You are on page 1of 5

# Analog Filter Design

(EET3132)

## Branch: ECE/EEE Section: Sub-group Number:

Sl. No. Name Registration No. Signature
1.

Lab Partners

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.
AFD (EET3132) 2

## 1. Assignment Set 1.1

Design a practical audio amplifier with a gain K N = 500 in the frequency range
f f [ 3 dB ] =30 KHz . The circuit should be very inexpensive and should use LM741 ICs.

a. Use the circuit shown in Fig. 1. Derive the expression for the transfer function.
Find the values of R1 and R2 for achieving the required gain.

## c. Is the behavior of the frequency response acceptable? Suggest ways to improve

the frequency response.

## Fig. 1. A modified high gain amplifier circuit

a. Calculations
i. Derive the expression for the transfer function.
ii. Calculate the values of the parameters of the circuit shown in Fig. 1.

## Signature of the Student

Lab.: 1
AFD (EET3132) 3
iii. Choose suitable values of the parameters.

b. Observations
i. Implement the circuit in Multisim.
ii. Perform an AC analysis of the Circuit.
iii. Paste the circuit and the results in this section.

c. Suggested Improvements
i. Does the frequency response look alright?
ii. Find the reason of the badly-behaved frequency response of this circuit.
iii. Can this be avoided?
iv. Suggest the improvements for this circuit.

## d. Observations from the improved circuit

i. Implement the improved circuit in Multisim.
ii. Perform an AC analysis of the Circuit.
iii. Paste the circuit and the results in this section.

e. Conclusion
i. Did the suggested improvement work? Why?

## An operational amplifier in a summing configuration can be used to convert a digital

signal expressed as a binary number to an analog value. Consider, for example, the
following 4 bit binary weighted ladder DAC (Digital to Analog Converter) shown in Fig.
2. The binary inputs, ai (where i = 1, 2, 3 and 4) have values of either 0 or 1. The value,
0, represents an open switch while 1 represents a closed switch. :

## a. Show that the output voltage, given by

V ref Rf a1 a 2 a3 a4
V out = ( R )( + + +
2 4 8 16 )
b. Implement the circuit in MultiSim and compare the values of output voltages for all
16 combinations of a1, a2, a3 and a4.

Lab.: 1
AFD (EET3132) 4

## Fig. 2. A binary weighted Resistor DAC

a. Calculations
i. Derive the expression for the output voltage for the circuit shown in Fig. 2.
ii. Choose Rf = R and Vref = 5V.
iii. Choose suitable values of the parameters.

b. Observations
i. Implement the circuit in Multisim.
ii. Paste the circuit and the results in this section.
iii. Find the calculated and observed values of the output voltage and complete the
following table.

## Sl. No. Digital Inputs Calculate Observe

a1 a2 a3 a4 d Vout (V) d Vout
(V)
1. 0 0 0 0

2. 0 0 0 1

3. 0 0 1 0

4. 0 0 1 1

5. 0 1 0 0
Signature of the Student
Lab.: 1
AFD (EET3132) 5

6. 0 1 0 1

7. 0 1 1 0

8. 0 1 1 1

9. 1 0 0 0

10. 1 0 0 1

11. 1 0 1 0

12. 1 0 1 1

13. 1 1 0 0

14. 1 1 0 1

15. 1 1 1 0

16. 1 1 1 1

c. Conclusion
i. What are of the limitations in this circuit?
ii. List some of the better DAC circuits and their relative merits.

Lab.: 1