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Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.

com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Bi tp 1 : Tnh pH ca dung dch HCl c nng sau y :


a. 0,1M b. 0,02M c. 5.10-3 d. 10-6 e. 10-7
Gii
Nu khng k n lc ion ca dung dch th pH ca dung dch HCl cc nng
0,1M, 0,02M, 5.10-3M, 10-6M, 10-7M l:
a/Ca ={0,1M, 0,02M, 5.10-3M , 10-6}
Ta c: Ca 10-6 => [OH-] < < Ca khi : [H+] =Ca
Vy pH ca dung dch HCl cc nng ny l:
pH1= -lg [Ca1] =-lg[0,1]=1

n
pH2= -lg [Ca2] =-lg[0,02]=1,7

h
pH3= -lg [Ca3] =-lg[5.10-3]=2,3

N
pH4= -lg [Ca4] =-lg[10-6]=6

uy
b.Ta c : 10-8 < Ca =10-7 < 10-6

Q
Ta c:
HCl ->H+ + Cl-
m
K
H2O H+ + OH-
y

Phng trnh bo ton proton :


D

[H+]=[Cl-]+[OH-] = Ca + [OH-]
/+

K H 2O
[ H + ] = Ca +
m

[H + ]
co

[ H + ]2 Ca.[ H + ] K H 2O = 0
2 -7
[H+] -10 [H+]-10-14 = 0
e.
gl

[H + ]=1,62.10-8
+ -7

[H ]=-6,2.10 ( loai )
oo

Vy pH5=-lg[H+] = -lg[1,62.10-7] = 6,79


G

Bi tp 2 : Tnh pH ca dung dch CH3COOH , pKa = 4,75 c nng sau :


a. 10-1M b. 10-2M c. 10-3M d. 10-4M e. 10-5M f. 10-6M
Gii
Phng trnh phn ly :
CH3COOH  CH3COO+H+
H2O  OH- + H+
Phng trnh bo ton proton : [H+] =[CH3COO-]+ [OH-] (1)
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Phng trnh bo ton hng s :


[CH 3COO ].[ H + ]
K= (2)
[CH 3COOH ]

Phng trnh bo ton khi lng :

[CH3COOH] + [CH3COO-]= Ca (3)


Gii (1) (2) (3) ta c :
[ H + ].([ H + ] [OH ])
K=
Ca [ H + ] + [OH ]

n
Gi s : [OH ] << H + v Ca >> H +

h
2
H +
K= H + = K .Ca

N
Ca

uy
1
Vy :pH = ( pKa l o g Ca )

Q
2

m
K
Vi pKa = 4,75
1
y

a. pH = (4, 75 log101 ) = 2,88


2
D

1
b. Ca =10-2M =>pH = (4,75-log10-2)=3,38
/+

2
m

1
c. Ca =10-3M =>pH = (4,75-log10-3)=3,88
2
co

1
d. Ca =10-4M =>pH = (4,75-log10-4)=4,38
e.

2
gl

1
e. Ca =10-5M =>pH = (4,75-log10-5)=4,88
oo

2
1
f. Ca =10-6M =>pH = (4,75-log10-6)=5,38
G

2
Bi tp 3 : Tnh pH ca cc dung dch mui amoniclorua c cc nng sau :
a. a. 10-1M b. 10-2M c. 10-3M
NH3 c pKb = 4,75
Gii
Phng trnh phn ly :
NH4Cl  NH 4+ + Cl-
NH4+  NH 3 + H+
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

H2O  H + + OH-
PT Hng s Axit :
[ NH 3 ] H + NH 4+
K NH + = [ NH 3 ] = .K NH +
4
NH 4+ H + 4

K H 2O 1014
K NH + = = 4,75 = 109,25
4
K NH 3 10
PT bo ton in tch : [H+]=[NH3]+[OH-]

K NH + .[ NH 4+ ] K H 2O

n
[H + ] = 4
+
H + H +

h
N
[ H + ]2 = K NH + .Ca + K H 2O
4

uy
Q
Ca=10-1 (M) => [H+] = 7,5.10-6 => pH =-lg[H+]= 5,12
Ca=10-2 (M) => [H+] = 2,37.10-6 => pH =-lg[H+]= 5,62
m
K
Ca=10-3 (M) => [H+] = 7,57.10-7 => pH =-lg[H+]= 6,12
y

Bi tp 4 :V th logarit nng ca dung dch baz yu B c pKb = 5 v


D

nng 10-2M . Da vo th tnh pH ca dung dch .


/+

Gii
m

Ta c cc cn bng trong dung dch :


co

B + H 2O  BH + + OH
e.

H2O  H++OH-
gl

Phng trnh bo ton proton: [OH-] = [H+]+ [BH+] (1)


oo

Phng trnh bo ton khi lng : [B] +[BH+] = Cb (2)


G

[ BH + ].[OH ]
Phng trnh hng s cn bng : K B = (3)
[ B]
K H 2O
Phng trnh hng s cn bng ca axit lin hp vi baz [BH+] : KBH+= (4)
KB

V th :
Ta c im h ( 9;-2)
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

n
h
th logarit ca bazo yu B

N
uy
T th ta thy : [H+] <<[BH+]

Q
Do phng trnh (1) tr thnh : [BH+] = [OH-]

m
K
Cb[ H + ] K H 2O
=
K BH + + [ H ] [ H + ]
+
y

+ 2 + +
Cb[H ] -KH2O.KBH - [H ].KH2O. =0
D

-2 + 2 -14
10 [H ] -10 [H+] -1023=0
/+

[[ HH + ]]==3,2.10
+ 11
m

3,1.1011 ( loai )
co

Vy pH =-lg[H+]=-lg[3,2.10-11]=10,5
e.

Bi tp 5 : Cn ly bao nhiu gam NH4Cl pha thnh 1 lt dung dch c pH =


gl

5,5 . Bit NH3 c pKb = 4,75 .


oo

Gii
G

Phng trnh phn ly :


NH4Cl  NH 4+ + Cl-
NH4+  NH 3 + H+
H2O  H + + OH
Phng trnh hng s axit:
[ NH 3 ] H + K NH + . NH 4+
K NH + = [ NH 3 ] = 4

4
NH
+
4
[H + ]
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Do ion NH 4+ l axit lin hp ca NH3 nn:

K NH + .K NH3 = K H 2O|
4

K H 2O 1014
K NH + = = 4,75 = 109,25
4
K NH 3 10

PT bo ton proton :
[H+]=[NH3+[OH-]
K NH + .[ NH 4+ ] K H 2O
[H + ] = 4
+
[H ] +
[H + ]

n
[ H + ]2 = K NH + .[ NH 4+ ] + K H 2O (*)

h
4

V dung dch sau khi pha c pH = 5,5 => [H+]=10-5,5

N
Nn (*) tr thnh :

uy
-9,25
(10-5,5 ) 2 = 10 . [ NH 4+ ] + 10-14

Q
[ NH 4+ ] =0,0177 (M)

Khi cn bng ta c: [ NH 4+ ] = [ NH 4Cl ]=0,0177 (M)


m
K
Do s mol NH 4Cl cn ly l : n NH4Cl= [NH4Cl]. V = 0,0177 . 1 = 0,0177 ( mol )
y

Vy khi lng cn ly pha thnh 1lt dung dch c pH = 5,5 l :


D

m =0,0177.53,5 = 0,95 (g)


/+
m

CU 6: tnh pH ca cc dd sau;
co

a) Dd A CH3COOH 2,5.10-2 M + CH3COONa 7,5.10-2 M


e.

b) Dd A sau khi thm 10-2 mol HCl vo 1 lt dd


gl

c) Dd A sau khi thm 10-2 mol NaOH vo 1 lt dd


oo

GII
G

a) Tnh pH ca dd (a) CH3COOH 2,5.10-2 M + CH3COONa 7,5.10-2 M


v dd cho l dd m nn ta c pH dd c tnh theo cng thc

pH = pKa log Ca
Cb
trong :
ka l hng s axt ca CH3COOH
Ca l nng ca CH3COOH
Cb l nng ca CH3COONa
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

pH = 4,75 + 0,48 = 5,23


b)dd (a) sau khi thm 10-2 mol HCl vo 1 lt dd
HCl = H+ + Cl
[H+ ] = [HCl] = 10-2
H+ + CH3COO = CH3COOH
Ta c [CH3COO ] = 7,5 .10-2 - 10-2 = 6,5.10-2
[CH3COOH] = 2,5.10-2 + 10-2 = 3,5.10-2
-2
pH = 4,75 log 3,5.10-2 = 5,02
6,5.10

n
c) dd (a) sau khi thm 10-2 mol NaOH vo 1 lt dd

h
NaOH = Na+ + OH

N
[OH ] = [NaOH] = 10-2

uy
Trong dd s xy ra phn ng

Q
CH3COOH + OH = CH3COO + H2O

m
Ta c [CH3COO ] = 7,5 .10-2 + 10-2 = 8,5.10-2
K
[CH3COOH] = 2,5.10-2 - 10-2 = 1,5.10-2
y

-2
pH = 4,75 log 1,5.10 = 5,50
8,5.10-2
D

CU 7: m nng l g ? ngha ca m nng ? tnh m nng ca dd


/+

CH3COOH 0,1M + CH3COONa 0,1M


m

m nng l g ?
co


m nng l s mol axt mnh ( hoc baz mnh ) cn thm vo 1 lt dd m
e.

pH ca n tng ln ( hoc gim xung ) 1 n v


gl

ngha ca m nng ?
oo


Da vo cng thc tnh m nng ta c th tnh ton pha ch c nhng
G

hn hp m 1 cch n gin, chnh xc, v d dng


 Tnh m nng ca dd
CH3COOH 0,1 M + CH3COONa 0,1 M
p dng cng thc tnh m nng ta c
0,1.0,1
= 2,3 Ca.Cb = 2,3 =0,115
Ca+Cb 0,2
CU 8: Tnh pH ca dd (NH4)2SO4 10-2M bit K(HSO4-) = 10-2
 Cc cn bng trong dd :
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

NH4+ NH3 + H+
SO42- + H+ HSO4
H2O OH + H+
 PT bo ton proton
[NH3 ] + [OH ] = [HSO4 ] + [H+] (1)
 Pt bo ton khi lng :
[NH3] + [NH4+] = 2.Cm = 2.10-2
[SO42-] + [HSO4 ] = Cm = 10-2 (2)

n
h
 th logarit:
2 im h

N
uy
PK -
NH4+=9,25
PK
HSO4 =2

logC=-1,7 logC=-2

Q
m
K
y
D
/+
m
co
e.
gl
oo

da vo th ta thy:
G

[NH3] >> [OH-]


pt(1) [NH3] = [HSO4 ] + [H+ ]

[H+ ] = [NH3] - [HSO4 ] (*)
Theo th ta c:
[NH4+] >> [H+ ] [HSO4 ]
[NH4+]>>[NH3] +
[NH4 ]=2C=2.10
-2
[SO42-]>>[HSO4 ] [SO4-]=C=10-2

[H+].[NH3]
Ta c KNH4 =
[NH4+]
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

[SO42-].[H+]
KHSO4- =
[HSO4 ]
Thay vo (*) ta c:
2- + -9,25 10-2.[H+]
4 ].K[NH4+] [SO4 ].[H ]
+ -2
+
[H ] = [NH - = 2.10 .10 -
[H+] KHSO4- [H+] 10-2

2[H+]2 = 2.10-2.10-9,25 [H+] = 10-2.10-9,25


[H+] = 2,37.10-6
pH = 5,63
CU 9: Tnh pH ca dd NH4HSO4 10-2M . bit K(HSO4-) = 10-2

n
 Cc cn bng trong dd :

h
NH4HSO4 NH4+ + HSO4-

N
NH4+ NH3 + H+

uy
HSO4 SO42- + H+

Q
H2O OH + H+
 PT bo ton proton
m
K
[H+] = [SO42-] + [NH3 ] + [OH ] (1)
y

 Pt bo ton khi lng :


[NH3] + [NH4+] = 10-2
D

[SO42-] + [HSO4 ] = 10-2


/+

(2)
m

 th logarit:
co

PK -
NH4+=9,25
PK
HSO4 =2
2 im h:
logC=-2 logC=-2
e.
gl
oo
G

da vo th ta thy:
[NH3] >> [OH-]
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

[SO42-] >> [NH3]


pt(1) [H+] = [SO42-] = 10-2
pH = 2
CU 10: Tnh pH ca dd H2C2O4 10-2M bit axit c
pK1 = 1,25 ; pK2 = 4,27
 Vit cc cbng xy ra : H2C2O4 HC2O4-+ H+
HC2O4- C2O42- + H+
H2O OH + H+
 Pt bo ton proton

n
[H+] = [HC2O4-] + [CO42-] + [OH ] (1)

h
 Pt bo ton khi lng

N
[H2C2O4] + [HC2O4-] + [CO42-] = 10-2 (2)

uy
 th logarit:

Q
2 im h:
pK1=1,25
m
K

logC=-2
y

pK =4,27
2

logC=-2
D

da vo th ta thy:
/+

[HC2O4-] >> [CO42-


m

]>>[OH ]
co

n gin [CO42-] v
e.

[OH ] ta c:
gl
oo

[H+] = [HC2O4-]
[H+].[HC2O4-] + 2
K1 = = [H ] +
[H2C2O4] Ca-[H ]
[H+]2 + [H+].K1 - Ca.K1 = 0
[H+]2 + 10-1,25 [H+].- 10-2. 10-1,25 = 0
[H+] = 8,66.10-3
pH = 2,06
11.tnh pH ca dung dich sau :
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

a. H2C2O4 0,1M + NaOH 0,095M


b. H2C2O4 0,1M + NaOH 0,105M
c. H2C2O4 0,1M + NaOH 0,1M
Axit H2C2O4 c pK1 = 1,25;pK2 = 4,27
Bi gii :
a,H2C2O4 0,1M + NaOH 0,105 M
H 2C2O4 HC2O4 + H + K1 = 10-1,25
HC2O4 C2O42 + H + K1 = 10-4,27
NaOH Na + + OH

n
h
Phng trnh trung ha in : [Na + ] + [H + ] = [OH ] + [HC2O4 ]+2[C2O 42 ] (1)
NaOH phn ly hon ton nn [Na+] = 0,105 M

N
(1) 0,105 + [ H+] = [OH ] + [ HC2O4 ] + 2[C2O42 ]

uy
(2)

Q
Phng trnh bo ton khi lng : [ H 2C2O4 ] + [ HC2O4 ] + [C2O42 ] = 0,1 (3)

m
Ly (2) - (3) ta c : 0, 005 + [H + ] = [OH ]-[ H 2C2O4 ] + [C2O42 ]
K
0, 005 + [H + ]+[ H 2C2O4 ] = [OH ]+[C2O42 ]
y

T th logarit thy lg 0,005 >>lg H+,v lg H2C2O4


D

Lg [C2O42 ] >> lg[OH ]


/+

Ta c: 0,005 = [C2O42 ]
m

[C 2O 24 ][H + ] 0, 005[ H + ]
K2 = = 10-4,27
co

=
[HC2O4 ]
(0,1 [H ])
+
e.

[H+] = 1,06-3 pH = 2,97


gl
oo

b, H2C2O4 0,1M + NaOH 0,1 M


G

phng trnh trung ha in : Na + + H + = OH + [HC2O4 ] + 2[C2O42 ] (1)


Phng trnh bo ton khi lng : 0,1 = [ H 2C2O4 ] + [ HC2O4 ] + [C2O42 ] (2)
Ly (1) (2) [H + ] = [OH ]-[ H 2C2O4 ] + [C2O42 ]

[H + ]+[ H 2C2O4 ] = [OH ]+[C2O42 ]

T th logarit [ H 2C2O4 ] = [C2O42 ]


1
[ H + ] = K1K 2 pH = ( pk1 + pk2 )
2
= 2,76
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

c, ,H2C2O4 0,1M + NaOH 0,095 M


phng trnh bo ton in : [Na + ] + [H + ] = [OH ] + [HC2O4 ]+2[C2O 42 ] (1)
phng trnh bo ton khi lng : 0,1 = [ H 2C2O4 ] + [ HC2O4 ] + [C2O42 ] (2)
ly (2) (1) : 0, 005 [H + ] = [ H 2C2O4 ] [OH ] - [C2O42 ]
0, 005 + [OH ]+[C2O42 ] = [H 2C2 O 4 ] + [H + ]

[HC2 O 4 ][H + ] -1,25


T th ta c : 0, 005 = [H 2 C2 O 4 ] K1= = 10
[H 2C2O4 ]

[ H + ] = 2,9.103 pH = 2,54

n
h
N
uy
Q
m
K
y

th logarit nng ca dung dch H2C2O4 0,1M


D
/+

12.tnh pH ca hn hp cc dung dch sau :


m

a.H3PO4 0,1M + NaOH 0,08M


co

b.H3PO4 0,1M + NaOH 0,102M


e.

c.H3PO4 0,1M + NaOH 0,01M


gl

Axit H3PO4 c pK1 = 2,12 ; pK2 = 7,21 ; pK3 = 12,36 ;


oo

Bi gii :
G

a. H3PO4 0,1 M + NaOH 0.102M


H 3 PO4 H 2 PO4 + H + K1=10-2,12
H 2 PO4 HPO42 + H + K2=10-7,21
HPO42 PO43 + H + K3=10-12,36
NaOH Na + + OH
Phng trnh trung ha in
Na + + H + = OH + H 2 PO4 + 2 HPO42 + 3PO43

Na + = 0,102 0,102 + H + = OH + H 2 PO4 + 2 HPO42 + 3PO43 (1)


Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Phng trnh bo ton khi lng : 0,1 = H 3 PO4 + H 2 PO4 + HPO42 + PO43 (2)
(1)-(2) 2.103 + H + = OH H 3 PO4 + HPO42 + 2 PO43
2.103 + H + + H 3 PO4 = OH + HPO42 + 2 PO43 (3)
T th : (3) 2.103 = HPO42
[H + ][PO43 ]
2.10 3 = (*)
K3

K1 K 2 K 3Ca
M PO43 = + 3 + 2
thay vo (*)
([H ] + K1[H ] + K1 K 2 [ H + ] + K1 K 2 K 3 )

n
h
[H + ]K1K 2 K 3Ca
2.103 K 3 =
([H + ]3 + K1[H + ]2 + K1 K 2 [ H + ] + K1 K 2 K 3 )

N
Ca
[H + ]3 + K1[H + ]2 + (1 ) K1 K 2 [ H + ] + K1K 2 K 3 ) = 0

uy
3
2.10

Q
[H + ]=3,02.106 pH = 5, 51

m
K
b. H3PO4 0,1 M + NaOH 0.1M
phng trnh bo ton in tch : Na + + H + = OH + H 2 PO4 + 2 HPO42 + 3PO43
y

0,1 + H + = OH + H 2 PO4 + 2 HPO42 + 3PO43 (1)


D
/+

Phng trnh bo ton khi lng : 0,1 = H 3 PO4 + H 2 PO4 + HPO42 + PO43 (2)
m

(1)-(2) H + + H 3 PO4 = OH + HPO42 + 2 PO43


co

T th ta c : H 3 PO4 = HPO42
e.

[H + ][H 2 PO4 ] K 2 [HPO42 ]


[H + ]2 = K1 K 2
gl

=
K1 [H ]
+
oo

1
pH = ( pk1 + pk2 ) = 4, 76
2
G

c. H3PO4 0,1 M + NaOH 0.08M


phng trnh trung ha in : Na + + H + = OH + H 2 PO4 + 2 HPO42 + 3PO43 (1)
phng trnh bo ton khi lng : 0,1 = H 3 PO4 + H 2 PO4 + HPO42 + PO43 (2)
(2)-(1) 2.103 H + = H 3 PO4 OH HPO42 2 PO43
2.103 + OH + HPO42 + 2 PO43 = H 3 PO4 + H +

T th ta c : H 3 PO4 = 2.103
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

[H + ][H 2 PO4 ]
= 2.103 (*)
K1

T phng trnh (2) v th : H 2 PO4 = 0,1 H 3 PO4


(0,1-2.103 )[H + ]
= 2.103 H + = 1,55.104
K1
pH = 3,81

n
h
N
uy
Q
m
K
th logarit nng ca dung dch H3PO4 0,1M
y
D

13. Hy vit cc cn bng xy ra trong dung dch khi ha tan K4[Fe(CN)6] vo


/+

nc?
m

Bi gii:
co

K 4 Fe(CN )6 K 4+ + Fe(CN )66


e.

Fe(CN )46 Fe(CN )35 + CN


gl
oo

Fe(CN )35 Fe(CN )24 + CN


Fe(CN )24 Fe(CN )13 + CN
G

Fe(CN )33 Fe(CN )2 + CN


Fe(CN )2 Fe(CN ) + + CN
Fe(CN )+ Fe 2 + + CN

Tm li : Fe(CN )62 Fe 2+ + 6(CN )


14. hng s bn tng cng ca cc phc to bi ion Hg2+ v ion Br- ln lt l :
1,1 = 109,05 ; 1,2 = 1017,33 ; 1,3 = 1019,74 ; 1,4 = 1021,00 .Tnh hng s bn v khng bn ng

vi tng nc ca cc phc .
Bi gii :
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Hg 2+ + Br HgBr + 1 , k4

HgBr + + Br Hg ( Br ) 2 2 , k3

Hg ( Br ) 2 + Br Hg ( Br )3 3 , k2

Hg ( Br )3 + Br Hg ( Br )24 4 , k1

Hng s bn ng vi nc ca cc phc to bi ion Hg 2+ v ln lt l 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 v


1
hng s khng bn k4 , k3 , k2 , k1 vi =
k
9,05 -9,05
1 =10 k4 =10

1017,33

n
1,2 = 1 2 2 = 9,05
=108,28

h
10
-8,28
k3 =10

N
1019,74

uy
1,3 = 1 2 3 3 = 17,33
=102,41
10

Q
-2,41
k2 =10

1021
m
=101,26
K
1,4 = 1 2 3 4 4 = 19,74
10
10-1,26
y


D
/+

15. phc ca Ca2+ v Fe3+ vi EDTA c hng s khng bn ln lt l : 10-10,57 v


m
co

10-25,1 . Trong hai phc phc no bn hn ?


Bi gii :
e.
gl

T hng s khng bn ta tnh c hng s bn


oo

1
G

KCa2+ = =10-10,57 = 1010,5



1
KFe3+ = = 10-25,1 = 1025,1

Ta da vo gi tr hng s bn ca phc cht ta c th bit c mc bn
hoc khng bn ca phc cht
Ta thy hng s bn Ca2+ < Fe3+
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Hng s bn cng ln( tc hng s khng bn cng nh) th phc cng bn


Vy ta c th khng nh rng trong 2 phc th phc ca Fe3+ bn hn phc ca
Ca2+ vi EDTA

Bi 16: Tnh nng cn bng ca cc ion v phn t trong dung dch


AgNO3 103 M v NH 3 101 M, phc ca Ag + v NH 3 c hng s bn ln lt l 103,32 v

103.92
Gii
Ta c hn hp dung dch AgNO3 , NH 3 : trong dung dch xy ra cc qu trnh

n
h
AgNO3 Ag + + NO3 (1)

103 103

uy
Ag + + NH 3 Ag ( NH 3 )+ (2) vi 1 = 103,32

Q
Ag ( NH 3 )+ + NH 3 Ag ( NH 3 ) 2 + (3) vi 2 = 103.92

m
Gi x l nng cn bng
K
Ly (2) +(3) Ag + + 2 NH 3 Ag ( NH 3 ) 2 + c = 1 . 2 = 107,24
y

Ban u 103 101

Cn bng 2 x x
D

x
/+

Sau cn bng ( 103 - x ) ( 101 - 2 x ) x


m

Ta bit x = 107,24
(103 x)(1012 x)2
co

x =107,24 .( 103 - x ). (101 2 x)2


e.

x = ( 104,24 - 107,24 x )( 102 - 4. 101 x +4 x2 )


gl

4x 3 . 107,24 - 4 . 106,24 x2 - 4.10 4,24 x2 + 105,24 x + 4 .103,24 . x - x - 104,24 = 0


oo

x = 1.03. 10 3 x = 0.06 ( loi ) x =0.041( loi )


G

Nng cn bng ca NH 3 ca (2) v (3) l x=1,03. 10 3 10 3 M

AgNH +

C 1 = + 3 = 103,32 (a)
Ag [ NH 3 ]

Ag ( NH 3 )+
=
2
2 = 103.92 (b)
AgNH 3 [ NH 3 ]
+

Theo phng trnh bo ton khi lng


Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Ag + + AgNH 3+ + Ag ( NH 3 )2 = 103 M (c)


+

.(a) AgNH 3+ = 1 . Ag + [ NH 3 ] (d)

.(b) Ag ( NH 3 ) 2 = 2 . AgNH 3+ . [ NH 3 ] (e)


+

Th d vo e ta c : Ag ( NH 3 )2 = 1 . 2 Ag + [ NH 3 ] (f)
+ 2

2
Th d v f vo c Ag + + 1 . Ag + [ NH 3 ] + 1 . 2 Ag + [ NH 3 ] = 10 3
2
Ag + (1+ 1 [ NH 3 ] + 1 . 2 [ NH 3 ] )= 103

103 10 3
Vy Ag + = = =4,89. 105 M

n
2
1 + 1 [ NH 3 ] + 1. 2 [ NH 3 ] 1 + 103,32.103 + 103,32.103,92.(103 )2

h
* AgNH 3+ = 1 . Ag + [ NH 3 ] =103,32 .4,89. 105 . 103 =1,02. 104 M

N
uy
* Ag ( NH 3 )2 = 2 . AgNH 3+ . [ NH 3 ] = 103.92 .1,02. 10 4 . 103 =8,49. 104 M
+

Q
Kt lun : Nng cn bng ca Ag + =4,89. 105 M

AgNH 3+ =1,02. 104 M


m
K
Ag ( NH 3 ) + =8,49. 104 M
2
y

Bi 17. Tnh hng s bn iu kin ca phc MgY2- trong dung dch c cc pH


D
/+

sau:
m

a. 4
co

b. 8
c. 10
e.

Bit hng s bn ca phc gia Mg2+ v Y4- l 108,9 ; phc gia Mg2+ v OH- l
gl

102,58. H4Y c pK1= 2; pK2 = 2,67; pK3 = 6,16; pK4 = 10,26.


oo

GII:
G

Phc MgY2- trong dung dch c cc phn ng phn ly:


MgY2- Mg2+ + Y4-
H2O H+ + OH-
- Do trong dung dch c OH- v Mg2+ :
Mg2+ + OH- MgOH+

Gi l hng s bn iu kin ca phc MgY2- ti pH = a ; =


[MgY ] 2

[Mg ][Y ]
2+ ' 4 '

[Mg2+]: tng nng cn bng cc dng tn ti ca Mg2+ trong phc MgY2-


Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

[Y4-]: tng nng cn bng cc dng tn ti ca Y4- trong phc MgY2-


C: [Mg2+]= [Mg2+] + [MgOH+]= [Mg2+] + 1[Mg2+][OH-] = [Mg2+]( 1+ [OH-]) =
[Mg2+]. Mg (OH ) 2+

- Do trong dung dch tn ti ng thi H+ v Y4- nn:


Y4- + H+ HY3-
HY3- + H+ H2Y2-
H2Y2- + H+ H3Y-
H3Y- + H+ H4Y
C: [Y4-] = [Y4-] + [HY3-] + [ H2Y2-] + [H3Y-] + [H4Y]

n
h
[Y4-] = [Y4-] + 1[H+][Y4-] + 2[H+][HY3-] + 3[H+][H2Y2-] + 4[H+][H3Y-]

N
[Y4-] = [Y4-]+ 1[H+][Y4-] + 12[H+]2[Y4-] +123[H+]3[Y4-] +1234[H+]4[Y4-

uy
]

Q
[Y4-] = [Y4-].( 1 + 1[H+] +12 [H+]2 + 123[H+]3 + 1234[H+]4 )
m
K
[Y4-] = [Y4-]. Y (H ) 4 +
y

Vi =
1
Y (H ) 4 =1+
[H ] + [H ] + + 2
+
[H ]
+ 3
+
[H ] + 4
( K= 10-pKa)
D

+
K K4 K4K3 K 4 K3K2 K 4 K 3 K 2 K1
/+

C hng s bn iu kin:
m

[MgY ] 2
[MgY ] . 2
1
co

= =
[Mg 2+
] .[Y ]
Mg 2 + OH
4
(
Y 4 H + ) [Mg ][. Y ]
2+ 4
(
Mg 2 + OH ). Y (H )
4 +
e.

1
gl

= MgY . 2
Mg (OH ). Y (H )
oo

2+ 4 +
G

a. Khi pH = 4

H + = 10 4 Y 4 H + = 2, 77.108
( ) 8,9 1
' = 10 8 8
= 107,9
OH = 10
10
Mg 2+ ( OH ) = 3,8.10
8
2, 77.10 .3,8.10

b. Khi pH = 8

H + = 108 Y 4 H + = 1,85.10 2
( ) 1
' = 108,9 2
= 4,3.106
6
Mg 2+ ( OH ) = 1 1.1,85.10
OH = 10

Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

c. Khi pH = 10

H + = 1010 Y 4 ( H + ) = 2.82
1
' = 108.9. = 2, 7.108
OH = 10
4 2+ = 1, 04 2,82.1, 04
Mg ( OH )
18.Tnh hng s cn bng bn iu kin ca phc FeY- trong dung dch c pH=1
v pH=3 .T cc pH Fe3+ thc t khng to phc ph vi OH- .FeY- c =1025.1
Gii
Phc FeY- trong dung dch c phng trnh phn li :
FeY-  Fe3+ + Y4-

n
H2O H+ + OH-

h

Trn thc t Fe3+ khng to phc ph vi OH-

N
Do trong dung dch tn ti ng thi H+ v Y 4- nn:

uy
Y 4- + H+  HY 3-

Q
HY 3- + H+  H2Y 2-
H2Y 2- + H+  H3Y-
m
K
H3Y- + H+  H4Y
y

Gi l hng s cn bng bn iu kin ca phc FeY- ti pH=1


D

[FeY-]
=
/+

[Fe3+][Y-]
m
co

Gi l hng s cn bng bn iu kin ca phc FeY- ti pH =3


e.

[FeY-]
=
[Fe3+][Y-]
gl

[Y4-] l nng cn bng cc dng tn ti ca Y 4- trong phc FeY-


oo

C [Y4-] =[Y 4-] + [HY 3-] + [H2Y2-] + [H3Y-] + [H4Y-]


G

[Y 4-] = [Y 4-] + 1[H+][Y 4-] + 2[H+][HY 3-] + 3[H+][H2Y 2-] + 4[H+][H3Y-]


4- 4- 4-
[Y ]= [Y ] + 1[H+][Y ] + 12[H+]2[Y 4-
] + 123[H+][Y 4-
] +
1234[H+]4[Y 4-]
[Y4-]= [Y4-] (1+1[H+]+12[H+]2+123[H+]3+1234[H+]4)
[Y4-]= [Y4-] Y4-(H+)
1 [H+] [H+]2 [H+]3 + 4
Vi = Y4-(H+) = 1+ + + + [H ]
k k4 k3k4 k2k3k4 k1k2k3k4

Hng s cn bng iu kin:


Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

[FeY-] 25,1 1
= 3+ 4- 4- + = 10 4- +
[Fe ][Y ]Y (H ) Y (H )
Vi pH=1 [H+]= 0,1 Y4-(H+) =1,26.1016 = 109
pH=3 [H+]= 10-3 Y4-(H+) =1,36.1010 = 1015
Cu 19: Tnh nng cn bng ca Fe3+ v FeY- trong dung dch hn hp Fe3+
10-2M v Na2H2Y 10-2M c pH=5.Hng s bn ca FeY- l 1016,13.

Gii:

n
Trong dung dich c cc cn bng sau:

h
H2Y2- + H+  H3Y-

N
.

uy
H3Y- + H+  H4Y

Q
Fe3+ + H+  FeY-
Phng trnh bo ton khi lng ca ion Fe3+:
m
K
F e 3 + + F eY = 1 0 2 (1)
y

Phng trnh bo ton ca EDTA:


D

'
Y 4
+ F eY

= 1 0 2 (2)
/+
m

T (1) v (2) suy ra:


co

'
F e 3 + = Y 4 (3)
e.

FeY
' FeY

= ()
gl


Y (H )
oo

pH = 5, ta c : [H + ] = 105 M ; [OH ] = 10 9 M
G

[H + ] [ H + ]2 [ H + ]3 [ H + ]4
Y ( H ) = 1 + + + + (4)
K4 K 4 K3 K4 K3K2 K 4 K 3 K 2 K1

Vi pK1 = 2; pK2 = 2,67; pK3 = 6,16; pK4 = 10,26;


(3) Y ( H ) = 10 6 ,45 thay vo ():

'
FeY 10 16 ,13
= 10 9 ,68

= = 6 ,45
FeY
Y (H ) 10

T (1) suy ra:


F eY = 1 0 2 F e 3 + (5)
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

T (4) v (5) suy ra:

'
F eY 1 0 2 F e 3 +
= = = 1 0 9 ,8 6
4 ' 3+ 2

F eY
F e Y
3+
F e
F e 3 + = 1 ,4 4 .1 0 6 M
'
F eY = 9 ,9 9 .1 0 3 M

Cu 20.Tnh nng cn bng ca ion Mg2+ trong dung dch cc hn hp , c


pH=10
a.Mg2+ 10-2M +Na2H2Y 5.10-3M
b.Mg2+ 10-2M + Na2H2Y 10-2M

n
h
c. Mg2+ 10-2M + Na2H2Y 1,5.10-2M
Gii

N
uy
Gi nng ban u ca Mg2+ l C1 ; ca EDTA l C2 .
Ta c cc pt :

Q
m
Na2H2Y  2 Na+ + H2Y2+
K
H2Y2- + H+  H3Y-
y
D

H3Y- + H+  H4Y
/+
m

H4Y H+ + H3Y-
co


e.

H3Y-  H+ + H2Y2-
gl
oo

H2Y2-  H+ + HY3-
G

HY3-  H+ + Y4-

Mg2+ + Y4-  MgY2-

Theo phng trnh bo ton khi lng ta c

[Mg2+] + [MgY2-] = C1 (1)


Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

[Y4-] + [MgY2-] = C2 (2)

T (1) v (2) [Mg2+] - [Y4-] = C1 C2 (3)

Vi pH = 10 Y4-(H+) = 100.45
2 3 4
H + H + H + H +
1+ + + +
4- +
( Y (H ) = )
K4 K 4. K 3 K 4 K3 K 2 K 4 K 3 K 2 K1

n
Do vy MgY2- = MgY2- . = 10 8.25 ( vi MgY2- = 108.7 )
Y

h
4
(H )
+

T (1) (2) (3) ta tin hnh xc nh [Mg2+]

N
uy
Khi pH = 10 MgY2- kh ln , c th thy phn ng to phc MgY2- xy ra hon
ton , nn

Q
m
a. C1 > C2 (10-2 > 5.10-3) [Y4-] khng ng k , ta c
K
[MgY2-] = C1 - C2 = 10-2 - 5.10-3 = 5.10-3 M
b. C1 = C2 , theo (1) v (2) ta c : [Mg2+] = [Y4-]
y

Ta c MgY2- kh ln theo (2) [Y4-] << [MgY2-]


D


[MgY2-] = 10-2 M
/+
m
co

2- MgY 2 MgY 2 102


MgY = 2+ 4
= 2
[Mg2+] = 8.25
= 7,5.10-6M
Mg .[Y ] Mg 2 + 10
e.

C./ C1 < C2 , c th coi [Mg2+] khng ng k so vi [Y4-]


gl
oo

t (3) ta c [Y4-] = C2 - C1 = 5.10-3 (4)


T (1) [MgY2-] = C1 = 10-2
G

2- MgY 2
M MgY =
Mg 2+ .[Y 4 ]

[MgY 2 ] C1
[Mg2+] = 4
= = 1,12.10-8M
'MgY2 [Y ] 'MgY2 (C2 C1 )
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Bi 21: Cn phi thm bao nhiu ml NH3 1M vo 10ml dd AgNO3 0,1M


khi pha long thnh 100ml nng t do ca ion Ag+ l 10-8. Phc ca Ag+ v
NH3 c logarit cc hng s bn tng cng ln lt l 3,32 v 7,24
Bi lm:

nAg = 0,1 x =

Nng [Ag+] trong 100ml dung dch:

[Ag+] = = 0,01M

Phng trnh to phc gia Ag+ v NH3

n
h
Ag+ + NH3 1 = 103,32
[Ag(NH3)+] + NH3 = 107,24

N
1,2

uy
Ag+ to phc vi NH3 1M, ta c:
[Ag+] = [Ag+] (1 + 2

Q
1[NH3] + 1,2[NH3] )
0,01 = (1 + [NH3] + [NH3]2)
m
K
[NH3] = 0,24M
y

Nng [NH3] trong dung dch:


[NH3] = [NH3] + 2[ Ag(NH3)2+]
D
/+

[NH3] =0,26M
m

Mol NH3 trong 100ml dung dch:


co

n NH3 = 0,26 x = 0,026 (mol)


e.
gl
oo

Vy th tch [NH3] cn dng l:


G

VNH3 = = 0,026(l)

Bi 22: Trong100 ml dung dch Hg2+ 0,01M cn phi c bao nhiu mol KI
nng t do ca Hg2+ l 10-12 M. Phc ca thy ngn vi iodua c hng s
bn tng cng ln lt l 1012,9 , 1023,8, 1027,6, 1030.
Bi lm
Khi thm KI vo dung dch Hg2+ 0,01 M, Hg2+ s to 4 phc.
Cc phng trnh phn ng to phc:
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Hg2+ + I- HgI+ 1 = 10
12,9

HgI+ + I- HgI2 1, 2 = 10
23,8

HgI2 + I- HgI 3 1,3 = 10


27,6

HgI3- + I- Hg I 42 1, 4 = 10
30

Phng trnh bo ton khi lng ca Hg2+ :


[ Hg2+ ] + [ HgI+ ] + [ HgI2 ] + [ HgI 3 ] + [ HgI 24 ] = 10-2
[ Hg2+]( 1 + 1 [I-] + 1, 2 [ I-] 2 + 1,3 [ I-] 3 + 1, 4 [I-] 4 ) = 10-2

[Hg2+]. = 10-2
I

n
Theo gi thit nng t do ca Hg2+ l 10-12, suy ra:

h
- 10 2
= 1010

N
I =
10 12

uy
-
M: = 1 + 1 [I-] + 1, 2 [ I-] 2 + 1,3 [ I-] 3 + 1, 4 [I-] 4 = 1010 (*)

Q
I

m
V [ Hg2+] rt nh nn ta gi thit l phc HgI 24 tn ti ch yu, cn 4 s hng u
K
ca pt (*) c th b qua. Do vy, pt (*) c vit li:
- 10
1, 4 [I ] 4 = 10
y
D

[ I-] = 10 10 = 10-5 M.
/+

Suy ra: 4
1, 4
m

Nng ban u ca I- :
co

[ I-] = [ I-] + 4 [ HgI 24 ] = 10-5 + 4.10-3 = 4,01.10-3 M.


e.

Suy ra : n I- = 4,01.10-3. 0,1 = 4.10-4 mol


gl

nKI = 4.10-4 mol.


oo

Vy s mol KI cn tm l 4.10-4 mol


G

Bi 24: Tnh tan ca Mg(OH)2 bit rng 0,012g Mg(OH)2 tan trong 1 lt
nc.
Bi lm:
Gi S l tan ca Mg(OH)2.
Mg(OH)2 Mg2+ + 2OH-
S S 2S

Ta c:
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

0,012
S Mg (OH ) = = 2,07.10-4 M.
2 1.58
Vy tan ca Mg(OH)2 l 2,07.10-4 M.

Bi 25: Tnh tan ca CaSO4 trong nc 200C, bit tch s tan ca


CaSO4 nhit l 10-5,04.
Bi lm:
Gi tan ca CaSO4 l S .

n
CaSO4 Ca2+ + SO42-

h
S S S

N
Ta c:

uy
S = [ Ca2+ ] = [ SO42- ]

Q
Tch s tan ca CaSO4 200C l :
= [ Ca2+].
m
2
T CaSO f Ca . [ so ]. f SO
K
2+ 2
4
4
4

= S2. f Ca . f SO (*)
y

2+ 2
4

Nu coi h s hot ca cc ion bng 1th :


D
/+

5 , 04
S= T CaSO = 10 = 3,02.10-3 M.
4
m

Trong trng hp ny, S tng i ln nn ta phi k n h s hot khi tnh S.


co
e.

Lc ion ca dung dch l :


gl

1
= ( 3,02.10-3 .22 + 3,02.10-3 . 22)
oo

2
1,208.10-2.
G

=
Ta thy < 0,02, suy ra :
1 2
lg f Ca 2+ = lg f SO 2 = - 1,208. 10 .4
4 2
= - 0,2198.
Suy ra:
f Ca 2+ = f SO 2 = 0,603
4

T pt (*), ta c:
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

S=
T CaSO 4
= 5,01.10-3 M.
f Ca f SO
2+ 2
4

Vy tan ca CaSO4 l 5,01.10-3 M.

n
h
a.Tnh nng ion H+ t nht cn phi c trong dung dch CaCl2 0,02 M

N
31.

uy
v K2C2O4 0,1M CaC2O4 khng kt ta.
b. Nu dung dch gm CaCl2 2.10-2 M, HCl 10-2 M v K2C2O4 10-2 M th

Q
m
CaC2O4 c kt ta khng ?
K
Bit T(CaC2O4) = 1,78.10-8;
H2C2O4 vi pK1=1,25 ; pK2= 4,27.
y

Gii
D

a. Cc cn bg trong dung dch


/+

CaCl2 Ca2+ + 2Cl-


m

K2C2O4 2K+ +C2O42-


co


0,1 M 0,1 M
e.

Ca2+ + C2O42- CaC2O4


gl

C2O42- + H+ HC2O4- pK2= 4,27


oo

HC2O4- + H+ H2C2O4 pK1=1,25


G

T dy ta c :
[C O ]. + [H C O ]. = 0,1 (M)
2 4
2
2 2 4

B qua h s hot CaC2O4 kt ta khi :


TCaC2O4 = [Ca 2+ ].[C 2 O4 2 ] = 1,78.10-5

C2O4[ 2
] = [CT O ] = 1,780..0210
CaC2O4
2
9
= 8,9.10 9 ( M)
2 4

Mun CaC2O4 khng kt ta th [C 2 O4 2 ] lc cn bng phi nh hn 8,9.10-8 M.


Ta c:
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

K1 =
[HC O ][. C O ]
2 4

2 4
2

[H 2 C 2 O4 ]

K2 =
[C O ].[H ]
2 4
2 +

[HC O ] 2 4

T :

K1.K2 =
[HC O ][. C O ] . [C O ].[H ]
2 4

2 4
2
2 4
2 +

[H C O ] [HC O ] 2 2 4 2 4

=
[H ] .[C O ] = [H ] .[C O ]
+ 2
2 4
2 + 2
2 4
2

[H C O ] 0,1 [C O ]
2
2 2 4 2 4

n
h
H [ ]=
+ K 1 K 2 (0,1 C 2 O4 [ 2
])
[C O ]

N
2
2 4

uy
1, 25 4, 27
K 1 = 10 ; K 1 = 10
10 1, 25.10 4, 27.(0.1 8.9.10 8 )

Q
[ ]
H+ =
8,9.10 8
= 1,84( M )

Vy [H + ] = 1,84( M ) l nng [H + ] t nht phi c trong dung dch CaCl2 0,02 m


K
M v K2C2O4 CaC2O4 khng kt ta.
y

b.
D

bit CaC2O4 kt ta khng ta tnh ton tng t nh cu a.


/+

Ta cng c [C O ]. + [H C O ]. =10-2
2
m

2 4 2 2 4
co

K1.K2 =
[HC O ][. C O ] . [C O ].[H ] 2 2 +
e.

2 4 2 4 2 4

[H C O ] [HC O ] 2 2 4 2 4

gl
oo

=
[H ] .[C O ] = [H ] .[C O ]
+ 2
2 4
2 + 2
2 4
2
G

[H 2 C 2 O4 ] 10 2 C 2 O4 [ 2
]

H+ =[ ] K 1 K 2 (10 2 C 2 O4 [ 2
]) = 10 1, 25.10 4, 27.(10 2 8,9.10 8 )
= 0,58( M )
[C O ] 2 4
2
8,9.10 8

Ta thy [H ]=0,58 (M) CaC2O4


+
khng kt ta ln hn rt nhiu so vi
[H ]=10-2 theo bi. Do CaC2O4 s kt ta vi dung dch m bi cho.
+
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

32. Tnh pH bt u kt ta Mg(OH)2 t dung dch Mg2+ 10-2 M. Mg(OH)2


c
T = 10-9,22
Gii
Ta c:
Mg(OH)2 Mg2+ + 2OH-
T = [Mg 2+ ][. OH ]
2
Ta c:
Mg(OH)2 bt u kt ta t dung dch [Mg 2+ ] = 10 2 , khi nng [OH ] t c
gi tr:

n
h
9, 22
[OH ] = [MgT ] = 1010 = 2,45.10 (M )

N
4
2+ 2

uy
Suy ra pOH = lg[OH ] = lg(2,45.10 ) = 3,61
4

Q
pH = 14 pOH = 14 3,61 = 10,39

Vy: pH=7 th Mg(OH)2 bt u kt ta.


m
K
33.
y

Tnh pH kt ta hon ton Mg(OH)2 t dung dch [Mg 2+ ] = 10 2 Bit rng


n c coi l kt ta hon ton nu nng trong dung dch cn l 10-5 M.
D
/+

Mg(OH)2 c
m

T = 10-9,22
co

Gii
e.

Mg(OH)2 Mg2+ + 2OH-


gl

Trong dung dch ca kt ta Mg(OH)2:


oo

[ ][
TMg (OH )2 = Mg 2+ . OH ]
2
G

Mg(OH)2 c coi l kt ta hon ton khi [Mg 2+ ] = 10 5 ( M )


Trong dung dch bo ha Mg(OH)2, cho [Mg 2+ ] = 10 5 ( M ) th bng:

9 , 22
[OH ] = T[Mg ] = 1010 = 7,76.10
Mg ( OH ) 2
2+ 5
3

pOH = lg[OH ] = lg(7,76.10 ) = 2,11


3

pH = 14 pOH = 14 2,11 = 11,89

Vy mun cho Mg(OH)2 kt ta hon ton th pH ca dung dh phi bng 11,89


Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

34.
Thm 0,1 ml Na2SO4 1M vo 10ml dung dch Pb2+ 10-4 M + CH3COONa
2M th PbSO4 c kt ta khng? PbSO4 c T = 1,6.10-8 M. Pb(CH3COO)42- hng
s bn tng cng l 1025?
Gii:
bit PbSO4 c kt ta hay khng, cn tnh nng cn bng ca ion Pb2+
trc khi thm Na2SO4 vo
[Pb ] = [Pb ](1 + [CH COO ] )
2+ ' 2+
1, 4 3
4

V nng d CH3COONa ln hn nng ban u ca Pb2+ =10-4 M rt nhiu

n
h
nn ton b [Pb 2+ ]to phc [CH 3 COO ] , v coi [CH 3COO ] = 2( M ) , t suy ra:

[Pb ]2+ '

N
10 4
[Pb ] =
2+
= = 6,25.10 31
[CH COO ] 4 1 + 10 25.2 4

uy
1 + 1, 4 3

Nng ca SO42-:

Q
m
nSO42- = 0,1.10-3.1=10-4 (mol)
K
Do :
n SO 2 10 4
y

[SO ] =
4
2

V
4
=
(10 + 0,1).10 3
= 10 2
D

[ ]
Ta c tch s so 4 2 [Pb 2 + ] = 1,625 .10 31.10 2 = 1,625 .10 33
/+

Ta thy tch s [so 4 2 ][Pb 2 + ] = 1,625 .10 33 nh hn tch s tan T = 1,6.10-8 PbSO4
m
co

khng kt ta .
Vy PbSO4 khng kt ta .
e.
gl
oo

35.
Thm dung dch Ag+ 0,1 m vo dung dch hn hp Cl- 0,1 M + Br- 0,1 M th
G

ion no kt ta trc v ion th hai bt u kt ta khi ion th nht c nng


cn bng bng bao nhiu? AgCl, AgBr c tch s tan ln lt l 10 -9,75 v 10-12,28.
Gii:
Ag+ + Br- AgBr T = 10-12,28
Ag+ + Cl- AgCl T=10-9,75
Do TAgCl > TAgBr, v vy khi thm Ag+ vo dung dch hn hp Cl- + Br- c cng
nng th AgBr kt ta trc.
Khi c 2 cht cng kt ta th:
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn
9 , 75
[Cl ][Ag ] = 10
+
(1)
[Br ][Ag ] = 10
+ 12 , 28
( 2)

(1) [ ][ ] [ ]
=
Cl Ag +
=
Cl
=
10 9, 75
[ ][ ] [ ]
(2) Br Ag + Br 10 12, 28
12, 28
10
[Br ] =
[Cl ] = 10 [Cl ](3)
9 , 75
2, 53

10

Do theo (3) khi AgCl bt u kt ta ( [Cl ] = 0,1 ) th:


[Br ] = 10

n
2 , 53

.0,1 = 10 3,53 = 2,95.10 4 ( M )

h
Vy: khi cho [Ag + ] vo hn hp dung dch Cl- 0,1 M + Br- 0,1 M th AgBr kt

N
ta trc.

uy
Ion [Cl ] bt u kt ta khi [Br ] = 2,95.10 4 ( M )

Q
Bi 36:
Phng trnh trao i e ca cc cp oxi ha kh lin hp .
m
K
a) Ag + + e
Ag
y

b) Fe3+ + e
Fe 2 +
D

c) IO3 + 6 H + + 6e
I 2 + 3H 2O
/+

d) MnO4 + 8H + + 5e
Mn2 + + 4 H 2O
m

e) AgCl + e
Ag + Cl
co

f) O2 + 4H + + 4e
2 H 2O
e.

g) As + 3H + 3e
gl

AsH 3
oo

h) MnO2 + 4H + + 2e
Mn2 + + 2 H 2O
G

i) MnO4 + 4 H + + 3e
MnO2 + 2 H 2O

j) H 2O2 + 2H + + 2e
2 H 2O

k) Cr2O7 + 14 H + + 6e
2Cr 3 + + 7 H 2O

Bi 37:
Tnh th oxi ho kh tiu chun iu kin ca Fe3+ 1016,1 .Bit th oxi ho kh
tiu chun ca Fe3+/Fe2+ l .

Gii:
Trong dung dch c cc cn bng :
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Ta c :

+ 0,059lg

Mt khc :

+ 0,059lg

n
h
Khi : = =1

N
uy
Q
=> m
K
y

=>
D

=> = 0,059lg 0,77+0,059lg = 0,18V


/+
m

Bi 38:
co

Th oxi ha kh tiu chun ca cp Cu2+/Cu l 0,337V . Th oxi ha tiu


e.

chun ca cp khi c d NH3 to phc l -0,07V . Tnh hng


gl

s bn tng cng ca phc .


oo

Gii:
G

Trong dung dch c cc cn bng :

Cu

Ta c :

+ lg
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Mt khc :
+ lg

Khi : =1

=>

n
=>

h
=> = + lg

N
uy
Q
=> lg = = -13,8

=>
m
K
Bi 39:
y

Th oxi ha kh tiu chun ca cp Zn2+/Zn l -0,763V . Th oxi ha tiu


D

chun ca cp khi c d NH3 to phc l -1,0V . Tnh hng s


/+

bn tng cng ca phc .


m

Gii:
co

Trong dung dch c cc cn bng :


e.

Zn
gl
oo

+
G

Zn

Ta c :

+ lg

Mt khc :
+ lg
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Khi : =1

=>

=>

=> = + lg

n
h
=> lg = = -8

N
uy
=>
Bi 40:

Q
m
Gii thch ti sao Ag khng tc dng vi HCl m tc dng vi HI gii
K
phng ra hidro . E0 ca cp Ag+/Ag l 0,8V , tch s tan AgCl v AgI ln lt
l 10-9,75 v 10-16 .
y

Gii:
D

Trong dung dch c cc cn bng sau


/+
m
co
e.
gl
oo

Do > , nu c mt Cl- v I- th Ag khng c kh nng kh ion


G

H+ gii phng H2
Nhng trong mi trng c cha Cl- v I- s hnh thnh cc cp oxi ha kh
mi AgCl/Ag v AgI/Ag
Ta c:
= + 0,059lg = 0,799 + 0,059lg10-9,75

= 0,224 (V)
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

+ 0,059lg = 0,799 + 0,059lg10-16

= -0,145 (V)
=>

Vy Ag ch c kh nng phn ng vi dung dch HI to Ag v gii phng


H2
+

n
h
N
uy
Cu 46:Phi thm bao nhiu ml HCl vo 1 lt dd cha 0,01M CH3COOH v

Q
0,01M CH3COONa c dung dch c PH =3
Gii:
m
K
Ta c dung dch m : CH3COOH: nng 0,01M=Ca
y

CH3COONa:nng 0,01M=Cb
D

Cc cn bng trong dung dch :


/+

CH3COOH CH3COO + H+
m

H2O OH- +H+


co

Pt hng s cn bng :
e.

CH 3COO . H +
Ka= (1)
gl

[CH3COOH]
oo

Pt bo ton khi lng:


G

[CH3COOH]+ [ CH3COO] = Ca+ Cb


[CH3COOH]= Ca+ Cb [ CH3COO] (2)
Pt bo ton in tch :
[Na+] +[H+] = [OH-] +[ CH3COO]
[ CH3COO] = [H+] + [Na+] [OH-]
= [H+] +Cb [OH-] (3)
T (1) (2) (3)
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

+ Ca H + + [OH ]
[H ] =Ka.
C b + H + [OH ]

Thng th [H+] v [OH-] nh hn rt nhiu so vi Ca vCb nn

[H+] =Ka. Ca pH =pKa log


Ca
Cb Cb

Nhn xt :Dung dch c Cb


CH3COOH+H2O CH3COO +H3O+
Ca
pH ca dung dch m :pH =pKa log
Cb
4,75log1=4,75

n
h
Khi thm x mol HCl vo dung dch:
HCl H++Cl

N
uy
X X X
[H+]=x(M)
CH3COO +H+ CH3COOH

Q
m
0,01-x x 0,01+x
K
0,01 + x
pH =pKa-log
0, 01 x
y

0,01 + x
=56,23 x= 0,0097(M)
D

0, 01 x
/+

Cu 47.Tnh khi lng ca NH4Cl cn pha thnh 1 lt dung dch c pH=5


m

Gii
co

Gi Ca l nng ca dd NH4Cl
e.

NH4ClNH4+ +Cl-
gl

NH4+ NH3+ H+
oo

H2O OH-+ H+
G

Ta c pKb ca NH3 =4,75pKa ca NH4= 14- 4,75=9,25


Phng trnh pKa
[ NH3 ] H +
Pka= = 10-9,25
NH 4
+

Phng trnh bo ton Proton:


[ NH3 ]+ [ OH-] =[ H+ ]
Phng trnh bo ton khi lng :
[NH4+]+[ NH3 ]=Ca
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Theo bi ta c : [ H+ ] =10-5 ; [ OH-]=10-9


+ -5 -9
[NH4 ]= Ca-10 +10

Thay vo pt pKa
[ H+ ](10-5 -10-9 ) = 10-9,25(Ca-10-5+10-9 )
(10-5) ](10-5 -10-9 ) = 10-9,25(Ca-10-5+10-9)
Ca= 0,178

S gam NH4Cl cn l :9,52


Cu 48.Tnh K v E tng ng ca phn ng khi trn 100ml dd Cr2O72- 0,1N vo
100ml dung dc Fe2+ 0,1N ; Nng H+ ca dung dch l 1M

n
Gii

h
Cr2O72- + 6e + 14H+ 2Cr3+ + 7 H2O E01=1,33V, P=2

N
Fe3+ +e Fe2+ E02= 0,77V

uy
D on phn ng xy ra :

Q
Cr2O72-+ 6Fe2+ + 14H+ 2Cr3+ +6Fe2++ 7 H2O
(
n 1 n 2 E 01 E 0 2 )
m
6.1 (1,330,77)
K
K== 10 0.059 =10 0,059 =1057
y

1 P
n E0 + n 2E02 0, 059 .[ Kh1 ]
Et= 1 1 + .log[ H+ ]m
n1 + n 2 n1 + n 2 P
D
/+

1
6.1, 33 + 1.0.77 0, 059 14
Cr 3+
Et= + .log[1] =1,262
m

6 +1 6 +1 2
co

Cu 49: Trn 100ml dung dch 0,003 M Pb(NO3)2 vi 400ml dung dch Na2SO4
e.

0,04M
gl

Gii:
oo

Trong nc:
G

Pb(NO3)2 Pb+2 + 2NO3


Na2SO4 Na+ + SO42
Pb+2 + SO42 PbSO4
T=10-7,8 =[ Pb+2 ] .[ SO42]
Khi trn 2dung dch vi nhau ,nng tc cht phn ng thay i .
0, 03.100
[ Pb+2]' = =6.10-4
400 + 100
0, 4.400
[ SO42]= =0,032M
400 + 100
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Sau khi trn hai dung dch ,c ta to thnh do


[ Pb+2]'. [ SO42]=6.10-40,032=1,95.10-5> T PbSO 4

Cu 50:Tnh hng s bn iu kin ca phc [Fe(SCN)]2+ pH t 1


n 4 bit hng s bn ca phc trn l 103,03 .Fe3+to phc vi OH-vi
1,1=1011,87 1,2=1021,17 ,1,3=1030,67 v axit HSCN c Ka=10-0,85
Gii:
Fe3+ + SCN- [Fe(SCN)-]2+ 1,1 = 10
3,03

+ +
OH- H+

n
h
Fe(OH SCN(H)

Fe(OH), HSCN

N
uy
1

Q
, [ Fe( SCN )]2+ = [ Fe( SCN )]2+
Fe ( OH ) . SCN ( H )

Fe(OH) = 1 + 10
11,87
m
[OH-]1 + 1021,17[OH-]2 + 1030,67[OH-]3
K
+ 0.85
SCN(H) = 1 + HSCN[H ] = 1+ 10 [H+]
y

Lp bng gi tr ca Fe(OH), SCN(H) v , [Fe(SCN)-]2+ ti cc gi tr pH


D

t 1 n 4:
/+
m

pH 1 2 3 4
co

Fe(OH) 1 A 100.92 101.98


e.

SCN(H) 100.23 1 1 1
gl

, [Fe(SCN
-
102.80 102.79 102.11 101.05
oo

)]2+
G

PHN NG TO KT TA
TS Vi Anh Tun
Khoa ha hc Trng i hc KHTN - HQG H Ni

Phn ng to kt ta l phn ng to thnh cht rn t cc cht tan trong dung


dch. Th d:
Ag+ + Cl- AgCl (r)
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Ca2+ + C2O42- CaC2O4 (r)


Trong ho phn tch, phn ng to kt ta c s dng :
Tch cht cn xc nh khi cc cht cn tr.
Phn tch khi lng.
Phn tch gin tip.
Chun kt ta.
1. Tch s tan v tan
1.1 Tch s tan
Qu trnh ho tan l qu trnh thun nghch, do cng tun theo nh lut tc

n
dng khi lng. Xt cn bng ha tan (Mn+ l ion kim loi, Xm- l gc axit hoc OH-

h
):

N
MmXn mMn+ + nXm- T = [M]m[X]n

uy
(*)

Q
T c gi l tch s tan (solubility product).
Tch s tan c s dng : m
K
So snh tan ca cc cht t tan "ng dng".
y

Xem mt dung dch bo ho hay cha:


D

 Q = C Mm C Xn > T: dung dch qu bo ho => xut hin kt ta.


/+

 Q = C Mm C Xn = T: dung dch bo ho.


m

< T: dung dch cha bo ho => khng xut hin kt ta.


co

 Q = C Mm C Xn

Tnh tan ca cc cht t tan (mui, hidroxit).


e.
gl

So snh tan ca AgCl v AgBr trong nc ct. Bit TAgCl = 10-10, TAgBr
oo

Cu 1.1.
= 10-13.
G

Hng dn gii (AgCl > AgBr)


*Ch : Mc d TAgCl= 10-10 > TMg(OH)2= 1,2.10-11, nhng trong nc ct, tan ca
Mg(OH)2 li ln hn tan ca AgCl.
Cu 1.2. (a) Trn 1 ml dung dch K2CrO4 0,12M vi 2 ml dung dch Ba(OH)2
0,009M. C kt ta BaCrO4 to thnh khng? Bit TBaCrO4= 1,2. 10-10.
(b) Tnh nng cn bng ca cc cu t sau khi trn.
Hng dn gii
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

(a. Q= 0,04 0,006 = 2,4.10-4 > T => c kt ta to thnh;


(b) TPGH: CrO42-: 0,034 M
BaCrO4 Ba2+ + CrO42-
Cb x 0,034 + x
T = x (0,034 + x) = 1,2.10-10
x = 3,53. 10-9 M.
[CrO42-] = 0,034 M;
[Ba2+] = 3,53.10-9 M)
Cu 1.3. Metylamin, CH3NH2, l mt baz yu phn li trong dung dch nh sau:

n
h
CH3NH2 + H2O


CH3NH3+ + OH-
(a) 25C, phn trm ion ho ca dung dch CH3NH2 0,160M l 4,7%. Hy tnh

N
[OH-], [CH3NH3+], [CH3NH2], [H3O+] v pH ca dung dch.

uy
(b) Hy tnh Kb ca metylamin.

Q
(c) Nu thm 0,05 mol La(NO3)3 vo 1,00 L dung dch cha 0,20 mol CH3NH2 v
m
K
0,20 mol CH3NH3Cl. C kt ta La(OH)3 xut hin khng? Cho tch s tan ca
La(OH)3 l 1.10-19.
y

Hng dn gii
D

(a) [CH3NH2]= 0,152 M; [CH3NH3+]=[OH-]= 7,5.10-3; pH= 11,9


/+

(b) 3,7.10-4
m

(c) Q = 2,56.10-12 > T, c kt ta)


co

Cu 1.4. MgF2(r)


Mg2+(aq) + 2 F-(aq)
e.

Trong dung dch bo ho MgF2 18 C, nng ca Mg2+ l 1,21.10-3 M.


gl

(a) Hy vit biu thc tch s tan, T, v tnh gi tr ny 18 C.


oo

(b) Hy tnh nng cn bng ca Mg2+ trong 1,000 L dung dch MgF2 bo ho
G

18C cha 0,100 mol KF.


(c) Hy d on kt ta MgF2 c to thnh khng khi trn 100,0 mL dung dch
Mg(NO3)2 3.10-3 M vi 200,0 mL dung dch NaF 2,00.10-3 M 18C.
(d) 27C nng ca Mg2+ trong dung dch bo ho MgF2 l 1,17.10-3 M. Hy
cho bit qu trnh ho tan MgF2 l to nhit hay thu nhit? Gii thch.
Hng dn gii
(a) 7,09.10-9
(b) 7,09.10-7M
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

(c) Q < T, khng c kt ta


(d) To nhit)
Cu 1.5. Dung dch bo ha H2S c nng 0,100 M.
Hng s axit ca H2S: K1 = 1,0 10-7 v K2 = 1,3 10-13.
(a) Tnh nng ion sunfua trong dung dch H2S 0,100 M khi iu chnh pH = 2,0.
(b) Mt dung dch A cha cc cation Mn2+, Co2+, v Ag+ vi nng ban u ca
mi ion u bng 0,010 M. Ho tan H2S vo A n bo ho v iu chnh pH = 2,0
th ion no to kt ta?
Cho: TMnS = 2,5 10-10 ; TCoS = 4,0 10-21 ; TAg2S = 6,3 10-50.

n
h
(c) Hy cho bit c bao nhiu gam kt ta ch(II) sunfua c tch ra t 1,00 lit
dung dch bo ha ch(II) sunfat? bit nng sunfua c iu chnh n 1,00 .10-17

N
M? Cho cc gi tr tch s tan: TPbSO4 = 1,6 10-8 v TPbS = 2,5 10-27.

uy
Hng dn gii

Q
m
a) K a1K a 2
[S 2 ] = + 2
C H S = 1,3.1017
[ H ] + [ H + ]K a1 + K a1K a 2 2
K
b) C: [Mn2+] [S2-] = 10-2 1,3 .10-17 = 1,3 .10-19 < TMnS = 2,5 .10-10 ;
y

khng c kt ta
D

[Co2+] [ S2-] = 10-2 1,3 .10-17 = 1,3 .10-19 > TCoS = 4,0 .10-21 ; c kt
/+

ta CoS
m

[Ag+] 2[S2-] = (10-2)2 1,3 .10-17 = 1,3 .1021 > TAg2S = 6,3 .10-50 ; c kt
co

ta Ag2S
e.

c) C: [Pb2+][SO42-] = 1,6.10-8.
gl

[Pb2+] = [SO42-] = 1,265.10-4.


oo

Khi nng sunfua t 1,00.10-17 M th nng Pb2+ cn li trong dung dch l:


G

[Pb2+] = 2,5.10-27/ 1,00.10-17 = 2,5.10-10.


mPbS = (1,265.104 2,5.1010 ) 239,2 1 = 3,03.102 gam = 30,3mg )

1.2 Quan h gia tan v tch s tan


tan (S, solubility) ca mt cht l nng ca cht trong dung dch bo
ho. tan thng c biu din theo nng mol/l.
tan v tch s tan l nhng i lng c trng cho dung dch bo ho ca
cht t tan. Do , tch s tan v tan c mi quan h vi nhau, iu c ngha l
ta c th tnh c tan ca mt cht t tan t tch s tan ca n v ngc li.
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

MmXn


m Mn+ + n Xm-
mS nS
1

C: m n m
T = [M] [X] = [mS] [nS] n
T m+n
S = m n
m n

*Nhn xt: Cng thc trn ch ng nu Mn+ v Xm- khng tham phn ng no khc.
Cu 1.6. Cho tch s tan ca Ag2CrO4 25oC l 2,6.10-12.
(a) Hy vit biu thc tch s tan ca Ag2CrO4.
(b) Hy tnh [Ag+] trong dung dch bo ha Ag2CrO4.
(c) Hy tnh khi lng Ag2CrO4 c th tan ti a trong 100 ml nc 25oC.

n
(d) Thm 0,1 mol AgNO3 vo 1,0 lit dung dch bo ha Ag2CrO4. Gi thit th tch

h
dung dch khng thay i. Hy cho bit [CrO42-] tng, gim hay khng i? Gii

N
thch.

uy
Trong dung dch bo ha Ag3PO4 25oC, nng Ag+ l 5,3.10-5 M.

Q
(e) Hy tnh tch s tan ca Ag3PO4 25oC.

m
(g) Lm bay hi 1,00 lit dung dch bo ha Ag3PO4 25oC n cn 500 ml. Hy tnh
K
[Ag+] trong dung dch thu c.
y

p s
D

b. 8,66.10-5 M.
/+

c. 2,88.10-3 gam;
m

d. gim;
co

e. 2,63.10-18.
e.

g. khng i, 5,3.10-5 M)
gl

2. Kt ta phn on
oo

Nu trong dung dch c cha hai hay nhiu ion c kh nng to kt ta vi cng
G

mt ion khc, nhng cc kt ta hnh thnh c tan khc nhau nhiu th khi thm
cht to kt ta vo dung dch, cc kt ta s ln lt c to thnh. Hin tng to
thnh ln lt cc kt ta trong dung dch c gi l kt ta phn on.
*iu kin kt ta hon ton:
[X] < 10-6M, hoc
%X cn li trong dung dch < 0,1%
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 2.1. Thm AgNO3 rn vo dung dch NaCl 0,10 M v Na2CrO4 0,0010 M.


Cho tch s tan ca AgCl l 1,8.10-10 v ca Ag2CrO4 l 2,4.10-12.
(a) Hy tnh nng Ag+ cn thit bt u xut hin kt ta AgCl.
(b) Hy tnh nng Ag+ cn thit bt u xut hin kt ta Ag2CrO4.
(c) Kt ta no c to thnh trc khi cho AgNO3 vo dung dch trn?
(d) Hy tnh phn trm ion Cl- cn li trong dung dch khi Ag2CrO4 bt u kt ta?
p s
(a) 1,8.10-9M
(b) 4,9.10-5M

n
(c) AgCl

h
(d) 3,7.10-3%)

N
Cu 2.2. tan l mt yu t quan trng dng nh gi mc gy nhim

uy
mi trng ca mui. tan ca mui ph thuc nhiu vo bn cht ca mui, dung

Q
mi v cc iu kin th nghim nh nhit , pH v s to phc.

m
Mt dung dch cha BaCl2 v SrCl2 c cng nng l 0,01 M. Cu hi t ra
K
l liu c th tch hon ton hai mui ny ra khi nhau bng cch thm dung dch
y

bo ha natri sunfat hay khng. Bit iu kin tch hon ton l t nht 99,9%
D

Ba2+ b kt ta dng BaSO4 v SrSO4 chim khng qu 0,1 % khi lng kt


/+

ta. Bit cc gi tr tch s tan nh sau: TBaSO4 = 1 10-10 v TSrSO4 = 3 10-7.


m

(a) Hy tnh nng ca Ba2+ cn li trong dung dch khi 99,9% Ba2+ b kt ta
co

v cho bit phng php ny c dng c tch hon ton hai mui ra khi nhau
e.

hay khng?
gl

S to phc c th lm tng ng k tan. Bit tch s tan ca AgCl l 1,7


oo

10-10, hng s bn tng cng ca phc Ag(NH3)2+ l 1,5 107.


G

(b) Hy chng minh (bng php tnh c th) tan ca AgCl trong dung dch
amoniac 1,0 M cao hn so vi tan trong nc ct.
Hng dn gii
100 99,9
a. [ Ba 2 + ] = 0,01 = 1,0.10 5 M
100
Sau khi 99,9% Ba2+ b kt ta th nng SO42- trong dung dch l:

2 1.10 10
TBaSO4
[ SO ] =
4 2+
= 5
= 10 5 M
[ Ba ] 1,0.10
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

2+
TSrSO43.10 7
[ Sr ] = 2
= 5
= 3.10 2 M > 0,01 M
[ SO4 ] 1,0.10

Sr2+ cha kt ta. Vy c th s dng phng php ny tch hon ton hai
mui ra khi nhau.
b. tan ca AgCl trong nc ct:

S1 = [ Ag + ] = TAgCl = 1,30 .10 5 M


Tnh tan ca AgCl trong dung dch amoniac 1,0 M.
AgCl + 2 NH3


Ag(NH3)2+ + Cl K = 1,5.107 1,7.1010 = 2,55.103

n
b 1,0

h
cb 1,0 - 2x x x

N
x2
= 2,55.10 3 x = 4,59.10-2 M

uy
K= 2
(1,0 2 x )

Q
S2
S2 = x = 4,59.10-2 M; = 4,6.103 lan )

m
S1
K
3. Cc yu t nh hng n tan
y

Trong thc t, ion kim loi ca kt ta c th to phc vi OH- v anion ca kt


ta c th phn ng vi H+ trong dung dch. Ngoi ra, nhng cu t khc c trong
D
/+

dung dch cng c th tham gia phn ng vi cc ion ca kt ta hoc t nht cng
m

lm bin i h s hot ca chng. Nhng yu t u nh hng n tan


co

ca kt ta.
e.

3.1 nh hng ca pH
gl

Cu 3.1. (a) Hy cho bit dung dch ca cc mui sau c tnh axit, baz hay trung
oo

tnh? Gii thch. Natri photphat, ng (II) nitrat v xesi clorua.


(b) Hy tnh khi lng bc photphat cn dng pha 10 lit dung dch bo ha. Khi
G

tnh b qua s thy phn ca ion photphat.


Bit bc photphat c T = 1,3 .1020.
(c) Hy cho bit trong thc t nu ha tan lng bc photphat tnh c phn (b)
vo 10 lit nc th dung dch thu c bo ha hay cha? Gii thch.
Hng dn gii
a. Na3PO4: baz; Cu(NO3)2: axit; CsCl: trung tnh;
b. Ag3PO4 3 Ag+ + PO43-
3S S
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

T = (3 S ) 3 S

T 1,3.10 20
S= 4 = 4 = 4,68.10 6 M
27 27
mAg3PO4 = 4,68.10-610419 = 1,96.10-2 gam
c. Cha, v PO43- b thy phn lm tng tan ca mui)
Cu 3.2. Tnh tan ca AgOCN trong dung dch HNO3 0,001M.
Cho TAgOCN= 2,3.10-7; HOCN c Ka=3,3.10-4.
Hng dn gii
Ag+ + OCN- T = [Ag+][OCN-]

n
AgOCN


(1)

h
- + [ H + ][OCN ]
OCN + H


HOCN Ka = (2)

N
[ HOCN ]

uy
Lp phng trnh

Q
[Ag+] = [OCN-] + [HOCN] (3)

m
[H+] + [HOCN] = 10-3 (4)
K
Gii h:
(10 3 [ HOCN ])[OCN ]
y

(2, 4) 3,3.10 4 =
[ HOCN ]
D

103.[OCN ]
/+

[ HOCN ] = (5)
3,3.104 + [OCN ]
m
co

103 [OCN ]
(3, 5) [ Ag ] = [OCN ] +
+
(6)
3,3.10 4 + [OCN ]
e.

t [OCN-]= x
gl
oo

103 x
(1,6) (x + 4
) x = 2,3.107
3,3.10 + x
G

x3 + 1,33.10-3 x2 - 2,3.10-7 x - 7,59.10-11 = 0


x= 2,98.10-4 = [OCN-]
(5) [HOCN]= 4,75.10-4
(4) [H+]= 5,25.10-4
(1) => [Ag+]= 7,72.10-4 = S.
*Nhn xt: v nng ca ion cc ion v phn t gn bng nhau nn khng th gii
gn ng c)
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 3.3. (a) 100 ml nc 25oC ha tan c ti a 440 ml kh H2S ( ktc). Hy


tnh nng mol ca H2S trong dung dch bo ha. Gi thit rng qu trnh ha tan
H2S khng lm thay i th tch ca dung dch.
(b) Dung dch FeCl2 0,010 M c bo ha H2S bng cch xc lin tc dng kh
H2S vo dung dch. Cho TFeS = 8,0 .10-19. H2S c Ka1 = 9,5 .10-8 v Ka2 = 1,3 .10-14.
Hng s ion ca nc Kw = 1 .10-14. Hy cho bit thu c nhiu kt ta FeS
hn th cn phi tng hay gim pH ca dung dch?
(c) Hy tnh pH cn thit lp nng Fe2+ gim t 0,010 M xung cn 1,0 .10-8
M.

n
(d) Ngi ta thm axit axetic vo dung dch phn (b) nng u ca axit

h
axetic t 0,10 M. Hy tnh nng u ca natri axetat cn thit lp nng Fe2+

N
trong dung dch thu c l 1,0.10-8 M. Khi tnh ch s to thnh H+ do phn ng:

uy
Fe2+ + H2S FeS (r) + 2H+. Bit axit axetic c Ka = 1,8 .10-5. Gi s vic thm

Q
axit axetic v natri axetat khng lm thay i th tch ca dung dch.

m
(e) Hy tnh pH ca dung dch m trc khi xc kh H2S.
K
Hng dn gii
y

0,44
D

22,4
(a. [ H 2 S ] = CH 2 S = = 0,196 M (H2S phn li khng ng k)
/+

0,1
m

b. Tng pH.
co

2 TFeS 8,0.10 19
[S ] = = = 8,0.10 11
e.

c. C: 2+ 8
[ Fe ] 1,0.10
gl

[ H 2 S ]K a1 K a 2
[S 2 ] =
oo

Mt khc:
[ H + ]2
G

[ H 2 S ]K a1K a 2 0,196 9,5.108 1,3.1014


[H + ] = 2
= 11
= 1,77.10 6 M
[S ] 8.10

pH = 5,75;
d. Fe2+ + H2S FeS (r) + 2 H+
0,01 0,02
CH3COO- + H+ CH3COOH
b a 0,02 0, 1
cb a-0,02 - 0,1 + 0,02
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

[CH 3COO ]
C: pH = pK a + log
[CH 3COOH ]
a 0,02
5,75 = 4,74 + log
0,12
a = 1,25 M

[CH 3COO ] 1,25


e. pH = pK a + log = 4,74 + log = 5,84 )
[CH 3COOH ] 0,1
Cu 3.4. (QG 2007) Mt dung dch c ba cht HCl, BaCl2, FeCl3 cng nng
0,0150M. Sc kh CO2 vo dung dch ny cho n bo ho. Sau thm t t NaOH

n
h
vo dung dch n nng 0,120M. Cho bit: nng CO2 trong dung dch bo ho
l 3.10-2M; th tch ca dung dch khng thay i khi cho CO2 v NaOH vo; cc

N
uy
hng s: pKa ca H2CO3 l 6,35 v 10,33; pKs ca Fe(OH)3 l 37,5 v ca BaCO3 l
8,30; pKa ca Fe3+ l 2,17. Hy tnh pH ca dung dch thu c.

Q
m
Hng dn gii
K
H+ + OH-


H2O
0,015 0,015
y

CO2 + 2 OH-
CO32- + H2O
D



/+

0,03 0, 06 0,03
m

Fe3+ + 3 OH-


Fe(OH)3
co

0,015 0,045
e.

Ba2+ + CO32-


BaCO3
gl

0,015 0,015
oo

TPGH: CO32-: 0,015 M;


G

CO32- + H2O


HCO3- + OH- Kb1 = 10-3,67
0,015-x x x
x2
K b1 = = 10 3, 67
0,015 x
x = 1,69.10-3 M
pH = 14 + log (1,69.10-3) = 11,23)
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 3.5. Du hiu cho thy mt ngi c nguy c mc bnh gout l nng axit
uric (HUr) v urat (Ur-) trong mu ca ngi qu cao. Bnh vim khp xut hin
do s kt ta ca natri urat trong cc khp ni. Cho cc cn bng:
HUr (aq) + H2O Ur- (aq) + H3O+ (aq) pK = 5,4 37C
Ur- (aq) + Na+ (aq) NaUr (r)
37C, 1,0 lit nc ha tan c ti a 8,0 mmol natri urat.
(a) Hy tnh tch s tan ca natri urat. B qua s thy phn ca ion urat.
Trong mu (c pH = 7,4 v 37C) nng Na+ l 130 mmol/L.
(b) Hy tnh nng urat ti a trong mu khng c kt ta natri urat xut hin.

n
Gi tr tch s tan ph thuc vo nhit . Bit thm rng bnh gout thng xut

h
hin u tin cc t ngn chn v ngn tay.

N
(c) Hy cho bit tch s tan ph thuc vo nhit nh th no?

uy
tan ca axit uric trong nc 37C l 0,5 mmol/L.

Q
(d) Chng minh rng nu khng c kt ta natri urat xut hin th cng s khng c
kt ta axit uric xut hin.
m
K
Gi thit rng ch c HUr v Ur- l nh hng n gi tr pH ca dung dch. Si
y

thn thng c axit uric. Nguyn nhn l nng qu cao ca axit uric v urat c
D

trong nc tiu v pH thp ca nc tiu (pH = 5 - 6).


/+

(e) Hy tnh gi tr pH ti si (cha axit uric khng tan) c hnh thnh t nc


m

tiu ca bnh nhn. Gi thit rng nng tng cng ca axit uric v urat l 2,0
co

mmol/L.
e.

Hng dn gii
gl

a. 6,4 10-5;
oo

b. 4,910-4 M;
G

c. Nhit gim th tch s tan gim.

[Ur ]
d. C pH = pK a + log
[ HUr ]
[Ur ]
log = pH pK a = 7,4 5,4 = 2
[ HUr ]

[Ur ]
= 10 2 = 100
[ HUr ]
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

V trong mu khng c kt ta NaUr nn [Ur-] < 4,910-4 (kt qu tnh c phn


(b)).
[Ur ] 4,9.10 4
[ HUr ] < = = 4,9.10 6 < S HUr = 5.10 4 M
100 100
Vy khng c kt ta axit uric xut hin.
e. C: [HUr] + [Ur-] = 2.10-3
Axit uric khng tan khi:
[HUr] = 5.10-4
[Ur-] = 2.10-3 - [HUr] = 1,5.10-3

n
[Ur ] 1,5.10 3

h
pH = pK a + log = 5,4 + log = 5,88
[ HUr ] 5.10 4

N
Vy pH < 5,88 th bt u c axit uric kt ta)

uy
3.2. nh hng ca phn ng to phc

Q
Cu 3.6. CuBr l mt cht t tan trong nc (pT = 7,4).

m
(a) Hy tch th tch nc ti thiu cn dng ha tan hon ton 1 gam CuBr.
K
Ion Cu+ to phc vi amoniac theo cc phn ng sau:
y

Cu+ + NH3


[Cu(NH3)]+ lg1 = 6,18
D

[Cu(NH3)]+ + NH3
[Cu(NH3)2]+ lg2 = 4,69
/+

(b) Hy tnh th tch dung dch amoniac 0,1 M ti thiu cn dng ha tan hon
m

ton 1 gam CuBr.


co

(c) Biu thc tnh tch s tan iu kin ca CuBr nh sau:


e.

T' = ([Cu + ] + [Cu(NH3 )]+ + [Cu(NH3 ) 2 ]+ ) [Br - ]


gl
oo

Hy tnh gi tr T' ca dung dch thu c phn (b).


G

Hng dn gii
a. CuBr


Cu+ + Br-

C: S = [Cu + ] = 10 -7,4 = 2,00.10 4


1
Mt khc: S= = 2,00.10 4
143,35V
=> V = 34,9 lit;
b. CuBr


Cu+ + Br- pT = 7,4

Cu+ + NH3


[Cu(NH3)]+ lg1 = 6,18
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

[Cu(NH3)]+ + NH3


[Cu(NH3)2]+ lg2 = 4,69
C: [Br-] = [Cu+] + [Cu(NH3)+] + [Cu(NH3)2+] (1)
[NH3] + [Cu(NH3)+] + 2[Cu(NH3)2+] = 0,1 (2)
Gi s: [Cu(NH3)2+] >> [Cu+], [Cu(NH3)+]
(1) [Br-] = [Cu(NH3)2+]
(2) [NH3] + 2[Cu(NH3)2+] = 0,1
[Cu(NH3 ) +2 ] [ Br - ] [ Br - ]
C: 1, 2 = = =
[Cu + ][NH3 ] [Cu + ](0,1 - 2[Br - ]) 10- 7,4
-
(0,1 - 2[Br - ])
[ Br ]

n
[Br ] = 0,05 ; [Cu+] = 1,99.10-6 ; [Cu(NH3)2+] = [Br-] = 0,05

h
[Cu(NH 3 ) 2+ ] 0,05

N
[NH 3 ] = = 6 10 ,87
= 3,39.10 7
1, 2 [Cu ] 1,99.10 10
+

uy
[Cu(NH3)+] = 1[Cu+][NH3] = 106,181,99.10-63,39.10-7 = 1,02.10-6

Q
KTGT: tha mn;
m
K
1
S= = [ Br ] = 0,05 V2 = 0,140 lit
143,35V2
y

c. T= ([Cu+]+[Cu(NH3)+] + [Cu(NH3)2+]) [Br]


D

= (1,99106 +3,39107 +0,05) 0,05 = 2,5103


/+

Cu 3.7. Bit tch s tan ca Zn(OH)2 l 1,80 10-17.


m
co

(a) Hy tnh tan ca Zn(OH)2 trong nc.


(b) Hy tnh pH ca dung dch Zn(OH)2 bo ha.
e.

Cho cc gi tr th kh chun:
gl
oo

[Zn(OH)4]2- + 2 e


Zn (r) + 4 OH- E = -1,285 V
G

Zn2+ + 2e


Zn (r) E = - 0,762 V
(c) Hy tnh hng s bn tng cng ca phc tetrahidroxozincat(II).
(d) Hy tnh tan ca Zn(OH)2 trong dung dch m c pH = 9,58. B qua s to
phc [Zn(OH)4]2-.
(e) Hy tnh tan ca Zn(OH)2 trong dung dch m c pH = 9,58 v c tnh n
s to thnh phc [Zn(OH)4]2-.
(g) Hy so snh kt qu tm c (d) v (e) v rt ra nhn xt.
Hng dn gii
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

a. b qua c s phn li ca nc; S = 1,65.10-6;


b. 8,52;
o o
c. Cch 1: Thit lp cng thc tnh EZn (OH ) 24 / Zn theo EZn 2+ / Zn .

0,0592 0,0592 [ Zn(OH ) 24 ]


C
o
EZn 2+ / Zn = EZn 2+ + lg[ Zn 2 + ] = EZn
o
2+ + lg
/ Zn
2 / Zn
2 [OH ]4
0,0592 0,0592 [ Zn (OH ) 24 ]
o
= EZn 2+ lg + lg
/ Zn
2 2 [OH ]4
Khi [Zn(OH)42-] = [OH-] = 1 M th:

n
0,0592
o
EZn2+ / Zn = EZn o
= EZn lg

h
( OH ) 2 / Zn 2+
/ Zn
4
2

N
= 4,67.1017;

uy
Cch 2:

Q
Zn(r) + 4 OH-


[Zn(OH)4] 2- + 2 e E1 = +1.285 V

m G1 = -zFE1 = -247.97 kJ/mol


K
Zn2+ + 2e-


Zn(r) E2 = -0.762 V
y

G2 = -zFE2 = 147.04 kJ/mol


D

Zn2+ + 4 OH-


[Zn(OH)4] 2- G = G1 + G2 = -100.92 kJ/mol
/+

G 100920

m

K =e RT
=e 8, 314298
= 4,90.1017
co

T
d. [ Zn 2+ ] = 2
= 1,25.10 8 M .
[OH ]
e.
gl

e. S = [Zn2+] + [Zn(OH)42-] = [Zn2+] + [Zn2+][OH-]4


oo

T 4 8
= [OH ]2 (1 + [OH ] ) = 2,56.10 M .
G

g. Kt qu khc nhau: (2,56- 1,25)/2,56 = 51%; rt ln; nh vy s to phc nh


hng ng k n tan)
Cu 3.8. (IChO 43) PbO l mt oxit lng tnh. Khi ha tan vo nc xy ra cc cn
bng:
PbO (r) + H2O


Pb2+(aq) + 2 OH- (aq) T = 8,010-16

PbO (r) + 2 H2O




Pb(OH)3- (aq) + H3O+ (aq) Ka = 1,010-15
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

(a) Hy tnh gi tr pH ca dung dch ti dung dch Pb2+ 1,0010-2 M bt u c


kt ta PbO xut hin?
(b) T gi tr pH tnh c phn (a), ngi ta tng pH ca dung dch n mt gi
tr nht nh th kt ta bt u tan hon ton. Hy tnh gi tr pH ny?
(c) Hy vit biu thc tnh tan ca PbO.
(d) tan ca PbO t gi tr cc tiu ti pH =9,40. Hy tnh nng ca cc cu t
v tan ca PbO ti gi tr pH ny.
(e) Hy tnh khong pH ti tan ca PbO nh hn 1,010-3 M.
Hng dn gii

n
a. [Pb2+][OH-]2 = 8.10-16;

h
[OH-] = 2,83.10-7 pH = 7,45;

N
b. [Pb(OH)3-][H3O+] = 1.10-15

uy
[H3O+]= 1.10-13 pH = 13;

Q
c. S = [Pb2+] + [Pb(OH)3-];
d. [Pb2+]= 8.10-16/ [OH-]2 = 1,27.10-6M; m
K
[Pb(OH)3-] = 10-15/ [H3O+]= 2,51.10-6 M;
y

S = 3,78.10-6M;
D

M rng: chng minh rng Smin ti gi tr pH = 9,40;


/+

8.10-16 1015 1015


m

S = [Pb2 + ] + [Pb(OH)3- ] = + = 8.1012


[ H + 2
] +
[OH- ]2 [ H + ] [H + ]
co

12 1015
S ' = 16.10 [ H ] + 2 = 0
+
e.

[H ]
gl

[H+]= 3,97.10-10 (pH = 9,40);


oo

1015
S = 8.1012 [ H + ]2 + = 10 3
G

e.
[H ]
+

8.1012[ H + ]3 103[ H + ] 1015 = 0

[H+]1 = 1,12.10-8; pH1 = 7,95;


[H+]2 = 1,0.10-12; pH2 = 12,00;
7,95 pH 12,00)
3.3. nh hng ng thi ca pH v phn ng to phc
Cu 3.9. Tnh tan ca AgI trong dung dch NH3 0,1M. Bit TAgI = 8,3.10-17; NH3
c Kb = 1,75.10-5 v:
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Ag+ + 2NH3


Ag(NH3)2+ ; 1,2 = 1,7.107
Hng dn gii
Cc cn bng xy ra:
AgI


Ag+ + I-
Ag+ + 2 NH3


Ag(NH3)2+
NH3 + H2O


NH4+ + OH-
Thit lp cc phng trnh:
T = [Ag+][I-] = 8,3.10-17 (1)

n
+
[ Ag ( NH 3 ) 2 ]
= 1,7.10 7

h
1, 2 = 2 (2)
[ Ag ][ NH 3 ]
+

N
+
[ NH 4 ][OH ]
Kb = = 1,75.10 5

uy
(3)
[ NH 3 ]

Q
S = [I-] = [Ag+] + [Ag(NH3)2+] (4)
[NH3] + 2 [Ag(NH3)2+] + [NH4+] = 0,1 M
m (5)
K
[NH4+] = [OH-] (6)
y

Gi s [NH4+] << [NH3]


[Ag+] << [Ag(NH3)2+] << [NH3]
D
/+

(5) [NH3] = 0,1 M


m

[ NH 4 ] = [OH ] = 0,1 1,75.10 5 = 1,32.10 3


+
(3)
co

(4) [I-] = [Ag(NH3)2+] (7)


e.

8,3.1017 8,3.1017
gl

(1) [ Ag ] =
+
= + (8)
[I ] [ Ag ( NH 3 ) 2 ]
oo

+
[ Ag ( NH 3 ) 2 ]
G

17
= 1,7.107
(2) 8,3.10
+
0,12
[ Ag ( NH 3 ) 2 ]
[Ag(NH3)2+] = 3,76.10-6 M

8,3.1017 8,3.1017
[ Ag ] =
+
+
= 6
= 2,21.1011
[ Ag ( NH 3 ) 2 ] 3,76.10
KTGT: tha mn
S = [I-] = [Ag(NH3)2+] = 3,76.10-6M)
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 3.10. Tnh nng cn bng ca cc ion Ag+, Br-, Cl-, Ag(NH3)2+, NH4+ v
OH- trong dung dch bo ho AgCl v AgBr vi NH3 0,020M. Gi thit rng phc
Ag(NH3)+ to thnh khng ng k.
Cho TAgCl = 10-10; TAgBr = 5.10-13; 1,2 = 108 v Kb= 1,8.10-5.
Hng dn gii
AgCl


Ag+ + Cl TAgCl = 10-10

AgBr


Ag+ + Br TAgBr = 5.10-13

Ag+ + 2 NH3


Ag(NH3)2+ 1,2 = 108

n
NH3 + H2O


NH4+ + OH- Kb = 1,8.10-5

h
C: [AgL2] + [Ag+] = [Cl] + [Br] (1)

N
[NH3] + [NH4+] + 2[AgL2] = 0,02 (2)

uy
Gi s: [Ag+] << [AgL2]; [Br] << [Cl] ; [NH4+] << [NH3]

Q
(1) [AgL2] = [Cl-] (3)
(2) [NH3] + 2[AgL2] = 0,02
m (4)
K
T AgCl T AgCl
[AgL2] = 1,2[Ag+][NH3]2 = 1, 2 [ NH 3 ]2 = 1, 2 [ NH 3 ] 2
y


[Cl ] [ AgL 2 ]

[AgL2]= 0,1 [NH3]


/+

(4) [NH3] + 0,2[NH3] = 0,02


m

[NH3]= 1,67.10-2M
co

[AgL2] = 1,67.10-3M; [Cl] = 1,67.10-3M;


e.

TAgCl
[ Ag + ] = = 6.10 8 M
gl


[Cl ]
oo

TAgBr
[ Br ] = = 8,33.10 6 M
G

+
[ Ag ]

[OH-] = [NH4+] = 1,67.10 2 1,8.10 5 = 5,48.10 4 M


KTGT: tho mn)
Cu 3.11. Thm 0,1 ml Na2S 1M vo 10 ml dung dch Cu+ 10-2M v CN- 1M pH=
12. Tnh xem c kt ta mu en Cu2S xut hin khng?
Bit: TCu2S= 10-47,6. Phc Cu(CN)43- c 1,4= 1030,3,
HCN c pKa= 9, H2S c pK1= 7 v pK2= 12,9.
Hng dn gii
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

([S2-]= 1,11.10-3M; [Cu+]= 5,9.10-33 => Q= 3,86.10-68 < T => khng c kt ta)
Cu 3.12. Cho TCu(OH)2 = 4,50 .1021; MW (Cu(OH)2) = 97,59 g.mol1
v pKb (NH3) = 4,76.
(a) i. Hy tnh tan ca Cu(OH)2 trong nc theo n v g/100 mL. B qua qu
trnh t phn li ca nc.
ii. Hy tnh pH ca dung dch bo ha Cu(OH)2.
(b) tan ca nhiu hidroxit kim loi c tng ln nh qu trnh to phc ca ion
kim loi vi phi t nh amoniac. Trong mt th nghim, ngi ta ha tan hon ton
5,00 mg Cu(OH)2 trong 25,00 mL dung dch NH3. Bit nng cn bng ca NH3

n
trong dung dch thu c l 1,00 .103 M, hng s bn tng cng ca phc

h
Cu(NH3)42+ l 1,4 = 1011,75.

N
i. Hy tnh nng mol tng cng ca ng trong dung dch thu c.

uy
ii. Hy tnh nng cn bng ca cc cu t cha ng trong dung dch.

Q
iii. Hy tnh nng cn bng ca NH4+.
iv. Hy tnh pH ca dung dch. m
K
v. Hy tnh nng ca dung dch NH3 ban u.
y
D
/+

Hng dn gii
m

a. i. Cu(OH)2


Cu2+ + 2 OH-
co

S 2S
e.

C: T = [Cu 2+ ][OH ]2 = S (2S ) 2 = 4,50.1021


gl
oo

4,50.1021
S= 3 = 1,04.10 7 M
4
G

S ' = 1,04.107 0,1 97,59 = 1,01.106 g / 100ml

ii. C: [OH-]= 2S = 21,04 .10-7 = 2,08 .10-7


pH = 14 + log[OH-] = 14 + log (2,08 .10-7) = 7,32;
5,00.103
97,59
b. i. CCu 2+ = = 2,05.103 M
0,025
ii. Cu(OH)2 Cu2+ + 2 OH- T = 4,50.10-21
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu2+ + 4 NH3 Cu(NH3)42+ 1,4 = 1011,75


C: CCu2+ = [Cu2+] + [Cu(NH3)42+] = 2,05.10-3 (1)
[Cu ( NH 3 ) 24 + ]
1, 4 = (2)
[Cu 2 + ][ NH 3 ]4

2+ [Cu ( NH 3 ) 24 + ] [Cu ( NH 3 ) 24 + ]
(2) [Cu ] = 4
= 11, 75 3 4
= 1,778[Cu ( NH 3 ) 24 + ] (3)
1, 4 [ NH 3 ] 10 (10 )

(1, 3) [Cu2+] = 1,31.10-3


[Cu(NH3)42+] = 7,38.10-4
iii. NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH- Kb =10-4,76

n
h
[ NH 4+ ][OH ] [ NH 4+ ]2
C: Kb = =
[ NH 3 ] [ NH 3 ]

N
uy
[ NH 4+ ] = Kb [ NH3 ] = 104,76 1,00.103 = 1,32.104 M

Q
iv. C: [OH-] = [NH4+]= 1,32.10-4

m
pH = 14 + log[OH-] = 14 + log(1,32.10-4) = 10,12
K
v. CNH3 = [NH3] + [NH4+] + 4[Cu(NH3)42+] = 1.10-3 + 1,32.10-4 +
y

47,38.10-4 = 4,08.10-3 M)
4. Xc nh tch s tan
D
/+

4.1. Da vo tan
m

Cu 4.1. Thm t t dung dch bari nitrat 0,0010 M vo 200 ml dung dch NaF 0,040
co

M. Khi 35 ml dung dch bari nitrat c thm vo th thy kt ta BaF2 bt u


e.

xut hin. Hy tnh tch s tan ca BaF2.


gl

p s: (1,72.10-7)
oo

Cu 4.2. Dung dch bo ha Cd(OH)2 c pH = 9,56. Hy tnh tch s tan ca


G

Cd(OH)2.
p s: (2,39.10-14)
Cu 4.3. Bit 1 lit dung dch NH3 1M ha tan c ti a 0,33 gam AgBr. Hy tnh
TAgBr. Bit phc Ag(NH3)2+ c 1,2 = 5,88.106.
Hng dn gii
[Ag(NH3)2+] = [Br-] = 0,33/188 = 1,76.10-3 M.
[NH3] = 1 2[Ag(NH3)2+] = 0,996 M
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

[ Ag ( NH 3 ) +2 ]
[ Ag + ] = 2
= 3,02.1010
1, 2[ NH 3 ]

T = [Ag+][Br-]= 5,32.10-13)
Cu 4.4. Tnh tch s tan ca Ca(IO3)2
Th nghim 1. Chun ha dung dch natri thiosunfat.
Ly 10,0 ml dung dch KIO3 0,0120 M cho vo bnh nn. Thm 2 gam KI v 10
ml dung dch HCl 1M. Dung dch c mu nu thm. Chun bng dung dch
Na2S2O3 n mu vng rm. Thm 5 ml h tinh bt v tip tc chun n mt
mu xanh ca phc tinh bt vi I3- thy ht 20,55 ml.

n
Th nghim 2. Tnh tan ca Ca(IO3)2 trong nc ct.

h
Ly 10,0 ml dung dch bo ha Ca(IO3)2 cho vo bnh nn. Thm 2 gam KI v

N
10 ml HCl 1M. Tin hnh chun dung dch thu c bng dung dch Na2S2O3

uy
trn thy ht 19,20 ml. Hy:

Q
(a) vit cc phn ng c m t trong th nghim.
(b) tnh nng dung dch Na2S2O3.
m
K
(c) tnh nng ca IO3-.
y

(d) tnh tan ca Ca(IO3)2 trong nc.


D

(e) tnh tch s tan ca Ca(IO3)2.


/+

p s: a. IO3- + 5 I + 6 H+ 3 I2 + 3 H2O
m

I2 + 2 S2O32- 2 I + S4O62-
co

b. 0,0350M;
e.

c. 0,0122 M.
gl

d. 5,6.10-3 M.
oo

e. 7,1.10-7)
G

4.2. Da vo gi tr th kh chun
Cho EHg 22+ / Hg = 0,789V ; EHg 2Cl 2 / Hg = 0,268V . Hy tnh tch s tan v
o
Cu 4.5.
o

tan ca Hg2Cl2.
Hng dn gii
Hg22+ + 2 e


2 Hg

Hg22+ + 2 Cl-


Hg2Cl2 ; T = [Hg22+][Cl-]2
o o
Thit lp cng thc tnh EHg 2 Cl 2 / Hg theo EHg 22+ / Hg .
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

0,0592 0,0592 T
C
o
EHg 2+ / Hg = EHg 2+ + lg[ Hg 22 + ] = EHg
o
2+ + lg
2 / Hg
2
2 2 / Hg
2 [Cl ]2
0,0592
o
= EHg 2+
/ Hg
+ lg T 0,0592 lg[Cl ]
2
2
Khi [Cl] = 1 M th:
0,0592
EHgCl / Hg
o
= EHgCl / Hg
o
= EHg 2+
/ Hg
+ lg T
2 2 2
2
T = 2,51.10-18

T
C S(2S)2 = T S =3 = 8,56.10 7 M )

n
4

h
Cu 4.6. Cho 3 pin in ha vi cc sc in ng tng ng 298K:

N
(1) Hg/HgCl2, KCl (bo ha ) // Ag+ (0,0100 M)/Ag E1= 0,439 V

uy
(2) Hg/HgCl2, KCl (bo ha ) // AgI (bo ha)/Ag E2= 0,089 V

Q
(3) Ag/AgI (bo ha), PbI2 (bo ha ) // KCl (bo ha), HgCl2/Hg E3= 0,230 V
a) Hy tnh tch s tan ca bc idodua.
m
K
b) Hy tnh tch s tan ca ch (II) iodua.
y

Cho E Ag + / Ag = 0,799V , R = 8,314 J/mol/K, F = 96487 C/mol.


o
D

p s: a) 1,37.10-16;
/+

b) [Ag+] = 4,58.10-14; [I] = 2,99.10-3;


m

[Pb2+]= 0,5 ([I] [Ag+]) = 1,5.10-3; T = 1,34.10-8


co

Cu 4.7. (IChO 42) Cho cc gi tr th kh chun sau:


e.

Bn phn ng E0, V (298K)


gl

Sn2+ + 2e Sn -0,14
oo

Sn4+ + 2e Sn2+ +0,15


G

Hg22+ + 2e 2 Hg +0,79
Hg2Cl2 + 2e 2 Hg +0,27
+ 2 C l
(a) Hy tnh hng s cn bng ca phn ng sau 298 K:
Sn (r) + Sn4+ (aq)


2 Sn2+ (aq)
(b) Hy tnh tan ca Hg2Cl2 trong nc 298 K (theo n v mol/l).
(c) Hy tnh sut in ng chun, E, ca pin nhin liu s dng phn ng sau:
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

H2 (k) + 1/2 O2 (k) H2O (l) G = 237,1 kJ.mol1


Hng dn gii
2 ( 0 ,15 + 0 ,14 )

a. K = 10 0 , 0592
= 6,27.10 9

b. Xc nh tch s tan:
Cch 1:
-1 Hg22+ + 2e 2 Hg
G01 = -nFE01 = -2 964850,79 = -152,4.103 J
1 Hg2Cl2 + 2e 2 Hg + 2 Cl-

n
G02 = -nFE02 = -2 964850,27 = -52,1.103 J

N
Hg2Cl2
Hg22+ + 2 Cl-

uy

G03 = -G01 + G02 = 100,3.103 J = -RTlnT

Q
G30 100,3.103
ln T =
RT
=
8,314 298
= 40,48
m
K
T = 2,62.10-18
y

Cch 2:
D

Hg22+ + 2 e


2 Hg
/+

Hg22+ + 2 Cl-
Hg2Cl2 ; T = [Hg22+][Cl-]2
m



co

Thit lp cng thc tnh EHg


o
Cl 2 2 / Hg theo EHg
o
2+
2 / Hg
.
e.

0,0592 0,0592 T
C o
EHg 2+ / Hg = EHg 2+ + lg[ Hg22 + ] = EHg
o
2+ + lg
/ Hg
2 2 / Hg
2 [Cl ]2
gl

2 2
oo

0,0592
o
= EHg 2+
/ Hg
+ lg T 0,0592 lg[Cl ]
2
2
G

Khi [Cl-] = 1 M th:


0,0592
EHgCl / Hg
o
= EHgCl / Hg
o
= EHg 2+
/ Hg
+ lg T
2 2 2
2
T = 2,71.10-18

Tnh tan:
C Hg2Cl2


Hg22+ + 2 Cl-
S 2S
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

S(2S)2 = T

T 3 2,62.1018
S =3 = = 8,68.10 7 M
4 4
c. C: G0 = -nFE0pin

0
G 0 237,1.103
E pin = = = 1,23V
nF 2 96485
Cu 4.8. K thut in ho thng c dng xc nh tan ca cc mui kh
tan. Do sc in ng l hm bc nht theo logarit ca nng nn c th xc nh
c cc nng d rt nh.

n
Bi tp ny s dng mt pin in ho gm hai phn, c ni vi nhau bng

h
cu mui. Phn bn tri ca s pin l mt thanh Zn nhng trong dung dch

N
Zn(NO3)2 0,200M; cn phn bn phi l mt thanh Ag nhng trong dung dch

uy
AgNO3 0,100M. Mi dung dch c th tch 1,00L 250C.

Q
(a) V s pin v vit cc bn phn ng xy ra mi cc.

m
(b) Hy tnh sc in ng ca pin v vit phng trnh phn ng xy ra khi pin
K
phng in.
y

Gi s pin phng in hon ton v lng Zn c d.


D

(c) Hy tnh in lng c phng thch trong qu trnh phng in.


/+

Trong mt th nghim khc, KCl c thm vo dung dch AgNO3 pha bn


m

phi ca pin ban u. Xy ra phn ng to kt ta AgCl v lm thay i sc in


co

ng. Sau khi thm xong. Sc in ng bng ca pin bng 1,04V v [K+] = 0,300M.
e.

(d) Hy tnh [Ag+] ti trng thi cn bng.


gl

(e) Hy tnh [Cl-] ti trng thi cn bng v TAgCl.


oo

Cho: EoZn2+/Zn= -0,76V; EoAg+/Ag= 0,80V.


G

p s: a. Zn| Zn2+|| Ag+ | Ag b. 1,52V


c. 9649C d. 7,3.10-10M
e. [Cl-] = 0,2M; T = 1,5.10-10)
Cu 4.9. Xem xt pin in ha sau:
Pt |H2 (p = 1 atm)|H2SO4 0,01 M|PbSO4(r)|Pb(r).
(a) Hy tnh nng cn bng ca SO42- v pH ca dung dch trong pin trn.
(b) Hy vit phn ng xy ra khi pin phng in.
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Sut in ng ca pin trn 298,15 K l 0,188 V. Gi thit rng trong phn


(c) v (d) nng cn bng ca SO42- l 5 10-3 M v ca H3O+ l 15 10-3 M (cc gi
tr ny c th khc gi tr tnh c phn (a)).
(c) Hy tnh tch s tan ca PbSO4.
(d) Hy cho bit sut in ng ca pin trn tng hay gim bao nhiu V khi p sut
ca hidro gim mt na?
Vng kim loi khng tan trong dung dch axit nitric nhng tan c trong nc
cng toan (l hn hp gm axit clohidric c v axit nitric c c t l th tch tng
ng l 3 : 1). Vng phn ng vi nc cng toan to thnh ion phc [AuCl4]-.

n
(e) S dng cc gi tr th kh chun cho di y, hy tnh hng s bn tng cng

h
ca phc [AuCl4]-.

N
Cho: pKa2 (H2SO4) = 1,92; E(Pb2+/Pb) = - 0,126 V

uy
E(Au3+/Au) = + 1,50 V E([AuCl4]-/Au + 4 Cl-) = + 1,00 V

Q
Hng dn gii
a. H2SO4 H+ + HSO4-
m
K
0 , 01 0, 01
y

HSO4-


H+ + SO42-
D

cb 0,01 - x 0, 01 + x x
/+

(0,01 + x) x
= 10 1,92
m

Ka2 =
0,01 x
co

x = 4,53.10-3 M
e.

[SO42-]= x = 4,53.10-3 M
gl

[H+] = 0,01 + x = 0,0145 M


oo

pH = 1,84;
G

b. Catot (+) PbSO4 + 2e Pb + SO42-


Anot (-) H2 2 H+ + 2e

PbSO4 + H2 Pb + 2 H+ + SO42-

0 0,0592
c. C: E catot = E Pb 2+
/ Pb
+ lg[ Pb 2 + ]
2
0,0592 [ H + ]2 0,0592 (15.103 ) 2
Eanot = EH0 + / H + lg = 0+ lg = 0,108V
2
2 pH 2 2 1
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

0 0,0592
E pin = Ecatot Eanot = EPb 2+
/ Pb
+ lg[ Pb 2 + ] + 0,108 = 0,188
2
[Pb2+]= 1,81.10-6 M
T = [Pb2+][SO42-] = 1,81.10-6 5.10 = 9,05.10-9
d. Khi p sut ca hidro gim mt na:
0,0592 [ H + ]2 0,0592 (15.103 ) 2
Eanot = EH0 + / H + lg =0+ lg = 0,099V
2
2 pH 2 2 0,5

Ecatot khng i, Eanot tng (-0,099 + 0,108) = 0,009V, vy Epin gim 0,009 V;
e. +1 Au3+ + 3e Au

n
G01 = -nFE01 = -3 964851,50 = -434,2.103 J

h
-1 AuCl4- + 3e Au + 4 Cl-

N
G02 = -nFE02 = -3 964851,00 = -289,5.103 J

uy

Q
Au3+ + 4Cl- AuCl4-
m




K
G03 = G01 - G02 = -144,7.103 J = -RTln1,4

G30 144,7.103
y

ln 1, 4 = = = 54,4
RT 8,314 298
D

1,4 = 2,31.1025)
/+
m
co
e.

CNG PHN TCH NH TNH


gl
oo

20 cu; 20 pht/cu.
Cu 1: Anh/ch hy trnh by thuc th ca Cation nhm 1? Nu hin tng dc
G

trng v vit phng trnh ion khi cho Cation nhm 1 tc dng vi thuc th
nhm?Vit s xc nh cc Cation nhm 1 trong dung dch gc?
Tr li:
Cc Cation nhm 1 gm: Ag+; Pb2+; Hg2+2.
Thuc th nhm ca Cation nhm 1 l HCl 2N (acid hydroclorid)
Cc Cation nhm 1 khi tc dng vi HCl 2N s to kt ta mu trng
PT ion: Ag+ + HCl AgCl trng + H+
Pb2+ + 2HCl PbCl2 trng + 2H+
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Hg22++ 2HCl Pb2Cl2 trng + 2H+


AgCl v PbCl2 tan c trong HCl c v cc dung dch mui clorid m c, nht l
khi un nng.
Hg2Cl2 ch tan trong HNO3 c hoc dung dch nc cng thy, do Hg22+ b oxy ha
thnh Hg2+
S xc nh cc Cation nhm 1 trong dung dch gc :

DD gc + HCl 2N
C ta mu trng

n
h
+NH4O

N
en ( ) H ( ) Tan

uy
Q
Tm Hg2++ Tm Ag+

m
K
( ) Khng tan
y

Tm Pb2+
D
/+

Cu 2: Anh/ch hy trnh by thuc th nhm ca Cation nhm II? Nu hin tng


m

c trng v vit phng trnh ion khi cho Cation nhm 2 tc dng vi thuc th
co

nhm? Vit s xc nh cc Cation nhm I,II trong dung dch gc?


e.

Tr li: Cc Cation nhm 2 gm: Ca++; Ba++


gl

Thuc th nhm l Acid Sulfuric 2N (H2SO4 2N). Cc Cation nhm 2 tc dng vi


oo

thuc th H2SO4 2N to thnh kt ta trng. Trong phn ng ny ion Ba2+ khng cn


G

iu kin no cn ion Ca2+ cn mi trng Acetol hoc Ethanol 700.


PT ion: Ba2+ + H2SO4 BaSO4ta trng + 2H+
Ca2+ + H2SO4 CaSO4 ta trng + 2H+
S xc nh cc Cation nhm 1 , 2 trong dung dch gc :
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Tan
Tm Ag+

C ( ) trng + NH4OH en
DD gc + HCL 2N Tm Hg2++

Khng tan
Khng ta Tm Pb++

Trng
DD gc + H2SO4 2N Tm Ba++

n
h
Khng ta

N
uy
To kt ta trng
+ Ethanol 700 Tm Ca++

Q
m
K
y
D
/+
m
co
e.
gl
oo
G
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 3: Anh/ch hy k tn cc loi thuc th ring ca Cation Ba2+ ? Nu hin


tng xy ra v vit phng trnh phn ng minh ha?
Tr li: Thuc th c trng ca Cation Ba2+ :
*Tc dng vi Kali Cromat (K2CrO4) to thnh kt ta vng ti
Ba2+ + K2CrO4 BaCrO4 vng+ 2K+
Ta ny khng tan trong NaOH 2N v CH3 COOH. y l c s tch Ba2+ ra khi
Pb2+

n
+ Phn ng voler :

h
Kt ta ca ion Ba2+ di dng mui BaSO4 (bari sulfat), bng H2SO4 (acid sulfuric)

N
trong mi trng thuc tm ( KMnO4 ),ta hp ph thuc tm nn c mu hng.

uy
Dng nc xy gi (H2O2) trong mi trng acid sulfuric kh mu ca dung

Q
dch,ring ta bari sulfat vn c mu hng.
Ba2+ + H2SO4 BaSO4 trng + 2H+
m
K
5H2O2 + 2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 5O2+8H2O
y

+ Natri Cacbonat ( Na2CO3) :


D

Cc Cation Ba2+ tc dng vi Na2CO3 to thnh kt ta trng


/+

Ba2+ + Na2CO3 BaCO3 trng + 2Na+


m
co

+ Amoni Oxalat ((NH4)2C2O4)


e.

Ba2++ (NH4)2C2O4 Ba C2O4 trng + 2NH4


gl

Ta ny tan trong HCl, HNO3, CH3COOH.


oo
G
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 4: Anh/ch hy trnh by thuc th ca Cation nhm 3? Nu hin tng c


trng v vit phng trnh ion khi cho Cation nhm 3 tc dng vi thuc th nhm?
Vit s xc nh cc Cation nhm I,II,III trong dung dch gc?
Tr li: Cc Cation nhm 3 gm: Zn2+ ; Al3+
Cc Cation nhm 3 u c kh nng to thnh mui tan trong mi trng kim d,
Thuc th ca cc Cation nhm 3 l NaOH hoc KOH d.
PT ion: Zn2+ + Zn(OH)2 Zn(OH)2 trng
Al3+ + 2OH- Al(OH)3trng

n
Khi cho d: Zn(OH)2 + OH- ZnO2 2- + 2H2O

h
Al(OH)3 + OH- AlO2 - + 2H2O.

N
S xc nh cc Cation nhm I, II, III trong dung dch gc:

uy
Q
Tan
Tm Ag+
m
K
C ( ) trng + NH4OH Khng tan
DD gc + HCL 2N Tm Pb2+
y

Xm en
Tm Hg2++
D

Khng ta
/+
m

Trng
DD gc + H2SO4 2N Tm Ba++
co
e.

Khng ta
gl
oo

To kt ta trng
+ Ethanol 700 Tm Ca++
G

Tm Zn2+
Trng ri tan
DD gc + NaOH 2N D

Tm Al3+
Cu 5: Anh/ch hy k tn, cng thc ha hc, hin tng c trng ca thuc th
xc nh ion Zn2+, Al3+ v vit phng trnh phn ng minh ha?
Tr li:
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

*Thuc th ca ion Zn2+


- Montequi
Trong mi trng CH3COOH (acid acetic ) ION Zn2+ tc dng vi thuc th
Montequi A v Montequi B cho kt ta mu tm sim.
- (NH4)2S (Amoni sulfur) hay H2S (Hydro sulfur)
Trong mi trng kim yu hoc trung tnh ion Zn2+ tc dng vi thuc th (NH4)2S
hay H2S to thnh ZnS trng.
Zn2+ + (NH4)2S ZnS trng + 2NH4+
Zn2+ + H2S ZnS trng + 2H+

n
ZnS tan trong cc acid v c , khng tan trong CH3COOH v NaOH.

h
- Natri Cacbonat (Na2CO3)

N
Cho sn phm khc nhau ty theo nng dung dch.

uy
2Zn2+ + 2Na2CO3 + H2O Zn2(OH)2CO3 () + 4Na + CO2

Q
3Zn2+ + 3Na2CO3 + H2O == Zn2(OH)2 (CO3)2 () + 6Na + CO2 ()
Amoni Hydroxyd NH4OH
m
K
Zn2+ + 4NH4OH [Zn(NH3)4]+ + 4H2O.
y

*Thuc th ca Cation nhm Al3+


D

- Aluminon to kt ta mu hng.
/+

- Hn hp NH4OH + NH4Cl (Amoni Hydroxyd + Amoni clorid ) cho kt ta keo


m

trng.
co

Al3++ 3NH4OH Al(OH)3trng + 3 NH4+


e.

Ta ny tan trong NaOH v HCl, khng tan trong NH4Cl


gl

- Na2CO3 (Natri Cacbonat ) to ta trng


oo

2Al3+ + 3CO32- +3H2O 2Al(OH)3trng + 3CO3


G
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 6: Anh/ch hy trnh by thuc th nhm ca Cation nhm 5? K tn cc loi


thuc th ring ca Cation Cu2+? Nu hin tng xy ra v vit phng trnh phn
ng minh ha?
Tr li:
*Cc Cation nhm 5 gm: Mg2+; Cu2+; Hg2+
Thuc th ca cc Cation nhm 5 l NH4OH (Amoni Hydroxyd) cho d vi s c
mt ca nc H2O2(oxy gi) v NH4Cl(Amoni clorid )
Cc Cation nhm 5 tc dng vi hn hp (NH4OH) + (H2O2) + (NH4Cl) khng to

n
ta v:

h
Mg2+ + NH4OH Mg(OH)2 () + 2NH4+

N
Ta ny tan trong mi trng NH4+ (NH4Cl) cn ion Cu2+, Hg2+ th to ra phc cht

uy
tan.

Q
Amoni clorid c vai tr lm tng nng ion NH4+ cc Cation nhm 5 khng to

m
kt ta, phn bit c vi Cation nhm 4. Nc H2O2 (xy gi) c vai tr i vi
K
nhm 4.
y

*Thuc th ring ca Cation Cu2+:


D

- NH4OH(Amoni Hydroxyd ) to kt ta mu xanh l, ta ny tan khi cho d


/+

(NH4OH), to ra phc cht mu xanh lam.


m

Cu2+ + 4NH4OH [Cu(NH3)4]2+xanh lam + 4H2O


co

- K4[Fe(CN)6](Kali ferocyanid ) to kt ta mu xm
e.

Cu2+ + K4[Fe(CN)6 Cu2[Fe(CN)6] xm +4K+


gl

- Amoni sulfur (NH4)2S hay Hydro sulfur (H2S) to kt ta mu en.


oo

Cu2+ + (NH4)2S ZnS en + 2NH4+


G

Cu2+ + H2S CuS en + 2H+


- Kali iodid (KI)
Cu2+ + 4I- CuIen + I2
- Natri Hydroxyd (NaOH) to kt ta mu xanh lc
Cu2+ + 2 OH- Cu(OH)2 xanh lc
Khi un nng th to thnh CuO mu en.
Cu(OH)2 CuOen + H2O
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 7: Anh / ch hy k tn ,cng thc ha hc ,hin tng c trng ca thuc th


xc nh ion NH4+;K+;Na+v vit phng trnh ion minh ha?
Tr li:
*Thuc th xc nh ca Cation NH4 :
- Natri Hydroxyd (NaOH):
Ion NH4+ b NaOH phn tch thnh Amoniac NH3
NH4+ + NaOH NH3 + Na + H2O
NH3+ lm giy tm Phenolphtalein chuyn thnh mu hng, hoc c mi khai c

n
trng.

h
- Thuc th Nesler to ta mu nu hay vng nu

N
NH3 + 2K2[HgI4] + KOH [HgI2NH2]nu + 5KI + H2O

uy
*Thuc th xch nh ca Cation K+

Q
- Acid perclorid HClO4 to kt ta mu trng
K+ + HClO4 KClO4 trng + H+
m
K
- Acid Tartric H2C4H4O6 to ta mu trng
y

K+ + H2C4H4O6 KHC4H4O6trng + H+
D

- Acid Picric C6 H2 (NO2)3 OH cho ta mu vng. Bng th mu ngn la: K+ cho


/+

mu tm
m

*
Thuc th ca ion Na+
co

Thuc th Streng trong mi trng acid axetic to vng l m


e.

Na+ + Mg(UO2 )3(CH3 COO)8 + CH3 COO- NaMg(UO2)3(CH3 COO)9vng l m


gl

Bng th mu ngn la: Na+ cho ngn la mu vng.


oo
G
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

n
h
N
uy
Q
m
K
y
D
/+
m
co
e.
gl
oo
G
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 8: Anh/ch hy vit s xc nh cc Cation nhm I, II, III, IV, V, VI trong


dung dch gc?
Tr li: S xc nh cc Cation nhm I, II, III, IV, V, VI trong dung dch gc:

Xanh l Tm Cu2+
C mu
Quan st DD Gc

G st Tm Fe3+
Khng mu

n
Tm NH4+

h
Khng
DD Gc + Na2CO3 Tm K+

N
Tm Na+

uy
en

Q
Tm Hg22+

C Ta mu
m
nu
Tm Hg2+
K
Xanh
Tm Fe2+
y

Trng
Trng +
Tm Bi3+
D
/+

DD Gc + HCl 2N Tm Ag+
Tan
m
co

Khng
Khng tan Tm Pb2+
e.

Trng Tm Ba2+
DD Gc + H2SO42N
gl
oo

Khng
Trng
G

+Ethanol 70o Tm Ca2+

Trc Tm Zn2+
Tan
DD Gc + NaOH2N d
Sau Tm Al2+

Khng
DD Gc + H2O2 + NH4OH + NH4Cl Tm Mg2+
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 9: Anh/ch hy trnh by hin tng c trng ca cc Anion nhm I khi tc


dng vi thuc th s b v vit phng trnh ion minh ha? Vit s xc nh
cc Anion nhm I trong dung dch gc?
Tr li: Anion nhm I gm: Cl-; Br-; I-; S2-; NO3-
Thuc th s b:
Bari Nitrat [Ba(NO3)2]
Cc anion nhm 1 tc dng vi TT Bari Nitrat khng cho ta v to ra cc mui bari
tan. (BaCl2;BaBr2)

n
Bc Nitrat (AgNO3)

h
Cc ion Cl-;Br-;I-;S2-,tc dng vi TT Bc Nitrat to ra ht ta mu , cc ta ny k tan

N
trong Acid Nitric 2N(HNO3 2N)

uy
Cl- + AgNO3 NO3- +AgCltrng

Q
Br- + AgNO3 NO3- +AgBrvng nht
I- + AgNO3 NO3- +AgIvng nht
m
K
S2- + 2AgNO3 2NO3- +Ag2S en
y

Ion NO3- k cho kt ta vi TT Bc Nitrat.


D

S xc nh cc Anion nhm 1 trong dung dch gc:


/+
m

Khng Tm NO3-
co

Trng
Tm Cl-
e.

DD Gc DD Gc
+ Khng +
gl

Tm I- trc
oo

Ba(NO3)2 Ba(NO3)2 Vng


Tm Br- sau
G

Tm S2-
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 10: Anh/ ch hy nu phn ng chung xc nh cc Halogenid (X-) v cc phn


ng ring xc ddingj cc Halogenid?
Tr li:
*Phn ng chung xc nh cc Halogenid:
Dng cht oxy ha mnh l kali permanganat (KMnO4) trong mi trng acid
sulfuric oxy ha (X-) thnh Halogen t do (X2) ri nhn bit cc Halogen bng TT
c hiu.
10X- + 2KMnO4 + 8H2SO4 == 2MnSO4 + K2SO4 + 5X2 + 5SO42- + 8H2O

n
(X- = Cl-;Br-;I-)

h
+ i vi Clo(Cl2): Dng TT l giy tm Vilie-Fayol, giy chuyn thnh mu xanh

N
tm.

uy
+ i vi Brom(Br-): Dng TT l giy tm Fluorescein, giy chuyn t mu vng

Q
sang mu hng.

m
+ i vi Iod(I2) : Dng TT l giy tm H tinh bt, giy chuyn xang mu xanh tm.
K
* Thuc th ring ca cc Halogenid:
y

- TT ca ion Cl- l Bc Nitrat


D

ion Cl- tc dng vi TT Bc Nitrat cho kt ta trng,tan trong NH4OH, KCN,


/+

Na2S2O3 to thnh cc phc tan.


m

- TT ca ion Br- l nc Clor


co

ion Br- b nc Clor oxy ha thnh Brom.Brom ha tan trong Cloroform lm cho nc
e.

Cloroform c mu vng nu.


gl

TT ca ion I-
oo

+ Thy ngn II Clorid(HgCl2)


G

To ra kt ta mu ti, ta ny tan trong dung dch I- to ra dung dch k mu.


+ Ch acetat [Pb(CH3COO2)]
To ra kt ta mu vng ti, ta ny tan trong nc nng , ngui li kt ta tinh
th mu vng ng nh.
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 11: Anh/ch hy trnh by hin tng c trng ca anion nhm II khi tc dng
vi thuc th s b v vit phng trnh ion minh ha? K tn cc loi thuc th c
trng ca anion PO43- v vit phng trnh phn ng minh ha?
Tr li:
* Thuc th s b
- Bari Nitrat [Ba(NO3)2]
Cc anion nhm II tc dng vi thuc th Bari Nitrat to ra cc mui kt ta trng,
cc ta ny tan trong acid Nitric 2N (HNO3 2N). V chng l mui ca cc acid yu

n
nn b cc acid Nitric phn hy to thnh cc acid tng ng vi mui Bari nitrat tan.

h
2AsO43- + 3Ba2+ Ba3(AsO4)2 trng.

N
2AsO33- + 3Ba2+ Ba3(AsO3)2trng.

uy
2PO43- + 3Ba2+ Ba3(PO4)2trng

Q
CO32- + Ba2+ BaCO3trng

m
Ring ion HCO3- to thnh mui Hydrocarbonat tan. Nhng cc dung dch
K
Hydrocacbonat b phn tch mt phn thnh mui Carbonat, do khi th vi bari
y

Nitrat cng cho ta trng(ta bari carbonat)


D

2HCO3- CO32- + H2O + CO2


/+

Cc ion nhm II tc dng vi Bc Nitrat u to ra kt ta ,cc ta ny tan trong Acid


m

Nitric
co

AsO43- + 3Ag+ Ag3ASO4 nu


e.

AsO33- + 3Ag+ Ag3ASO3 vng


gl

PO43- + 3Ag+ Ag3PO4 vng


oo

HCO3- + Ag+ AgHCO3 trng


G

CO32- + 2Ag+ Ag2CO3 trng


Ta Ag2CO3 lu b phn tch thnh Ag2O c mu xm.
*Thuc th c trng ca anion PO43- :
Amoni molybdat [(NH4)2MoO4]
Trong mi trng acid nitric ion PO43- tc dng vi [(NH4)2MoO4] to ra kt ta mu
vng.
12[(NH4)2MoO4] + PO43- + HNO3 (NH4)3H4[P(Mo2O7)6]vng + H2O + NH4NO3
Hn hp MgCl2+NH4Cl+NH4OH to ra kt ta trng.
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

PO43- + Mg2+ + NH4+ MgNH4PO4 trng

n
h
N
uy
Q
m
K
y
D
/+
m
co
e.
gl
oo
G
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 12: Anh/ch hy trnh by phn ng chung xc nh AsO43-; AsO33-; HCO3-


;CO32- v phn ng phn bit HCO3-;CO32- ?
Tr li:
*Phn ng chung xc nh AsO43- v AsO33-
Dng Hydro mi sinh (do Zn + H2SO4 2N) kh AsO43- v AsO33- thnh kh Hydro
asenid (AsH3). Kh AsH3 bay ln gp giy tm bc nitrat lm cho giy c mu en.
Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + 2H0
3H+ + AsO33- + 6H0 AsH3 + 3H2O

n
3H+ + AsO43- + 8H0 AsH3 + 4H2O

h
Mun phn bit AsO43- v AsO33- th da vo TT s b Bc Nitrat lm cho AsH3

N
chuyn thnh mu en

uy
*Thuc th chung ca HCO3- v CO32- :

Q
- Thy ngn II Nitrat [Hg(NO3)2]

m
Cc ion HCO3- v CO32- tc dng vi Thy ngn II Nitrat [Hg(NO3)2]
K
To ra kt ta nu hoc vng nu.
y

HCO3- + [Hg(NO3)2] HgCO3 nu + H+ + 2NO3-


D

CO32- + [Hg(NO3)2] HgCO3 nu + H+ + 2NO3-


/+

Acid v c mnh( HCl,H2SO4) hay acid acetic(CH3COOH)


m

Cc ion HCO3- v CO32- b cc acid v c mnh hay Acid acetic phn hy thnh kh
co

Carbonic. Kh Carbonic lm c nc vi trong.


e.

HCO3- + H+ CO2 + H2O


gl

CO32- + 2H+ CO2 + H2O


oo

CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O


G

*Thuc th phn bit HCO3- v CO32 :


Dng Magnesi Clorid (hay Magnesi sulfat) : Ion CO32- tc dng vi Magnesi
Clorid (MgCl2) cho ta trng cn ion HCO3- khng to ra ta v to thanh mui tan.
Mg+ + CO32- MgCO3 trng
Mg+ + HCO3- Mg(HCO3)2
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 13: Anh/ch hy trnh by hin tng c trng ca anion nhm III khi tc dng
vi thuc th s b v vit phng trnh ion minh ha? Vit phn ng ca ion
SO32- vi thuc th ring v nu hin tng xy ra?
Tr li:
*TT nhm ca anion nhm III v hin tng c trng:
- TT Bari Nitrat [Ba(NO3)2]
Anion nhm III tc dng vi TT to ra kt ta trng. Ta ny khng tan trong acid
nitric 2N.

n
SO42- + Ba2+ BaSO4 trng

h
SO32- + Ba2+ BaSO3 trng

N
- TT Bc Nitrat (AgNO3)

uy
Ion SO32- tc dng vi TT to kt ta trng ,ta ny tan trong dung dch ion SO32- d.

Q
SO32- + 2Ag+ Ag2SO3 trng

m
Ag2SO3 + 3SO32- d 2[Ag(SO3)2]3-
K
Ion SO42- k cho kt ta vi TT ,nu nng ion SO42- c th cho ta trng.
y

SO42- + 2Ag+ Ag2SO4 trng


D

*TT ring ca Ion SO32- v hin tng xy ra:


/+

- TT Bari clorid (BaCl2)


m

Ion SO32- tc dng vi TT to ra kt ta trng, ta ny tan trong acid Hydrocloric


co

2N (HCl 2N)
e.

SO32- + BaCl2 2Cl- + BaSO3 trng


gl

BaSO3 + HCl BaCl2 + SO2 + H2O


oo

Acid v c mnh
G

Cc acid v c mnh nh H2SO4,HCl phn hy ion sulfit thnh kh sulfuro (SO2) ,


kh sulfuro bay ln lm mt mu giy tm thuc tm ( KMnO4).
2H+ + SO32- SO2 + H2O
5 SO2 + 2KMnO4 + 2H2O 2MnSO4 + K2SO4 + H2SO4
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 14: Anh. ch hy vit s xc nh cc anion nhm I, II, III trong dung dch
gc?
Tr li: s xc nh cc anion nhm I, II, III trong dung dch gc:

Khng Tm NO3-

Trng
DD Gc DD Gc Tm Cl-
+ Khng +

n
Tm I- trc

h
Ba(NO3)2 Ba(NO3)2 Vng

N
Tm Br- sau

uy
Tm S2-

Q
m Trng
K
DD gc Tm SO32-
Khng tan
HNO3 2N +
y

Khng
AgNO3 Tm SO42-
D
/+

nu
Tm ASO43-
m

DD gc
co

+ Tm ASO33- trc
AgNO3 vng
e.

Tm PO43- sau
gl
oo
G

Trng Tm CO32-
DD gc DD gc
+ Kh
+
CH3COOH MgCl22N Khng
Tm HCO3-
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cu 15: Anh/ch hy k tn cc nhm Cation v nhm anion m anh/ch c


hc? Trnh by trnh t xc nh cc anion v Cation trong mui v c?
Tr li:
*Cc Cation dc chia thnh 6 nhm:
Nhm 1: Ag+; Pb2+; Hg22+
Nhm 2: Ba2+; Ca2+
Nhm 3: Zn2+; Al3+
Nhm 4: Fe2+; Fe3+; Bi3+

n
Nhm 5: Mg2+; Cu2+; Hg2+

h
Nhm 6: K+; Na+; NH4+

N
*Cc ion (v c) c chia thnh 3 nhm:

uy
Nhm 1: Cl-; Br-; I-; S2-; NO3-

Q
Nhm 2: AsO43-; AsO33-; PO43- ; HCO3- ; CO32-
Nhm 3: SO32-; SO42-
m
K
Trnh t xc nh cc anion v Cation trong dung dch mui v c:
y

Quan st dung dch gc


D

- Nu dung dch gc c mu th tin hnh xc nh cc Cation c mu tng ng


/+

trc, sau xc nh anion sau.


m

- Nu dung dch gc khng c mu th tin hnh th m u.


co

Th m u vi Natri Carbonat:
e.

- Nu dung dch gc tc dng vi Na2co3 khng c ta,xc nh anion trc, sau


gl

xc nh Cation nhm 6 sau.


oo

- Nu dung dch gc tc dng vi Na2CO3 c kt ta ( trng, mu) xc nh Cation 5


G

nhm u trc, sau xc nh anion sau.

26. Tnh tan ca AgI trong


a. Dung dch KNO3 10-2M
b. Dung dch Ba(NO3)2 10-2M
c. Dung dch Al(NO3)3 10-2M
Tch s tan AgI 200C l 8,3.10 -7
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Gii
a. Dung dch KNO3 10-2
Cc cn bng xy ra trong dung dch
KNO3 K+ + NO3

10-2M 10-2M 10-2M


AgI Ag + + I

S S S
T= S2 S= T = 9,1.10-4
Trong dung dch gm c cc ion: K + , NO3 , Ag + , I (b qua s phn ly ca

n
h
H2O)
1 1

N
Lc ion: =
2
Ci .Z i2 = (102.12 + 102.12 + 2 S )
2

uy
1
= (2.10 2 + 2. T ) = 0, 01091

Q
2

m
Ta c: 0, 02 0, 2
K
0,01091
lg f Ag + = lg f I = 0,5.Z 2 . = 0,5.1.
1+ 1 + 0, 01091
y

f Ag + = f I = 0,897
D
/+

T
T = f 2 .S 2 S = = 1, 015.103
m

b. Dung dch Ba(NO3)2 10-2M


co

Cc cn bng xy ra trong dung dch


e.

Ba(NO3)2 Ba2+ + 2NO32-


gl

10-2 10-2 2.10-2


oo

AgI Ag + + I
G

S S S
T= S2 S= T = 9,1.10-4
Trong dung dch gm c cc ion: Ba 2+ , NO3 , Ag + , I
1
= (102.4 + 2.102.1 + 9,1.10 4 + 9,1.10 4 ) = 0, 03091
2
Do 0, 02 0, 2

lg f Ag + = lg f I = 0, 5.Z 2 .
1+
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

lg f Ag + = lg f I = 0,841

T = Ag + f Ag + . I . f I

T
= S 2. f 2 S = = 1, 08.103
f

c. Dung dch Al(NO3)3


Cn bng xy ra trong dung dch
Al(NO3)3 Al3+ + 3NO-3
10-2 10-2 3.10-2
AgI Ag+ + I-

n
h
S S S
Trong dung dch gm c cc ion: Al 3+ , NO3 , Ag + , I

N
uy
1
Lc ion: = (102.9 + 3.102.1 + 9,1.104 + 9,1.104 ) = 0, 06091
2

Q
Do 0, 02 0, 2

m
K

lg f Ag + = lg f I = 0, 5.Z 2 .
1+
y

f Ag + = f I = 0, 7962
D

T
/+

T = f 2. S 2 S = = 1,143.103
f
m

27. Tnh tan ca CaC2O4 trong dung dch (NH4)2C2O4 5.10-2M v so snh vi
co

tan ca n trong nc. Tch s tan: T= 8,3.10-7


e.

Gii
gl

Cc cn bng trong dung dch


oo

(NH4)2C2O4 2NH4+ + C2O42-


G

5.10-2 2.5.10-2 5.10-2


CaC2O4 Ca+ + C2O42-
S S S
- tan ca CaC2O4 trong nc
T = S 2 T = 9,1.104

- tan ca CaC2O4 trong dung dch (NH4)2C2O4


Trong dung dch tn ti cc ion: Ca 2+ , C2O42 , NH 4+
Lc ion
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

1
= (9,1.104.4 + 9,1.10 4.4 + 5.10 2.4 + 0,1) = 0,15364
2
Do 0, 02 0, 2

lg f Ca2+ = lg f C O2 = 0, 5.Z 2 . = 0, 563
2 4
1+

f Ca2+ = f C O2 = 0, 273
2 4

T
T = S 2. f 2 S = = 3,328.103
f

Vy tan ca CaC2O4 tng ln khi c mt ca (NH4)2C2O4

n
28. Bao nhiu gam BaSO4 tan khi ra n bng

h
a. 250ml nc ct

N
b. 250ml nc ct c cha 0,83g (NH4)2SO4

uy
Gii

Q
a. Trong nc
BaSO4
m Ba2+ + SO42-
K
S S S
Tch s tan T = S 2 S = T = 105
y

b. Trong nc c cha 0,82g (NH4)2SO4


D

S mol ca (NH4)2SO4 = 6,3.10-3 mol


/+
m

6,3.103
CM ( NH 4 )2 SO4 = = 0,025M
0, 25
co

Cc cn bng trong dung dch


e.

(NH4)2SO4 2NH4+ + SO42-


gl

CM 2.CM CM
oo

BaSO4 Ba2+ + SO42-


G

S S S
Trong dung dch tn ti cc ion: NH 4+ , SO42 , Ba 2+ (b qua s phn ly ca H2O)
1
Ta c: =
2
C j .Z 2j
1
= 2.0, 025.12 + (0, 025 + 105 ).4 + 105.4 = 0, 075
2

1
lg f Ba2+ = lg f SO2 = .Z 2 .
4
2 1+
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

lg f Ba2+ = lg f SO2 = 0, 431


4

f Ba2+ = f SO2 = 0,37


4

T = Ba 2+ . SO42 . f 2 = S .0, 025.0,37 2

S = 2,9.108

tan gim 342 ln.


29. Ngi ta dng 200ml dung dch NH4NO3 ra ht ta MgNH4PO4. Hy tnh
nng dung dch theo phn trm khi lng khi ra ta khng mt qu
0,01mg. T(MgNH4PO4) = 2,5.10-13.

n
Gii:

h
Dung dch long xem nh d=1. Khi ra ta MgNH4PO4 bng 200ml NH4NO3.

N
kt ta khng tan qu 0,01mg khi tan S ca kt ta khng qu:

uy
0,01.10 3.1000
S= = 1,25.10 5 M

Q
40.200

m
Cc cn bng trong dung dch:
K
3
MgNH 4 PO4 Mg 2+ + NH 4 + PO4
+
y

+
NH 4 NO3 NH 4 + NO3
D
/+

Gi a l nng ca NH4NO3 cn ra. Khi tch s tan T ca MgNH4PO4


m

s thay i:
co

T ( MgNH 4 NO3 ) = Mg 2+ NH 4 + PO43 = S ( S + a ) S


e.

T
Do S << a T ( MgNH 4 NO3 ) = S 2 a a =
gl

S2
oo

2,5.10 13
a= = 0,16M
G

(1,25.10 5 ) 2

Vy nng phn trm theo khi lng ca NH4NO3 dng ra ta:


Cm.M 0,16.80
C% = = = 1,28%
d .V 10
30. Tnh % lng AgCl b mt khi ra 0,45g cht ny bng:
a. 200ml nc ct
b. 150ml NH4Cl 0,1M, ri bng 50ml nc ct.
Gii:
a. Khi ra ta bng 200ml nc ct
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Ta c tch s tan ca AgCl : T = S 2 S = T = 1010 = 105

mAgCl = 105.143,5.0, 2 = 2,87.10 4 g

Vy % AgCl b ra bng 200ml H2O


2,87.10 4
%AgCl = .100% = 0,064%
0,45

b. Khi ra ta bng 150ml NH4Cl 0,1M ri bng 50ml H2O


Cc cn bng trong dung dch: (b qua s phn ly ca H2O)
AgCl Ag + + Cl

S S S

n
h
+
NH 4 Cl NH 4 + Cl

0,1 0,1 0,1

N
Khi ra ta bng dd NH4Cl ta s xt ti nh hng ca lc ion. Trong dung

uy
dch tn ti cc ion Ag+, Cl-, NH4+

Q
1 1

m
Ta c: = C j .Z 2j = (105.1 + 0,1.1 + 0,1.1) = 0,1
2 2
K

lg f Ag + = lg f Cl = 0, 5.Z 2 . = 0,12 f Ag + = f Cl = 0, 758
y

1+
D

T
T = Ag + Cl f 2 = S 2 f 2 S = 2 = 1,3.105
f
/+

Gi m1 l khi lng ta b ra bng dung dch NH4Cl.


m

m1 = 1,3.105.0,15.(108 + 35,5) = 2,8.104 g


co

Gi m2 l khi lng ta b ra bng 50ml H2O


e.

m2 = 105.0, 05.(108 + 35, 5) = 7,175.10 5 g


gl
oo

Vy khi lng ca ta b ra bi 150ml NH4Cl 0,1M v 50ml nc ct.


m = m1 + m2 = 2,8.10 4 + 7,175.10 5 = 3, 5175.104 g
G

m 3,5175.104
% AgCl = .100% = .100% = 0, 078%
0, 45 0, 45
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

n
h
N
uy
Q
m
K
y
D
/+
m
co
e.

Bi 41. Tnh hng s cn bng ca cc phn ng oxi ha kh sau:


gl

a) Ce4+ + Fe2+ .
oo

b) MnO 4 + Fe2+ + H+
G

c) Cr2O 72 + I- + H+ ...
Bit nng cn bng ca ion H+ l 1M.
Bi gii
a) Ce 4+ + Fe 2+ .
Phng trnh ion: Ce 4+ + Fe 2+ Ce 3+ + Fe3+

 Qt kh: Fe 2+ Fe 3+ + 1e 0
E Fe 3+
/ Fe 2 +
= 0,771V
0
 Qt oxi ha: Ce 4+ + 1e Ce 3+ ECe4+ / Ce3+ = 1,55V
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

( 0
n Ekh E0 ) 1, 550 , 771

K = 10 0 , 059
= 10 0 , 059
= 1013, 2
2+
b) MnO4 + Fe + H ...
+

Phng trnh ion: MnO4 + 5Fe 2 + + 8H + Mn 2 + + 5Fe 3+ + 4 H 2 O


0
1x MnO4 + 8 H + + 5e Mn 2+ + H 2 O E MnO
/ Mn 2 +
= 1,51V
Ta c:
4

5 x Fe 2+ Fe 3+ + 1e E 0
Fe3 + / Fe 2 +
= 0,771V
0
(
n E kh E 0 ) 5.(1, 51 0 , 771)

K = 10 0 , 059
= 10 0 , 059
= 10 62, 63
c) Cr2 O72 + I + H + ...

n
h
Phng trnh ion: Cr2 O72 + 6 I + 14 H + 2Cr 3+ + 3I 2 + 7 H 2 O

N
0
1 Cr2 O72 + 14H + + 6e 2Cr 3+ + 7 H 2 O ECr O / Cr = 1,33V 2 3+

uy
2 7
Ta c:
3 2 I I 2 + 2e E I0 / 2 I = 0,5355V

Q
2

(0
E0 ) 6.(1, 330 , 5355 )

m
n Ekh

K = 10 0 , 059
= 10 0 , 059
= 1080,8
K
Bi 42. Tnh th oxy ha kh ca dung dch hn hp:
y

a. Ce4+ 0,01M + Fe2+ 0,1M


D

b. Ce4+ 0,11M + Fe2+ 0,1M


/+

Bi gii
m

a) Ce4+ 0,01M + Fe2+ 0,1M


co

Phng trnh: Ce4+ + Fe2+ Ce3+ + Fe3+


e.

[B] 0,01 0,1


gl

[CB] 0 0,1- 0,01 0,01 0,01


oo

Th ca dung dch c tnh theo cp [Fe3+]/[Fe2+]:


G

0,059 [ Fe3+ ] 0,059 0,01


E = E0 + log 2+
= 0,77 + log = 0,714(V )
1 [ Fe ] 1 0,1 0,01
b) Ce4+ 0,11M + Fe2+ 0,1M
Phng trnh: Ce4+ + Fe2+ Ce3+ + Fe3+
[B] 0,11 0,1
[CB] 0,11-0,1 0 0,1 0,1
Th ca dung dch c tnh theo cp [Ce4+]/[Ce3+] :
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

0,0590 [Ce 4+ ] 0,059 0,11 0,1


E=E + log 3+
= 1,55 + log = 1,491(V )
1 [Ce ] 1 0,1

Bi 43. Tnh th oxy ha kh ca dung dch hn hp :


a) Cr2O 72 0,01M + Fe2+ 0,06M + H+ 1M
b) Cr2O 72 0,015M + Fe2+ 0,06M + H+ 1M
Bi gii
Cr2O72- + 6Fe2+ + 14H+ 2Cr3+ + 6Fe3+ + 7H2O
Do Cr2O 72 v Fe2+ tc dng vi nhau theo ng t l hp thc nn E Cr O 2 7
2
/ Cr 3 +
=

E Fe = E.

n
3+
/ Fe 2+

h
14
0, 059 Cr2O72 H +
E = 1,33 + log (1)

N
2
6 Cr 3+

uy
Fe3+
E = 0,77 + 0,059log (2)

Q
Fe2+

Nhn (1) vi 6 ri cng vi (2) ta c:


m
K
14
Cr2O72 [ H + ] Fe3+
7E = 1,33 6 + 0,77 + 0,059 log (3)
y

2
Cr 3+ Fe 2+
D

T phng trnh ta c:
/+

Fe 2 + = 6 Cr2O72
m

1
co

Cr 3+ = Fe3+
3
e.

1
Cr2O72 = Fe2 +
gl

6
oo

Th vo biu thc log ca (3) ta c:


G

14 14 14
Cr2O72 H + Fe3+ Fe 2+ Fe3+ H + 3 H +
= =
2
Cr 3+ Fe 2+ 6 3+ 2 2 Fe3+

2
Fe

Fe 2+


3
14
1,33 6 + 0, 77 0, 059 3 H +
Vy : E= + log 3+ = 1,262 V
7 7 2 Fe

b) Cr2O72- + 6Fe2+ + 14H+ 2Cr3+ + 6Fe3+ + 7H2O


1 0, 06
Theo phng trnh: Cr2O72 pu = Fe2+ = = 0, 01
6 6

Cr2O72 d = 0,015 0,01 = 0,005


Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Cr = 0, 01 2 = 0, 02
3+

0, 059 Cr2O7 2
0, 059 0, 005
Vy: E = 1,33 + log = 1,33 + log = 1,324V
6 Cr
3+
6 0, 02

Bi 44. Chng minh h thc:


3E0 (Fe3+/Fe0) = E0 (Fe3+/Fe2+) + 2E0 (Fe2+/Fe0)
Bi gii
Fe 3+ + e Fe 2+ K1
Fe 2+ + 2e Fe 0 K2

n
Fe 3+ + 3e Fe 0 K3

h
3 E30 /0,059 0
E1 /0,059
0
2 E2 /0,059
K 3 = K1 K 2 = 10 = 10 .10

N
uy
Vy: 3E30 = E10 + 2 E20 = EFe
0
3+
/ Fe
2+ + 2 E
0
2+
Fe / Fe
0 (dpcm)

Q
Bi 45. Bit th oxy ha kh tiu chun ca cc h sau y l:
TiO2+ + 2H+ + 4e
m
Ti0 E 10 = - 0,88V (1)
K
TiO2+ + 2H+ + e Ti3+ E 02 = 0,1V (2)
y

Ti3+ + e Ti2+ E 30 = - 0,37V (3)


D

Tnh E0 (Ti2+/Ti0)?
/+

Gii: Ly phng trnh (1) (2) (3):


m

TiO2+ + 2H+ + Ti3+ + Ti2+ + 4e Ti0 + TiO2+ + 2H+ + Ti3+ + 2e E 04


co

Suy ra: Ti2+ + 4e Ti0 E 04 = E0(Ti2+/Ti0)


e.

Vi: E 04 = E 10 - E 02 - E 30
gl

E 04 = - 0,88 0,1 ( - 0,37)


oo

E 04 = - 0,61 V
G

Vy E0(Ti2+/Ti0) = -0,61V

Bi 51
Thm KCN v NH3 vo dung dch ca Zn2+ 10-2M pH ca dung dch bng 11,
nng cn bng ca CN- v NH3 u bng 1M. Ion Zn2+ tn ti trong dung dch ch
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

yu dng no? Tnh nng cn bng ca ion Zn2+ trong dung dch. Phc ca Zn2+
v CN- c 1,4 = 1019, ca Zn2+ v NH3 c 1,4= 108,7, phc ca Zn2+ v OH- c 1,4=

1014
Gii
Ion Zn2+ tn ti ch yu dng no?
Cc phn ng vi Zn2+:
Zn2+ + 4NH3  1.4= 108.7 (1)
Zn2+ + 4CN-  1.4 = 1019 (2)
Zn2+ + 4OH-  1.4= 1014 (3)

n
h
Phn ng vi CN-:
CN- + H+ HCN KHCN=10-9,32

N


uy
Phn ng vi NH3:
NH3 + H+ N KHCN=10-9,25

Q


m
bit ion Zn2+ tn ti trong dung dch ch yu dng no, ta cn tnh hng
K
s bn iu kin .
Theo bi
y

pH = 11  [H+] = 10-11  [OH-] = = 10-3


D
/+

Theo bi
m

Nng cn bng ca CN- v NH3 u bng 1


co

Do
e.

[Zn2+]= [Zn2+] + [ ]
gl

= [Zn2+] + [Zn2+]. [NH3]4. 1,4


oo

= [Zn2+](1 + [NH3]4. 1,4)


G

(1 + [NH3]4. 1,4

(1 + 14. 108,7)
108,7
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

[Zn2+]= [Zn2+] + [ ]
= [Zn2+] + [Zn2+]. [CN-]4. 1,4

= [Zn2+](1 + [CN-]4. 1,4)

= (1 + [CN-]4. 1.4)

= (1 + 14. 1019)
1019

n
[Zn2+]= [Zn2+] + [ ]

h
= [Zn2+] + [Zn2+]. [OH-]4. 1,4

N
= [Zn2+](1 + [OH-]4. 1,4)

uy
Q
= (1 + [OH-]4. 1,4)

m
K
= (1 + (10-3)4 . 1014)
102
y

Gi s cn bng (1) l chnh, ta c:


D
/+
m
co
e.
gl

Gi s cn bng (1) l chnh, ta c:


oo
G

Gi s cn bng (1) l chnh, ta c:


Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Qua tnh ton ta thy = l ln nht v ln hn rt nhiu so vi

v .Do phc ca Zn2+ vi CN- l bn nht. V vy ion Zn2+ tn

ti ch yu trong dung dch dng l ch yu.


Tnh nng cn bng ca ion Zn2+ trong dung dch
o Phng trnh bo ton khi lng i vi Zn2+:
Zn2+ + 4CN- 
[Zn2+] + = 10-2
[Zn2+] + 1,4.[CN-]4.[Zn2+]= 10-2

n
[Zn2+](1 + 1,4.[CN-]4) = 10-2

h
o Nng cn bng ca Zn2+ trong dung dch

N
[Zn2+]=

uy
Q
[Zn2+] = (M)

m
K
Vy Zn2+ tn ti ch yu trong dung dch dng l ch yu
y

Nng cn bng ca Zn2+ trong dung dch l 10-21 M.


D

Bi 52
/+

Tnh pH ca
m

a. Nc ct cn bng vi CO2 ca khng kh ( )


co

b.Dung dch A sau khi trung ha n pH = 7 ri n khi cn bng vi CO2 ca


e.

khng kh. H2CO3 c pK1= 6,35 v pK2 = 10,32


gl
oo
G

Gii
th logarit
im h
pK1 = 6,35
logC = 1,3.10-5 M
v
pK1 = 10,35
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

logC = 1,3.10-5 M

n
h
N
uy
Q
CO2 + H2O  HCO3- +H+ (1) pK1=6,35
HCO3- + H2O CO32- + H3O+
m pK2=10,32
K
H2O  H++ OH-
y

Phng trnh bo ton proton:


[H+] = [HCO3-] + [ OH-] + 2[CO32-]
D
/+

Da vo th :
[HCO3-]>>[ OH-]; [HCO3-]>>[CO32-]
m
co

Nhn xt : K1>>K2>>Kw nn [H+] ch yu l do nc 1 phn li v pH ca dung dch


c tnh nh pH ca nc 1.
e.

Nn [H+] = [HCO3-]
gl
oo
G

Cn bng pt(1) l ch yu :
CO2 + H2O  HCO3- + H+
H2CO3  HCO3- + H+ Ka1
C 1,3.10-5
[] 1,3.10-5-x x x
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

Hoc p dng cng thc :

b)
Cc cn bng xy ra
CO2 + H2O  HCO3- +H+ (1) pK1=6,35

n
HCO3- + H2O CO32- + H3O+ pK2=10,32

h
H2O H++ OH-

N
Phng trnh bo ton proton:

uy
[H+] = [HCO3-] + [ OH-] + 2[CO32-]

Q
Phng trnh bo ton nng :

m
CA= [ H2CO3] +[HCO3-] + 2[CO32-] (*)
K
Ta c
[ H2CO3].K1=[HCO3-].[H+]
y

[HCO3-].K2=[CO32-].[H+]
D
/+


m


co
e.


gl

(*) 
oo
G

pH=7 th nng [HCO3-] lc ny l:

Ta v th tng t :
im h
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

pK1 = 6,35
logC =10-4,97 M
v
pK1 = 10,35
logC = 10-4,97
M

Da vo th

n
[HCO3-] >>[CO32-

h
]>>[ OH-];

N
[H+] = [HCO3-]

uy
Q
Cn bng (1) l ch yu
m
K
CO2 + H2O  HCO3- + H+
y

H2CO3  HCO3- + H+
D

C 1,3.10-5 Ka1
/+

[] 1,3.10-5-x x x
m
co
e.
gl

x 4,98.10-7
oo

pH 6,3
G

Bi 53
Tnh th oxy ha kh iu kin ca cp Co(III)/Co(II) trong iu kin c d
ammoniac to thnh cc phc c 1,6= 1035,21 v
c 1,6 =104,4. Bit .

Gii
Khi cha to phc:
Co3+ + e  Co2+
Su tm bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T # Google.com/+DyKmQuyNhn

vi

Nhng nu trong dung dch c d NH3 to phc th th ca cp l :

l th oxi ha chun iu kin

khi

n
Mt khc ta c hng s bn c biu din :

h
N
uy
Q
m
K
y


D

Trong mi trng d NH3 to phc bn Co(III) v phc km bn Co(II) , kh


/+

nng oxi ha ca Co(III) gim nhng kh nng kh ca Co(II) tng ln.


m
co
e.
gl
oo
G