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DR.

NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB

SUBJECT CODE: EE 1005
SUBJECT NAME: POWER QUALITY

UNIT-I INTRODUCTION TO POWER QUALITY
PART-A (1 MARK)

1. Power quality generally used to express.
a. quality of service b. computer equipment c. quality of the voltage d. lightning equipment
2. What is the system ability to transmit &deliver electrical energy
a. equipment quality b. computer quality c. power system quality d. over voltage quality
3. What problems occur when the alternating voltage power sources 60HZ sine wave is
distorted
a. equipment quality b. power quality c. power system quality d. over voltage quality
4. Incorrect tap setting on transformer is caused by
a. over load b. short circuit c. under voltage d. over voltage
5. Over load circuits can result in
a. over load b. short circuit c. under voltage d. over voltage
6. Transmission faults cause voltage sags that last about
a.40sec b. 10sec c. 20sec d. 60sec
7. What is the system ability to transmit &deliver electrical energy
a. equipment quality b. computer quality c. power system quality d. over voltage quality
8. What is the application of CBEMA curve?
a. sensitive equipment b. computer equipment c. electronics equipment d. lightning
equipment
9. What is the application of ITI curve?
a. sensitive equipment b. computer equipment c. electronics equipment d. lightning
equipment
10. Power quality indices means
a. assessing the sensitive b. assessing the computer c. assessing the quality d. assessing the
equipment
11. Power quality indices with respect to
a. voltage distortion b. assessing the distortion c. quality of service d. harmonic voltage
distortion
12. Sources of sag interruptions
a. fault b. over voltage c. quality d. equipment
13. What are the causes due to short circuit in the sag interruptions
a. fault on feeder b. fault on feeder from the substation c. transmission system d. all the
three
14. An overvoltage is an increase in the rms ac voltage greater than
a.110 %at the power frequency b. 100 % at the power frequency c. 200 % at the power
frequency d. 50 % at the power frequency
15. Swell is an increase in the rms voltage or current between
a. 1.1 and 1.8 pu b. 1.2 and 2.8 pu c.3.1 and 1.3 pu d. 2.1 and 5.8 pu
16. The duration of voltage sag is less than
a. 20 min b. 1min c. 20sec d. 60min

DR. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB

17. An increase to between 1.1 and 1.8 per in rms voltage at the power frequency is defined
as the,
a. swell b. sag c. interruptions d. short circuit
18. Interruptions are a complete loss of
a. current b. voltage c. frequency d. short circuit
19. Sustained interruptions last longer than
a. 20 min b. 1min c. 20sec d. 60min
20. Notching is a periodic voltage
a. current b. disturbance c. frequency d. short circuit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
c c b d c b c a b C D a d a a b a b b b

PART-B ( 2 MARKS)
21. What is Power Quality?
From the utility perspective, Power Quality has been defined as the parameters of the voltage
that affect the customer’s supersensitive equipment. From the power user perspective, Power Quality
may be defined as any electrical parameter or connection that affects the operation of the equipment. This
included all electrical parameters, connections and grounds, whether the source from the utility, local
equipment or other users.
22. How can Power Quality problems be detected?
Determining the exact problems requires sophisticated electronic test equipment. The following
symptoms are indicators of Power Quality problems:
 A piece of equipment misoperates at the same time of day.
 Circuit breakers trip without being overloaded.
 Equipment fails during a thunderstorm.
 Automated systems stop for no apparent reason.
 Electronic systems fail or fail to operate on a frequent basis.
 Electronic systems work in one location but not in another location.
 Lights dim or blink and electronic systems misoperate.
23. What are Harmonics?
Harmonics are distortions in the AC waveform. These distortions are caused by loads on the
electrical system that use the electrical power at a different frequency than the fundamental 50 or 60
Hz. An example of such a load is the common PC, television receiver or any other electronic load.
24. What are the various power quality issues?
 Power frequency disturbances
 Power system transients
 Grounding and Bonding
 Electromagnetic interference
 Power system harmonics
 Electrostatic discharge
 Power factor
25. Classify power quality events in long duration events and shout duration events.
The short duration variations are further classified into the following three categories:
 Sag

1 and 1.8 per unit at the power frequency. an induction motor will draw six to ten times its full load current.Nov/Dec-'09) i. Swell is an event in which the RMS voltage increases between 1. THD%=100√∑?ℎ=2 Uh2 U12 Where uh represents harmonic components. The total demand distortion is defined as the square root of the sum of the squares of the RMS value of the currents from 2nd to the highest harmonic (say 25th maximum in power system) divided by the peak demand load current and is expressed as a percent. Interharmonic 31.May/Jun-'09) The CBEMA curve has become a standard design target for sensitive equipment to be applied on the power system. Define DC offset .Apr/May'08) (AU. ii.9 per unit at the power frequency. ii. What are the components of waveform distortion? i. Voltage sags are caused by motor starting. 32. Mention the types of sag. It lasts for durations of 0. It lasts for durations of 0. What are the causes of sags?(AU. 27. 29. Noises vi.5 cycles to 1 min. sag is further classified as:  Instantaneous Sag  Momentary Sag  Temporary Sag 28. for example. u1 represents the fundamental component and h represents harmonic order. 30. What is the basic difference between CBEMA and ITI curves?(AU. THD is the ratio between the RMS value of the harmonics and the RMS value of the fundamental. Flickering iv. Notches iii.DR. This lagging current causes a voltage drop across the impedance of the system.Nov/Dec-2013) (AU-May/Jun'2013) i.5 cycles to 1 min. Define Waveform Distortion. Voltage Sag is an event in which the RMS voltage decreases between 0.1 and 0. Harmonics is one of the causes of many types of waveform distortion. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB  Swell  Interruption 26. Define Total Demand Distortion (TDD). Mention the formula used to calculate THD. Voltage sags are usually associated with system faults but can also be caused by the switching of heavy loads. ITI curve applies to common 120- V computer equipment 34. Define sag and swell (AU. 33.2. Based on the time duration and voltage magnitude. DC offset ii. Harmonics v. Total harmonic distortion is the term used to describe the net deviation of a non-linear waveform from ideal sine wave characteristics. Define Total harmonic distortion and mention the formula used to calculate THD.(AU-Nov/Dec'08) It is the deviation from an ideal sine wave of power frequency principally characterized by the spectral content of the deviation.

39. the system voltage at the capacitor location is briefly pulled down to zero and rises as the capacitor begins to charge toward the system voltage. Define Interharmonics Voltages or currents having frequency components that are not integer multiples of the frequency at which the supply system is designed to operate (e. Define power quality? Explain the reasons for increased concern in power quality. and amusement rides. At the monitoring location the initial change in voltage will not go completely to zero because of the impedance between the observation point and the switched capacitor. In this case the transient observed at the monitoring location is about 1. Discuss the following characteristics of power quality events 44. How a capacitor switching leads to an over voltage?( AU-May/Jun'09) When the switch is closed. the capacitor switch contacts close at a point near the system voltage peak. Since the capacitor voltage cannot change instantaneously.14. What are the power quality indices? (AU-Nov/Dec'08) Power quality indices are the indices for assessing the quality of service with respect to harmonic voltage distortion. What are the major power quality issues? Explain in detail (8) (AU-Nov/Dec-08&2013) 41. PART – C (16 MARKS) 40.4-pu range but have also been observed near the theoretical maximum. wood chippers. List and explain the power quality standards. 50 or 60 Hz0 are called interharmonics. Short duration variations and Long duration variations (AU-May/Jun'2013) 45. 36. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB The presence of a dc voltage or current in an ac power system is termed DC offset.g. List any four standards available in power quality IEEE Power Quality Standards: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer IEC Power Quality Standards: The International Electro technical Commission SEMI Power Quality Standards: The Semiconductor equipment and Material International UIE Power Quality Standards: The International Union for Electricity Applications 38. They can appear as discrete frequencies or as a wideband spectrum. It can cause visible flicker in lights and cause other processes to shut down or malfunction. electric welders. 43. The voltage across the capacitor at this instant is zero. In this particular case.The overshoot will generate a transient between 1. 35. (8) 47. Explain for the following related with Power quality.0 pu depending on system damping. Voltage flicker is most commonly caused by rapidly varying loads that require a large amount of reactive power such as arc furnaces. . 37.34 pu. Because the power system source is inductive. Explain the various types of power quality disturbances and impacts of power quality. This can occur as the result of a geomagnetic disturbance or asymmetry of electronic power converters. sawmills. Discuss in detail about sags and swells 48.. Discuss in detail about transients.3.DR. metal shredders. Define Voltage Flicker Voltage flicker is rapidly occurring voltage sags caused by sudden and large increasesing load current. Utility capacitor- switching transients are commonly in the 1. the capacitor voltage overshoots and rings at the natural frequency of the system.to 1. (10)(AU. a transient may be observed up line from the capacitor at the monitor location.Nov/Dec'08) 46.0 and 2. rock crushers. Interharmonics can be found in networks of all voltage classes. (8) 42.

harmonics d.Nov/Dec’09) 60. Explain typical classification of power quality phenomena defined in IEEE 1159:1995. 57. 5 or 30cycles c. a. average feeder length b. frequency and deviation b. 1 or 50cycles d. amplitude and frequency d. 0. Discuss about the computer Business Equipment Manufactures Associations (CBEMA). Write the various IEEE and IEC power quality standards. a)Flicker b)Voltage sag (AU-May/June 2012) UNIT-II VOLTAGE SAGS AND INTERRUPTIONS PART-A ( 1 MARK) 62. Circuit area b. duration and magnitude c. Define the terms (i) Transients (ii) Wave form distortion. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB (i)Voltage imbalance (ii) Under voltage (ii)Over voltage (iv)Frequency variation 49. Momentary Interruptions not more than a.5 to30cycles b. parallel feeder c. breaker requires to operate.(AU-May/Jun'09) 58. all the above 68. To compute voltage sag performance a. average feeder reactance c. none . Explain the following event based disturbances: (i)Dip (ii) Swell (iii)Transients 54. a. Explain the responsibilities of the suppliers and users of electrical power. Classify the power quality phenomena causing electromagnetic disturbances(AU- May/Jun'09) 52. Explain the electrical power quality issues in detail with Examples. 5 or 6cycles 65. same feeder b. NOV/DEC’09) 55.(i)Magnitude (ii)Unbalance (iii)Harmonics (iv)Flicker. fault area c.5 to30cycles b.1 to50cycles d. a) Voltage swell b) Voltage imbalance (AU-May/June 2012) 61. A voltage sag is a short duration. the most commonly used characteristics in voltage sag. 4 to 5 sec c. An area of vulnerability is determined by total a. 0. 3 to 5 sec b. time and frequency 67.(10) (AU. 1 to 5 sec d. a &b d. In voltage sag. '09) (AU-NOV/DEC’09) 53. (8) (AU-Nov/Dec'08. feeder reactor d. Explain the terms with a waveform sketch (i) Voltage sag (ii) Voltage interruption (iii) Voltage swells. two possible locations for fault a. Discuss the power quality issues in a power system. (iv) Sag with harmonics (AU-Apr/May'08) 56. Explain the following steady state disturbances.(6) (AU- Nov/Dec'08) 50.Nov/Dec’09) 59.DR. 5 to60cycles 63.Explain about the events described in the curve (AU-Apr/May'08. a. 2 to 5 sec 64. Define waveform distortion? Explain the waveform distortion categories(AU- May/Jun'2013) 51.tie line 66. 5 to30cycles c. 0. What is the impact of transients on power quality? Classify the transients that occur in power systems? (6) (AU. In feeder.

The connection of the component network depends on the a.100ms 78. fault type c.150ms d.1 pu and 0. normal value c. What is suitable to avoid problems with almost all sensitive loads a. a. improving the immunity c. The reduction in fault clearing time is achieved by using current limiting. Typical values are between 0. voltage type b. load 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 a d d a b d c a C c D a b c d a C c b a PART-B ( 2 MARKS) 82. current type d. capacitance b. What type of starters had initially insert an impedence in series with motor a. To improve the immunity by connecting more a. resistor switching c. what switch is used for both low level and medium voltage protection a. What are three levels of possible solutions to voltage sag and momentary interruption problems?  Power System Design  Equipment Design  Power Conditioning Equipment . fuses d. The Tripping Delay increases each time a. What are the causes of sag? (AU-May/Jun'2013) Voltage sags are usually associated with system faults.5 cycles to 1 minute. 83. capacitor switching b. fast transfer switches 73. static switches b. high value b. automatic transfer switches d. reduce the immunity b. frequency type 75.9 pu. a. current d. static switches b. feeder b.3point starter d. voltage b. compensator c. inductance c. 200ms c . tappings 74. resistance d.500ms b. is a decrease in RMS voltage or current at the power frequency for durations from 0. frequency level c. amplitude 70. reported as the remaining voltage. compensator d. IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB 69. Which method is used to reduce the fault clearing time. none 80. current level b. frequency c. switch c. autotransformer starter c. At the fault position the voltage drops to a a. Active Series Compensator is a device that can boost the a. resistance and reactance starters b. none of the above 81. load 71. voltage level 77. all the above 79. Following one voltage mitigation technique a. compensator c. low value d. Vacuum Breaker Technology uses a. both d. automatic transfer switches d. mitigation method d. Static Circuit Breakers can be able to operate at higher a. margin d. compensator c. It can also be caused by energization of heavy loads starting of large motors 84. fast transfer switches 72. capacitor 76.DR. as defined by IEEE Standard 1159-1995. switches b. What is Voltage Sag? ?(AU-Nov/Dec-'08) (AU-May/Jun'2012) A sag or dip.

“IEEE guide for service to equipment sensitive to momentary voltage disturbances”  IEEE 493-1990. What are the sources of sags and Interruption?(AU-Nov/Dec-'08. i.17 86. i. fault on the same feeder. . “Recommended practice for the design of reliable industrial and commercial power systems  IEEE 1100-1999. Name the different motor starting methods. i. One of the important new options is a device that can boost the voltage by injecting a voltage in series with the remaining voltage during a voltage sag condition. Star-Delta starter 89.  Equipment should at least be able to ride through voltage sags with a minimum voltage of 70 percent (ITI curve).  The company procuring new equipment should establish a procedure that rates the importance of the equipment. These are referred to as active series compensation devices. as specified by the semiconductor industry in Standard SEMI F- 47. '09) Voltage sags and interruptions are generally caused by faults (short circuits) on the utility system. Name types of sag mitigation devices.(a fault on a parallel feeder) iii. Define active series compensation devices. the company must make sure that adequate. Resistance and reactance starters ii. i. ii. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB 85.Nov/Dec- 2013)  Equipment manufacturers should have voltage sag ride-through capability curve (similar to the ones shown previously) available to their customers so that an initial evaluation of the equipment can be performed. A more ideal ride-through capability for short-duration voltage sags would be 50 percent. What are the mitigation techniques for voltage sags? (AU-May/Jun'09) (AU. Customers should begin to demand that these types of curves be made available so that they can properly evaluate equipment. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) ii. “IEEE recommended practice for powering and grounding electronic equipment”  IEE 446-1995. a fault on one of the other feeders from the substation. Active Series Compensators (Transformer less series injection) iii.  IEEE 1250-1995. Solid State (static) Transfer Switches (SSTS) 90.DR. Autotransformer starters iii. List some IEEE Standards Associated with Voltage Sags. The relative probability of experiencing a voltage sag to 70 percent or less of nominal is much less than experiencing a sag to 90 percent or less of nominal. fault somewhere on the transmission system 88. “IEEE recommended practice for emergency and stand by power systems for industrial and commercial applications range of sensibility loads” 87. If the equipment is critical in nature.

(8) (AU. Describe the methods used for analyzing voltage sag and also explain how it is migitated. Explain the procedure for estimating the sag severity indices.Apr/May'08) 102.  Determine the equipment sensitivity to voltage sags. Explain the static transfer switch &fast transfer switch(16) (AU-Nov/Dec-'08) 104. What is the need of estimating sag performance? Explain the different methods of estimating voltage sag performance. They are available in size ranges from small single-phase devices to very largedevices that can be applied on the medium-voltage systems. Mention the standards associated with the voltage sag. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB ii. 91. Discuss in detail about the active series compensator. Explain the principle of DVR operation used for sag mitigation. (AU-May/June 2012) (AU.(8) 106. Explain the operation of active series filters for voltage sag.  Evaluate the economics of different solutions that could improve the performance either on the supply system (fewer voltage sags) or within the customer facility PART – C (16 MARKS) 93.(8) (AU-May/Jun'2013) 95.Nov/Dec-2013) 111. (8) 98. (iii)Voltage sag due to transformer energizing 99. What are the different voltage sag mitigation techniques? Explain in details (AU- Nov/Dec-'08) 100. 108. (8) 101. (AU-Nov/Dec-'08) 96. What is the main function of DSTATCOM?  Voltage regulation and compensation of reactive power  Correction of power factor  Elimination of current harmonics 92. Explain the following causes of sags. Discuss the effects of voltage interruptions on various electrical devices. Discuss about estimating the cost of voltage sag events. Explain the operation of distributed static compensator (DSTATCOM) used for sag mitigation. This will determine the actual performance of the production process based on voltage sag performance calculated in steps 1 and 2. (AU-May/June 2012) . (8) (AU-Nov/Dec-'08) 110. Explain the various causes and effects of voltage sags. Discuss the sources of sags and interruption (8) 94. Explain the system adapted to estimate the severity of the sag occurred due to various sources.(i)Voltage sag due to motor sag (ii)Voltage sag due to single line to ground fault.  Determine the number and characteristics of voltage sags that result from distribution system faults (for facilities that are supplied from distribution systems).DR. How to estimate the voltage sag performance? (AU-May/Jun'09)  Determine the number and characteristics of voltage sags that result from transmission system faults. (AU. Discuss in detail about the sag performance evaluation indices. Explain the sag performance evaluation methods (8) (AU-Nov/Dec-'08) 97. Describe the procedure for estimating the voltage sag performance(AU-Nov/Dec-'08) 109. (8) 103.(8) 105.Apr/May'08) 107.

4 b. Impedance transformer is used to protect against high frequency a. True b. 1. short duration d. SCR 117. series resonance c. False 128. none of the above 119. a & b d. AC wave form b. False b. Transient generation depending on system a. 1 and 1. Power outage on UD systems is cable failures a. Isolation transformer is used to limit the voltage 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 . lighting strikes c. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB UNIT-III OVERVOLTAGE TRANSIENTS PART-A ( 1 MARK) 112. duty cycle c. a & b d. Line flashover occurs at the pole insulators a. Ferroresonance produces voltage less than 1. damping c. a. true b. true b. DR. false 120. Capacitor switching and lightning are the two main sources of transient a. True 127. False 126. line arresters c. none of the above 118. over current d. none 124. none d. all the above 116. Utility capacitor switching transients range a. 3 and 4 c. all the above 115. ferroresonance b. a. thunder b. The voltage discharge is typically 3 to 5kv in transformer protection. Impulses c. none 122. over voltage b. power factor b. True b. rain d.0pu a. power factor b. Ferroresonance is related to a. Line arresters are to protect against a. none 129. square wave c. all the above 114. none 123.3 and 1. thyristor c. The most popular transient simulation is called EMTP. arrester protection d. a & b 131. MOSFET b. none 125. under harm flow c. Cable life can be increased by providing a. false b. under voltage c. long duration b. diode d. EMTP uses the trapezoidal rule a. capacitance b. super harm flow b.4 d. surge arresters b. under frequency 113. Most popular harmonic program is called a. Transient interfere with the gating of a. over harm flow d. indutance c. false 130. voltage d. What happened in one phase open circuit a. noises b. Transients are difficult to detect because of their a. A transient is defined as a sub cycle disturbance in the a. triangular wave d. Reactive power compensation improves a. regulates the voltage d. true 121. reduces losses c.

What is meant by shielding of cables? ? The construction of a grounded conductor or tower over the lines to intercept lightning strokes in an attempt to keep the lightning currents out of the power system. What are the various Causes of over voltages? (AU.Nov/Dec-2013) Over voltages.1 and 1.5 cycle to 1 min. spikes).g.  Aswell is defined as an increase to between 1. decrease c. increase b.e. Define transient over voltages. surges. Give the various aspects of equipment specific design and protection issues for the capacitor switching transients. can be attributed to the Following main causes:  Atmospheric discharges. DR. i. What are the advantages of computer analyzing tools? (AU-Nov/Dec-'08) cost productive in this difficult analysis. notching d. either intended or accidental. What is the need of surge arrestors? . Define voltage magnification phenomena? The highest transient voltages occur at the low voltage capacitor bank when the characteristic frequency of the switching transient is nearly equal to the resonant frequency of the low voltage system and when the switched capacitor is ten or more times the size of the low-voltage capacitor 134. none PART-B ( 2 MARKS) 132. (e.  Phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase insulation switching withstand to voltage stresses  Controlled closing for circuit breakers (pre-insertion resistors/reactors or synchronous switching)  Capacitor bank and substation circuit breakers ANSI?IEEE C37 requirements  Current limiting reactor requirements  Surge arrester energy requirement 138. a switching operation or a fault) or network stimuli (e. lightning (LEMP – Lightning Electro-Magnetic Pulse)  Switching operations in the public grid and low-voltage mains  Electrostatic Discharges (ESD)  Ferro resonance 139. 137.g. A transient over voltage can be defined as the response of an electrical network to a sudden change in network conditions. 135.8 pu in rms voltage or current at the power frequency for durations from 0. lightning strike).e. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB a d b A b c a a b A a c b A b a c A d c a. Ability of the program to solve some classes of nonlinear problems but is not usually a significant constraint for most power system problems. brief voltage peaks (transients. How is overvoltage different from swell? (AU-Nov/Dec-'08)  An overvoltage is an increase in the rms ac voltage greater than 110 percent at the power frequency for duration longer than 1 min. i. 136. 133.

The cable life is an exponential function of the number of impulses of a certainmagnitude that it receives. . Time-domain solution is required to model nonlinear elements such as surge arresters and transformer magnetizing characteristics. Give the cable life equation as a function of impulses. the arrester prevents tower-to- phase insulator back-flashovers during a lightning strike. (AU-Nov/Dec-'09) To prevent overhead line faults. or between cloud and earth (or earthed object). the arrester prevents phase-to-ground flashover. it will be necessary to put arresters on every phase of every pole. there are enough strokes that terminate on the earth to cause problems to power systems and sensitive electronic equipment 143. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB A surge arrester is a protective device for limiting surge voltages on equipment by discharging or bypassing surge current. 147. ii. Surge arresters allow only minimal flow of the 50Hz/60Hz power current to ground. How to model a surge arrestor in PSCAD? (AU.DR. Lightning is an electrical discharge in the air between clouds. To support some of the recent ideas about improving power quality. What is the role of surge arrestor on shielded and unshielded transmission line? i. 140. It occurs when line capacitance resonates with the magnetizing reactance of a core while it goes in the out of saturation 144. On shielded transmission lines or under-built distribution circuits. The damage to the cable is related by Dc=P. The third idea is becoming more popular with improving surge arrester designs. What is metal-oxide surge-arrester? (AU. or providing custom power with super reliable main feeders. To accomplish this. thereby improving system protection. List the functions of line arresters. prevent lightning from striking the line. What is the need of Computer analysis tools for transient studies? Computer analysis simulation tool can simulate the time response of the transient phenomena in the power system with a very high degree of accuracy. On unshielded sub transmission or distribution circuits. while other utilities place them only on the phase most likely to be struck by lightning. Define lightning phenomena. What is Ferro resonance? (AU-Nov/Dec-'08) (AU-May/Jun'2013) Ferro resonance is a special case of series LC resonance where the inductance involved is nonlinear and it is usually related to equipment with iron cores.Apr/May'08) This program features a very sophisticated graphical user interface that enables the user to be very productive in this difficult analysis. Even though more discharges occur between or within clouds.Dc=constant. surge arresters are placed every two or three poles along the feeder as well as on distribution transformers. 141. 142. one must raise the insulation level of the line.Ve Where. or prevent the voltage from exceeding the insulation level. Some utilities place them on all three phases. between different charge centre within the same cloud.Nov/Dec-2013) A metal-oxide surge-arrester (MOSA) utilizing zinc-oxide block provides the best performance. as surge voltage conduction starts and stops promptly at a precise voltage level. 146. according to Hopkinton. representing cable damageP=Number of impulsesV=Magnitude of impulsesE=empirical constant ranging from 10 to 15 145.

Explain the problems associated with Ferro resonance (8) 154. 157. When on the device to position the power conditioners to avoid voltage swells. Define lightning? Discuss in detail about the over voltages due to lightning and the problems associated with it. Describe the protection of transformer from over voltages.(8) 155. Draw the CBEMA curve for transient over voltages and explain. Explain the computer analyzing tools PSCAD and EMTP for transients by using suitable examples. Induction motor starting iii.e. and normal-mode disturbances (i. How does the lightning cause over voltages? (AU-Nov/Dec-'09) The most obvious conduction path occurs during a direct strike to a phase wire. However. Capacitor bank back to back switching.to medium- frequency transients (capacitor switching) can cause problems for LIPCs: The transient can be magnified by the output filter capacitor. 150. either on the primary or the secondary side of the transformer. What are transient over voltages? Explain the different types of transient over voltages.The filter is on the output side and protects against highfrequency. Note the new neutral-to-ground connection that can be made on the load side because of the existence of an isolation transformer. (AU-Nov/Dec-'08) 159.This can generate very high overvoltages. noise and impulses).(8) 153. source-side. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB 148. What are the different sources of transient over voltages? Discuss the capacitor switching transient. LIPCs differ from isolation transformers in that these conditioners have much lower impedance and have a filter as part of their design . selection of inrush and out-rush reactors b. Explain in detail the mechanism of lightning. Voltage dips. Line energizing (charging and discharging transients) iii.DR. common-mode. (8) 158. Discuss . Transient Studies i.. (8)(AU-Nov/Dec-'08) 156. low. Give any two analysis examples available in PSCAD/EMTDC? a. (AU- Apr/May'08) Low-impedance power conditioners (LIPCs) are used primarily to interface with the switch-mode power supplies found in electronic equipment. Voltage fluctuation PART – C (16 MARKS) 151. swells and interruptions ii. Power Quality i.transient overvoltages can be generated by lightning currents flowing along ground conductor paths. 149. Transient over voltage studies (TOV) ii. Draw the standardized waveform of the lightning induced voltage.(AU-Nov/Dec-'08) 152. System faults iv.

THD b. none . False 185. voltage b.(8) 165. Discuss different methods of protection transformers and cables.(ii)Power conditioners. distribution d.ASD 188. Explain the use of PSCAD in analyzing the power quality.(8) 169. Explain any 4 methods to mitigate voltage swells. Discuss about the models and examples available in PSCAD/EMTDC.lag d. a&b d.(iii)Surge filters 167. Explain the design and function of active filters(AU-May/Jun-'09) 176.TDD c. Explain in detail about mitigation techniques for voltage swells(AU-Nov/Dec-'09) 178. linear device b. An electric power converter consist of.Apr/May'08) 163. Explain in detail about the surge arrestors and surge suppressors.(8) 172. The main source of harmonic device is FACTS a.(8) 162. Explain in detail about the protection of transformers. Explain in detail about various methods to mitigate voltage swells. Harmonic problem combined with -----power factor a. (8) 170. generation b. Explain the computer analysis tools PSCAD & EMTP for analyzing the transients by using suitable examples (AU-Nov/Dec-'09) 179. a. Explain the effects and causes of overvoltages in a power system. (8) 171. What are the advantages of surge arrestors? Discuss about the application module. True b. Harmonic distortion is produced by a.Apr/May'08) 164. Harmonic currents are generated at load distortion level by a. Explain the following:(i)Low pass filters. Explain about the underground cable system protection. What is the need for protection against over voltages? What are the basic principles of over voltages protection of load equipments? (8) 161. THD b.(8) 168. Explain the use of PSCAD in analyzing the Power quality. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB about the wave shape of the lightning current 160. Briefly explain the transformer protection devices (AU-May/Jun-'09) 177. none 184.non linear device c. (AU-May/June 2012) UNIT-IV HARMONICS PART-A (1 MARK) 181. To describe the voltage harmonic distortion is used to a. waveform d. (AU-May/June 2012) 180. transmission c.(8) 175. (AU. none 187. Explain the phenomena of Ferro resonance. none 186. unity c. all the above 182. False 183. What is the various lightning protection of over voltage lines? Explain them. What are the advantages of computer analysis tools? Discuss about PSCAD and EMTP for transient studies. lead b. True b. (8) (AU- Nov/Dec-'08) 173.UTD d. What are the important concerns for capacitor bank switching? (8) 174. In non linear device current is proportional to supply voltage a.UTD d.DR.(8) 166. Harmonic indices are used to measure harmonic content of a a.TDD c. (AU. frequency c.

none 194.8 192. harmonics 196. voltage b. inductors and capacitors are all linear loads. True power factor is calculated as the ratio between the total active power used in acircuit (including harmonics) and the total apparent power (including harmonics)suppliedfrom the source.5 d. The current drawn does not contain any harmonics (multiples of the supply frequency). lines d. Define Harmonics. Passive filter is used to control a. 4 c. False 195.limiting device. 2 b. a. b. An single electronic ballast can drive upto ------fluorescent lamp a. Notch filter can provide power factor correction a. Define true power factor. voltage b. The equation representing a harmonic frequency is given by : f h=f 1*h Where f1 is the fundamental frequency and h is the harmonic order. Non linear load: . A series passive filter is connected in ------------with the load a. resistors. Active filter are based on power systems a. frequency c. frequency c.5 d. series c. none 199. Resonance conditions cause motor and transformer overheating a. False 200. 2 b. Linear loads: Any load that draws current at supply fundamental frequency only is a linear load. buses c. wasting c. DR. Ballast is ----------. none 198. parallel b. Fluorescent light are a popular choice of energy a.3 191. True b. saving b. 202. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB 189. transformer b. Passive filters should be placed on a a. A low pass filter is used to block multiple harmonic frequencies a. Non linear loads are classified into--------groups a. Motors. False 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 d a b b c a d c a d b a c A D a b B a b PART-B ( 2 MARKS) 201.4 c. True b. Harmonics is a sinusoidal component of a periodic wave or quantity having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental power frequency. a. Passive Filter is used to reduce the input current harmonic distortion a. current d. current d.True power factor = total active power (P)/Total apparent power (S) 203. False 190. True b. True b. True b. False 197. none 193. Differentiate between linear loads and non-linear loads.

 Three phase converter with Adjustable speed drives (DC drives and AC drives)  Arcing Devices (Arc furnaces. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB Any load that draws harmonic currents from the supply is a nonlinear load. 206. electromagnetic devices etc with steel core) 211. IRMS distorted is the RMS value of the distorted waveform with the fundamental lift out of the summation. Mention the harmonic sources from industrial loads. Or square-wave six-step voltage source inverter(VSI). What is total harmonic distortion? (AU. IEC 61000-2-2. weiders. The current waveform of such non-linear loads. IEC 61000-3-2.DR. 209. Name the devices for controlling harmonic distortion. is discontinuous and non sinusoidal because of the presence of harmonics. State the different types of inverters  Variable voltage inverter(VVI)  Current source inverter(CSI)  Pulse width modulated(PWM) 212.TDD% of peak demand=Where. What is Variable Voltage Inverter? The variable voltage inverter (VVI). Mention the harmonic effects on devices and loads. ? (AU-May/Jun'09) IEEE 519-1992.Nov/Dec-2013) THD is the ratio between the RMS value of the harmonics and the RMS value of the fundamental. What is voltage and current distortion? Voltage distortion is any deviation from the nominal sine waveform of the line voltage. 214. What are the objectives of IEEE standard? Provide general harmonic distortion evaluation procedures for different classes of customers (industrial. List the harmonic indices. (AU-Nov/Dec-'09) The two most commonly used indices for measuring the harmonic content of a waveform are the total harmonic distortion and the total demand distortion. 208. THD%=100*Where U1 represents the fundamental components and h represents harmonic number. which is given by the relation. 213. Current distortion is any deviation from the nominal sine waveform of the AC line current. receives DC power from an adjustable voltage source (either from thyristor converter or DC-DC converter fed by Diode Bridge) and adjusts the frequency and voltage. IEC 61000-3-6 . commercial. IEC 61000-3-4. The amount of harmonic distortion can be measured by means of a factor known as the total harmonic distortion (THD). 204.  Insulation stress (voltage effect)  Thermal stress (current effect)  Load ruptures (abnormal operation) 210. Give the IEC standard to define harmonics. 205. Discharge lamps etc)  Saturable devices (transformer. (AU-Nov/Dec-'09) (AU- May/Jun'2012)  In-line reactors or chokes  Zigzag transformers  Passive filters  Active filters 207. What is total demand distortion? (AU-May/Jun'2013) The total demand distortion is defined as the square root of the sum of the squares of the RMS value of the currents from 2nd to the h th harmonics divided by the peak demand load current and is expressed as a percentage. residential) and for the application of equipments on utility system.

Part 3: Limits Section 2: Limits for Harmonic Current. List the various effects of equipments due to harmonics. List the some dynamic correction of power quality events. IEC 610000-3-2 (2000): Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). 50 or 60 Hz) are called interharmonics. Give at least two IEC standards for EMC. 216.(8) 223. Give the power definitions under non sinusoidal conditions. What are the two indices used in Power system? Explain about it briefly. What are the general causes of harmonics in power systems (8) 230. Explain in detail about classification of linear loads and non linear loads used in harmonic studies. Explain briefly about it. Explain briefly about fundamentals of harmonics generation and waveform distortion. Explain the harmonic effects on power system equipments briefly.DR. There are two basic methods: passive and active filters. What is the need of filtering in harmonic studies? Filtering is a method to reduce harmonics in an industrial plant when the harmonic distortion has been gradually increased or as a total solution in a new plant.(8) .. 200 A of third harmonics. ii. (6) Nov/Dec-'08 224. Section 2: Compatibility Levels for Low-Frequency Conducted Disturbances and Signaling in Public Low-Voltage Power Supply Systems. 120 A of fifth harmonics and 90 A of seventh harmonics. Explain briefly. 219. (8) 229. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB 215. 221. Explain the concept of harmonic phenomena under the presence of harmonic producing loads. Part 2: Environment. What are the various causes of harmonics in distribution power system.(8) 232. PART – C (16 MARKS) 220.(8) 231. 218. What are the applications of active filters? Passive tuned filters introduce new resonances which can cause additional harmonic Problems Active filters will provide compensation for harmonic components on the utility system based on the existing harmonic generation at any given moment in time 217. Explain the following terms.  Dynamic VAR Compensation. ? (AU-May/Jun'09) Voltages or currents having frequency components that are not integer multiples of the frequency at which the supply system is designed to operate (e.(8) 227. Explain briefly about the phenomena of how current distortion affects the voltage distortion under the presence of harmonics. Explain briefly about various harmonic characterization on power systems (8) 228. Define interharmonics.(8) 226.  Resonance Prevention  Power Factor Correction. (8) 222. i. Determine the k rating of a transformer required to carry a load consisting of 500 A of fundamental.g. (i)Harmonic distortion (ii)Current distortion (iii)Voltage distortion 225. IEC 610000-2-2 (1993): Electromagnetic Compatibility (ECM).

(ii) Harmonic sources from industrial loads. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB 233. Explain the methods of locating harmonic sources. (iii) Harmonic sources from residential loads. Explain the effect of harmonics on power system devices. (AU-May/June 2012) (AU. What are the various classifications of harmonic sources and explain briefly about it. How will you find the harmonic sources from point of common coupling? Give the identification procedure on the basis of voltage indices. (8) 247. What is the need of IEEE standards used in harmonic studies. (AU-Nov/Dec-'09) 255.(8) 239. (i)Active filters (ii)Passive filters (8) 246. How to locate the harmonic sources and discriminate between load side and supply side harmonics (AU-May/Jun-'09) 251. (8) 236.(8) 235. Explain briefly about for the following harmonic filter. How a resonance leads to harmonic distortions. Explain with diagram of active filter to cancel harmonic currents. What are the various devices for controlling harmonic distortion? 245.DR. Explain Harmonic source Identification Procedure for two source systems. (6) Nov/Dec-'08 248. (i)SCR (ii)Load current (iii)Short circuit current (iv)Total harmonic distortion (v)Total demand distortion (v)PCC 243. Explain in detail about general procedure for harmonic distortion evaluation at the point of coupling.? Give their philosophy and objective of these standards.(8) 240.Nov/Dec-2013) 237. (10) (AU- Nov/Dec'08) 242. (AU-Nov/Dec-'09) 254.Nov/Dec-2013) (AU-May/Jun'2013) UNIT – V POWER QUALITY MONITORING PART-A ( 1 MARK) . List and explain the devices for controlling harmonic distortion (AU-Nov/Dec-'09) 257.(8) 241. (AU. What is harmonics? Explain harmonic distortion with relevant waveforms? 249. How a THD is computed? (AU-May/Jun-'09) 253. Explain the following:(i)Total harmonic distortion (ii)Total demand distortion 250. Describe the harmonic sources from commercial and industrial loads (AU-Nov/Dec- '09) 256. What is the need of locating harmonic sources?(8) 238. (10) Nov/Dec-'08 234. Explain the power system response characteristics under the presence of harmonics. Define for the following terms related with IEEE standards. Discuss the construction and working principle of active filters for harmonic mitigation. Explain for the following: (i)Harmonic sources from commercial loads. Explain the harmonic phase rotation and phase angle relationship. customer facility and industrial facility 244. Explain in detail about principles of operation of shunt active power filter with neat schematic. utility systems. Explain with an example(AU- May/Jun-'09) 252. Explain the harmonic phase rotation and phase angle relationship.

False 261. THD b.UTD d. Which is the process of gathering. The web based power quality is initiated by TVA and EPRI a. Flicker can explain in terms of a. equipment quality b. magnetic gauss b.UTD d. -------------is designed to perform spectrum analyzer on waveform. True b. a. magnetic gauss b. magnetic gauss b. which is deploying the web based monitoring systems a. static electricity meters c. none 275. magnetic gauss b. none 271. Which is used to measure magnetic field strengths. none 259. Disturbance analyzers can measure wide range of system disturbances from very short duration. THD b. True b. general purpose spectrum analyzer b. one 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 b c a b C a B a b d c a C d a b a b c c . analyzing and interpreting raw measurement data into useful information a.ESD 272. False 273. static electricity meters c. The oscillatory transient can be described by a peak and a duration a. both a& b d. a. False 267. The monitoring objectives determines choice of a. False 266. a. static electricity meters c. a. triggering thresholds b. Which measures the strength of the electric fields for electrostatic coupling concern a. infrared meters d. monitoring equipments c. DR. infrared meters d. Which is used to detect loose connections a. Monitoring as part of an enhanced power quality service is the objective of power quality monitoring. infrared meters d. True b. False 262. a. fluctuating voltage magnitude d. none 260. Switching restrikes may indicate the capacitor a. electric arc furnace d. performance b. none 265. none 264.ESD 274.TDD c. deviating voltage b. none 276. static electricity meters c. Which is used to measure static electricity a. voltage distortion c. general purpose spectrum analyzer b. flicker meter 268. infrared meters d. failure c. Electric field meters d.TVA c. True b. infrared meters d. static electricity meters c. The reactive mode of power quality monitoring identifies the causes of equipment incompatibility. both a &b d. True b. power quality c. Which will cause lights to flicker a. False 270. static electricity meters c. which meter is used to measure flicker a. none 269. Which can be considered as an important cause of power quality problems a. none 263. True b. monitoring equipments c. Power quality problems does not include harmonic distortion a. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB 258. magnetic gauss b.

audio. with proper training  Designed for long-term unattended recording  Definition of line disturbance parameters varies between manufacturers 282. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB PART-B ( 2 MARKS) 277.  Problems can be detected before they cause widespread damage by sending automated alerts. UPS systems.DR. What are the monitoring objectives? Continuous valuation of the electric supply system for disturbances and power quality variations. and radio- frequency measurements. What is Spectrum analyzer? An instrument used for the analysis and measurement of signals throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. lightweight  Simple to use. 283. such as static switches. What are the importance of power quality monitoring? (AU. What is the use of oscilloscope? Oscilloscopes with fast sampling rates and automatic triggering function can be very useful for trace of transients.Nov/Dec-2013) (AU- May/Jun'2012)  Power Quality Monitoring is necessary to detect and classify disturbance at a particular location on the power system. The algorithm analyzes the time domain waveform. and displays the results. and the digital signal is processed by using the FFT algorithm. What are the requirements of monitoring for a voltage regulation and unbalance?  3 phase voltages  RMS magnitudes  Continuous monitoring with periodic max/min/avg samples  Currents for response of equipment 280.  PQ Monitoring can be used to determine the need for mitigation equipment. and backup generators. other ride through technologies.  PQ monitoring assists in preventive and predictive maintenance. as well as for microwave and optical signal measurements. Document performance of power conditioning equipment. What is tracking generator? . What are the requirements of monitoring for a harmonic distortion?  3 phase voltages and currents  Waveform characteristics  128 samples per cycle minimum  Synchronized sampling of all voltages and currents  Configurable sampling characteristics 281. 284. computes the frequency components present. Spectrum analyzers are available for sub audio. 279. rugged. 285. What is FFT (or) digital technique used for harmonic analysis? The signal to be analyzed is converted to a digital signal by using an analog-to-digital converter. 278. What are the Characteristics of power line monitors?  Portable.

Complexity in the software design requirement for on-line assessment is usually higher than that of off-line. What is meant by online power quality monitoring? ?(AU-Apr/May'08) (AU- May/Jun'2013) On-line power quality data assessment analyzes data as they are captured. etc.)  Existing power conditioning equipment being used electrical system data (one-line diagrams. etc. Give an application of capacitive dividers. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB The tracking generator enhances the applications of spectrum analyzers. What are the necessary measurements to be made to know about the power quality of a product?(AU-Apr/May'08)  Nature of the problems (data loss. Draw. nuisance trips. cable data.g.)  Characteristics of the sensitive equipment experiencing problems (equipment design information or at least application guide information)  The times at which problems occur coincident problems or known operations (e. The analysis results are available immediately for rapid dissemination. One of the primary advantages of on-line data analysis is that it can provide instant message delivery to notify users of specific events of interest. capacitor switching. ? (AU-May/Jun'09) 288. control system malfunctions. load information. power electronic equipment operation. 287. ? (AU-May/Jun'09) . Ins outputdelivers a swept signal whose instantaneous frequency is always equal to the input tunedfrequency of the analyzer.DR. 286. transformer sizes and impedances.the block diagram'of a flicker meter.. component failures.) 289. Users can then take immediate actions upon receiving the notifications. capacitor switching) that occur at the same time  Possible sources of power quality variations within the facility (motor starting. capacitor information. arcing equipment. etc. Most features available in off-line analysis software can also be made available in an online system.

DR. Explain the following: (i) Spectrum analyzer.) 294. Discuss in detail about the selection of power quality monitoring sites.and linearity errors etc. Explain expert system application for power quality monitoring with suitable example.  oscilloscopes. Nov/Dec-'08 299.(8) . The process of gathering data is usually carried out by continuous measurement of voltage and current over an extended period. What are the information from monitoring site surveys. Explain the harmonic analyzer and disturbance analyzer. 292. Bring out the important characteristics of power quality variations. analyzing. What are the advantages of expert systems?  Expert systems help users cope with large volumes of EIA work. Bring out the significance of Power quality monitoring. 293. What is total error? The total error in a measurement is a sum of errors that can (mainly) be divided into three different categories:  Instrument errors (quantization. and  other instruments all present very high impedance to the transducer. Nov/Dec-'08 304.(8) 301.  digital multimeters (DMMs).(8) 297.)  Transducer errors  Errors due to the measure signal (low signal level etc.  Expert systems deliver EIA expertise to the non-expert. Explain the steps involved in power quality monitoring.(ii) Disturbance analyzer. What are the characteristics of power quality measurement equipments? 302. What is the purpose of SVC? The SVC is mainly used for compensation of large fluctuating reactive industrial loads like arc furnaces etc. What are the important power quality monitoring objectives. offset. 290. The purpose of the SVC is to maintain a constant voltage level at PCC by dynamically injecting reactive power and compensation for the fluctuation power demand of the load. a model representing the human eye-brain chain and a statistical evaluation block where the flicker parameters PST and PLT are calculated.? 298. and  Expert systems provide a structured approach to EIA PART – C (16 MARKS) 295.  Expert systems enhance user accountability for decisions reached. What are the components of flicker meter? The flicker meter consists of a lamp model. What is meant by power quality monitoring? Power quality monitoring is the process of gathering. 303. Explain in detail about Flicker meter. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB  Power quality monitoring instruments. 291. (8) 300. Explain Proactive monitoring (8) 296. and interpreting raw measurement data into useful information. Write short notes on power quality measurement system.

317. Draw the block diagram of advanced power quality monitoring systems& Explain it. (8) 306. What are the factors to be considered when selecting the instruments? 308. (AU- May/June 2012). Explain the following (i) Harmonic analyzer. Explain the modern power quality monitors(8) 310. Application of expert system for power quality monitoring. Explain the power quality disturbance analyzer with a neat block diagram (AU- May/Jun-'09) 314.(8) 311. With the help of a block diagram explain applications of expert system for power quality monitoring. 319. (AU-May/June 2012) . 318.(ii) Flicker meters. power quality events using Neural Network and signal processing tools.Nov/Dec-2013) 316. Draw and explain the functional structure of expert systems. Discuss in detail about the instruments used for analyzing non sinusoidal voltage and currents. NNCE EEE/ VIII SEM Sy & QB 305. Discuss the need and functioning of power quality analyser. Write short notes on flicker meter. (AU-May/Jun- '09) 313. What are the various instruments used for power quality measurements? 307.DR. (AU-Nov/Dec-'09) 315. (AU-Nov/Dec-'09) (AU. What are the major features extracted from a waveform to discriminate the 312.assessment and mitigation. Describe the need for power quality monitoring. 309.