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Vector control of six phase synchronous motor

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2015.1134040

Vector control of asymmetrical six-phase

synchronous motor

Arif Iqbal1*, G.K. Singh1 and Vinay Pant1

Received: 22 October 2015 Abstract:Vector control scheme has been well adopted for higher performance

Accepted: 09 December 2015

applications of AC motor. Therefore, this paper presents an extensive development

First Published: 19 January 2016

and investigation of vector control scheme for asymmetrical six-phase synchronous

*Corresponding author: Arif Iqbal,

Department of Electrical Engineering, motor in a new two-axis (MT) coordinate system. Phasor diagram has also been

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, developed in a simplified way, followed by its implementation technique. Analytical

Roorkee 247667, Uttarakhand, India

E-mails: arif.iqbal.in@gmail.com, results have been presented for four-quadrant operation of synchronous motor,

arif0548@gmail.com

employing the developed vector control scheme. In analytical control model, com-

Reviewing editor: mon mutual leakage reactance between the two winding sets occupying same sta-

Wei Meng, Wuhan University of

Technology, China tor slot has been considered.

Additional information is available at Subjects: Automation Control; Mechatronics; Systems & Controls

the end of the article

Keywords: six-phase synchronous motor; vector control; motor drive

1. Introduction

The multiphase (more than three phase) AC motor drives are used as a substitute of conventional

three-phase motor in different applications particularly, in propulsion system of ship and vehicle,

textile and steel industries, rolling mills, power plants, etc. This is because it offers certain potential

advantages when compared with its three-phase counterpart, like reduction in space and time har-

monics, reduced torque pulsation, increased power handling capability, higher reliability, etc. (Levi,

2008; Singh, 2002).

Field-oriented control (i.e. vector control) technique has been widely used in high performance of

AC motor drives. In this regard, an abundant number of literatures are available for three-phase

motor (Bose, 2002; Das & Chattopadhyay, 1997; Jain & Ranganathan, 2011; Krause, Wasynczuk, &

Sudhoff, 2004), but a few for six-phase induction motor (Bojoi, Lazzari, Profumo, & Tenconi, 2003;

Singh, Nam, & Lim, 2005), wherein dq model of machine has been used in synchronously rotating

Arif Iqbal received his BTech and MTech degrees It is always advantageous to use the electrical

both in electrical engineering in 2005 and 2007, machine with its performance at higher level

respectively, from Aligarh Muslim University, using a suitable technique. Among different

Aligarh, India. After having experience in industry techniques, vector control is widely used as it

and teaching in the field AC drives and power provides the decoupled control of torque and flux

system for a few years, he is currently pursuing component of machine current. Therefore, the

his PhD from Indian Institute of Technology paper explores a detailed asymmetrical six-phase

Roorkee, India. His area of interest is multiphase synchronous motor operation employing this

AC machine and drives, power electronics, and technique. Analysis and simulation of complete

renewable energy system. drive system has been carried out in Matlab/

Simulink environment, where dynamic behavior

of motor was found to be substantially improved.

It is believed that the paper will serve as a

Arif Iqbal source toward higher performance of six-phase

synchronous motor.

2016 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution

(CC-BY) 4.0 license.

Page 1 of 10

Iqbal et al., Cogent Engineering (2016), 3: 1134040

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2015.1134040

reference frame. But the utilization of this scheme has not been reported for field excited six-phase

synchronous motor. Therefore, the paper is dedicated to explore and develop the control technique

for asymmetrical six-phase synchronous motor. In the control scheme, a new two axis (MT coordi-

nate) has been introduced along which the decoupled control of flux and torque is achieved.

Following the inclusion of control technique, a detailed analytical results have been presented for

motor operation in four quadrants.

2. Mathematical modeling

For the purpose of realizing the six-phase motor, it is a common practice to split the existing three-

phase stator winding into two, namely a b c and abc. Both splitted stator winding sets (a b c and

abc) are physically displaced 30 apart to realize asymmetrical six-phase winding configuration.

Asymmetrical six-phase winding configuration yields the reduced torque pulsation (Singh, 2002,

2011) due to the elimination of lower order harmonics. On the rotor side, it is equipped with field

winding fr together with the damper windings Kd and Kq along d and q-axis, respectively.

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The equation of the motor can be written using machine variables. But this will yield a set of non-

linear differential equations. Nonlinearity is due to the existence of inductance term which is time

varying in nature. Such equations are computationally complex and time-consuming. Therefore, to

simplify the motor equations with constant inductance term, it will be conveniently written in rotor

reference frame using Parks variables (Iqbal, Singh, & Pant, 2014, in press; Schiferl & Ong, 1983;

Singh, 2011).

r p

v dqk = r sk i dqk + + (1)

b dqk b dqk

p

v dqr = r dqr i dqk + (2)

b dqr

[ ]T

vdqk = vdk vqk (3)

[ ]T

dqk = dk qk (4)

[ ]T

rdqk = rdk rqk (5)

{

1, for winding set a b c

for k =

2, for winding set a b c

[ ]T

vdqr = vKd vKq vfr (6)

rfr

vfr = exfd [3, 12] (7)

xmd

[ ]T

dqr = Kd Kq fr (8)

[ ]T

rdqk = rKd rKq rfr (9)

Equations of motor flux linkage per second may be conveniently written as the function of currents,

= xi (10)

Page 2 of 10

Iqbal et al., Cogent Engineering (2016), 3: 1134040

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2015.1134040

[ ]T [ ]T

where i = idqk idqk , = dqk dqk

x is defined in Appendix 1.

e = e1 + e2 (11)

where e1 and e2 are the developed motor torque associated with winding sets a b c and abc,

respectively, and expressed as

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3P 1

with c =

2 2 b

[ ]

r 1 1 P 1( )

= e l (14)

b p b 2 J

wherein, l is the load torque, p represents the derivative function w.r.t. time and all symbols stand

to their usual meaning (Iqbal et al., in press). Evaluation of motor parameters is determined from the

standard test procedure (Aghamohammadi & Pourgholi, 2008; Alger, 1970; Jones, 1967).

The operating performance of vector-controlled motor is greatly improved and similar to that of a

separately excited DC motor (Bose, 2002). This is because of decoupled control of both flux compo-

nent and torque component of stator current. The inclusion of vector control scheme is not similar

to that of induction motor drive. The main difference lies on the fact that the air gap flux is attributed

by both stator flux as well as field flux. Therefore, the resultant air gap flux will align along the axis

which is different from conventional d-axis. Hence, a new (MT) coordinate axis has been introduced

wherein, the resultant flux vector and torque current component will align along M and T axis, re-

spectively. Machine variables in newly defined coordinate axis (MT axis) may be readily transformed

to its equivalent dq or vice versa by relation

[ ] [ ][ ]

Mk cosk sink dk

= (15)

Tk sink cosk qk

In above relation, the torque angle 1 and 2 are associated with winding sets a b c and abc,

respectively, and defined as

1 = 0 (16)

1 = 0 + + (17)

0 is the initial value of load angle, whereas is the phase difference between voltage fed to phase

a and a. Hence, torque attributed by each stator winding sets a b c and abc is given by Equations

(12) and (13) may be readily written in MT axes,

Page 3 of 10

Iqbal et al., Cogent Engineering (2016), 3: 1134040

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2015.1134040

vector-controlled six-phase T1

synchronous motor. , j qs

Va = Va e

M1

Va

s1

a

IM1 Is1 M2

Is2 I m1 s2

I T1 I I T1 ,

M2 a

I T2 1 I m2 I T2

2

r 1 2 ,

I fr fr

ds

Downloaded by [Mr ARIF IQBAL] at 04:02 29 January 2016

where, the flux linkage Mk and Tk, and stator current IMk and ITk are aligned along MkTk axes respec-

tively, for winding sets a b c (for k=1) and abc (for k=2). Since, the resultant armature air gap flux

is only aligned along flux axis (i.e. Mk axis). Therefore,

s1 = 2

M1 2

+ T1 (20)

s2 = 2

M2 2

+ T2 (21)

The developed motor torque is dependent on flux linkage s1 (and s2) and current IT1 (and IT2) which

are orthogonal. This is the introduction of vector-controlled six-phase synchronous motor. The mo-

tor operation during steady state has been shown in the developed phasor diagram in Figure 1.

The implementation of developed vector-controlled synchronous motor drive system has been

shown in Figure 2. In this paper, motor operation has been investigated in constant torque region up

to base speed, but same may be extended in field weakening region above base speed. In the figure,

the outer speed loop is used to generate the reference value torque component of stator current ITk

through a speed controller (PI controller), whereas the reference value magnetizing current Imk is

generated by the flux controller (PI controller) associated with each winding sets a b c (for k=1) and

abc (for k=2). The reference magnetizing current is used to establish the required flux sk in air

gap, which related to field current by the relation,

}

Im1 = Ifr cos 1

(23)

Im2 = Ifr cos 2

In phasor diagram, current component IT1 (and IT2) is in the direction of T1 (and T2) axis along which

the voltage vector is also aligned. Further, the magnetizing component of current Im1 (and Im2) is

Page 4 of 10

Iqbal et al., Cogent Engineering (2016), 3: 1134040

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2015.1134040

of vector-controlled six-phase

synchronous motor drive.

Downloaded by [Mr ARIF IQBAL] at 04:02 29 January 2016

aligned along M1 (and M2) axis which is used to establish the flux vector s1 (and s2). At steady state,

both the stator flux and armature flux vectors are orthogonal to each other, i.e. s1 (and s2) is per-

pendicular to a1 (and a2) as shown in phasor diagram. Therefore, at steady state, both the vectors

ITk and Isk are equal i.e. IT1=Is1 for winding set a b c (and IT2=Is2 for winding set abc) and becomes

in phase with voltage vector, signifying the motor operation at unity power factor. In control scheme,

it may be noted that the magnetizing current component Im1 (and Im2) is related to field current Ifrk

associated with winding sets a b c and abc. Field current commands Ifr1 and Ifr2 are synthesized

using Equation (23) in feedback loop. In field control loop, the field current error is fed to the field

controller (PI controller) to establish the required field excitation. It may be noted here that the

magnitude of field current magnitude associated with each winding set a b c and abc is assumed

to be same Ifr (= 0.5Ifr ). Now, the flux component of stator current is generated by

}

IM1 = Im1 Ifr cos 1

(24)

IM2 = Im2 Ifr cos 2

Above relation will yield a finite value of IM1and IM2. But at steady state, it becomes zero (i.e.

IM1 = IM2 = 0) and Equation (23) will be satisfied. As soon as stator current component ITk

and IMk

are synthesized for winding sets a b c (k=1) and abc (k=2), the reference value of current in sta-

tionary reference frame is generated. For this purpose, following two-step transformation is carried

out.

(1)Current component ITk and IMk are transformed to dq component in stationary reference

(2)Above obtained stationary dq component of current is transformed into its equivalent three-

phase current (Krause et al., 2004).

The reference current generated in above steps in stationary reference frame are then compared

with actual phase current of stator windings which results in current error. This current error is fed to

the hysteresis current controller to regulate switching of inverter circuit feeding the motor.

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Iqbal et al., Cogent Engineering (2016), 3: 1134040

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2015.1134040

5. Simulation results

The developed system of vector-controlled six-phase synchronous motor drive was implemented in

Matlab/Simulink environment. For this purpose, a 3.7-kW motor (parameters are given in Appendix

1) was operated in four quadrant. Initially, speed command was given at time t=0.1s. in ramp way,

following to which motor starts to run at synchronous speed after time t=0.65s, showing its opera-

tion in first quadrant. A load of 50% of base torque was applied at time t=1.5s which results a small

dip in speed by 0.03rad/s, but regains its original speed (i.e. synchronous speed) after time t=0.5s,

as shown in Figure 3. In order to examine the motor operation in second quadrant, the direction of

load torque was reversed at time t=3s, resulting in a small increase in rotor speed by 0.05rad/s. A

small change in rotor speed due to sudden change in load torque signifies the disturbance rejection

property of the drive system. A zoomed view of speed variation has been shown in Figure 3(a).

Following to the change in load torque, not only the variation in q-component of stator current but

also resulted a small variation in d-component of current, as shown in Figure 5. Change in stator

current is also reflected in T-axis component of motor current flowing in winding sets a b c and abc,

in Figures 4 and 6. In order to shift the motor operation to third quadrant, a speed reversal command

Downloaded by [Mr ARIF IQBAL] at 04:02 29 January 2016

was initiated at time t=4s in ramp way. The motor is then finally operates in reverse motoring mode

after time t=5s at synchronous speed. Further, at time t=6s the load torque is reversed to operate

the drive in fourth quadrant. It is important to note here that the switching of motor operation to

different quadrant results in a large variation in d-component stator current whose effect is com-

pensated by rotor field current, as shown in Figure 7(b). But the field circuit has a larger time con-

stant, making the response slow (Das & Chattopadhyay, 1997; Jain & Ranganathan, 2011; Krause et

al., 2004). This sluggish response of field circuit is substantially improved due to the magnetizing

current injection along flux direction, as depicted by reference value of current in Figure 4(b and c)

as well as in actual current in Figure 6(c and d). Input phase voltage fed to winding sets a b c and

abc, is shown in Figure 8(a) and (b), respectively.

6. Conclusion

The scheme of vector control applicable for asymmetrical six-phase synchronous motor has been

developed and extensively investigated in four quadrant operation. In this control technique, stator

current is maintained for motor operation at unity power factor, which minimizes the stator current

(a)

rotor speed r and (b) torque Te.

(b)

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Iqbal et al., Cogent Engineering (2016), 3: 1134040

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2015.1134040

MT coordinate (a) IT1

, (b) IM1

(b)

(c)

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coordinate (a) iq1 (b) id1 (c) iq2

(d) id2.

(b)

(c)

(d)

coordinate (a) IT1, (b) IT2 (c) IM1

and (d) IM2.

(b)

(c)

(d)

Page 7 of 10

Iqbal et al., Cogent Engineering (2016), 3: 1134040

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2015.1134040

field circuit (a) reference Ifr , (b)

actual Ifr (c) voltage Efr.

(b)

(c)

Downloaded by [Mr ARIF IQBAL] at 04:02 29 January 2016

voltage (a) phase a (b) phase a'.

(b)

and hence less losses. The dynamic behavior of six-phase synchronous motor in different quadrant

operation was found to be substantially improved because of the decoupled/independent control of

flux as well as torque component of current along MT axis, respectively. Furthermore, sluggish re-

sponse of the rotor field circuit was also noted to be improved because of the magnetizing current

injection from armature side.

The present work may be further extended and investigated under different practical application

with their experimental validation.

The authors received no direct funding for this research. E-mail: gksngfee@gmail.com

Vinay Pant1

Author details E-mail: vpantfee@gmail.com

Arif Iqbal1 1

Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of

E-mail: arif.iqbal.in@gmail.com, arif0548@gmail.com Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, Uttarakhand, India.

ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7113-6007

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Iqbal et al., Cogent Engineering (2016), 3: 1134040

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2015.1134040

Citation information Jain, A. K., & Ranganathan, V. T. (2011). Modeling and field

Cite this article as: Vector control of asymmetrical six-phase oriented control of salient pole wound field synchronous

synchronous motor, Arif Iqbal, G.K. Singh & Vinay Pant, Cogent machine in stator flux coordinates. IEEE Transactions on

Engineering(2016), 3: 1134040. Industrial Electronics, 58, 960970.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2010.2048295

References Jones, C. V. (1967). The unified theory of electric machine.

Aghamohammadi, M. R., & Pourgholi, M. (2008). Experience London: Butterworths.

with SSSFR test for synchronous generator model Krause, P. C., Wasynczuk, O., & Sudhoff, S. D. (2004). Analysis

identification using HookJeeves optimization method. of electrical machinery and drive Systems. Piscataway, NJ:

International Journal of System Applications, Engineering IEEE Press and Wiley.

and Development, 2, 122127. Levi, E. (2008). Multiphase electric machines for variable-speed

Alger, P. L. (1970). Induction machine. New York, NY: Gorden applications. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Applications,

and Breach. 38, 18931909.

Bojoi, R., Lazzari, M., Profumo, F., & Tenconi, A. (2003). Digital Schiferl, R. F., & Ong, C. M. (1983). Six phase synchronous

field-oriented control for dual three-phase induction machine with AC and DC stator connections, part I:

motor drives. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Equivalent circuit representation and steady-state

39, 752760. analysis. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and

http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2003.811790 Systems, 102, 26852693.

Bose, B. K. (2002). Mordern power electronics and AC drives. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAS.1983.317674

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Singh, G. K. (2002). Multi-phase induction machine drive

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Das, S. P., & Chattopadhyay, A. K. (1997). Observer based researchA survey. Electric Power Systems Research, 61,

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synchronous motor drive. IEEE Transactions on Industry http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7796(02)00007-X

Applications, 33, 943955. Singh, G. K. (2011). Modeling and analysis of six-phase

http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/28.605736 synchronous generator for stand-alone renewable energy

Iqbal, A., Singh, G. K., & Pant, V. (2014). Steady-state modeling generation. Energy, 36, 56215631.

and analysis of six-phase synchronous motor. System http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.07.005

Science & Control Engineering, 2, 236249. Singh, G. K., Nam, K., & Lim, S. K. (2005). A simple indirect

Iqbal, A., Singh, G. K., & Pant, V. (in press). Stability analysis field-oriented control scheme for multiphase induction

of asymmetrical six-phase synchronous motor. Turkish machine. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 52,

Journal of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences. 11771184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2005.851593

Appendix 1

r2=0.210 xmd=6.1732 xldq=0

rKq=2.535 xlKq=0.66097 xlm=0.001652

rKd=140.0 xlKd=1.550 xlfr=0.2402

xl1=xl2=0.1758

xl1 + xlm + xmd 0 xlm + xmd xldq xmd 0 xmd

0 xl1 + xlm + xmd xldq xlm + xmq 0 xmq 0

xlm + xmd xldq xl2 + xlm + xmd 0 xmd 0 xmd

xldq xlm + xmq 0 xl2 + xlm + xmq 0 xmq 0

x=

xmd 0 xmd 0 xlKd + xmd

0

xmd 0 xmq 0xmq 0 xlKq + xmq 0

xmd 0 xmd 0 xmd 0 xlfr + xmd

Page 9 of 10

Iqbal et al., Cogent Engineering (2016), 3: 1134040

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2015.1134040

Downloaded by [Mr ARIF IQBAL] at 04:02 29 January 2016

2016 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.

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You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

No additional restrictions

You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.

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