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Applied Mechanics and Materials Submitted: 2016-02-19

ISSN: 1662-7482, Vol. 852, pp 504-510 Revised: 2016-05-04

doi:10.4028/ Accepted: 2016-06-09
2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland Online: 2016-09-07

Design and Analysis of Base Valve of Twin Tube Dampers

Dheeman Bhuyan1a and Kaushik Kumar2b*
Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra,
Ranchi 835215, India
Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra,
Ranchi 835215, India

Keywords: Twin Tube Damper, Shock Absorber, Base Valve

Abstract. In this article we seek to model a base valve of a twin tube shock absorber and study the
behaviour of the valve under loaded conditions replacing a mono tube shock absorber. A top down
approach was adopted for this work wherein a commercially available shock absorber was stripped
down to obtain the individual valves inside. Product teardown was done for the various
subassemblies and the base valve was isolated. Modelling was done in PTC Creo 2.0 and the FEA
study for the stress and flow analysis was done using ANSYS 15.0. The materials as well as the
hydraulic fluid selected for the design were validated and proved to give a better performance than a
mono tube shock absorber currently being used in automobiles.

The role of shock absorbers in vehicle dynamics is a critical one. In addition to reducing the
noise in the passenger compartment of the vehicle and increasing the comfort of the ride, the shock
absorbers are involve in reducing the relative motion of the wheels and the body of the car and
providing better handling and safety.
The need for damping of vibrations produced by the movement of the vehicle over a road surface
has been felt for as long as the automobile industry has existed. The first production shock absorber
was the Telesco Shock Absorber exhibited in the 1912 Olympia Motor Show. Technology has
progressed by leaps and bounds over the following years to get to where we stand today.
The function of the shock absorber is often misconstrued to be the absorption of vibrations in the
system. However that job is done by the spring. The shock absorber provides the damping force
necessary to dissipate the energy absorbed by the spring while neutralizing the original shock.
Initial designs of dampers utilized friction as the damping force. Hydraulic damping was introduced
early in the 20th century but did not catch on. It was only after the 1908 and 1909 patents
of Maurice Houdaille [1-2], that hydraulic shock absorbers came into production.

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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 852 505

(a) (b)
Fig 1. (a) Mono Tube Shock Absorber (b)Twin Tube Shock Absorber[3]

Figures 1(a) and 1(b) show the designs of modern shock absorbers. The shock absorber was torn
down and its different parts were modelled using PTC Creo 2.0. The flow analysis as well as the
stress analysis was done using FEA engines in ANSYS 15.0.


Modeling. A parametric 3D modelling software suite, PTC CREO was used to generate the 3D
model of the valve assembly. CREO is the successor to the ProEngineer modeling software as used
by P.N.L. Pavani et al. [4].
The base valve consists of seven parts. The assembled valve is shown by Figure 2(a) and the
exploded view of the same is shown by Figure 2(b).

(a) (b)
Fig 2. (a) Base valve modelled in Creo (b) Exploded view of the assembly

The valve is pressure actuated. There are three orifices for the hydraulic fluid to flow through in
open condition. The various parts are shown by Figures 3 through 7.
506 Mechanical Engineering Design

(a) (b)
Fig 3. (a) Body of The Valve (b)Cross Section of Body

Fig 4. Washer Fig 5. Slotted Washer Fig 6. Valve Disc

Fig 7. Diaphragm Spring

Results and Discussion

Stress analysis. The general-purpose finite element analysis (FEA) software package ANSYS
Workbench was used for the design validation through FEA analysis of the spring. P.N.L. Pavani et
al.[4] have done a similar analysis of wave springs. Amit Banerjee and G. Pohit [5] have used the
same for vibration analysis. Manoj A. Kumbhalkar et al.[6] have done static structural analysis on
helical springs using ANSYS 12.0.
The stress analysis of the valve was done in ANSYS 15.0 Workbench. The only moving part of
the assembly is the diaphragm spring and it is observed that the failure of the valve is caused mainly
by the failure of the failure of the spring. Hence the stress analysis has been done on the spring.
Table 1 shows the geometry details of the spring while Table 2 shows details of the meshing.
The dimensioning has been kept true to the original.
Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 852 507

Table 1. Geometry Details

Bounding Box
Length X 23. mm
Length Y 23. mm
Length Z 0.25 mm
Volume 44.862 mm
Mass 3.521e-004 kg
Scale Factor Value 1.
Bodies 1
Active Bodies 1
Nodes 292185

Table 2. Mesh Details

Physics Preference Mechanical

Use Advanced Size Function Off
Relevance Center Coarse
Element Size 0.01 mm
Initial Size Seed Active Assembly
Smoothing Medium
Transition Fast
Span Angle Center Coarse
Minimum Edge Length 0.250 mm

Use Automatic Inflation None
Inflation Option Smooth Transition
Transition Ratio 0.272
Maximum Layers 5
Growth Rate 1.2
Inflation Algorithm Pre

Patch Conforming Options

Triangle Surface Mesher Program Controlled

Patch Independent Options

Topology Checking Yes

The results of the analysis are shown by Figures 8, 9 and 10.

508 Mechanical Engineering Design

(a) (b)
Fig 8. (a) Equivalent Stress (b)Equivalent Strain

(a) (b)
Fig 9. (a) Maximum Shear Stress (b) Maximum Shear Elastic Strain

(a) (b)
Fig 10. (a) Total Deformation (b) Strain Energy

Flow Analysis.
ANSYS Fluent is software containing the broad physical modeling capabilities needed to model
flow, turbulence, heat transfer, and reactions for industrial applications. This has been integrated
Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 852 509

into Workbench. The flow analysis has been done using Workbench with FLUENT as the solver.
The meshing as well as the results are as shown in Figures 11 to 14. The flow in this valve happens
through the orifices when the disc rises under the effect of the pressure inside the shock absorber.
Hence the analysis has been done of fluid flow over the disc.
Most manuals recommend the use of oil equivalent to SAE10W to SAE30W, depending on the
temperature conditions. While SAE10W becomes too thin, thereby reducing the damping, SAE30W
becomes too thick, resulting in stiff shocks. For this analysis, SAE20W oil has been used and
operating temperature has been assumed to be 400C.
Table 3. Hydraulic Fluid Properties at 400C[7]
32 10W 857 0.02765
46 20 861 0.03927
68 20W 865 0.05856
100 30 869 0.08681

Fig 11. Mesh Fig 12. Scaled Residuals

Fig 13. Static Pressure Fig 14. Histogram of Turbulent Kinetic


Table 4. Forces along z-Direction

Forces (N) Coefficients
Zone Pressure Viscous Total Pressure Viscous Total
wall-solid 0.019 0.011 0.030 4.752e-06 2.914e-06 7.666e-06
Fluid -0.034 0.003 -0.031 -8.773e-06 8.395e-07 -7.933e-06
Net -0.016 0.015 -0.001 -4.020e-06 3.753e-06 -2.670e-07
510 Mechanical Engineering Design

From the results it can be seen that the maximum stresses generated in the spring range from 0.233
MPa to 127 MPa. These stresses are well within the allowable limits for Structural steel, which has
a yield strength of 250 MPa. It can hence be safely stated that structural steel can be used to
manufacture the diaphragm spring without excessive risk.
It is also seen that the three orifice design of the disc exerts considerable forces on the mechanism.
Under the operating conditions wherein the maximum operating pressure inside the tube is 0.3 MPa,
the maximum deflection produced is 2.21mm which is enough to allow the hydraulic fluid to flow
from the compensation tube to the working cylinder. There is however, cause for concern about
stress concentration in the spring. There is need for design modifications to reduce this effect. .
However, taking into account factors of safety as well as the conditions presented in the Indian
subcontinent, the mechanism can function safely.
It has also been seen that the same model can be used to design and analyse further improvement on
this system and the performance for various combinations of input parameters.

[1] Houdaille M. Improvements in or Relating To Shock-Absorbing or Dash-Pot Apparatus for
Motor Vehicles and the Like. France Patent number FR394081-A, Sept. 9 1908
[2] Houdaille M. Shock-absorbing apparatus. United States patent number US933076 A, Sept. 7
[3] Information on
[4] Pavani, P.N.L., Prafulla, B.K., Rao, .Pola R, Srikirand, S. Design, Modeling and Structural
Analysis of Wave Springs. Procedia Materials Science 6 (2014) pp 988 995
[5] Banerjee, A. Pohit, G. Crack Investigation of Rotating Cantilever Beam by Fractal Dimension
Analysis. Procedia Technology 14 (2014) pp 188 195
[6] Kumbhalkar Manoj A., Bhope Dr. D. V., Vanalkar Dr. A. V., Material and Stress Analysis of
Railroad Vehicle Suspension: A Failure Investigation. Procedia Materials Science 10 (2015) pp 331
[7] Information on
Mechanical Engineering Design

Design and Analysis of Base Valve of Twin Tube Dampers