Cost Estimates (Working


Paper, December 2006- Updated May 2007 )
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ww.ukerc.ac.uk/Downloads/PDF/07/07
of Energy (Power Sector) Investment
06_TPA_A_Review_of_Electricity.pdf -
Opportunities In Nigerias Power
10. Ministry Of Mines And Steel
Sector (March 2008).
Development Opportunities-The
5. World Coal Institute- Coal Fact Coal Deposits In Nigeria
2007 Edition. www.msmd.gov.ng/Solid_minerals_se

6. World Coal Institute, publications ctor/Coal.asp

on Clean Coal Technologies.

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