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Hypersonic Shock Relations (with similarity parameter)

Pressure Ratio
2 2
=1+ (2 sin2 1)
1 +1 1

After applying the small angle assumption, we get that:

2 2
= 1+ (2 2 1) ()
1 +1 1

2 ( + 1) + 1 +1 2 1 1
( ) (
+ ( ) + ( 2 2 )) 2 2 = 0
2 4 4 1 1

( + 1) ( + 1) ( + 1) + 1 2 1 1
2 = ( + ( ) + 2 2 ) 2 + 2 ()
2 4 2 4 1 1

Substituting above in the reduced pressure ratio expression

2 2 2
( + 1) ( + 1) ( + 1) + 1 2 1 1
=1+ [1 {( + ( ) + 2 2 ) 2 + 2 } 1]
1 +1 2 4 2 4 1 1

2 ( + 1) ( + 1) ( + 1) + 1 2 1
= 1+ [{( + ( ) + 2 2 ) 12 2 + 1} 1]
+1 2 4 2 4 1

2 ( + 1) ( + 1) ( + 1) + 1 2 1
= 1+ [( + ( ) + 2 2 ) 12 2 ]
+1 2 4 2 4 1

( + 1) 2 2 +1 2 1
= 1+
1 + ( ( ) + 2 2 ) 12 2 ()
4 4 1

On denoting the similarity parameter = 1 :


2 ( + 1) 2 +1 2 1
=1+
+( ( ) + 2 ) 2 ()
1 4 4

Pressure Coefficient
2 2 2 ( + 1) 2 +1 2 1
= ( 1) = [{1 + + (( ) + 2 ) 2 } 1]
2 2 4 4
1 1 1

On multiplying and dividing by 2 , we get that:

2 2 ( + 1) 2 +1 2 1
= {
+( ( ) + 2) 2}
2 4 4

( + 1) +1 2 1
= 2 {2
+( ( ) + 2 )} ()
4 4

So for the hypersonic flow over wedge of small deflection angles:


= (, ) ()
2

Hypersonic Expansion Wave Relations


= (2 ) (1 ) ()
where is the Prandtl-Meyer function which is function of Mach number and is the deflection
angle.

+1 1 2
() = [tan1 ( 1)] tan1 2 1 ()
1 +1

In the case of infinite Mach number it will attain a maximum value of:

+1
() = ( 1) = 130.45 for = 1.4 ()
2 1
Now applying the hypersonic limits, we have been applying on the other wave equations, i.e. for
very high value of Mach number 2 1 . We can write the above equation as:

+1 1
() = (tan1 ) tan1 ()
1 +1

Recalling the trigonometric identity and is the series expansion:

1
tan1 = tan1 ()
2

1 1 1 1 1
tan1 = 3+ 5 7+
3 5 7

On applying the series in the expression:

1 1 1 1
tan1 = + 3 5 + 7 ()
2 3 5 7

Now utilizing the series for arctan in the expression (xxix):

+1 +1 1 1
() = ( + ) ( + ) ()
1 2 1 2

Higher orders have been ignored for high Mach number.

+ 1 +1 1 1
() = ( ) +
12 1 2

1 +1 1 + 1
() = ( ) +
1 12 2

+ 1 2 1
() = ( )
12 2 1

Now substituting this function in the original expansion wave equation:


2 1 2 1
= +
1 2 1 1

2 1 1
= ( ) ()
1 1 2

Pressure Ratio
1 2 1
1 +
2
=( 2 1 ) ()
1 1
1 + 2 22

For the large enough Mach number, the hypersonic approximation becomes:

2 1 21
=( ) ()
1 2

On rearranging the equation (xxxiv):

1 1
=1 1 ()
2 2

It is very useful and handy relation between upstream and downstream Mach numbers when the
deflection angle is given. Now the pressure ratio can also be expressed using this Mach number
ratio as below:

21
2 1
= (1 1 )
1 2

Using = 1 a hypersonic similarity parameter.

2 1 21
= (1 ) ()
1 2

Recalling the pressure ratio in the case of shock

2 ( + 1) 2 +1 2 1
=1+ + (( ) + 2 ) 2 ()
1 4 4
Pressure Coefficient
Now considering the coefficient of pressure:

2 2 2 1 21
= ( 1) = [(1 ) 1] ()
12 1 12 2

Again multiplying and dividing the right hand side by 2 , we obtain:

2 2 1 21
= [(1 ) 1] ()
2 2

So for the pressure coefficient again we got some equation which is very much analogous to what
we have obtained for the shock relation and again the assumptions are bit more in the case of shock
derivation.


= (, ) ()
2