1 views

Uploaded by Carrion Santos

- BattlefieldContamination.ppt
- Ham Radio
- Nature Magazine - 14 January 2016
- The Bio-medical Comments of Empedocles
- spacelet specifications
- Nemea4 Rev 2
- Elementary Particles
- UPSC Prelims
- A-Level Exam (2001) Papers and Answers
- Chapter 21 Nuclear Chemistry
- International Journal of Engineering Research and Development
- THE UNIVERSE IS IN GOOD HANDS.
- Table of Nuclides
- dahlbacka 1991 0005
- Chapter_23_Nuclear_Chemistry.pps
- Systematic Errors in the ACME Electron EDM Experiment
- New approach to explain Gravity or Theory of Everything
- dataEffectFxfx1
- Lect33 Spin
- 2016 National Science Bee Playoff Rounds

You are on page 1of 6

Jordan Smolinsky,1 Tim M. P. Tait,1 and Philip Tanedo1

1

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-4575 USA

2

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 USA

Recently a 6.8 anomaly has been reported in the opening angle and invariant mass distributions

of e+ e pairs produced in 8 Be nuclear transitions. The data are explained by a 17 MeV vector gauge

boson X that is produced in the decay of an excited state to the ground state, 8 Be 8 Be X, and

then decays through X e+ e . The X boson mediates a fifth force with a characteristic range of

12 fm and has milli-charged couplings to up and down quarks and electrons, and a proton coupling

that is suppressed relative to neutrons. The protophobic X boson may also alleviate the current

3.6 discrepancy between the predicted and measured values of the muons anomalous magnetic

moment.

arXiv:1604.07411v1 [hep-ph] 25 Apr 2016

electromagnetic, weak, strong, and gravitational interac- TABLE I. Relevant 8 Be states and their masses, decay widths,

and spin-parity and isospin quantum numbers.

tions, are mediated by the photon, the W and Z bosons,

the gluon, and the graviton, respectively. The possibility State Mass (MeV) Width (keV) JP Isospin

8

of a fifth force, similarly mediated by an as-yet-unknown Be (18.15) 7473.00 138 1+ 0

gauge boson, has been discussed [1] since shortly after 8

Be0 (17.64) 7472.49 10.7 1+ 1

the introduction of Yang-Mills gauge theories, and has a 8

Be (g.s.) 7454.85 0+ 0

rich, if checkered, history [2]. If such a force exists, it

must either be weak, or short-ranged, or both to be con- the 7 Li nucleus mass of 6533.83 MeV, the 8 Be and 8 Be 0

sistent with the wealth of experimental data. In recent states are resonantly produced by tuning the proton ki-

years, interest in this possibility has been heightened by netic energies to 1.025 and 0.441 MeV, respectively. The

the obvious need for dark matter, which has motivated resulting excited states then decay promptly, dominantly

new particles and forces in a dark or hidden sector that back to p 7 Li, but also through rare electromagnetic pro-

may mix with the visible sector and naturally induce a cesses. For 8 Be , radiative decay to the ground state

weak fifth force between the known particles. has branching ratio B(8 Be 8 Be ) 1.4 105 ,

Recently, studies of decays of an excited state of 8 Be to and there are also decays via internal pair conversion

its ground state have found a 6.8 anomaly in the open- (IPC) with branching ratio B(8 Be 8 Be e+ e )

ing angle and invariant mass distribution of e+ e pairs 3.9 103 B(8 Be 8 Be ) 5.5 108 [5].

produced in these transitions [3]. The discrepancy from For the IPC decays, one can measure the opening an-

expectations may be explained by as-yet-unidentified nu- gle between the e+ and e and also the invariant mass

clear reactions or experimental effects, but the observed me+ e . One expects these distributions to be sharply

distribution is beautifully fit by assuming the produc- peaked at low values of and me+ e and fall smoothly

tion of a new boson. In this work, we advance the new and monotonically for increasing values. This is not what

particle interpretation, carefully considering the putative is seen in the 8 Be decays. Instead, there are pronounced

signal and the many competing constraints on its prop- bumps at 140 and at me+ e 17 MeV [3]. The

erties, and present a viable proposal for the new boson experimental analysis fits the contributions from nearby

and the fifth force it induces. broad resonances, but these cannot reproduce the shape

The 8 Be Decay Anomaly. The 8 Be nuclear excita- of the observed excesses. The deviation has a signifi-

tion spectrum is precisely known [4]. For this discussion, cance of 6.8, corresponding to a background fluctuation

the most relevant 8 Be nuclear states and their properties probability of 5.6 1012 [3]. The excess is maximal on

are given in Table I. To simplify our notation, we use the the 8 Be resonance and disappears as the proton beam

given symbols to denote specific states. The ground state energy is moved off resonance. No such effect is seen in

atomic mass is 8.005305 u ' 7456.89 MeV; the ground 8

Be 0 IPC decays.

state nuclear mass listed in Table I is about 4me below The fit may be improved by postulating a new boson

this. There are also several unlisted broad resonance ex- X that is produced on-shell in 8 Be 8 Be X and de-

cited states both above and below 8 Be and 8 Be 0 with cays promptly via X e+ e . The authors of Ref. [3]

widths as large as several MeV. have simulated this process, including the detector en-

In the experiment of Krasznahorkay et al. [3], an in- ergy resolution, which broadens the me+ e peak signifi-

tense proton beam impinges on thin 7 Li targets. Given cantly [6]. They find that the observed excesss shape and

2

size are beautifully fit by a new boson with mass mX = The 17 MeV X boson is produced through hadronic

16.7 0.35 (stat) 0.5 (sys) MeV and relative branching couplings, but can decay only to e+ e , , or . (We

ratio B(8 Be 8 Be X)/B(8 Be 8 Be ) = 5.6 106 , assume there are no decays to unknown particles.) The

assuming B(X e+ e ) = 1. With these values, the fit three-photon decay is negligible, and we will assume that

had a 2 /dof = 1.07. decays to neutrinos are also highly suppressed, for rea-

Protophobic Gauge Bosons. A priori the X boson sons given below. The X boson then decays through its

may be a scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, axial vector, or electron coupling with width [9]

even a spin-2 particle. Some of these cases are easy to

m2X + 2m2e

q

dismiss. If parity is conserved, the X boson cannot be (X e+ e ) = 2e 1 4m2e /m2X . (6)

a scalar: in a 1+ 0+ 0+ transition, angular momen- 3mX

tum conservation requires the final state to have L = 1,

The X boson is produced with velocity v 0.35c in

but parity conservation requires +1 = (1)L . Decays to

the 8 Be frame, which is moving non-relativistically with

a pseudoscalar 0 state are not forbidden by any sym-

v = 0.017c relative to the lab frame. The X mean decay

metry, but are severely constrained by experiment. For

length is L 2e 1.8 10

12

m in the lab frame. The X

such axion-like particles a, the two-photon interaction

boson must decay promptly in the experimental setup of

ga aF F is almost certainly present at some level,

Refs. [3, 6] so that the e+ e decay products are detected

but for ma 17 MeV, all coupling values in the range

and the measurements are not distorted. Requiring

1/(1018 GeV) < ga < 1/(10 GeV) are excluded [7, 8].

L . 1 cm, for example, implies

Here we focus on the vector case. We consider a mas-

sive spin-1 Abelian gauge boson X that couples non-

|e | & 1.3 105 . (7)

chirally to standard model (SM) fermions with charges

f in units of e. The new Lagrangian terms are From Eq. (5), we see that a dark photon cannot ex-

1 1 plain the 8 Be anomaly. For a dark photon, fermions

L = X X + m2X X X X J , (1) have charges proportional to their SM charges, f = qf ,

4 2

where is the kinetic mixing parameter, and so Eq. (5)

where X has P field strength X and couples to the cur- implies 0.011. This is excluded by many experi-

rent J = f ef f f , or, at the nucleon level, JN = ments, and most stringently by NA48/2, which requires

ep p p+en n

n, with p = 2u +d and n = u +2d . < max = 8 104 at 90% CL [10]. The authors of

We first determine what values of the charges are re- Ref. [3] estimated that 2 107 can fit the signal, but

quired to fit the 8 Be signal. The characteristic energy p|3

this value of is far too small, in part because of the |~

scale of the decay 8 Be 8 Be X is 10 MeV, and so we suppression of the signal.

may consider an effective theory in which 8 Be , 8 Be, and The NA48/2 bound, however, does not exclude a gen-

X are the fundamental degrees of freedom. The one effec- eral vector boson interpretation of the 8 Be anomaly. The

tive operator consistent with the J P quantum numbers NA48/2 limit is a bound on 0 X. In the general

of these states is gauge boson case, this is proportional to the anomaly

trace factor N (u qu d qd )2 . Applying the dark

1

8 Be 8 Be X 8 Be . photon bound N < 2max /9, we find that, for a general

Lint = (2)

gauge boson,

The matrix element h8 BeX|Lint |8 Be i is proportional

to h8 Be|JN |8 Be i = (e/2)(p + n )M, where M = |2u + d | < max = 8 104 . (8)

h8 Be|(

p p + n n)|8 Be i contains the isoscalar compo-

Equations (5) and (8) may be satisfied with a mild 10%

nent of the current, since the initial and final states are

cancelation, provided the charges satisfy

both isoscalars. The resulting decay width is

d p

(e/2)2 (p + n )2 2.3 < < 1.8 , 0.067 < < 0.078 . (9)

8

( Be Be X) =8

|M|2 |~

pX |3 . (3) u n

32

Given the latter condition, we call the general class of

To fit the signal, we need vector models that can both explain the 8 Be anomaly

B(8 Be 8 Be X) p X |3 and satisfy pion decay constraints protophobic.

2 |~

= ( p + n ) 5.6 106 , (4) Constraints from Other Experiments. Although there

B(8 Be 8 Be ) p |3

|~

is no need for the gauge boson to decouple from protons

where both the nuclear matrix elements and the scale completely, for simplicity, for the rest of this work, we

have canceled in the ratio. For mX = 17 MeV, we require consider the extreme protophobic limit where p = 0.

|p + n | 0.011, or We parameterize the quark charges as u = 31 n , d =

2

3 n and determine what choices for n , e , and are

|u + d | 3.7 103 . (5) viable. We focus on these first-generation charges, as the

3

p |3 phase space sup-

pression factor is 2.3 (5.2) times more severe for the

8

Be 0 decay than for the 8 Be decay. In particular,

mX = 17.4 MeV is within 1 of the central value, and a

5.2 times smaller signal in the 8 Be 0 decay is consistent

with the data. We will continue to refer to the boson as

a 17 MeV boson, as no other processes are sensitive to

the precise value of its mass, with the understanding that

the null 8 Be 0 result may require it to be a bit above 17

MeV. Note that although mX = 17.4 MeV is near the

endpoint of the 8 Be 0 decay, it is not near the endpoint

of the 8 Be decay, and the and me+ e distributions

return to near their SM values at high values. This is

not a last bin effect.

A number of experiments provide upper bounds on |e |.

The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, (g2)e ,

constrains |e | < 1.4 103 (3) [11]. The KLOE-2

experiment has looked for e+ e X, followed by X

e+ e , and finds |e | < 2 103 [12]. A similar search at

BaBar has reached similar sensitivity in e , but is limited

to mX > 20 MeV [13].

Electron beam dump experiments also constrain e by

searching for X bosons radiated off electrons that scat-

ter on target nuclei. As a group, these exclude |e |

in the 108 to 104 range [14]. For this discussion,

given Eq. (7), these experiments provide lower bounds

on |e |. In more detail, for mX 17 MeV, SLAC exper-

iment E141 requires |e | > 2 104 [15, 16]. There are

also less stringent bounds from Orsay [17] and SLACs

E137 [18] and Millicharge [19] experiments, and Fermi-

lab experiment E774 [20] excludes some couplings when

mX < 10 MeV.

We now turn to bounds on the hadronic couplings.

We have already discussed the bound of NA48/2 from

0 decays. WASA-at-COSY has also published a bound

based on 0 decays, but it is weaker and applies only

for mX > 20 MeV [21]. Potentially more problem-

FIG. 1. The required charges to explain the 8 Be anomaly atic is a bound from HADES, which searches for X

in the (u , d ) (top) and (e , ) (bottom) planes, along with bosons in 0 , , and decays and excludes the dark

the leading constraints discussed in the text. Top: The n-Pb photon parameter & 3 103 , but this also applies

and NA48/2 constraints are satisfied in the shaded regions. only for mX > 20 MeV [22]. Note also that 0

On the protophobic contour, d /u = 2. The width of the

8

Be bands corresponds to requiring the signal strength to be

XX e+ e e+ e is not suppressed by the protophobic

within a factor of 2 of the best fit. Bottom: The E141, KLOE- charge assignments, but it is suppressed by 4n and, for

2, (g 2)e , and e scattering constraints exclude their |n | 102 , this is below current sensitivities. Similar

shaded regions, whereas (g 2) favors its shaded region. considerations suppress X contributions to other decays,

The 8 Be signal imposes a lower bound on |e |. such as + + e+ e , to acceptable levels.

The hadronic charge can also be bounded by limits

8

Be signal depends on them, but include comments on on Yukawa potentials from neutron-nucleus scattering.

the charges of the other generations below. The charges For a Yukawa potential gn2 AemX r /(4r), nPb scat-

required to explain the 8 Be signal, along with the leading tering requires gn2 /(4) < 3.4 1011 (mX /MeV)4 [23].

bounds discussed below, are shown in Fig. 1. The protophobic X boson induces a Yukawa potential

As noted above, the decay 8 Be 0 8 Be X is not 2n (A Z)emX r /r. Given Z = 82 and A = 208 for Pb,

seen. The protophobic gauge boson can mediate isovec- the bounds imply |n | < 2.5 102 .

tor transitions, so there is no dynamical suppression of There are constraints from proton fixed target experi-

this decay. However, its mass is near the 17.64 MeV ments. The -Cal I experiment at the U70 accelerator at

threshold, so the decay is kinematically suppressed. For IHEP provides a well-known dark photon constraint, but

4

initial p beam and 0 decays to X bosons [24]. Both

of these are suppressed in protophobic models. The

CHARM experiment at CERN also bounds the param-

eter space through searches for , 0 X, followed by

X e+ e [25]. At the upper boundary of the region ex-

cluded by CHARM, the constraint is determined almost

completely by the parameters that enter the X decay

length, and so the dark photon bound on applies to

e and requires |e | > 2 105 . A similar, but weaker

constraint can be derived from LSND data [2628].

There are also bounds on the neutrino charge . In the

present case, where e is non-zero, a recent study of B L

gauge bosons [29] finds that these couplings are most

stringently bounded by precision studies of e scat-

tering from TEXONO for the mX of interest here [30].

Reinterpreted for the present case, these studies require

| e |1/2 . 7 105 . There are also bounds from co-

herent neutrino-nucleus scattering. Dark matter experi-

ments with Xe target nuclei require a B L gauge boson FIG. 2. The 8 Be signal region, along with current constraints

to have coupling gBL . 4 105 [31]. Rescaling this to discussed in the text (gray) and projected sensitivities of fu-

the current case, given Z = 54 and A = 131 for Xe, we ture experiments in the (mX , e ) plane. For the 8 Be signal,

the other couplings are assumed to be in the ranges given in

find | n |1/2 < 2 104 . Eq. (10); for all other contours, the other couplings are those

To explain the 8 Be signal, n must be significantly of a dark photon.

larger than e . Nevertheless, the e scattering con-

straint provides a bound on that is comparable to or explains the 8 Be anomaly by 8 Be 8 Be X, followed by

stronger than the N constraint throughout parameter X e+ e , consistent with existing constraints. For |e |

space, and so we use the e constraint below. Note near the upper end of the allowed range in Eq. (10) and

also that, given the range of acceptable e , the bounds | | |e |, the X boson also solves the (g 2) puzzle,

on are more stringent than the bounds on e , and so reducing the current 3.6 discrepancy to below 2 [9].

B(X e+ e ) 100%, justifying our assumption above. Conclusions. We find evidence in the recent obser-

Although not our main concern, there are also bounds vation of a 6.8 anomaly in the e+ e distribution of

on second-generation couplings. For example, NA48/2 nuclear 8 Be decays for a new vector gauge boson. The

also derives bounds on K + + X, followed by X new particle mediates a fifth force with a characteristic

e+ e [10]. However, this branching ratio vanishes for length scale of 12 fm. The requirements of the signal,

massless X and is highly suppressed for low mX . For along with the many constraints from other experiments

mX = 17 MeV, the bound on n is not competitive with that probe these low energy scales, constrain the mass

those discussed above [9, 11]. KLOE-2 also searches for and couplings of the boson to small ranges: its mass is

X followed by X e+ e and excludes the dark mX 17 MeV, and it has milli-charged couplings to

photon parameter . 7 103 [32]. This is similar up and down quarks and electrons, but with relatively

numerically to bounds discussed above, and the strange suppressed (and possibly vanishing) couplings to protons

quark charge s can be chosen to satisfy this constraint. (and neutrinos) relative to neutrons. If its lepton cou-

In summary, in the extreme protophobic case with plings are approximately generation-independent, the 17

mX 17 MeV, the charges are required to satisfy MeV vector boson may simultaneously explain the exist-

|n | < 2.5 102 and 2 104 < |e | < 1.4 103 , ing 3.6 deviation from SM predictions in the anomalous

and | e |1/2 . 7 105 . Combining these with Eqs. (5) magnetic moment of the muon. It is also interesting to

and (7), we find that a protophobic gauge boson with note that couplings of this magnitude, albeit in an ax-

first-generation charges ial vector case, may resolve a 3.2 excess in 0 e+ e

decays [33, 34].

1 To confirm the 8 Be signal, the most direct approach

u = n 3.7 103

3 would be to look for other nuclear states that decay to

2 discrete gamma rays with energies above 17 MeV through

d = n 7.4 103 M1 or E1 electromagnetic transitions. Unfortunately,

3

2 10 . |e | . 1.4 103

4 the 8 Be system is quite special and, to our knowledge,

1/2 the 8 Be and 8 Be 0 states yield the most energetic such

| e | . 7 105 (10) gamma rays of all the nuclear states.

5

Nevertheless there are myriad opportunities to test [12] KLOE-2 Collaboration, A. Anastasi et al., Limit on

and confirm this explanation, including re-analysis of old the production of a low-mass vector boson in

data sets, ongoing experiments, and many planned and e+ e U, U e+ e with the KLOE experiment,

future experiments, including DarkLight [35], HPS [36], Phys. Lett. B750 (2015) 633637, arXiv:1509.00740

[hep-ex].

LHCb [37], MESA [38], Mu3e [39], VEPP-3 [40], and pos- [13] BaBar Collaboration, J. P. Lees et al., Search for a

sibly also SeaQuest [41] and SHiP [42]. The 8 Be signal Dark Photon in e+ e Collisions at BaBar, Phys. Rev.

region and expected sensitivities of these experiments are Lett. 113 (2014) 201801, arXiv:1406.2980 [hep-ex].

shown in Fig. 2. Further details about the existing con- [14] R. Essig et al., Working Group Report: New Light

straints, prospects for the future, and UV completions of Weakly Coupled Particles, in Community Summer

the model discussed here will be presented elsewhere [43]. Study 2013: Snowmass on the Mississippi (CSS2013)

Minneapolis, MN, USA, July 29-August 6, 2013. 2013.

Acknowledgments. We thank Attila J. Krasznahorkay arXiv:1311.0029 [hep-ph].

and Alexandra Gade for helpful correspondence. The [15] E. M. Riordan et al., A Search for Short Lived Axions

work of J.L.F., B.F., I.G., J.S., T.M.P.T., and P.T. is in an Electron Beam Dump Experiment, Phys. Rev.

supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY-1316792. The Lett. 59 (1987) 755.

work of S.G. is supported in part by the DOE Office [16] J. D. Bjorken, R. Essig, P. Schuster, and N. Toro, New

of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-FG02-96ER40989. Fixed-Target Experiments to Search for Dark Gauge

Forces, Phys. Rev. D80 (2009) 075018,

J.L.F. is supported in part by a Guggenheim Founda-

arXiv:0906.0580 [hep-ph].

tion grant and in part by Simons Investigator Award [17] M. Davier and H. Nguyen Ngoc, An Unambiguous

#376204. Search for a Light Higgs Boson, Phys. Lett. B229

(1989) 150.

[18] J. D. Bjorken, S. Ecklund, W. R. Nelson, A. Abashian,

C. Church, B. Lu, L. W. Mo, T. A. Nunamaker, and

P. Rassmann, Search for Neutral Metastable

[1] T. D. Lee and C.-N. Yang, Conservation of Heavy Penetrating Particles Produced in the SLAC Beam

Particles and Generalized Gauge Transformations, Dump, Phys. Rev. D38 (1988) 3375.

Phys. Rev. 98 (1955) 1501. [19] M. D. Diamond and P. Schuster, Searching for Light

[2] A. Franklin, The Rise and Fall of the Fifth Force: Dark Matter with the SLAC Millicharge Experiment,

Discovery, Pursuit, and Justification in Modern Physics. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 no. 22, (2013) 221803,

American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993. arXiv:1307.6861 [hep-ph].

[3] A. Krasznahorkay et al., Observation of Anomalous [20] A. Bross, M. Crisler, S. H. Pordes, J. Volk, S. Errede,

Internal Pair Creation in Be8 : A Possible Indication of and J. Wrbanek, A Search for Shortlived Particles

a Light, Neutral Boson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (2016) Produced in an Electron Beam Dump, Phys. Rev. Lett.

042501, arXiv:1504.01527 [nucl-ex]. 67 (1991) 29422945.

[4] D. R. Tilley, J. H. Kelley, J. L. Godwin, D. J. Millener, [21] WASA-at-COSY Collaboration, P. Adlarson et al.,

J. E. Purcell, C. G. Sheu, and H. R. Weller, Energy Search for a dark photon in the 0 e+ e decay,

levels of light nuclei A=8,9,10, Nucl. Phys. A745 Phys. Lett. B726 (2013) 187193, arXiv:1304.0671

(2004) 155362. [hep-ex].

[5] M. E. Rose, Internal Pair Formation, Phys. Rev. 76 [22] HADES Collaboration, G. Agakishiev et al.,

(1949) 678681. [Erratum: Phys. Rev.78, 184 (1950)]. Searching a Dark Photon with HADES, Phys. Lett.

[6] J. Gulys, T. J. Ketel, A. J. Krasznahorkay, M. Csatls, B731 (2014) 265271, arXiv:1311.0216 [hep-ex].

L. Csige, Z. Gcsi, M. Hunyadi, A. Krasznahorkay, [23] R. Barbieri and T. E. O. Ericson, Evidence Against

A. Vitz, and T. G. Tornyi, A pair spectrometer for the Existence of a Low Mass Scalar Boson from

measuring multipolarities of energetic nuclear Neutron-Nucleus Scattering, Phys. Lett. B57 (1975)

transitions, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A808 (2016) 2128, 270272.

arXiv:1504.00489 [nucl-ex]. [24] J. Blumlein and J. Brunner, New Exclusion Limits on

[7] J. L. Hewett et al., Fundamental Physics at the Dark Gauge Forces from Proton Bremsstrahlung in

Intensity Frontier, arXiv:1205.2671 [hep-ex]. Beam-Dump Data, Phys. Lett. B731 (2014) 320326,

[8] B. Dobrich, J. Jaeckel, F. Kahlhoefer, A. Ringwald, and arXiv:1311.3870 [hep-ph].

K. Schmidt-Hoberg, ALPtraum: ALP production in [25] S. N. Gninenko, Constraints on sub-GeV hidden sector

proton beam dump experiments, JHEP 02 (2016) 018, gauge bosons from a search for heavy neutrino decays,

arXiv:1512.03069 [hep-ph]. Phys. Lett. B713 (2012) 244248, arXiv:1204.3583

[9] M. Pospelov, Secluded U(1) below the weak scale, [hep-ph].

Phys. Rev. D80 (2009) 095002, arXiv:0811.1030 [26] LSND Collaboration, C. Athanassopoulos et al.,

[hep-ph]. Evidence for muon-neutrino electron-neutrino

[10] NA48/2 Collaboration, J. R. Batley et al., Search for oscillations from pion decay in flight neutrinos, Phys.

the dark photon in 0 decays, Phys. Lett. B746 (2015) Rev. C58 (1998) 24892511, arXiv:nucl-ex/9706006

178185, arXiv:1504.00607 [hep-ex]. [nucl-ex].

[11] H. Davoudiasl, H.-S. Lee, and W. J. Marciano, Muon [27] B. Batell, M. Pospelov, and A. Ritz, Exploring Portals

g 2, rare kaon decays, and parity violation from dark to a Hidden Sector Through Fixed Targets, Phys. Rev.

bosons, Phys. Rev. D89 (2014) 095006, D80 (2009) 095024, arXiv:0906.5614 [hep-ph].

arXiv:1402.3620 [hep-ph]. [28] R. Essig, R. Harnik, J. Kaplan, and N. Toro,

6

Experiments, Phys. Rev. D82 (2010) 113008, [36] O. Moreno, The Heavy Photon Search Experiment at

arXiv:1008.0636 [hep-ph]. Jefferson Lab, in Meeting of the APS Division of

[29] S. Bilmis, I. Turan, T. M. Aliev, M. Deniz, L. Singh, Particles and Fields (DPF 2013) Santa Cruz,

and H. T. Wong, Constraints on Dark Photon from California, USA, August 13-17, 2013. 2013.

Neutrino-Electron Scattering Experiments, Phys. Rev. arXiv:1310.2060 [physics.ins-det].

D92 (2015) 033009, arXiv:1502.07763 [hep-ph]. [37] P. Ilten, J. Thaler, M. Williams, and W. Xue, Dark

[30] TEXONO Collaboration, M. Deniz et al., photons from charm mesons at LHCb, Phys. Rev. D92

Measurement of Nu(e)-bar -Electron Scattering (2015) 115017, arXiv:1509.06765 [hep-ph].

Cross-Section with a CsI(Tl) Scintillating Crystal Array [38] T. Beranek, H. Merkel, and M. Vanderhaeghen,

at the Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Reactor, Phys. Rev. Theoretical framework to analyze searches for hidden

D81 (2010) 072001, arXiv:0911.1597 [hep-ex]. light gauge bosons in electron scattering fixed target

[31] D. G. Cerdeo, M. Fairbairn, T. Jubb, P. A. N. experiments, Phys. Rev. D88 (2013) 015032,

Machado, A. C. Vincent, and C. B. hm, Physics from arXiv:1303.2540 [hep-ph].

solar neutrinos in dark matter direct detection [39] B. Echenard, R. Essig, and Y.-M. Zhong, Projections

experiments, arXiv:1604.01025 [hep-ph]. for Dark Photon Searches at Mu3e, JHEP 01 (2015)

[32] KLOE-2 Collaboration, D. Babusci et al., Limit on 113, arXiv:1411.1770 [hep-ph].

the production of a light vector gauge boson in phi [40] B. Wojtsekhowski, D. Nikolenko, and I. Rachek,

meson decays with the KLOE detector, Phys. Lett. Searching for a new force at VEPP-3,

B720 (2013) 111115, arXiv:1210.3927 [hep-ex]. arXiv:1207.5089 [hep-ex].

[33] KTeV Collaboration, E. Abouzaid et al., [41] S. Gardner, R. J. Holt, and A. S. Tadepalli, New

Measurement of the rare decay 0 e+ e , Phys. Prospects in Fixed Target Searches for Dark Forces

Rev. D75 (2007) 012004, arXiv:hep-ex/0610072 with the SeaQuest Experiment at Fermilab,

[hep-ex]. arXiv:1509.00050 [hep-ph].

[34] Y. Kahn, M. Schmitt, and T. M. P. Tait, Enhanced [42] SHiP Collaboration, M. Anelli et al., A facility to

rare pion decays from a model of MeV dark matter, Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) at the CERN SPS,

Phys. Rev. D78 (2008) 115002, arXiv:0712.0007 arXiv:1504.04956 [physics.ins-det].

[hep-ph]. [43] J. L. Feng, B. Fornal, I. Galon, S. Gardner,

[35] J. Balewski et al., The DarkLight Experiment: A J. Smolinsky, T. M. P. Tait, and P. Tanedo. Work in

Precision Search for New Physics at Low Energies, progress.

- BattlefieldContamination.pptUploaded byapi-3706215
- Ham RadioUploaded bygbsimpsa
- Nature Magazine - 14 January 2016Uploaded byDavid Košić
- The Bio-medical Comments of EmpedoclesUploaded byppapas
- spacelet specificationsUploaded bysam iam / Salvatore Gerard Micheal
- Nemea4 Rev 2Uploaded byTarinDacre
- Elementary ParticlesUploaded byJopie Aranda Lpt
- UPSC PrelimsUploaded byJenithung Kikon
- A-Level Exam (2001) Papers and AnswersUploaded byAston Hamilton
- Chapter 21 Nuclear ChemistryUploaded byMahesh
- International Journal of Engineering Research and DevelopmentUploaded byIJERD
- THE UNIVERSE IS IN GOOD HANDS.Uploaded byIJAR Journal
- Table of NuclidesUploaded byManuel Chávez Ortega
- dahlbacka 1991 0005Uploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- Chapter_23_Nuclear_Chemistry.ppsUploaded byAndi Lucky
- Systematic Errors in the ACME Electron EDM ExperimentUploaded byDaniel Gordon Ang
- New approach to explain Gravity or Theory of EverythingUploaded byIJSRP ORG
- dataEffectFxfx1Uploaded byapi-3853216
- Lect33 SpinUploaded byjestamil
- 2016 National Science Bee Playoff RoundsUploaded bysheena2sa
- The Discovery of the Top QuarkUploaded byJohn Bird
- Rueda - Inertia as reaction of the vacuum to accelerated motion (1998).pdfUploaded bySuzzanne Smith
- nuclear change pp chemgeek-16Uploaded byapi-368121935
- IITJEE_2002_P2.pdfUploaded byPawan Babel
- Nuclear EnergyUploaded bydeepika sharma
- Lecture 8Uploaded byreksy_wibowo
- he1Uploaded byPriyansh Vaibhav
- IITSStringsUploaded bymgargddm
- Science&Spirit 03 06Uploaded byLuis Gerardo Escandon Alcazar
- Desbic Art XiUploaded bySteven Schofer

- 1 Forma W-8BENUploaded byRicardo Ureña
- Rpp2014 List nUploaded byCarrion Santos
- rpp2015-sum-leptons-mobile.pdfUploaded byAnonymous fOVZ45O5
- Rpp2015 Sum Mesons MobileUploaded byCarrion Santos
- Update to the Instructions for the Requester of Forms W-8BENUploaded byCarrion Santos
- Efecto de La Presion Sobre Decaimiento Be 7Uploaded byCarrion Santos
- Rpp2015 Conservation Laws MobileUploaded byCarrion Santos
- Micro MetroUploaded byCarrion Santos
- Tutor Agreement AulaYa-Chegg NAMEUploaded byCarrion Santos
- PROGRAMas FortranUploaded byCarrion Santos

- POC or GTFO 16 JournalUploaded byzos1568003
- 1977 the Reactive Agility TestUploaded byJessica Sepúlveda Salas
- Pushya Nakshatra], Amavasya & Navatri in 2013Uploaded byPranam Pranav
- Crisis Planning for Business Templates and ChecklistsUploaded byPriyanka Singla
- Milk ProductsUploaded byTeodora Anca
- crypto2Uploaded byJohn Quintal
- ESP costsUploaded byhermit44535
- Slide Presentation for Traning Report on Ddk, ImphalUploaded byvishwas1118
- The Effective Width in Multi-girder Composite Steel Beams With Web OpeningsUploaded byIAEME Publication
- UntitledUploaded byapi-233604231
- brooke feldman teaching resumeUploaded byapi-443494714
- An act of discovery can be confronting and transformativeUploaded byMATE
- Engineering Standart For Fire Fighting.pdfUploaded byHans Hananta
- PDF Adult Directory2009Uploaded byfilchibuff
- Stoichiometry of GrowthUploaded bySamandar Yuldoshev
- 1962_Cox_Monograph_Renewal TheoryUploaded byjamesjun
- CAV GATE ProspectusUploaded byMalay H Kenia
- Kutch,Gujrat , IndiaUploaded bykumardesai
- Subaru Forester Manuals 2013 Forester Owner ManualUploaded byButoiashu Anonim
- Arduino Based Optical TachometerUploaded byMarius Danila
- Rudolf Steiner World EconomyUploaded byManolis Tzouvelekas
- Septic Arthritis in AdultsUploaded byJavier Flores
- king tutUploaded byapi-238577312
- Bias in Expert WitnessesUploaded bytrancelucence
- Federal Firearms License Case Study 2010Uploaded byAmmoLand Shooting Sports News
- D. Reactions in HYSYS - NewUploaded byRafael Faioli
- rice.pdfUploaded byabc
- Monthly__PROGRESS_REPORT MARCH draft .docxUploaded byloveson709
- Chi Square WordUploaded byasih 07
- d Ifta Update Vol21-Iss1Uploaded bymsulaymaan123