You are on page 1of 8

# Design Computations of Structural Components.

## References Calculations Out-put

1.0 DESIGN COMPUTATIONS FOR FLAT SLAB P1:
Selection of depth, d of Slab:
The slab, P1 may be discribed as a one way slab as L1/L2 =1
For the purpose of this analysis, the Slab is assumed to be simply supported, thus, an L/d ratio of 28.5 @ 20% redistribution, is sufficient to
give a mimimum value of d as computed below; d= 5000/28.5; & h=d + 25 + 6/2, Say h=175mm
d= 150 h= 175 mm h=175 mm
Fire Resistance:
BS EN 1992-1-2 Sufficient for
5.7.3(2) Table The Concrete Cover of 25mm, is sufficent to provide a fire resistance of provide a fire resitance of 1.5 hours for a slab of thickness 100mm 1.5 hrs Fire
5.8 Resistance
Actions:
BS EN 1991-1-1 The Code Provides Characteristic Values for Permananet and Variable actions on Structural Systems
6.3.1.2 Imposed Load for Office (General Use): = 2.5 kN/m2
Permanent Load is obtained is computed by using the densities of material specified by the Code:
for Reinforced Concrete 25 kN/m3
Hence:
Action kN/m3 Materia Action Value Unit
EC1-1-6, EC1-2 Permanent Action 25 0.175 4.38 kN/m2
Finishes/Services 1.25 kN/m2
5.63 kN/m2
EC1-1-1: Table 6.Variable Action
Imposed 2.50 kN/m2
Patitions 1.30 kN/m2 gk 5.63
3.80 kN/m2 qk 3.80

BS EN 1990 The Code Prescribes the use of the expression that presents the worst case of loading,
6.4.3.2(3) In most cases, Expresion 6.10b is approprate: n=1,25G k+ 1.5Qk
Table A1.2(B) Hence:
The Value of the Combined Action, n 12.73125 kN/m2 Design Span 5000

Analysis:
The Moment Distribution Method is Employed for the Analysis for the Slab Along Grid-lines 4-4. to allow for distribution the reactions at the
support is varried: first simple support the fixed
Note That;
Design Moment at Support = Coeffic
Design Shear = Coefficent x n x Spa
Effective Span =d + Span

Moments
Moment Design
BS EN 1992 5.1.3 Location Effective Span
Coefficent Moments
Table NA.1 End Span 0.086 5.15 29.039
First Internal
0.086 5.15 29.039
Support
Internal Spans & Supports 0.063 5.15 21.273

Shear
Moment
Location Effective Span Shear Force
Coefficent
End Support 0.46 5.15 30.16
First Internal
0.60 5.15 39.34
Support

Refere to the Bending Moment Diagram at the design page XX Slab Along Grid-lines 4-4 for the Flat Slab Section

Flexural Design:
Design is Based on concrete class C20/25 and Reinforcement Grade of 410 N/mm 2
b= 1000 mm fck= 20.0 N/mm2
d= 150 mm fyk= 410.0 N/mm2
Hence; k=Mu/(fckbd^2) : being that k< k'=0,207 is the condition for the use of Compression Rebar.
z/d = 0.5[1+(1-3.53k)^0.5]< or = 0.95d
for k< 0.207, As=Mu/(0.87fykz) d'= 25
As'=(k-kbal)fckbd^2)/(0.87fyk(d-d')) and As=Kbalfckbd^2/(0.87fyk(d-d')+As'
for k< 0.207, Use Z=0.95d @ 0
kbal= 0.454( - 0.4) - 0.182( -0.4)^2 for fck < or = C50 = 20.0%
kbal= 0.152
Location Mu k=Mu/(fckbd^2) z/d As' As Bars
End Span 29.04 0.065 0.939 nil 577.8
First Internal
29.04 0.065 0.939 -887.6 651.3
Support
Internal Spans & Supports 21.27 0.047 0.956 -1061.8 415.7

## Location As' Prov

As Prov Reiforcement Table
End Span nil 646
Bar- / Spacing Y12 @ 175
First Internal
nil 754
Support
Bar- / Spacing Y12 @ 150
Internal Spans & Supports nil 503
Bar- / Spacing Y12 @ 225

Deflection Check:
The deflection requirements may be met by limiting the span/effective depth ratio to specific values, The basic actual span / depth ratio for
this flat slab is:
L/d= 33.33
The Eurocode 2 presents two equations for determininig the allowable L/d to be used in for deflection checks. These equations are
dependent on the values of A S/bd and fck^(0.5) x10^-3
Hence,
P= AS/bd= 0.0050
P0= fck^(0.5) x10^-3 = 0.0045
The Equations are:
N=[11+fck^0.5(1.5P0/P+3.2(P0/P-1)^1.5)] for P<P0 and,
N=[11+fck^0.5(1.5P0/(P-P0)+(1/12)(P/P0)^0.5)]for P>P0
K value for flat slabs =1.2
futhermore, the Allowable L/d = KNF1F2F3
where:
Cl. 7.4.2 F1=1-0.1(bf/bw-1)
In this Design bf=b F1= 1
Cl. 7.4.2 F2=7/Leff and F2= 1 for the worst case
Cl. 7.4.2 F3=310/s and
ECO. A1.2.2 Table C14 s=0.87fyk((Asreq/Asprov)(gk+qk)/n)(1/) Asreq= 651.28
s= 285.1 Asprov= 754.00
gk= 5.63
hence; F3= 1.0873 qk= 3.80
And N= 65.495 n= 12.73
Allowable L/d= 85.45 = 20.0%
Maximum Span= (Allowable L/d)xActual d
Maximum Span= 12,817.96 Passed Defection
Defection OK
BS EN 1990 A1.4Shear Check:
NA .2.2.6 Shear maybe checked at distance d from face of support. At first interior support;
Design Shear, V= Shear Force at Sect Shear Force @ Section = 39.34 kN/m
V= 35.20 kN/m n= 12.73 kN/m
6.2.1 (8) v=V/bwd 0.235 N/mm 2

6.2.2 (1) table NAThe design shear strength of a flexural member without shear reinforcement is given by:
vc=(0.18k/ c)(100As1fck/bwd)^(1/3) >or= vmin = 0.035k^(3/2)fck^(1/2)
Cl.6.2.1 (8) where; k=1 + (200/d)^(0.5) < or = 2.0and
Cl.6.2.2 (1) (100As1/bwd) < or = 2.0 and c =1.5

Hence; k= 2.155
c= 1.500
vc= 0.558 N/mm2
vmin= 0.495 N/mm2
6.2.1 (4) since the value of vc > vmin shear reinforcement is not required. Check Complies
Punching Shear, Central Colunm, C6:
Check shear at control perimeter u1 (2d from face of Column)
At C-6, applied shear force, V Ed = 39.34 KN/m
Cl. 6.4.3 (2) VEd=VEd/uid < VRd,c
6.4.5(3) where;
Cl. 6.4.5.(3) = Factor dealing with eccentricity; recommende1.15
Exp. (6.32) VEd= Applied shear force
u1= control perimeter under consideColumn Diame 300 mm
u1=2(Cx +Cy) +2Pi x 2d
Cx= 300 mm
Cy= 300 mm
u1= 3084.95559215
Exp. (6.32) d= mean effective d 150 mm
VEd= 0.097766 N/mm2
VRd,c=0.18/c k(100p1fck)^(1/3) Exp. (6.47) & NA
c= 1.5
k= 2.15470 k=1+(200/d)^0.5
p1=(py. px)^0.5
py=As/bd y-direction rebar Cl.6.4.4.1(1)
py= 0.005027 px=As/bd x-direction rebar
px= 0.003353
Hence; p1= 0.0041056
VRd,c= 0.521640097 N/mm2
Cl. 6.4.2 Clearly, VRd,c >Therefore
V Addition Punching Shear Reinforcement is NOT required. Punching Shear OK.
See Drawings Page for detailing of the beam

## 2.0 DESIGN COMPUTATIONS FOR BEAM 3 and 7:

Beam 3
Selection of depth, d of Beam:
For the purpose of this analysis, the Slab is assumed to be simply supported, thus, an L/d ratio of 14.5 @ 15% redistribution, is sufficient to
give a mimimum value of d as computed below; d= 5000/28.5; & h=d + 25 + 6/2, Say h=175mm
d= 475 h= 500 mm h=600 mm
BS EN 1992-1-2 Fire Resistance:
Sufficient for
5.7.3(2) Table The Concrete Cover of 25mm, is sufficent to provide a fire resistance of provide a fire resitance of 1.5 hours for a slab of thickness 100mm
1.5
5.8 Actions: hrs Fire Resistance
BS EN 1991-1-1 The Code Provides Characteristic Values for Permananet and Variable actions on Structural Systems
6.3.1.2 Imposed Load for Office (General Use): = 2.5 kN/m2
Permanent Load is obtained is computed by using the densities of material specified by the Code:
for Reinforced Concrete 25 kN/m3
Volume of Material
Section Area m2 Section Depth, mVolume, m3
Slab 1 6.25 0.175 1.094
Slab 2 5.25 0.150 0.788
Beam 0.1013 5.000 0.506
2.388
Span:= 5000
Line Load Therefore;= 0.4775 m2

## Action kN/m2 kN/m3 Materia Action Value Unit

EC1-1-6, EC1-2 Permanent Action 25 0.478 11.94 kN/m
Finishes/Services 0.55 3.95 2.173 kN/m
14.11 kN/m
EC1-1-1: Table 6.Variable Action
Imposed 1.4 3.95 5.53 kN/m
Patitions 0.65 3.95 2.57 kN/m gk 14.11
8.10 kN/m qk 8.10

BS EN 1990 The Code Prescribes the use of the expression that presents the worst case of loading,
6.4.3.2(3) In most cases, Expresion 6.10b is approprate: n=1,35G k+ 1.5Qk
Table A1.2(B) Hence:
The Value of the Combined Action, n 31.195 kN/m Design Span 5000

Analysis:
Moment Factors is used for the analysis as follows:
Note That;
Design Moment at Support = Coeffic
Design Shear = Coefficent x n x Spa
Effective Span =d + Span
Moments
Moment Design
BS EN 1992 5.1.3 Location Effective Span
Coefficent Moments
Table NA.1 End Span 0.09 5.00 70.188
First Internal
0.11 5.00 85.786
Support
Internal Spans & Supports 0.07 5.00 54.591

Shear
Moment
Location Effective Span Shear Force
Coefficent
End Support 0.46 5.15 73.90
First Internal
0.60 5.15 96.39
Support

Refere to the Bending Moment Diagram at the design page XX Slab Along Grid-lines 3-3 for the Flat Slab Section

Flexural Design:
Design is Based on concrete class C20/25 and Reinforcement Grade of 410 N/mm 2
b= 230 mm fck= 20.0 N/mm2
d= 475 mm fyk= 410.0 N/mm2
Hence; k=Mu/(fckbd^2) : being that k< k'=0,207 is the condition for the use of Compression Rebar.
z/d = 0.5[1+(1-3.53k)^0.5]< or = 0.95d
for k< 0.207, As=Mu/(0.87fykz) d'= 25
As'=(k-kbal)fckbd^2)/(0.87fyk(d-d')) and As=Kbalfckbd^2/(0.87fyk(d-d')+As'
for k< 0.207, Use Z=0.95d @ 0
kbal= 0.454( - 0.4) - 0.182( -0.4)^2 for fck < or = C50 = 20.0%
kbal= 0.152
Location Mu k=Mu/(fckbd^2) z/d As' As Bars
End Span 70.19 0.068 0.936 nil 442.5
First Internal
85.79 0.083 0.921 nil 549.9
Support
Internal Spans & Supports 54.59 0.053 0.951 nil 338.7

## Location As' Prov

As Prov Reiforcement Table
End Span
Bar- / Spacing
First Internal
Support
Bar- / Spacing
Internal Spans & Supports 402
Bar- / Spacing 2Y16

Deflection Check:
The deflection requirements may be met by limiting the span/effective depth ratio to specific values, The basic actual span / depth ratio for
this flat slab is:
L/d= 10.53
The Eurocode 2 presents two equations for determininig the allowable L/d to be used in for deflection checks. These equations are
dependent
Hence, on the values of A S
/bd and fck^(0.5) x10^-3
P= AS/bd= 0.0037
P0= fck^(0.5) x10^-3 = 0.0045
The Equations are:
N=[11+fck^0.5(1.5P0/P+3.2(P0/P-1)^1.5)] for P<P0 and,
N=[11+fck^0.5(1.5P0/(P-P0)+(1/12)(P/P0)^0.5)]for P>P0
K value for flat slabs =1.0
futhermore, the Allowable L/d = KNF1F2F3
where:
Cl. 7.4.2 F1=1-0.1(bf/bw-1)In this Design bf=b F1= 1
Cl. 7.4.2 F2=7/Leff and F2= 1 for the worst case
Cl. 7.4.2 F3=310/s and
ECO. A1.2.2 Table C14 s=0.87fyk((Asreq/Asprov)(gk+qk)/n)(1/) Asreq= 338.73
s= 280.1 Asprov= 402.00
gk= 14.11
hence; F3= 1.1066 qk= 8.10
And N= 20.583 n= 29.78
Allowable L/d= 22.78 = 20.0%
Maximum Span= (Allowable L/d)xActual d
Maximum Span= 10,819.67 > 5000 Passed Defection
Defection OK
BS EN 1990 A1.4Shear Check:
NA .2.2.6 Shear maybe checked at distance d from face of support. At first interior support;
6.2.1 (8) The design shear strength of a flexural member without shear reinforcement is given by:
6.2.2 (1) table NA. 1 vc=(0.18k/ c)(100As1fck/bwd)^(1/3) >or= vmin = 0.035k^(3/2)fck^(1/2)
Cl.6.2.1 (8) where; k=1 + (200/d)^(0.5) < or = 2.0and
Cl.6.2.2 (1) (100As1/bwd) < or = 2.0 and c =1.5

Hence; k= 1.649
c= 1.500
vc= 0.385 N/mm2
vmin= 0.331 N/mm2
6.2.1 (4) since the value of vc > vmin shear reinforcement is not required. Shear Design not
Critical

## BS EN 1990 A1.4Shear Design:

NA .2.2.6 Since the Load is uniformly distributed, the critical section for shear can be taken at a dictance d from from the face of support,
At the End of support the maxium value is computed thus
From Shear force diagram x= 2.23 m Distance from Center-line of support to point of zero shear force.
at a distance d from s VEd= 80.685 kN/rib
Resistance; VRd,c=(0.18/c)k(100p1fck)^(1/3)b
k=1 + (200/d)^(0.5) < or = 2.0
p1=As1/bwd
Hence, c= 1.500
k= 1.649
p 1= 0.0037
VRd,c= 42.05 kN/rib Clearly, VEd<VRd,c
Shear Reinforcement:
vEd=VEd/bd, taking z=0.9d
vEd= 0.7385 N/mm2
Asw/s>or=vEd/(0.87fykz Cot) Cot= 2.5
Asw/s= 0.00194 mm2/m
Mimimum shear links; Asw,min/s=0.08bwfck^0.5/fyk
Asw,min/s= 0.20070 mm2/m
Maximum Spacing:=0.75dMax. Spacing= 356.25 mm
Use; Y10@300 mm c-c Use; Y10@300mm

Beam 7
Selection of depth, d of Beam:
For the purpose of this analysis, the Slab is assumed to be simply supported, thus, an L/d ratio of 14.5 @ 15% redistribution, is sufficient to
give a mimimum value of d as computed below; d= 5000/28.5; & h=d + 25 + 6/2, Say h=175mm
d= 575 h= 600 mm h=600 mm
Fire Resistance:
BS EN 1992-1-2 Sufficient for
5.7.3(2) Table The Concrete Cover of 25mm, is sufficent to provide a fire resistance of provide a fire resitance of 1.5 hours for a slab of thickness 100mm 1.5 hrs Fire
5.8 Resistance
Actions:
BS EN 1991-1-1 The Code Provides Characteristic Values for Permananet and Variable actions on Structural Systems
6.3.1.2 Imposed Load for Office (General Use): = 2.5 kN/m2
Permanent Load is obtained is computed by using the densities of material specified by the Code:
for Reinforced Concrete 25 kN/m3
Volume of Material
Section Area m2 Section Depth, mVolume, m3
Slab 1 4.1625 0.175 0.728
Slab 2 20 0.150 3.000
Beam 0.1013 5.000 0.506
4.235
Span:= 6000
Line Load Therefore;= 0.706 m2

## Action kN/m2 kN/m3 Materia Action Value Unit

EC1-1-6, EC1-2 Permanent Action 25 0.706 17.64 kN/m
Finishes/Services 0.55 3.95 2.1725 kN/m
19.82 kN/m
EC1-1-1: Table 6.Variable Action
Imposed 1.4 3.95 5.53 kN/m
Patitions 0.65 3.95 2.57 kN/m gk 19.82
8.10 kN/m qk 8.10

BS EN 1990 The Code Prescribes the use of the expression that presents the worst case of loading,
6.4.3.2(3) In most cases, Expresion 6.10b is approprate: n=1,35G k+ 1.5Qk
Table A1.2(B) Hence:
The Value of the Combined Action, n 38.899 kN/m Design Span 16000
Design Span 23000
Analysis:
The analysis is carried out by the Moment Distributio
Joint A B C
Member AB BA BC CB
Length 3000 3000 6000 6000
Distibution Factor 0 0.67 0.33 1
FEM -116.70 116.70 -175.05
19.45 38.90 19.45 9.72
-4.86 -9.72
1.62 3.24 1.62 0.81
-0.405 -0.81
0.270 0.135
Moments -95.63 159.11 -159.11 0.00

## Mid Span Moment AB= 168.18

Mid Span Moment BC= 104.53 kN.m
VAB= 143.26 VBC= 143.22 kN
VBA= 90.13 VCB= 90.18 kN

## Beam Grid-Line 3-2 @ C

Mid Span Moment AB= 168.18 kN.m Span= 3000 mm
VAB= 143.26 kN
VBA= 90.13 kN
Selection of depth, d of Beam:
For the purpose of this analysis, the Beam is assumed to be simply supported, thus, an L/d ratio of 14.5 @ 20% redistribution, is sufficient to
h=600 mm
give a mimimum
d= 425 h= 450 mm
Flexural Design:
Design is Based on concrete class C20/25 and Reinforcement Grade of 410 N/mm 2
b= 225 mm fck= 20.0 N/mm2
d= 425 mm fyk= 410.0 N/mm2
Hence; k=Mu/(fckbd^2) : being that k< k'=0,207 is the condition for the use of Compression Rebar.
z/d = 0.5[1+(1-3.53k)^0.5]< or = 0.95d
for k< 0.207, As=Mu/(0.87fykz) d'= 25
As'=(k-kbal)fckbd^2)/(0.87fyk(d-d')) and As=Kbalfckbd^2/(0.87fyk(d-d')+As'
for k< 0.207, Use Z=0.95d @ 0
kbal= 0.454( - 0.4) - 0.182( -0.4)^2 for fck < or = C50 = 20.0%
kbal= 0.152
Location Mu k=Mu/(fckbd^2) z/d As' As Bars
Mid Span Moment 168.18 0.207 0.760 310.1 1178.7
First Internal Support 95.63 0.118 0.882 nil 714.9
Internal Spans & Supports 159.11 0.196 0.778 nil 1349.1

## Location As' Prov

As Prov Reiforcement Table
Mid Span Moment 402 1470
Bar- / Spacing 2Y16 3Y25
First Internal Support nil 804
Bar- / Spacing nil 4Y16
Internal Spans & Supports nil 1470
Bar- / Spacing nil 3Y25

Deflection Check:
The deflection requirements may be met by limiting the span/effective depth ratio to specific values, The basic actual span / depth ratio for
this flat slab is:
L/d= 7.06
The Eurocode 2 presents two equations for determininig the allowable L/d to be used in for deflection checks. These equations are
dependent on the values of A S/bd and fck^(0.5) x10^-3
Hence,
P= AS/bd= 0.0154
P0= fck^(0.5) x10^-3 = 0.0045
The Equations are:
N=[11+fck^0.5(1.5P0/P+3.2(P0/P-1)^1.5)] for P<P0 and,
N=[11+fck^0.5(1.5P0/(P-P0)+(1/12)(P/P0)^0.5)]for P>P0
K value for Beams = 1.0
futhermore, the Allowable L/d = KNF1F2F3
where:
Cl. 7.4.2 F1=1-0.1(bf/bw-1)
In this Design bf=b F1= 1
Cl. 7.4.2 F2=7/Leff and F2= 1 for the worst case
Cl. 7.4.2 F3=310/s and
ECO. A1.2.2 Table C14 s=0.87fyk((Asreq/Asprov)(gk+qk)/n)(1/) Asreq= 1178.71
s= 270.3 Asprov= 1470.00
gk= 19.82
hence; F3= 1.1467 qk= 8.10
And N= 14.443 n= 36.92
Allowable L/d= 16.56 = 20.0%
Maximum Span= (Allowable L/d)xActual d
Maximum Span= 7,039.02 > 3000 Passed Defection
Defection OK
BS EN 1990 A1.4Shear Check:
NA .2.2.6 Shear maybe checked at distance d from face of support. At first interior support;
6.2.1 (8) The design shear strength of a flexural member without shear reinforcement is given by:
6.2.2 (1) table NA. 1 vc=(0.18k/ c)(100As1fck/bwd)^(1/3) >or= vmin = 0.035k^(3/2)fck^(1/2)
Cl.6.2.1 (8) where; k=1 + (200/d)^(0.5) < or = 2.0and
Cl.6.2.2 (1) (100As1/bwd) < or = 2.0 and c =1.5

Hence; k= 1.686
c= 1.500
vc= 0.634 N/mm2
vmin= 0.343 N/mm2
6.2.1 (4) since the value of vc > vmin shear reinforcement is not required. Shear Design not
Critical

## BS EN 1990 A1.4Shear Design:

NA .2.2.6 Since the Load is uniformly distributed, the critical section for shear can be taken at a dictance d from from the face of support,
At the End of support the maxium value is computed thus
From Shear force diagram x= 1841.44 m Distance from Center-line of support to point of zero shear force.
at a distance d from s VEd= 110.197 kN/rib
Resistance; VRd,c=(0.18/c)k(100p1fck)^(1/3)b
k=1 + (200/d)^(0.5) < or = 2.0
p1=As1/bwd
Hence, c= 1.500
k= 1.686
p 1= 0.0154
VRd,c= 60.61 kN/rib Clearly, Ved>VRd,c Shear Reiforcement
Shear Reinforcement: Required
vEd=VEd/bd, taking z=0.9d
vEd= 1.1524 N/mm2
Asw/s>or=vEd/(0.87fykz Cot) Cot= 2.5
Asw/s= 0.00338 mm2/m
Mimimum shear links; Asw,min/s=0.08bwfck^0.5/fyk
Asw,min/s= 0.19634 mm2/m
Maximum Spacing:=0.75dMax. Spacing= 318.75 mm
Use; Y10@250 mm c-c Use; Y10@250mm

## Beam Grid-Line 2-1 @ C

Mid Span Moment BC= 104.53 kN.m Span= 6000 mm
VBC= 143.22 kN
VCB= 90.18 kN
Selection of depth, d of Beam:
For the purpose of this analysis, the Slab is assumed to be simply supported, thus, an L/d ratio of 14.5 @ 15% redistribution, is sufficient to
h=600 mm
give a mimimum value of d as computed below; d= 5000/28.5; & h=d + 25 + 6/2, Say h=175mm
d= 575 h= 600 mm
Flexural Design:
Design is Based on concrete class C20/25 and Reinforcement Grade of 410 N/mm 2
b= 230 mm fck= 20.0 N/mm2
d= 575 mm fyk= 410.0 N/mm2
Hence; k=Mu/(fckbd^2) : being that k< k'=0,207 is the condition for the use of Compression Rebar.
z/d = 0.5[1+(1-3.53k)^0.5]< or = 0.95d
for k< 0.207, As=Mu/(0.87fykz) d'= 25
As'=(k-kbal)fckbd^2)/(0.87fyk(d-d')) and As=Kbalfckbd^2/(0.87fyk(d-d')+As'
for k< 0.207, Use Z=0.95d @ 0
kbal= 0.454( - 0.4) - 0.182( -0.4)^2 for fck < or = C50 = 20.0%
kbal= 0.152
Location Mu k=Mu/(fckbd^2) z/d As' As Bars
Mid Span Moment 104.53 0.129 0.869 nil 586.2
First Internal Support 159.11 0.196 0.778 nil 997.2
Internal Spans & Supports 0.00 0.000 1.000 nil 0.0

## Location As' Prov

As Prov Reinforce Table
Mid Span Moment nil 603
Bar- / Spacing nil 3Y16
First Internal Support nil 982
Bar- / Spacing nil 2Y25
Internal Spans & Supports nil 0
Bar- / Spacing nil 0Y00

Deflection Check:
The deflection requirements may be met by limiting the span/effective depth ratio to specific values, The basic actual span / depth ratio for
this flat slab is:
L/d= 10.43
The Eurocode 2 presents two equations for determininig the allowable L/d to be used in for deflection checks. These equations are
dependent on the values of A S/bd and fck^(0.5) x10^-3
Hence,
P= AS/bd= 0.0046
P0= fck^(0.5) x10^-3 = 0.0045
The Equations are:
N=[11+fck^0.5(1.5P0/P+3.2(P0/P-1)^1.5)] for P<P0 and,
N=[11+fck^0.5(1.5P0/(P-P0)+(1/12)(P/P0)^0.5)]for P>P0
K value for Beams = 1.0
futhermore, the Allowable L/d = KNF1F2F3
where:
Cl. 7.4.2 F1=1-0.1(bf/bw-1)
In this Design bf=b F1= 1
Cl. 7.4.2 F2=7/Leff and F2= 1 for the worst case
Cl. 7.4.2 F3=310/s and
ECO. A1.2.2 Table C14 s=0.87fyk((Asreq/Asprov)(gk+qk)/n)(1/) Asreq= 586.17
s= 327.7 Asprov= 603.00
gk= 19.82
hence; F3= 0.9459 qk= 8.10
And N= 354.585 n= 36.92
Allowable L/d= 335.40 = 20.0%
Maximum Span= (Allowable L/d)xActual d
Maximum Span= 192,857.12 > 8.7 Passed Defection
Defection OK
BS EN 1990 A1.4Shear Check:
NA .2.2.6 Shear maybe checked at distance d from face of support. At first interior support;
6.2.1 (8) The design shear strength of a flexural member without shear reinforcement is given by:
6.2.2 (1) table NA. 1 vc=(0.18k/ c)(100As1fck/bwd)^(1/3) >or= vmin = 0.035k^(3/2)fck^(1/2)
Cl.6.2.1 (8) where; k=1 + (200/d)^(0.5) < or = 2.0and
Cl.6.2.2 (1) (100As1/bwd) < or = 2.0 and c =1.5

Hence; k= 1.590
c= 1.500
vc= 0.399 N/mm2
vmin= 0.314 N/mm2
6.2.1 (4) since the value of vc > vmin shear reinforcement is not required. Shear Design not
Critical

## BS EN 1990 A1.4Shear Design:

NA .2.2.6 Since the Load is uniformly distributed, the critical section for shear can be taken at a dictance d from from the face of support,
At the End of support the maxium value is computed thus
From Shear force diagram x= 2318.29 mm Distance from Center-line of support to point of zero shear force.
at a distance d from s VEd= 67.813 kN/rib
Resistance; VRd,c=(0.18/c)k(100p1fck)^(1/3)b
k=1 + (200/d)^(0.5) < or = 2.0
p1=As1/bwd
Hence, c= 1.500
k= 1.590
p 1= 0.0074
VRd,c= 62.01 kN/rib Clearly, VEd<VRd,c
Shear Reinforcement:
vEd=VEd/bd, taking z=0.9d
vEd= 0.5128 kN/rib
Asw/s>or=vEd/(0.87fykz Cot) Cot= 2.5
Asw/s= 0.00111 mm2/m
Mimimum shear links; Asw,min/s=0.08bwfck^0.5/fyk
Asw,min/s= 0.20070 mm2/m
Maximum Spacing:=0.75dMax. Spacing= 431.25 mm
Use; Y10@300 mm c-c Use; Y10@300mm
3.0 DESIGN COMPUTATIONS FOR COLUMNS C10,C16 and C17:
Column C10,C16 & C17
The axial loads and Moments to be used for the design of the columns are computed for the load types used for the Beams and Slabs:
Along Grid-line 3
Height of Column, H= 3200 mm
b= 225.0 mm
d= 300.0 mm
n= 31.195 kN/m
Column C10 Analysis
Joint A B C D
Member AB BA BC BD CB DB
Length 5000 5000 5000 3200 5000 3200
Distibution Factor 0 0.28 0.28 0.44 0 0
FEM -64.99 64.99 64.99
-18.24 -36.49 -36.49 -57.01 -28.50 -28.50

## Moments -83.23 28.50 28.50 -57.01 -28.50 -28.50

Member BD
Axial Load on Column, NEd= 133.63 kN
VBD= -8.91 kN
VDB= 8.91 kN
Mid Span Moment M1/2= 14.25 kNm
n= 38.899 kN/m L 1= 6000 L2= 3000 mm
Column C17 & C16 Analysis
Joint A B C D E
Member AB BA BC BC CD CE DC EC
Length 3150 3150 6000 6000 3000 3150 3000 3150
Distibution Factor 0 0.66 0.34 0.20 0.41 0.39 0 0
-116.698 116.698 -29.174 29.174
-8.92 -17.84 -35.69 -33.99 -17.84 -16.99
41.19 82.37 43.25 21.62
-2.204 -4.409 -8.817 -8.397 -4.409 -4.199
0.723 1.445 0.759 0.379
-0.077 -0.155 -0.147

## Moment 41.910 83.819 -83.819 116.370 -73.835 -42.534 6.921 -21.193

Member AB Member CE
Axial Load on Column, NEd= 47.96 kN Axial Load on Column, N Ed= 68.04 kN
VAB= -13.30 kN VAB= -9.94 kN
VBA= 13.30 kN VBA= 9.94 kN
Joint A B C
Member AB BA BC CB
Dis-Factor 0 0.5 0.5 0
FEM Err:509 Err:509 Err:509 Err:509