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The Agnihotra (Or Fire-God Oblation) in the Taittirīya-Brāhmaṇa: The First Prapāṭhaka of the Second Kāṇḍa of the Taittirīya-Brāhmaṇa with Translation Author(s): Paul-Emile Dumont

Source: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 108, No. 4 (Aug. 27, 1964), pp.

337-353

Accessed: 16/05/2011 11:43

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The Agnihotra (Or Fire-God Oblation) in the Taittirīya-Brāhmaṇa: The First Prapāṭhaka of the Second Kāṇḍa ofy : American Philoso p hical Societ y Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/985912 . Accessed: 16/05/2011 11:43 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates y our acce p tance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp . JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the p ublisher re g ardin g an y further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at . http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=amps . . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. American Philosophical Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. http://www.jstor.org " id="pdf-obj-0-62" src="pdf-obj-0-62.jpg">

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THE AGNIHOTRA

(OR FIRE-GOD

OBLATION) IN THE

TAITTIRIYA-BRAHMANA

The First Prapathaka of the Second Kag4a with Translation

of the Taittiriya-Brahmana

PAUL-EMILE DUMONT Professorof Sanskrit and Indology, Johns Hopkins University

PREFATORY NOTE

The Taittiriya-Samhita does not deal with the Agnihotra, the Fire-God oblation, but it is the

subject of the First

Prapathaka

of the Second

Kandia of the Taittiriya-Brahmana. This Pra-

pathaka, the translation of which lishing, contains theological and

I am now pub-

mystical

ex-

planations of most of the rites of the Agnihotra. Just as in the case of my other translations of

the Taittiriya-Brahmana,

my translation of this

an accented trans-

the

text

of the

Prapathaka is accompanied by

literation of the text.

It

is

Anandasrama Series, and the numbers enclosed in brackets in the transliterated text [1], [2],

[3],

etc.,

correspond to the numbers which are

the text of the Indian edition;

subdivisions of each chapter

as

these

subdivisions

they

(anu-

are quite

(a),

(b), (c),

etc.,

inserted in

indicate the

vaka).

But,

arbitrary, I added the letters

in

order to indicate more rational subdivisions.

Only in a few cases have I corrected an evident

misprint or ventured a conjecture. My translation is as literal as possible but, in

order to make it more intelligible, I have

parentheses short

explanations,

and

put in

put

I have

in brackets introductory notes in front of each

chapter.

ABBREVIATIONS

Ap. = Apastamba-Srautasftra. Baudh. = Baudhayana-Srautasftra.

Sat.-Br.

Tait.-Br.

= Satapatha-Brahmana. =

Taittiriya-Brahmana. TS. = Taittiriya-Samhita.

INTRODUCTION

THE

of

the

ritual,

Agnihotra, the Fire-God oblation, is one

most

for it

important sacrifices of the Vedic

is

a sacrifice that every Brahmana

and every Vaisya evening and in the

must offer every day, morning.

in the

The First Prapathaka of the Second Kancda of

the Taittiriya-Brahmana contains

theological

and mystical explanations of most of the rites of

the Agnihotra, but it does not describe the rites

of that sacrifice. derstand these

As it would be difficult to un-

without knowing the

they refer, and the

briefly de-

Srautasui-

explanations

details of the rites to which

course of the

scribe

sacrifice, I shall here

the Agnihotra according to the

tras, and

especially according to the Srautasiitra

of Apastamba.

The Agnihotra should be

the morning.

offered daily, in the

The

precise

time

Ac-

evening

according to

first

star.-

evening and in

of the offering is a

subject of controversy.

offering

in

the

sunset;

cording to some, the

should take place just after

others, after the appearance of the

According to some, the

offering in the morning

sunrise; according

should take place just before

to others, just after sunrise.

The persons who

of

the

participate

are:

in the

(1) the

ance

Agnihotra

perform-

Sacrificer

(who may be a Brahmana or a

K?atriya);

(2) his wife;

(3) the

the man whose duty is to milk the

Vaisya, but not a

Adhvaryu; (4) cow that yields

Agnihotra

pot

called

sruva, and

the milk for the oblation. The utensils used for the rites of the

are: the poking stick,

the earthen

agnihotrasthali, the small spoon called

the great ladle called agnihotrahavani.

Usually the sacrificial substance

(havis) is the

cases,

milk of one cow; but, in some

particular

one may offer the milk of two cows, or clarified

butter, or sour milk, or

a gruel of rice.

by the

According to the order given the Adhvaryu takes a firebrand

Sacrificer,

from the Garha-

patya fire, and places it on the hearth of the

Ahavaniya

fire.

Fuel is

put

on

all the

sacred

fires. The Sacrificer then addresses the cow that

PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

AMERICAN

PHILOSOPHICAL

SOCIETY,

VOL.

337

108, NO. 4,

AUGUST,

1964

338

PAUL-EMILE

DUMONT

[PROC.

AMER.

PHIL.

SOC.

will yield the milk of the Agnihotra. The milker

brings

the calf of the cow to

the

right

side of its

mother, and milks the cow. The Adhvaryu pours water round the three sacred fires (Aha-

vaniya, Garhapatya and DakSina). Then he draws some glowing coals from the Garhapatya,

and on these coals he

that contains

the

puts

the

agnihotrasthdal

(havis),

sacrificial substance

i.e., the milk.

According to

the

desire of the

Sacrificer,

sprinkle

being

the

Adhvaryu

may

or

may

not

the milk with water.

While the

milk is

cooked, the Adhvaryu looks at it, and il-

luminates it with a flaming grass-blade. The

Adhvaryu then performs

carries a firebrand

the paryagni, i.e., he

three times round the agni-

hotrasthali that contains the milk.

Having

wards,

or

removed

the

eastwards,

or

agnihotrasthdlU north-

northeastwards,

the

Adhvaryu pushes the glowing coals back into the

Garhapatya

and the

fire.

He takes the agnihotrahavani

sruva, and he heats them both on the

fire. Then, by means of the sruva, he draws

milk from the

pours

it

into

agnihotrasthali

the

four times, and

agnihotrahavani. After the

milk has been drawn, the Adhvaryu touches to-

gether

and

the

milk which

is

in

fire.

the

agnihotrahava.n

He holds

palasa wood

holding

the

with his

fire.

that which is in the agnihotrasthdal.

a stick

of

Then,

the agnihotrahavani and

over the Garhapatya

agnihotrahavani

nose, he

walks

and

the

stick on a level

the

towards

Ahavaniya

Midway

he

puts

down

the

agnihotrahava.ns,

saying: "Svaha!

to Agni Vaisvanara," and then

he lifts it

thee."

up again, saying: "To Vata (the Wind), When he has arrived near the Ahavaniya

fire, he deposits

grass, he puts

fire, and, on

the agnihotrahavani on Darbha

the stick of palasa

wood on the

the stick he pours out the two liba-

first with a formula,

the Adhvaryu

wipes

tions of the Agnihotra, the the second, silently. After the first libation

off the

agnihotrahavani with his finger, and wipes

off the milk that adheres to his finger on the grass

of the sacrificial strew, saying:

"To

the Plants,

thee!"

Then

he

deposits

the

agnihotrahava.n

looks

at

the

behind the Ahavaniya

fire, and

Garhapatya fire. After the second libation he wipes off the agni-

hotrahavani in the same manner with his finger,

but he wipes

finger on the Fathers!"

off the

milk that

adheres to his

earth, and says: "Svadha to the

Twice the

Adhvaryu

takes a little

milk from

the agnihotrahavazis with his ring finger, sucks it,

and after that sips a little the agnihotrahavani twice,

water. Then he licks

fills it with water, and

pours the water

away.

He cleans

the agnihotra-

again

with

hava.n with Darbha grass. He fills it

water, he pours water towards the quarters and

on the earth,

and finally

pours

the rest of the

water into the joined hands of the Sacrificer's

wife.

Then he

heats the agnihotrahavanz on the

Ahavaniya fire, and with that ladle he points out

the northern

thee!"

region, saying:

"To the seven Rsis,

He causes

the sacred fires to blaze. He

pours water on the ground inside the space re-

served to the vedi, and he

of the

three sacred fires

pours (the Ahavaniya,

water around each

the

Garhapatya,

and the

Daksina).-According

to

some authorities, he should then take a

blade of the sacrificial strew,

dip

it

grass-

in the agni-

hotrasthalL,and throw it in the Ahavaniya fire;

but, according to the Taittiriya-Brahmana, this

rite should not be performed.-Finally the Adh- varyu washes the agnihotrasthdli.

The Sacrificer sips

"From the Sacred

a little

water,

and says:

the

Order I have

come to

Truth."

pours The rites of the Morning-Agnihotra are almost

Then he

water on his head.

the same as the rites of the Evening-Agnihotra;

but, in many

instances, the formulas uttered by

the Adhvaryu or the Sacrificer are different.1

In order to glorify the Agnihotra,

in

some passages

of

the

the author

his mystical

of the Brahmana,

explanations,

identifies

Agnihotra with a

Soma-sacrifice.

2.1.1

(a)

aigiraso vai satram (corr.: sattram) asata;

t6sam p'rnir gharmadhug asit; sa rjisien 'jivat;

te 'bruvan; kasmai nu sattram asmahe, ye 'sya

6sadhir na janayama

janta; yavantal

iti.

te

div6

vrstim

asr-

stoka avdpadyanta, tavatir

osadhayo 'jayanta.

(b)

ta jathl

pitaro

vis6na 'limpan

[1]; tasam

ka

idam it-

jagdhva

rupyanty

ait; te 'bruvan:

tham akar iti

;vayam bhagadh6yam icchamana iti

pitaro

'bruvan; kim vo bhagadh6yam

iti; agni-

hotra eva no 'py astv ity abruvan.

t6bhya etad

bhagadheyam

tato vai

ta

prdyacchan,

yad dhutva nimrs.ti;

ya evam

veda

6osadhirasvadayan.

[2],

(c)

svadante 'sma 6sadhayah.

te vatsam

uptvasrjan;

idam no havyam

pradapaye 'ti; so 'bravid

varam vrnai; dasa ma

1 The readerwill find a detailed and complete description

of the Agnihotra

Description

de

in

my

work: P.-E.

Dumont, L'Agnihotra,

les

l'agnihotra dans le rituel v&diqued'apres

Srautasutras(Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1939).

VOL.

108,

NO.

4,

1964]

THE

AGNIHOTRA

(OR FIRE-GOD

OBLATION)

339

ratrir jatam na dohan;

asamgavam

matra saha

(c)

They

(i.e., the Afigirases) let the calf go

carian 'ti; tasmad vatsam jiatam daSa ratrir na

towards its mother.

They said: "Do thou cause

duhanti; asamgavam matra saha carati, vare-

vrtam hy asya; tasmad vatsam

samiisstadhayam

(thy mother) to give this sacrificial food (i.e., the

milk) for us." It said: "I will choose a boon.

rudr6 ghatukah, ati hi samdham dhayati [3].

For ten nights, they shall not milk me, a newborn

(calf)

(i.e., they shall not, by milking my mother,

[In this chapter the author of the Brahmana

explains: (1) the origin of the rite that consists in

offering to the Fathers the milk (or

adheres to

grease)

that

after

off

the finger of the Adhvaryu when,

wipes

the second libation of the Agnihotra, he

that milk (or

grease) on the earth; (2) the origin

according

milk

to which,

for ten

the cow of a newborn

of the prescription

days, one should not

calf, and should allow the calf to

its

mother till the time

go

about with

when the cows are col-

lected for milking, but not after that time.]

take from

me the

milk that

belongs

to

me).6

And

I shall go about with my mother till the

time when the cows are collected (for

milking)."

Therefore, for ten nights, they (i.e., the priests

of today) do not milk a newborn calf (i.e., they

do not,

by

milking its mother, take from a calf

belongs

to it).

And it

goes

about

time when the cows are

the milk that

with

its mother till the

collected

(for milking).

chose.

And therefore

For that is what it

Rudra will

kill

the calf

that has been left with (its mother) and is sucking

(a) The Angirases

performed a sattra (i.e., a

(after that time); for

(in that case) it sucks be-

great sacrificial session).2

A

spotted

gave

ing to them was the cow that

cow

belong-

for

the milk

yond the agreement.

the gharma-oblation.3 She (i.e., that cow) lived

2.1.2

soma (-plant).

They

upon the residue of the said: "Wherefore shall we

perform a sattra if we

They

produced

do not produce plants for her?"

the rain of the sky. As many drops fell down, so

many plants were born.

(b) When these

(plants)

were born, the Fathers

(i.e., the deceased ancestors) smeared them with

poison.

Having eaten of them, she (i.e., that

cow) came suffering violent

pain

men).

They

(i.e.,

the

Afigirases)

(in the abdo-

(a)

prajipatir agnim asrjata, tram praja anv

asrjyanta; tam abhaga ipasta. s6 'sya pra-

jabhir apakramat; tam avaruirutsaman6 'nvait;

tam avarudhan na 'gaknot; sa tapo

'tapyata.

s6 'gnir uparamata 'tapi vai sya prajapatir iti.

tasmad yasya daksinatah kea uinmrstah, tamr

jyesthalaksmi priajpatye 'ty ahuh; yad raraad

sa raratad udamrsta [1]; tad ghrtam abhavat.-

said: "Who

udamrsta, tasmad rarate kesa na santi.-tad

did this,

in

this

manner?"

The

Fathers

said:

agnau pragrhnat; tad vyacikitsat:

juhavanl3 ma

"We

(did it),

desiring

(to

have)

a share."-

hausa3m iti; tad vicikitsayai

janma.

ya

evam

"What share should be yours?" (said the Aigi-

vidvan vicikitsati

[2],

vasiya eva cetayate.

rases).-

"Let a share in the Agnihotra

(-sacrifice)

(b)

tam6 vag

abhyavadaj

juhudhi

'ti.-so

be ours," said the Fathers. Then they (i.e., the

ing offered the

(second) libation, wipes off (on

'bravit:

kas tvam

asi

'ti;

svai

'va

te

vag

ity

abravit. so 'juhot sva6he 'ti. tat svahakarasya

janma.-ya eviam svahakarasya janma veda,

Anigirases) gave them, as their share, that which (at the Agnihotra) he (i.e., the Adhvaryu), hav-

kar6ti svahakarena viryam; yasyai 'vam vidusah

the earth, south of the

space

reserved to

the

svahakarena

juhvati

[3],

bh6gayai

'va

'sya

vedi,4 i.e., the milk or grease that adheres to his

hutam bhavati.

finger).5-Verily,

then, they

(i.e., the Fathers)

(c)

tasya Ahutyai purusam asrjata.

dvitiyam

(having

received

that

share) made the

plants

palatable.-For

him who thus knows, the plants

become palatable.

ajuhot, s6 '?vam asrjata; trtfyam ajuhot, sa

paficamam ajuhot, s6 'jam asrjata

E4].-s6

'gnir

gam asrjata; caturtham ajuhot, s6 'vim asrjata;

  • 2 satrdmis everywhere the reading of the text in the Tait.-

abibhet;

Ahutibhir vai ma

"pnoti

'ti.

sa pra-

Br.

although sattrdm certainly

is the correct

spelling.

  • 6 Siyana,

in his

commentary, supposes

that

md jdtdm

is

  • 3 The

gharma-oblation is

an oblation of clarified butter

and hot milk boiled in

vargyaceremony,

an

Upasad-days

4

the gharma-cauldron for the pra-

the

excavated

important ceremony performed on

of

ground

of the Soma-sacrifice.

The vedi or sacrificialbed is a

spot

two, three, or four inches deep and covered with sacrificial

grass.

the

object of drstva understood,

gam

understood.

This

and

that the

object

of

dohanis

hypothesis

md

paragraph,

is inadmissible.

jdtdm, just as, in

the

object

of

it also

It is certain that the object of dohanis

the other sentence of the

same

duhantiis vdtsamjatam.-duh- means "to

means "to take

quently

"to take from

milk," but

advantage of," "to frustrate," and conse-

somebody that

which

rightly be-

5

Cf.Ap. 6.11.4.

longs

to him."

340

PAUL-EM

ILE

DUMONT

[PROC.

AMER.

PHIL.

SOC.

jApatim pinah

vit: jdyasv6

'ti.

prAvi'at.

s6

t6am.prajApatir abra-

'bravit: kim bhagadh6eyam

abhijaniSya iti. tfibhyam ev6 'dAfi hfiydt& ity

abravit.

sA etAd bhdgadh6yam

abhyAjayata,

y6d agnithotrAm [5]. ate.

tAsmad agnihotr6m ucy-

(d)

tad

dhiiy6manam

ddity6

'bravit:

mA

hau~ib, ubhAyor vAi ndv

abravit: kathirm nau

etAd

fti.-s6

'gnir

ev'a

hogyantf

'ti.-sdydm

tibhhyam juhAvan, prdtArmAhyam ity abravit.-

tAsmad agnAye sdy6idi hfiyate,

s6rydya prMtii

[6].

(e)

agneyf vAi rAt;ril, aindrAm Ahal; yAd

anudite s6rye prdtAr juhuyAt, ubhAyam evA

'gneyAiLisyat;

iidite

'gnAye sdyAiii hayate,

s6rye prdtAr juhoti, tAthd s6rydya prataib.

(f)

rAtrirm vA Anu prajA1 pr6jdyante,

yAt

sdyrdm juh6ti

[71,

ahnd

prdtitigthanti;

tena jayate;

prAi 'vc

iidite

s6rye prdtArjuhoti, prAty evA

te'na tiq~hati.

(g)

prajApatir akamayata

prajayeye

'ti.

sA

etAd agnihotrAi

mithunAm apagyat.

tad u'dite

s6rye 'juhot, yAjuSd 'nyAt, tfisn'im anyat. tato

vdi

sirye

sA prAjdyata.

'gnihotrim

diva

yAsyai

'v6rm vidisa

fidite

j(ihvati

E8], prAi 'vA jayate;

tAt.

atho yAtha

prajdnann e'ti, taddg eva

(h)

atho khalv ahul: yasya vAi dvau p6nyau vasatah, yAs t6yor anyAiim radhcyaty

grhe'

anyArnnA, ubhAu vAvAsA tAv Vcchati 'ti. agnim vAvA "dityAb sdyAm prAvigati, tAsmaid agnir

diirAn naktam dady'e, ubhie

hi

[9]. udyantam vAvA "dityAm

hati, tasmdd dhiima evA agnAye syAyp juhuyAt,

'gn6r

A

s6ryaya

vAtabhya1

jy6til sfiryali

tejasi sampAdyete agnir AnusamAro-

diva dadrge.

yAd

vvgCyeta; yAt

s6ryaya

prdtar juhuyAt, A 'gn.Aye vvgcyeta, de-

samadam

dadhyAt.

agnir

jy6tir

svAhe 'ty eva

sdy~imi

'ti

hotavyLm.

prdt'al; tAtho

siryo jy6tir jy6tir agni1' svAh6

'bhabhydiii

sdyAM

hfiyate

E10],

ubhAbhy~ i

prdtAib, nA devAtabhyal

(i)

agnir jy6tir ity

prajA jy6tir

samAdam dadhdti.

dha, agnir

vAi retodhAl;

prajanayati.

r6to

ity Tha, prajA evA 'siai

s6ryo jy6tir ity dha, prajAsv eva prAjitasu dadhati; jy6tir agni'l svAhei 'ty aha, prajA eva

pratjatt asyAm prAtisthapayati [11].

(j)

tiisnim (ittardm Ahutim juhoti, mithuna-

tvAya prAjdtyai.

(k)

yad

idite

shrye

yat

prdtAr juhuyAt, yAthA

"hdr-

tcd

tAd

tAd

'tithaye

prAdrutaya AfinyAy&"vasathAyay

evA tAt;

kvA

'ha tctas

sA na v6da, yAsmai

y,iih hAranti, taddg

bhavatf 'ty ahuli,

dhArantd 'ti; tAsmZid yAd au*asAm juh6ti,

evA samprati; Atho yAthd prArtham auSascrm

parivevesti, tddrg eva

tAt

[121.

[In this Chapter explains: (1) why

the author of the Brahmana

there is no hair on the forehead

of men; (2) the origin of hesitation; (3) the origin

of the holy exclamation svaha; (4) why the Agni-

hotra is called Agnihotra; is offered to Agni in the

the morning;

Agnihotra

why the

Sacrificer; (8) why

(5) why the Agnihotra

in

evening, and to Siirya

offspring to

(6) why one offers the Morning-

risen;

(7)

the

when the sun has already

Agnihotra

procures

one should

offer the Agnihotra

is

the

in

the

in the evening with the formula "Agni

light;

the light

is Siirya.

morning with

the formula

SvdhM!" and

light

is

Agni.

"Siirya is the light; the

according to

SvdhM!" (9) why,

some authorities, one should offer the Morning-

Agnihotra

dawn.]

before

the

sun

has

risen,

i.e.,

at

(a) Prajapati

(other)

waited upon

created7

Agni.

After him, the

creatures were created. He (i.e., Agni)

him (i.e., Prajdpati), without (re-

ceiving) any share. (Then) he went away (from

Prajapati)

to hold

him.

He

became

with the creatures of him. Wishing

went after

him back, he (i.e., Prajapati)

(But)

he was not

able to

hold him back.

hot. (Then) thinking "this Pra-

japati has become hot indeed," Agni stopped.

He (i.e., Prajapati) wiped

from his forehead (with

(i.e.,

upwards

his right

(the sweat)

That

There-

hand).

the sweat) became clarified butter.

fore, if the hair of a man is wiped

erect) on the right is the excellent

side (of his

upwards (i.e.,

head), they say that

auspicious mark of Prajapati.

(And) because he (i.e., PrajZipati) wiped up-

wards

(the

there is

no

sweat)

from his

forehead, therefore

hair on

the

forehead

(of men).-

That (i.e., the sweat that had become clarified

butter) he (i.e., Prajapati)

hesitated: "Shall I offer

it?

held on the fire.

He

Shall I not offer it?"

That is the

origin

of hesitation.

He who, thus

knowing, hesitates, will certainly understand

what is better.

(b) To

him

(i.e., to Prajapati)

voice)

(Then)

"Svdha" (i.e.,

is the origin

thus

a voice

said:

"Do thou offer (the oblation)."

art thou?"-She (i.e., the thine own (sva) voice."

oblation, saying:

own' ").

svdha.

That

He said: "Who

said: "I am he offered the "she said 'thine

of the exclamation

He who

knows the origin of the

exclamation svdhd, produces,

svdhd, manly vigor.

(And)

offer,

with the exclamation

by the exclamation

if they (the priests)

svahd, the oblation

of

him who thus knows, it is certainly offered for his

benefit.

I "Created" or rather "emitted from himself."

VOL.

108,

NO.

4,

1964]

THE AGNIHOTRA (OR FIRE-GOD OBLATION)

341

  • (c) From that (first) oblation8 (i.e., from the

(On the other hand) he offers (the Agnihotra) in

oblation of his sweat that had become clarified

the

morning after the sun has risen.

(And) by

butter),

he

(i.e.,

offered oblation

Prajapati)

a second

created man. He

(and thus) he

time,

He offered oblation a third

doing that, he firmly

  • (g) Prajapati

spring."

He

establishes himself.

desired: "May I propagate off-

(namely)

the Agni-

saw this pair,

created the horse.

time, (and thus) he created the cow. He offered

oblation a fourth time, (and thus) he created the

hotra

(which is composed

of two

libations). He

after the sun had

with a sacrificial

offered it (i.e., the Agnihotra)

risen, offering

one

(libation)

sheep. He offered oblation a fifth time, (and

thus) he created the

goat.-Agni

then was afraid,

formula,

the

other silently (i.e., without any

thinking:

"By means of oblations he will catch

me (he will take hold of me)." (Then) he (who

formula). By doing so he propagates offspring.'2

(Consequently)

if they

(the priests)

offer,

after

previously

had been emitted

by Prajapati)

  • re- the sun has

risen, the Agnihotra

of

a man who

entered

Prajapati.

born (again)." He

Prajapati said to

(i.e., Agni)

him: "Be

said: "For what

thus knows, he certainly propagates offspring.

And just as one walks by day, knowing (the way),

share

(that would be

given

to

me)

shall

I

be

born?"-He (i.e., Prajapati) said: "Let this

(oblation) be offered9 to thee!"

(Consequently)

he (i.e.,

Agni)

was born

(again)

-it is just

like that (i.e., the performance

of a man who thus knows,

is

of the

just like

the

walking of a man who walks by day, and

knows the way).

Agnihotra

for that share,

which is the Agnihotra.

that oblation

is

That is the reason why

called the Agnihotra (i.e., the

oblation offered to

Agni).

  • (d) About this (oblation), as it was about to be

  • (h) But they

holy

(i.e., some authorities) say:

"If

two

men dwell in the house of a man, and if

he propitiates one of them, but not the other,

he certainly

offends both."-Verily

Aditya

(the

offered (by Prajapati),l?

(to Prajapati):

"Do not

Aditya

offer it.

(the Sun) said

said:

to

us

in the even-

belongs to us both (Agni and me)."-Agni

"How will they

(i.e., the

priests)

offer

it

them offer it to thee

Sun) enters

Agni in the evening;

is

(and)

that

is

the reason why, by night, Agni

for the two lights

(the light

light

of Agni)

verily Agni rises along

seen from afar,

of the Sun and the

are united.-(On the other hand)

with Aditya (the Sun)

both?"-"Let

This (oblation)

ing,

and to

me

in

the

morning," said he

(i.e.,

when the sun rises;

(and) that is the reason why,

Aditya,

the Sun).

That

is the reason why this

by day,

only

the smoke of

Agni

is seen

(from

oblation

(i.e., the

Agnihotra)

is offered to Agni

afar).-If

he

(i.e., the Sacrificer, through the

in the evening, and to

morning.

Surya

(the Sun)

in the

mediation of the Adhvaryu,) should offer (the

Agnihotra)

in

the

evening

(only)

to

Agni, he

(e) Verily the night belongs to Agni, (and) the day, to Indra.ll If one should offer (the Morn-

ing-Agnihotra) when the sun has not yet risen, both (Agnihotras, the Evening-Agnihotra and the Morning-Agnihotra) would belong to Agni.

would be cut off from the Sun;

(and) if he should

offer (the Agnihotra)

Suirya (the Sun), he

(and) he would

bring

in the morning (only) to

would be cut off from Agni;

strife to the deities.-One

with

should offer (the Agnihotra) in the evening

(Therefore) one offers (the Morning-Agnihotra)

the formula: "Agni

is

the

Siirya. Svaha!"

(And) one

light;

the

light

is

should

offer (the

in the morning, when the sun has already risen.

Thus one offers the

Agnihotra

to

Agni

in the

evening, and to Sfirya (the Sun) in the morning.

Agnihotra)

"Sfirya

is

in

the

morning

with

the

formula:

the light; the

light is Agni. Svaha!"

  • (f) Verily creatures are procreated by night,

Thus the Agnihotra

is offered to both

(Agni

and

(and) they

firmly

establish themselves

by

day.

Suirya)

in the evening; and it is offered to both in

By

the fact that

he (the Sacrificer, through the

the

morning.

(And) he (the Sacrificer) does not

mediation of the

Adhvaryu,)

offers (the

Agni-

bring strife to the deities.13

hotra) in the evening, he propagates offspring.

8

dhutyai

is an ablative.

  • (i) (When he offers the Evening-Agnihotra,) he

is

the light." Agni

(the Adhvaryu) says: "Agni

(By saying that) he

verily is the impregnator.

9 huydtai.

This is a very rare verbal

form; it is the third

person

sing. subjunctive

passive

of hu.

10 According to Sayana tdd dhuydmdnam is the object of

12 A pair (mithunam) means sexual intercourse, and con-

sequently

propagation of offspring.

drstvd understood.

This

is

not

admissible.

tdd dhuyd-

1

According

to

Tait.-Br.

2.1.9.b,

however,

the

first

manam is the object

of abravit.-bru-

with the accusative

libation of the Agnihotra in the evening should be offered

often means "to

speak

about

something."

1 It is remarkable that

in this paragraph the author of

with "Agni is the light;

the light is Agni.

Svaha!" and in

the

morning it should be offered with "Sfirya is the light;

the Brahmana identifies

Indra with Sfirya

(the Sun).

the

light is Sfirya.

Svaha!"

Cf. Ap. 6.10.8-9.

342

PAUL-EMILE DUMONT

[PROC.

AMER.

PHIL.

SOC.

says: "Offspring is light." (And by saying that)

he causes (Agni) to

procreate offspring

for him

(i.e., for the Sacrificer).-

(When he offers the

Morning-Agnihotra,) he (the Adhvaryu) says:

"Siirya (the Sun)

is

the light." (By saying that)

power) in

he says:

(And by saying

(earth) the

he puts seminal fluid (i.e., procreative

the offspring

"The

that has been born.

Svaha!"

light is Agni.

And

that)

he firmly

establishes on this

offspring that has been born.

(j)

(In the

offers a second

evening

and in the morning) he

libation silently (i.e., without any

formula). (He does that) in order to produce a

pair,

(k)

for the

propagation

of

offspring.

If he (the Sacrificer, through

the mediation

of the Adhvaryu,) should offer (the Morning-

Agnihotra) after the sun has risen.-just

as they

(would)

bring

food to

a

guest who has already

night's

lodging,-

is it then with that?"

gone away, (i.e.,) to his empty

it is just like that.-"How

they say (i.e., some authorities

whom they bring

-Therefore,

say),

"since he to

that, does not know about it?"

when one offers (the Morning-

Agnihotra)

time.14-And

at dawn, that

is

(done) at the right

just

as it is at dawn that

one waits

on somebody who is ready to set out on a journey,

-it

is just like that.

2.1.3

(a)

rudr6 va esah, yad agnih.; patni sthali; yan

madhye

'gner

adhiS?ryet, rudraya

patnim api

dadhyat, pramayuka syat; uidic6 'ingarannirdhya

'dhi?rayati, patniyai gopithaya.-vyantan karoti;

tatha p6tny apramayuka bhavati [1].

(b)

gharm6 va es6 'santah; ahar-ahab pravr-

jyate, yad agnihotram; pratisificet pasukamasya,

santam iva

hi

pasavyam.

(c)

na

pratisificed

iva

hi

samiddham

brahmavarcasakamasya,

brahmavarcasam.-atho

khAlu, pratisicyam eva; yat pratisificati [2], tat pasavyam; yaj juh6ti, tad brahmavarcasi;

ubhayam eva 'kah.

(d)

pracyutam

devalokam, yac

abhidyotayati,

devatrai 'vai

va etad asmal lokat,

agatam

chrtami havir anabhigharitam;

abhy evai

'nad gharayati,

'nad gamayati [3].

atho

(e)

paryagni

karoti,

raksasam

apahatyai.-

trih paryagni

karoti, tryavr.d dhi yajfiah,

Atho

medhyatvaya.

14 According

(k),

the

before sunrise.

opinion expressed

cording

to which

after sunrise.

to the

opinion expressed in this paragraph

be

offered at

dawn,

Morning-Agnihotra should

This

opinion

in the

preceding

is in contradiction with the

paragraphs

(e,f,g,),

ac-

be offered

the Morning-Agnihotra should

(f)

yat pracinam udvasayet, yajamanam suca

'rpayet;

yad

daksina,

pitrdevatyafi

pratyak

[4],

patnim

suca

'rpayet;

fidvasayati, esa vai devamanusyanaii

syat;

yat

udicinam

santa dik,

tam evai 'nad Anudvasayati santyai.

(g)

(h)

vartma karoti, yajinasya samtatyai.

nistapati, upai 'va tat strnati.

(i)

catur unnayati, catuspadah pasavah

[5],

pa?un

sarve

eva 'varundhe.-sarvan

purnan uinnayati,

hi punya raddhLh.-anuca innayati, pra-

jaya

anicinatvAya;

'rdhuka bhavati.

anucy

eva

'sya praja

(j)

(k)

sammrsati vyavrttyai.

na 'hosyann

upasadayet;

yad ahosyann

upasadayet, yatha 'nyasma upanidhaya

[6],

'smai

anyasmai prayacchati, tadrg eva tat; a vrscyeta, yad eva garhapatye 'dhisrayati, tena

garhapatyam prinati.

(I)

agnir

sa etam

abibhet,

ahutayo ma 'tyesyanti 'ti.

samidham apagyat; ta(m adhatta; tato

va

agnav

ahutayo

tat

'dhriyanta

samidhah

[7];

yad

enarm

sami-

ahuti-

samayacchat,

dham

nam

samittvam.

adadhati, sam evai 'nam yacchati;

dhrtyai;

atho

agnihotram

eve

'dhmavat

karoti, ahutinam pratisthityai.

(m)

brahmavadino vadanti,

yad ekait

sami-

dham

samidhi

dve

adhAya

dve

ahuti

juh6ti,

atha

'ti

kasyaii

[8].-yad

asmai

dvitiyam

Ahutim juhoti

samidhav

adadhyat,

bhratrvyam

janayet;

ekami samidham adhaya, y6jusa 'nyam

ahutim juhoti; ubhe eva samidvati Ahuti juhoti;

na 'smai bhratrvyam janayati.

(n)

adiptayam juhoti,

mavarcasam,

atho

samiddham iva hi brah-

'tithim

jy6tis

krtvA

yathA

pariv6vesti,

(o)

catur

tadrg

eva tat.

innayati, dvir juhoti; tasmad dvipac

catuspadam atti, atho dvipady eva catuspadah

pratisthapayati.

[In this chapter

(1) why,

the author of the Brahmana in order to cook the sacrificial

it is milk- sthdli that con-

fire,

drawn

for a man who is de-

the Agni-

explains:

substance of the Agnihotra-usually

the Adhvaryu

should not put the

tains

it,

in

the middle of the Garhapatya

coals which he has

but on some glowing

out from that fire;

sirous of cattle,

(2) why,

one should sprinkle

water);

hotra-oblation (with

who is desirous of

(3) why, for a man

pre-eminence in holiness, one

according

why the

to

Adh-

should not sprinkle it, although,

some authorities, one should; (4)

varyu

of the

why

(6)

should illuminate the sacrificial substance

Agnihotra with a flaming grass-blade; (5)

he should

perform the paryagni three times;

remove from the

why the Adhvaryu should

VOL.

108,

NO.

4,

1964]

THE

AGNIHOTRA

(OR FIRE-GOD

OBLATION)

343

(d)

Verily the sacrificial substance which,

by

doing that,

he

having been cooked, has not been sprinkled (with clarified butter), has gone from this world, and

(yet) has not gone to the world of the gods. He

(the Adhvaryu)

illuminates

it

(with

a flaming

grass-blade).

(By

doing

that)

he

(really)

the

sprinkles

it

(with clarified butter),

and

(conse-

quently)

causes

it

to

go

to

the gods.

(e)

He performs the paryagni (i.e., he carries a

firebrand round the havis, i.e., the sacrificial sub-