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Department Agricultural Science Education,
Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo

This study investigated the preparedness of Agricultural Science teachers in secondary
schools to embrace full e learning as spelt out in the Nigeria School curriculum in 1989. E
readiness and attitudes of the teachers were measured using e-readiness indicators,
predefined scales and through questionnaires. Findings revealed that private secondary
school teachers have a more positive attitude to full integration of information
communications technology (ICT) into teaching than public secondary school teachers. It
also revealed that the overall e-readiness of the teachers is 2.2 (a little above average) (55%)
on a scale of 1 4. Based on the findings, recommendations were made.

Keywords: e-learning, e-readiness, attitude, indicators, information communication



The use of computers has permeated every (2002), a countrys e-readiness must be
facet of life, and the influx of Information evaluated in order for it to define policies
Communications Technology (ICT) into that will allow it to insert itself more
education has remolded the industry into a effectively into the knowledge based
fast achieving and revolutionary sector of economy.
any nations economy embracing it. Rena and Samuel (2002), sees e-readiness
Harnessing the benefits of ICT is a assessments as a vital tool for judging the
complex process and it needs a impact of ICT, to replace wild claims and
comprehensive solution built on a anecdotal evidence about the role of ICT
foundation of detailed information. This in development with concrete data for
information can be provided by e- comparison. Wikipedia (2008) describes e-
readiness assessment. According to Mani readiness as the ability to use information

319 Nigerian Society of Engineers YANKARI, 2008

and communication technology (ICT) to Bui et al (2003) observed that integration
develop ones economy and to foster ones and internetworking is one other important
welfare. There are several indices both at driver of the new digital age. They went
the macro and micro level for calculating e further by saying that the concept of e
readiness. Nwaogwugwu (2007) reported readiness is absolutely important because
that in 2005, the Economist Intelligence its level can be a strong predictor of how
units sixth annual e readiness rankings well a country can perform in the new
placed Nigeria on the 58th position out of economy.
65 countries ranked and from Wikipedia
In todays global and competitive
(2008), the e-readiness score of Nigeria
environment, the information society
improved from 3.69 to 3.92 and to 4.25 in
requires the use of technology enhanced
2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively, yet
learning and teaching at different
Nigerias position dropped from 60th to
educational forms and levels (Tuparora et
62nd and is still at the 62nd position as at
al; 2006)
2008 Economist Intelligence Unit
rankings. This shows that other countries
Attitude has been defined as a state of
are moving on at a faster rate than Nigeria
mind or feeling towards a course or an
although the rankings included more
issue (American Heritage; Dictionary,
countries ever year.
2003). A persons attitude to an issue
ultimately affects his disposition towards
Assessing and monitoring the e-readiness
it, and might end up in determining
of a nation has become an increasing
achievement. It is also possible that people
challenge. Elearning is one of the very
are ambivalent towards a target,
important factors and indices of measuring
meaning that they simultaneously possess
e-readiness and so, if the overall e-
a positive and a negative bias towards the
readiness of a nation or people is going to
attitude in question. Attitude is also a
appreciate, the educational sector must
hypothetical construct that represents an
have appreciated. Elearning could be
individuals like or dislike for an item. One
described as the acquisition and use of
can have positive, negative or neutral
knowledge distributed and facilitated
views of an attitude object (Wikipedia,
primarily by electronic means (networks
2008). Attitude eventually affects a mans
and computers)

320 Nigerian Society of Engineers YANKARI, 2008

This study aims at finding out the level of
Nigeria is presently experiencing food
awareness and exposure of agricultural
crisis as a phase. Ameliorating the
science teachers to ICT and their
situation is a clarion call to everyone
disposition; and to discover a basis for
because agriculture and its improvement
formulating a policy on the usage of
need more attention ever than before
computers for teaching and learning
population is increasing day by day. The
agricultural science in secondary schools.
application of ICT and its prospective
Statement of the Problem awareness will definitely put pep into
rejuvenating the seemingly lost culture we
The computer has become an important
were proud of.
medium in instructional delivery and
instructional management within the This research seeks to find answer to such
school system. The recognition of its question as:
values engendered the introduction of i. What is the e-readiness of
computer education into the Nigerian Agricultural Science teachers in the area of
school curriculum in 1989 (Yoloye,1990) study?
Hawkridge (1990) asked, Why do third ii. What are the attitudes of
world countries want to put computer into agricultural science teachers to using the
their schools? The answer was that computer?
schools prepare students for life and iii. What relationship exists between
anything that will enhance better living the attitude of male and female teachers
should not be severed from life. towards the use of the computer in
teaching and learning?
In order to bridge the digital divide,
iv. What relationship exists between
constructive and result oriented measures
the attitude of private and public school
should be initiated at the grassroots
teachers to the use of computer for
because this is where the formation starts.
teaching of Agricultural Science?
Teachers teaching these students need to
develop a range of information Objectives of the Study
communication technology competencies
In this age of global information
and extend the teaching in ways that takes
technology awareness, the formal system
advantage of information communication
of education is facing a lot of challenges
especially in the third world countries.
321 Nigerian Society of Engineers YANKARI, 2008
These challenges are numerous ranging use of computer for teaching Agricultural
from connectivity to e-learning and from science.
e- readiness to the more appalling mirage
of the digital divide. The objectives of this
Method, Study Area, Study Population
research are therefore to:
and Sampling Procedures
i. assess the extent to which
computers and software are used in the
The research was carried out in Ondo West
teaching and learning of agricultural
Local Government Area of Ondo state,
Nigeria. The local government area was so
ii. assess the readiness of agricultural
chosen because it has the highest number
science teachers to embrace full ICT
of secondary schools (32 public and 16
integration into teaching and learning
private) in the town. All the schools
iii. examine problems that could be
offered agricultural science as a subject.
associated with the introduction of full
The population consists of teachers and
computer technology into teaching
students in both private and public
agricultural science.
secondary schools in Ondo town.

The result of the research is expected to

Two samples were used for the study
provide information and data which will
(student and teachers) the sample consisted
be useful for educational administrators,
of fifty five teachers and sixty students
policy makers, curriculum theorists and
randomly drawn from selected secondary
the government in fine turning the
schools in Ondo West Local Government
approach to teaching and learning in our
Areas of Ondo state. The selected schools
comprise of twenty one public and seven
private secondary schools using stratified
sampling technique. From each school,
Ho-1: There is no significant difference two or three teachers and two students
between private and public schools each were selected by simple random
teachers attitude to the use of computers sampling
for teaching agricultural science Ho-2:
An empirical case study research method
there is no significant difference between
was used. Three instruments were used to
male and female teachers attitude to the
collect data

322 Nigerian Society of Engineers YANKARI, 2008

i. A thirty three (33) item al (2003) was adapted in finding e
questionnaire on computer (ICT) readiness indices from the analyzed data.
awareness and manpower for teachers; The response format for the questionnaire
ii. A ten (10) item questionnaire on was the Likert (1932) scale and the two
computer access pattern of teaching staff option response format.
in secondary schools for ascertaining e-
Results and Discussion
readiness ; and
iii. An eight (8) item questionnaire on
Table 1 is on Teachers perception on the
computer appreciation and ICT access
use of computers in the classroom for
level for students. The items were mainly
teaching and learning. The serial numbers
the alternative choice variety.
represent items as listed in the
questionnaire in Appendix A. Findings
Instrumentation, Data Collection and
revealed that most of the respondents,
regardless of their gender had very
The Three questionnaires designed for the positive disposition to the use of the
study were administered to the teachers computer for teaching and learning. It
and students in the sampled schools could also be deducted from the results
personally by the researcher with the that schools are short of computers (36.6%
assistance of the respective school disagreed that students have access to
principals and vice- principals, only forty- computer, 19.5% strongly disagreed
one of the fifty five questionnaires and making a total 56.1% on item 24 which
fifty of the sixty questionnaires randomly talks about students having access to
distributed to teachers and students, computers). The same goes for teachers
respectively were eventually collected. accessibility to computers (52.0%
This means only eighty-one out of the one disagreed that teachers have access to
hundred and fifteen questionnaire computers).On the other hand it could be
distributed were completed and returned to said that approximately on the average,
be used for the analysis. Analysis was teachers and students have access to the
done using simple percentage and T- test. computers.
E readiness formula proposed by Bui et

323 Nigerian Society of Engineers YANKARI, 2008

Table 1: Analysis of Teachers Views on the use of Computers
in the Classroom
S/N SA % A % D % SD % CS %
1 20 48.8 20 48.8 - - 01 02.4 - -
2 08 19.5 08 19.5 18 43.9 04 09.8 - -
3 09 22.0 21 51.2 07 17.1 02 04.9 02 04.9
4 04 2.8 27 65.9 06 14.6 02 04.9 02 04.9
5 13 31.7 17 41.5 04 09.8 04 09.8 02 04.9
6 17 41.5 19 46.3 03 07.3 02 04.9 03 07.3
7 12 29.3 23 56.1 01 02.4 - - - -
8 11 26.8 16 39.0 07 17.1 04 09.8 05 12.2
9 09 22.0 17 41.5 09 22.0 04 09.8 03 07.3
10 16 39 22 35.7 02 04.9 01 02.4 02 04.9
11 20 48.8 16 39.0 03 07.3 - - - -
12 11 26.8 21 52.2 06 14.6 03 07.3 02 04.9
13 07 17.1 20 48.8 06 14.6 08 19.5 - -
14 12 29.3 26 63.4 - - 02 04.9 01 02.4
15 09 22.0 22 53.7 06 14.6 01 0.24 03 07.3
16 15 36.6 22 53.7 02 04.9 01 02.4 01 02.4
17 06 14.6 13 31.7 11 26.8 08 19.5 03 07.3
18 - - 12 29.3 24 58.5 04 09.8 01 02.4
19 06 14.6 20 48. 12 29.3 01 02.4 02 04.9
20 05 12.2 12 29.3 17 41.5 06 14.6 01 02.4
21 08 19.5 22 53.7 08 19.5 02 04.6 01 02.4
22 10 24.4 20 48.8 09 22.0 02 04.9 - -
23 07 17.1 25 61.0 05 12.2 03 7.3 01 02.4
24 07 17.1 10 24.4 15 36.6 08 19.5 01 02.4
25 04 09.8 11 26.8 12 29.3 09 22.0 05 12.2
26 04 09.8 24 58.5 06 14.6 03 07.3 04 09.8
27 07 17.1 23 56.1 05 12.2 04 09.8 02 04.9
28 17 41.5 14 34.1 06 14.6 02 04.9 02 04.9
29 - - 08 19.5 13 31.7 17 41.5 03 07.3
30 02 04.9 - - 22 53.6 18 26.6 02 04.9
31 06 14.6 14 34.1 09 22.0 10 22.4 02 04.9
32 03 07.3 08 19.5 11 26.8 17 41.5 02 04.9
33 22 53.7 17 41.5 01 02.4 - - 01 02.4

Field Studies 2008

From Table 1, 58.5% agreed that there is This could be as a result of recognition of
an integration of computer technologies in the value of computer education for
teaching activities, 14.6% too disagreed. students in the contemporary world and
324 Nigerian Society of Engineers YANKARI, 2008
the recommendation of the national As regards availability of software
committee on computer education.56.1% packages for agricultural science, results
also agreed that there should be in-service showed that 36.6% strongly disagreed,
training on the use of computer technology 53.6% disagreed and 4.9% agreed. This
in the classrooms, while 17.1% strongly means that most teachers were not
agreed; bringing percentage of agreement opportuned to have seen or used software
to 73.2%. packages for agricultural science (an
alarming 90.2% disagreement on
On the use of computer assisted learning in
availability of agricultural science
agricultural science 41.5% strongly
software packages).
disagreed while 31.7% disagreed, making
a total of 73.2% disagreement. This From Table 1, about half of the
implies computer application has not been respondents said they have power
known to be used in teaching agricultural generating sets (48.7%); while an almost
science. The 19.5% which agreed could be equal percentage refuted having power
those in few private schools where such generating sets in their schools (46.4%).
systems have been introduced. All public Also a good percentage of the schools are
schools teachers affirmed negatively. connected to power holding company of
Nigeria (PHCN) for supply (95.2%).

Table 2: Difference in the attitude of male and female teachers in the use of computer
for teaching and learning
Gender n x s t df p
Male 29 85.90 10.182 0.11 39 >0.05
Female 12 85.50 11.091
t stat < t critical @ 0.05 significant level.

The null hypothesis is accepted. There is no significant difference between male female
teachers in using computer for teaching and learning of agricultural science

Table 3: Difference in the attitude of private and public schools teachers to the use of
computer for teaching Agricultural Science
School n x s t df p
Public 30 84.23 10.365 1.70 39 >0.05
Private 11 90.00 9.349
t stat = t critical @ 0.05 significant level. (t stat = 1.70 and t critical = 1.70)

325 Nigerian Society of Engineers YANKARI, 2008

From table 3, it is implied that there is was revealed that the attitude of private
significant difference between the attitude school teachers is more positive with an
of private and public school teachers to the average mean of 90.00 compared to that of
use of computers for teaching agricultural public school teachers which has an
science, hence the hypothesis is rejected. It average mean of 84.23.

Table 4: Predefined Scale for e-readiness analysis

Calculated Value (%) Converted value (scale)
0 24 1
25 49 2
50 74 3
75 100 4
Table 5: Pattern of Computer Access of Teaching Staff in Secondary Schools
Teachers Access to computers in the school Frequency Percentage
Yes 15 36.59
No 21 51.21
I dont know 05 12.20
Total 41 100.00
Believes in integration of computer in Teaching
Yes 28 68.29
No 09 21.95
I dont know 04 09.75
Total 41 100.00
Availability of Computer Laboratories
Yes 31 75.61
No 08 19.51
I dont know 02 04.88
Total 41 100.00
Provision of in-service training on using computer technology in the classroom
Yes 30 73.17
No 09 21.95
I dont know 02 04.88
Total 41 100.00
Use of Computer Assisted Learning in Agricultural Science
Yes 08 19.51
No 30 73.17
I dont know 03 07.32
Total 41 100.00
Availability of Software in Teaching and Learning
Yes 02 04.88
No 37 90.24
I dont know 02 04.88
Total 41 100.00
Availability of multimedia projectors or other computer teaching aids for lessons
326 Nigerian Society of Engineers YANKARI, 2008
Yes 11 26.83
No 28 68.29
I dont know 02 04.88
Total 41 100.00
Availability of Power generating Sets
Yes 20 48.78
No 19 46.34
I dont know 02 04.88
Total 41 100.00
Teachers Computer Literacy
Yes 30 73.17
No 09 21.95
I dont know 02 04.88
Total 41 100.00
Connectivity to the Internet
Yes 05 12.20
No 34 82.93
I dont know 02 04.88
Total 41 100.00
Computing the teachers e readiness
Bui et als (2003) e readiness index formula is adapted thus:
e-readiness index = j = 1,n Wij eij / n
e-readiness = overall e-readiness value
j = each of the (10) indicators
Wij = relative weights assigned to the indicators (j)
eij = individual index score for each indicator on a scale of 1 to 4
n = total number of measures

Table 5: Teachers e-readiness indicators and indices

e-readiness indicator Calculated value Indicator index
Access to computers 36.59 2
Integration of computers to teaching 68.29 3
Availability of Computer Laboratories 75.61 4
In service training for computer education 73.17 3
Use of Computer assisted learning 19.51 1
Availability of Software for agriculture 04.88 1
Multimedia, projectors availability for teaching 26.83 2
Availability of Power generating sets 48.78 2
Teachers computer literacy 73.17 3
Connectivity of schools to the internet 12.20 1

327 Nigerian Society of Engineers YANKARI, 2008

From table 5, and based on the above computer and there are no available
formula, the overall e-readiness index = software packages for Agricultural
(2+3+4+3+1+1+2+2+3+1) / 10, which science.
gives the value of 2.2 over a scale of 1 to 4 In conclusion, using computers in the
(one (1) being the lowest value and four teaching and learning of Agricultural
(4) the highest). Contributing to this are science could be of great benefit only if
varying indicators found in Table 5. The the concept can be understood by
value of 2.2 out of 4.0 shows a little above Agricultural science teachers and if the
average readiness (55%). This is not too software packages and the communication
convenient. Generally, the teachers are technologies are available for use.
below average when it comes to internet Teachers need exposure to ICT before they
accessibility abilities and there may be could better appraise its inclusion in
need to start training them before full teaching.
integration of ICT into teaching agriculture
is employed.

On the basis of the findings, the following

The availability of software packages and
recommendations are made.
ICT for teaching agriculture (like
Computer Assisted Learning, (CAL),
i. In line with the dictates of e-
Computer Assisted Design (CAD), online
learning, student teachers in institutions of
services, Video conferencing, Geographic
education should be equipped with skills
Information Systems (GIS) Simulations
and knowledge in teaching in an e-
and automated control) is alien to most of
environment and at such a digital age.
the teachers. Multimedia usage in teaching
is also foreign to them. Bridging the digital ii. There will be need for the
divide must start from somewhere. provision of computer appreciation
experience for pre- service teachers
iii. Access to educational technology
From the research and analysis, it was
infrastructure for teachers has to be
discovered that almost all the sampled
expanded through on going investment in
population have not been exposed to the
computer networking, telecommunication
use of computers for teaching and learning
services, software and technical support
Agricultural Science. Most of the
respondents do not know how to use the
328 Nigerian Society of Engineers YANKARI, 2008
computing system, networks, connectivity
iv. Secondary schools should be better
and digital / computer laboratories.
equipped with up to date and adequate

Appendix A
depending on whether you strongly agree
OF USING COMPUTERS IN (SA), agree (A), disagree (D), strongly
disagree (SD) with the statements. If you
ASSESSMENT OF COMPUTER cannot decide tick can't say (CS)


Name of your
This inventory is designed to obtain
information about the perception by
teachers of Agricultural Science of the
Sex: (a) Male ( ) (b)
usability of computer information
Female ( )
technology in the classroom by secondary
Years of working experience: (a) below 1
school teachers, information supplied will
( ) (b) 1-3( ) (c) 4 - 6 ( )
be used strictly for academic purposes and
(d) 7-10 ( ) (e) above 10( )
will be treated with absolute confidence.
Qualification: NCE ( } Bsc. Ed/B.A.
Below are statements on the ease of use, Ed/ B. Ed ( } Bsc/B.A +PGDE ( )
scope, relevant and appropriateness of Bsc/BA ( ) HND ( )
computer technology. Please tick () any M.A/ { )
one of the columns in front of each items, Category of school (a) Public {b)

329 Nigerian Society of Engineers YANKARI, 2008

1. Increases academic achievement
2. Results in students neglecting important traditional learning resources (e.g.
library books).
3. Is effective because I believe I can implement it successfully
4. Promotes student collaboration
5. Make classroom management more difficult
6. Promotes the development of communication skills (e.g; writing and
presentation skills)
7. Is a valuable instructional tool
8. Is too costly in terms of resources, time and effort
9. Is successful only if teachers have access to a computer at home.
10. Makes teachers feel more competent as educators.
11. Is successful only if there is adequate teacher training in the uses of
technology for learning
12. Is successful only if there is the support of parents.
13. Is an effective tool for students of all abilities?
14. Enhances my professional development.
15. Eases the pressure on me as a teacher.
16. Motivates students to get more involved in learning activities.
17. Could reduce the number of teachers employee in the future.
18. Limits my choices of instructional materials
19. Requires software-skills training that is too time consuming.
20. Will increase the amount of stress and anxiety students experience.
21. Is only successful if computer technology is part of the students home
22. Requires extra time to plan learning activities.
23. Improves student learning of cortical concepts and ideas.
24. Students are having access to computer technology at school.
25. Teachers are having access to computer resource personnel in school.
26. Integration of computer technologies in teaching activities.
27. In-service training on using computer technology in the classroom.
28. Is computer laboratory available in your school.
29. Do you use computer assisted learning in the agric science.
30. Computer software in agric is available for teaching/learning.
31. Available power generating set.
32. Multimedia projectors or other computer teaching aids is available for
33. Your school is connected to PHCN (NEPA) line.

330 Nigerian Society of Engineers YANKARI, 2008


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2. Bui, T.X., Sankaran, S. and 7. Tuparova D, Tuparov G., S.

Sebastian, I.M. (2003) A framework for Ivanov, E. Karastranova and J. Peneva
measuring national e-readiness, Int. J. (2006): Teachers attitude towards e-
Electronic Business, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp.3- learning courses in Bulgarian Universities
22. Current Developments in Technology
Assisted Education FORMATEX. Pp 1755
3. Hawkridge D. (1990) Girls, boys
and computers. Education Studies, 14 (1)
3- 8 8. Wikipedia (2008), On line free
4. Mani, H. (2002) E-readiness
hapter 1 1-14.
9. Yoloye E.A. (1990) Use and
5. Nwaogwugwu Godwin C. (2007).
perception of computers by educationists
Developing E-business for small business
at the University of Ibadan, Ilorin Journal
in Nigeria. An award winning article,
of Education, 10(2) 90 -91
Exposure Forum: A Knowledge sharing

331 Nigerian Society of Engineers YANKARI, 2008