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Sociology

Sociology is the study of societies and how humans act in groups. Sociology is a social science.
People who study sociology are called sociologists.

About
Auguste Comte (1789 - 1857) was first to use the term. The problems caused by the change to
an industrial society, where many people moved to cities and worked in factories, was an early
focus of sociology. Karl Marx, Max Weber and mile Durkheim were leading figures in the
study of social phenomena. Themes included: community, authority, status, alienation and lack
of power. The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social
mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity
are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has
gradually expanded its focus to further subjects, such
as health, medical, military and penal institutions, the Internet, education, social capital and the
role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.

Social analysis has been done since the time of Plato. Sociology became a type of science in the
early 1800s. Sociologists tried to understand how people interacted and how groups interacted.
The word "sociology" was invented by French thinker Auguste Comte in 1838. Early thinkers
who wrote about sociology included Karl Marx and Max Weber. Sociology was taught in a
university for the first time at the University of Kansas in 1890. The first European department of
sociology was founded in 1895 at the University of Bordeaux by mile Durkheim. The first
sociology department to be established in Britain was at the London School of Economics and
Political Science in 1904. In 1919 a sociology department was established in Germany at the
Ludwig Maximillians University of Munich by Max Weber.

Sociology and Business


There are many possibilities in the business world for those with a sociology degree. Depending
on your experience and skills, jobs could range from sales associate to business analyst, to
human resources, to marketing. Across business sectors, expertise in organizational theory can
inform planning for entire organizations, business development, and training of employees.
Students who have focused on the sociology of work and occupations, and who are trained in
diversity and how it affects interactions between people might excel in various human resources
roles, and in industrial relations. In todays economy, business career jobs are hard to find. When
you diversify your skill set with the knowledge a sociology degree gives you, you can be as
competitive, if not more, than other undergraduate majors. Indeed, some of the nations largest
companies actively recruit non-business majors because of the depth and breadth of knowledge
non-business majors have and because businesses today must deal with many social issues:

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diversity in the workplace, communication, globalization, management-employee relations. .
Within sociology, a student can specialize in subfields including the sociology of work,
occupations, law, economy and politics, labor, and organizations. Each of these subfields offers
important insights into how people operate in the workplace, the costs and politics of labor, and
how businesses interact with each other and with other entities like government bodies.

The importance of sociology in business administration is within the business organization itself.
Inside any organization, there are complex arrays of roles. Imagine the rational adaptations
required to manage interactions among the engineers, secretaries, accountants, professionals,
managers, CEO's etc. add to the changing face of the organization itself. The second type of
relationship is those conducted with clients or customers of the organization. According to Dave,
"A lot of new people have culture shock when they begin working their first job. The problem, at
least in sales is the new sales people don't realize that there is an important difference between
what they see as their product and what customers want. The important lesson so far is that
without a good understanding of others, co-workers, superiors, and subordinates, customers, and
competitors and how to relate to them is nearly impossible for the success in business.

Application
The 21st century careers take place in an increasingly diverse global society and being able to
work effectively with people from different cultures, ethnicities and nationalities has become a
basic work-place requirement. The good news for sociology majors is that your studies are
uniquely suited to help you develop the skills you need for a successful 21st century career.
Sociologists study social life, social change, diverse communities and their interactions, and they
use scientific methods to find empirical answers to complex social questions. Studying sociology
can help foster your creativity, innovation, critical thinking, and analytic problem solving and
communication skills. As a graduate with a Sociology degree, you will have a foundation for
better understanding and engaging with the globalizing world. You will be equipped with the
tools needed to make sense of the shifting social world and contribute solutions to difficult social
problems. With this broad foundation in mind, the question remains: what can you do with a
sociology degree?!Thanks to the far-reaching nature of the subject, students can often choose the
direction their sociology program takes, particularly if its possible to specialize in a particular
field of interest after the first year of study. Bear in mind that the specializations you take during
your sociology degree will not only help you focus on a particular area, but could also help make
you more employable within specialized fields. Sociology careers in rehabilitation, for instance,
may be easier to pursue with a specialization in crime and punishment.

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Major Career Options
The field of sociology involves exploring and analyzing issues vital to our personal lives, our
communities, our nation, and our world. Graduates with a Bachelor's degree in Sociology can
pursue employment in a wide range of areas.
Social and Community Services

Community agencies value employees with backgrounds in fields like sociology to address
problems facing certain populations within society. Examples of jobs in this area might include:
working in community development agencies, or environmental groups, and social service and
nonprofit organizations benefiting juveniles, the elderly, and other special populations. Fund-
raising or administration within these areas is also possible. Community and youth development are
common yet incredibly important fields in which to pursue sociology careers. The focus here lies with
social welfare amongst young and vulnerable people as well as the wider community, on both a local and
a national scale. Often these roles have close involvement with social politics, particularly in regards to
social care, education, community involvement, poverty, rehabilitation and healthcare.

Corrections

The correctional system includes programs and institutions for both juveniles and adults.
Probation, parole, and halfway houses are among the community-based programs, while prisons,
jails and detention centers are typical institutional programs. Employees in the correctional
system often directly supervise offenders, while others provide specialized services (such as
employment training and education).
Business

Sociology majors often find employment in advertising, marketing and consumer research,
insurance, real estate, personnel work, human resources, or sales in the business sector. An
understanding of patterns and trends, diversity of clientele, and the ability to see and integrate
information is an asset in a business environment. A good knowledge of the complexity of
human societies and behavior is extremely helpful for those pursuing careers in marketing.
Marketers focus on targeting messages to different sections of society, identifying the needs of
different demographics and acting accordingly. An understanding of how to categorize and
analyze different subsections within society will help with the creation and targeting of
marketing campaigns, with the statistical and analytical skills gained during a sociology degree
providing an excellent background for effective work in this field.

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College Settings

With a Bachelors degree in Sociology, recent graduates can be found working in admissions,
alumni relations, placement offices, or institutional research centers.

Health Services

The ability to work with people and a focus on stressors within society are useful in
rehabilitation counseling or substance abuse programs. A basic understanding of demography
and population trends can lead to careers in family planning and health planning.
Public Relations

The writing experience that Sociology majors gain in their major courses can be directly applied
to careers in publishing, journalism, and public relations jobs. An understanding of social
patterns is also key in this job field.
Government services

Public sector (governmental) jobs are available at the federal, state, and local level. Government
work often includes data analysis so sociology coursework in statistics and research methods is
an asset. Jobs with the government may include working in transportation, housing, agriculture,
labor, or policy groups.
Teaching

With a Bachelor's degree in Sociology, graduates can move into teaching positions in elementary
and secondary schools with the proper teacher certification. Some students explore their interest
in teaching and gain experience by applying to Teach for America.

Prospects of BA in Sociology
Students who graduate with a B.A. or B.S. in sociology and enter the job market directly will
find themselves competing with other liberal arts students, but with an advantage--knowledge of
key social factors and a firm grasp on research design and methods. This advantage of the B.A.
sociology program provides breadth and the potential for adaptability. Although few occupations
include "sociologist" in their title at the bachelor's level, the sociological perspective is excellent
preparation for a wide variety of occupations. You should look for an entry-level job, gain
experience through internships, and watch for opportunities of specialized training or advanced
education. If you are approaching graduation (or have recently graduated) and are seeking a job
in the business world, focus on general areas of interest that motivate you. Sociology majors who
are interested in organizational theory gravitate toward organizational planning, development,

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and training. Those who study the sociology of work and occupations may pursue careers in
human resources management (personnel) and industrial relations. Students who especially enjoy
research design, statistics, and data analysis seek positions in marketing, public relations, and
organizational research.

Conclusion
To conclude, sociological perspectives are used to understand human behavior while seeing the
broader social context. Each theoretical perspective serves to explain human behavior within its
own category. Which perspective to use to explain behavior is typically based on the guiding
question(s) used? For example, how does a teacher behave in class? One might best adopt the
Symbolic Interactionism perspective because Erving Goff man addressed how we present
ourselves to others within the context of public behavior. However, if one wanted to study the
social institution of a business or how a school functions once would be best to adopt the
Structural functionalist perspective.
One can use sociology as a basis for understanding human behavior in everyday life whether it
be on an individual basis or group. As John Donne is quoted as saying "No man is an island unto
himself," individual behaviors cannot be separated from group behavior because we carry society
within us. But, one can concentrate on one aspect more than the other.