Structural damage detection consists of determining the location and
severity of damage in civil structures by using measured parameters. Genetic algorithm is a meta-heuristic computing method for finding approximated global minimums in large optimization problems and has the advantage of probabilistic hill
climbing. In this work the improved genetic algorithm is employed to solve damage detection problem in truss type structures using vibration data (natural frequencies and mode shapes). The formulation of the objective function for the optimization procedure is based on natural frequency and vibration mode shapes.
Present structural damage-identification scheme is confirmed and assessed using a
Finite Element Model formulation (FEM) of truss structure. Results are presented
in tables.

© All Rights Reserved

3 views

Improved Genetic Algorithm for Structural Damage Detection

Structural damage detection consists of determining the location and
severity of damage in civil structures by using measured parameters. Genetic algorithm is a meta-heuristic computing method for finding approximated global minimums in large optimization problems and has the advantage of probabilistic hill
climbing. In this work the improved genetic algorithm is employed to solve damage detection problem in truss type structures using vibration data (natural frequencies and mode shapes). The formulation of the objective function for the optimization procedure is based on natural frequency and vibration mode shapes.
Present structural damage-identification scheme is confirmed and assessed using a
Finite Element Model formulation (FEM) of truss structure. Results are presented
in tables.

© All Rights Reserved

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Damage Detection

Paulo, 13566-590 So Carlos, Brazil

severity of damage in civil structures by using measured parameters. Genetic algo-

rithm is a meta-heuristic computing method for finding approximated global mi-

nimums in large optimization problems and has the advantage of probabilistic hill

climbing. In this work the improved genetic algorithm is employed to solve dam-

age detection problem in truss type structures using vibration data (natural fre-

quencies and mode shapes). The formulation of the objective function for the op-

timization procedure is based on natural frequency and vibration mode shapes.

Present structural damage-identification scheme is confirmed and assessed using a

Finite Element Model formulation (FEM) of truss structure. Results are presented

in tables.

1 Introduction

As already well established, the methods for structural assessment from dynamic

responses can be classified in two groups in accordance with its dependence on a

structural model: the methods based on signals (experimental method) is the first

one and the second are the methods based on finite element models (Zou et al.,

2000).

Novelty Detection (Worden et al., 2002) is a typical signal based method,

whose principal objective is to extract features from dynamic data that character-

ize the state of the structure. This technique permits only to detect the damage in

the lowest level that is to decide whether the damage occurred. The other methods

based signals as Eddys currents technique, acoustic emission, X rays, ultrasonic

methods, thermal and magnetic field methods and visual inspection (Goch et al.,

1999) need an a priori knowledge of damages location and that the access to any

Y. Yuan, J.Z. Cui and H. Mang (eds.), Computational Structural Engineering, 833839.

Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

834 Improved Genetic Algorithm for Structural Damage Detection

part of the structure be available. More than these limitations, these methods can

only permit to detect damage near the structures surface and work relatively well

in small size structures. The advantages of these methods are that they avoid mod-

elling errors and time consuming computational calculations. However, these

methods are inefficient when applied to large structural systems, for which the

techniques based in the structures dynamic response are promising due its global

character.

In this paper, an improved genetic optimization algorithm using real code ver-

sion is developed to solve structural damage detection problems; that is, determin-

ing the location and severity of damage by using dynamic measured characteris-

tics (natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes). The formulation of the

objective function for the optimization is based on the natural frequencies and

mode shapes obtained by using a classical Finite Element Model of truss struc-

tures. In order to study the structural damage detection the damage is considered

by a reduction in stiffness at the damaged location on the structure.

2 Theoretical Backgrounds

When a damage event has occurred in the structure, the stiffness matrix will

change and consequently, the natural frequencies and mode shapes will change.

Assuming that the mass and damping matrices are constant (not affected by the

damage) the stiffness of the kth damaged element is given by:

[ K ]k = k [ K ]k

d

(1)

element is undamaged whereas a damage element would cause the stiffness reduc-

tion factor for that location to take on a fractional value (decrease in modulus of

elasticity) or zero, and constitutes the design variables of our problem; d as expo-

nent indicates damaged element. Notation K [ ]k indicates the stiffness matrix of

th

the k undamaged element.

The equation of motion for the structural system under free vibration can be

written as:

Jose E. Laier and Jesus D.V. Morales 835

p

[ ] [ K ] = [ K ]k are the structure mass and stiffness matrices,

d

where M , and

k =1

respectively, p is the number of elements in the finite element model, {u} is the

vector of the displacements. Assuming the undamped free vibration solution for

equation (2), one has

([ K ] [ M ]){u} = {0}

2

(3)

In this paper the objective function is based on the following expression

nc

(u uijex )

ga 2

nm ga ex nm ij

F = +W

j j 1

(4)

exj nc

1 1

(u )

1

ex 2

ij

to finite element model results using the genetic algorithm, superscript ex indicates

experimental results, ga

j and j are the natural frequency of the finite element

ex

ga ex

model and corresponding experimental one, respectively; uij and uij are the ith

mode shape magnitude of the degree j and W = 0.1 is the weight factor. It is im-

portant to note that this objective function takes into account a combination in-

volving natural frequency and mode shapes. Since the measured mode shapes are

less accurate than natural frequencies, the weight of the mode shapes is usually of

an small magnitude. The objective function to be maximized by using genetic al-

gorithm is given by

c1

Gobj = (5)

c2 + F

836 Improved Genetic Algorithm for Structural Damage Detection

selection and evolution (Mares and Surace 1996). In this paper only the improved

version of the real-coded Genetic Algorithm is briefly introduced.

The term chromosome refers to a candidate solution to a defined problem, fit-

ness is the objective function and the gene is component of the chromosome. The

proposed genetic algorithm starts with an initial randomly generated population of

100 chromosomes, namely x1 , x2 ..., x100 . The length of each chromosome is the

dimension of the solution space, ie: xi = [1 , 2 ..., m ] , where m is the number

of element (bars) on structure. As in most practical case the damage occurs in one

or two elements, in order to generate the initial population the following heuristic

[ ] [ ]

is adopted: if rand 0 1 0.4 one consider i = rand 0 0.6 , if not it is

assumed 1 = 0 (undamaged).

Selection is a process in which individual chromosomes are chosen according

to their fitness. The chromosomes with a higher fitness have a higher probability

to survive in the next generation. The selection is performed using Tournament

operator with n=2 (Goldberg and Deb 1991). The crossover is implemented using

BLX- technique (Eshelman et al. 1993) with =0.5 and crossover probability

of 0.9 (90%). If no crossover takes place, the two off-springs are exact copies of

their respective parents. Random mutation is implemented using mutation prob-

ability of 0.05 (5%). The final operation is that of elitism, which consists to repro-

duce in the new generation the best member of the preceding generation.

Good results are obtained applying the following heuristic: after 300 generation

the gene whose damage is lower than 5% is considered undamaged and re-start the

process. This is done in order to improve the final result. It is known that the light

damage elements are not correct and their presence do not permit the convergence

to the exact damage scenario.

4 Numerical Example

structure illustrated in figure 1 (Mares and Surace1996). This structure has twenty

one degrees-of-freedom, each member in the truss having the following characte-

ristics: modulus of elasticity E=7.03 x 1010 N/m2; density = 2685 kg/m3; cross

sectional area A=0.001 m2; length of each bay l = 0.75 m.

Jose E. Laier and Jesus D.V. Morales 837

,

,

,

=

=,

=,

,,

?

?,

,

?,

,

,, = =,

,

,

?

The damage scenario considered is given taking into account partial damage of

70% ( = 0.7 ) on members 2, 8 and 23. In this problem, in order to simulate an

experimental analysis, random noise given by 0.01rand 1,1 [ ] j and

0.03rand [ 1,1]ij is added to the values of the natural frequencies and mode

shapes respectively.

838 Improved Genetic Algorithm for Structural Damage Detection

250 00

2 00 00

Objective Function

150 00

100 00

50 00

0

0 50 100 150 2 00 250 30 0

Ge ne rations

Figure 2 shows the results obtained. It is important to note that when 4 modes

are used it is not possible to identify correctly the damage scenario. But when 6

modes are considered all three damaged element are captured although the dam-

age of the element 3 is not correct (10%). Good results are clearly obtained using

8 modes. Figure 3 depict the fitness evolution of the best member. One can ob-

serve that the proposed heuristic operators are very efficient.

5 Conclusions

A genetic algorithm with real number coding is applied to solve the structural

damage detection by using free vibration parameters. Numerical results indicate

that the proposed heuristics gives better damage detection than the conventional

optimization methods.

Acknowledgments

The author wishes to thank CNPq (Brazilian National Council for Technological

and Scientific Development) for their financial support.

Jose E. Laier and Jesus D.V. Morales 839

References

Foundation of Genetic Algorithms 2, L. Darrell Whitley (Ed.), Morgan Kaufmann Publishers,

San Mateo, 187-202.

Goch G., Schmitz B., Karpuschewski B., Geerkens J., Reigl M., Sprongl P. and Ritter R. (1999).

Review of non-destructive measuring methods for the assessment of surface integrity: A sur-

vey of new measuring methods for coatings, layered structures and processed surfaces. Preci-

sion Engineering, 23, 9-33.

Goldberg D. E. and Deb K. (1991). A comparative analysis of selection schemes used in genetic

algorithms. Foundation of Genetic Algorithms 1, L. Darrell Whitley (Ed.), Morgan Kaufmann

Publishers, San Mateo, 69-73.

Mares C. and Surace C. (1996). An application of genetic algorithms to identify damage in elas-

tic structures. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 195(2), 195-215.

Worden K., Sohn H., Farrar C.R. (2002). Novelty detection in a changing environment: regres-

sion and interpolation approaches. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 258(4), 741-761.

Zou Y., Tong L. and Steven P. (2000). Vibration based model dependent damage (delamination)

identification on health monitoring for composite structures: A review. Journal of Sound and

Vibration, 230, 357-378.

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