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In 2008, Google considered contracting with or acquiring Space Data Corp.

, a company that
sends balloons carrying small base stations about 20 miles (32 km) up in the air for providing
connectivity to truckers and oil companies in the southern United States, but didn't do so. [7]
Unofficial development on the project began in 2011 under incubation in Google X with a series
of trial runs in California's Central Valley. The project was officially announced as a Google
project on 14 June 2013.[1]
On 16 June 2013, Google began a pilot experiment in New Zealand where about 30 balloons
were launched in coordination with the Civil Aviation Authority from the Tekapo areain the South
Island. About 50 local users in and around Christchurch and the Canterbury Region tested
connections to the aerial network using special antennas. [1] After this initial trial, Google plans on
sending up 300 balloons around the world at the 40th parallel south that would provide coverage
to New Zealand, Australia, Chile, and Argentina. Google hopes to eventually have thousands of
balloons flying in the stratosphere.[1][2]
In May 2014, Google X laboratories director, Astro Teller, announced that, rather than negotiate a
section of bandwidth that was free for them worldwide, they would instead become a temporary
base station that could be leased by the mobile operators of the country it was crossing over.
In May–June 2014 Google tested its balloon-powered internet access venture in Piauí, Brazil,
marking its first LTE experiments and launch near the equator.[8]
In 2014 Google partnered with France's Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) on the
In Feb, 2014, the record streak for a balloon lasting in the stratosphere was 50 days. In Nov
2014, the record was 130 days, and in March 2, 2015, the record for a continuous balloon flight is
187 days (over 6 months).
On 28 July 2015, Google signed an agreement with officials of Information and Communication
Technology Agency (ICTA) - Sri Lanka, to launch the technology on a mass scale.[10] As a result,
by March 2016,[10] Sri Lanka will be the second country in the world to get full coverage of internet
using LTE, after Vatican City.
On 29 October 2015, Google agreed to partner with Indonesia's XL
Axiata, Indosat and Telkomsel to bring the technology to the country in the hopes of connecting
its 17,000 islands.[11]

Project Loon is Google's pursuit to deploy a high-altitude balloon network operating in
the stratosphere, at altitudes between 18 km and 25 km. Google asserts that this particular layer
of the stratosphere is advantageous because of its relatively low wind speeds (e.g., wind speeds
between 5 and 20 mph / 10 to 30 kmph) and minimal turbulence. Moreover, Google claims that it
can model, with reasonable accuracy, the seasonal, longitudinal, and latitudinal variations in wind
speeds within the 18–25 km stratospheric layer.[12]
Given a reasonably accurate model of wind speeds within the 18–25 km band, Google claims
that it can control the latitudinal and longitudinal position of high-altitude balloons by adjusting
only the balloon's altitude.[12] By adjusting the volume and density of the gas (e.g., helium,
hydrogen, or another lighter-than-air compound) in the balloon, the balloon's
variable buoyancy system is able to control the balloon's altitude.[12] Google has additionally
indicated that balloons may be constructed from various materials (e.g.,
metalizedMylar or BoPet) or a highly-flexible latex or rubber material (e.g., chloroprene).[12]
Initially, the balloons communicated using unlicensed 2.4 and 5.8 GHz ISM bands,[13] and Google
claims that the setup allows it to deliver "speeds comparable to 3G" to users, but they then
switched to LTE[14] with cellular spectrum by cooperating with local telecommunication operators.
It is unclear how technologies that rely on short communications times (low latency pings),
such as VoIP, might need to be modified to work in an environment similar to mobile phones

but allowed project workers to attach a basketball- sized receiver resembling a giant bright-red party balloon to an outside wall of their property in order to connect to the network. Each balloon’s electronics are powered by an array of solar panels that sit between the envelope and the hardware.[23] When taken out of service. and had used a satellite Internet service in 2009. and the helium is vented into the atmosphere.where the signal may have to relay through multiple balloons before reaching the wider Internet. the panels produce 100 watts of power.[18] Equipment[edit] A Project Loon research balloon The balloon envelopes used in the project are made by Raven Aerostar. [16][17] The first person to connect to the "Google Balloon Internet" after the initial test balloons were launched into the stratosphere was a farmer in the town of Leeston. standing 15 m (49 ft) across and 12 m (39 ft) tall when fully inflated. who was one of 50 people in the area around Christchurch who agreed to be a pilot tester for Project Loon. The New Zealand farmer lived in a rural location that couldn't get broadband access to the Internet. the parachute deploys automatically. In full sun.076 mm (0. New Zealand. [24] The prototype ground stations use a Ubiquiti Networks 'Rocket M5' [22] radio and a custom patch antenna[25] to connect to the balloons at a height of 20 km (12 mi).[1] A small box weighing 10 kg (22 lb) containing each balloon's electronic equipment hangs underneath the inflated envelope. the balloon is guided to an easily reached location. but found that he sometimes had to pay over $1000 per month for the service. This box contains circuit boards that control the system. radio antennas and a Ubiquiti Networks 'Rocket M2'[22] to communicate with other balloons and with Internet antennas on the ground. The balloons typically have a maximum life of about 100 days. The locals knew nothing about the secret project other than its ability to deliver Internet connectivity. The balloons are superpressure balloons filled with helium. and batteries to store solar power so the balloons can operate during the night.[2][26][27] The balloons are equipped with automatic dependent surveillance – broadcast and so can be publicly tracked (along with other balloons) with the call-sign "BALL" [28] .[13] In the case of an unexpected failure.0030 in) thick. which is sufficient to keep the unit running while also charging a battery for use at night.[20] and are composed of polyethylene plastic about 0. They carry a custom air pump system dubbed the "Croce"[21] that pumps in or releases air to ballast the balloon and control its elevation. A parachute attached to the top of the envelope allows for a controlled descent and landing when a balloon is ready to be taken out of service. although Google claims that its tweaked design can enable them to stay aloft for closer to 200 days. Google feels this will greatly increase Internet usage in developing countries in regions such as Africa and Southeast Asia that can't afford to lay underground fiber cable.[6] Some reports have called Google's project the Google Balloon Internet.[18][19] The technology designed in the project could allow countries to avoid using expensive fiber cable that would have to be installed underground to allow users to connect to the Internet.