This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

William Talmadge

Problem

Consider a harmonic oscillator of mass m and force constant k. In the ﬁrst excited state what is the probability of ﬁnding the particle between x0 and 2x0 , where: x0 = [9 2 /(4mk)]1/4 .

**Solution Ground State
**

This problem can be solved by using ladder operators to determine the ground state and then raising it to the ﬁrst excited state. Deﬁne the ladder operator a= ˆ mω 2 x+ ˆ i p ˆ mω (1)

as the lowering operator. The lowering operator acts on a ket with the eigenvalue equation √ a |ψn = n |ψn−1 . ˆ (2) Consider that the physical interpretation of the lowering operator is to reduce the energy level of a particle in the harmonic oscillator system by one level. If it is operating on the ground state there are obviously no states to which the system can be lowered. Thus applying the lowering operator on the ground state produces the vacuum state. The vacuum state contains no particles. This implies the following relation. a |ψ0 = 0 ˆ (3) By expanding eq. 3 we obtain a diﬀerential equation that yields the ground state function ψ0 . d p = −i ˆ dx 1

2

a |ψ0 = ˆ

d mω dx mω ψ0 = − xψ0 mω 2 x+ ˆ

ψ0 = 0 (4)

**The general solution to eq. 4 is ψ0 (x) = Ae−mωx
**

2

/2

.

To determine A we simply impose the normalization constraint on the equation that the probability of ﬁnding the particle somewhere must be unity. We calculate the probability with ˆ ∞ P = ψ ∗ (x)ψ(x)dx

−∞

**constraining P to unity and substituting the particular wave function we wish to normalize. ˆ ∞ 2 2 Ae−mωx /2 dx = 1
**

−∞

ˆ

∞

A

2 −∞

e−mωx

2

/

dx = 1

(5)

Note that eq. 5 contains a Gaussian integral which has the form, ˆ ∞ 2 1 π . e−ax dx = 2 a 0

(6)

**Since the integrand of6 is an even function we can double it and use it to simplify eq. 5. 1 π =1 A2 (2) 2 mω A= mω π
**

1/4

With the normalization determined we have a stationary wave function for the null-vibrational state or ground state. ψ0 (x) = mω π

1/4

e−mωx

2

/2

(7)

3

Excited State

With the ground state determined, the ﬁrst excited state |ψ1 can be found by using the raising operator a† = ˆ mω 2 x− ˆ i p ˆ mω

**according to the eigenvalue equation, √ a† |ψn = n + 1 |ψn+1 . ˆ Applying a† to ψ0 according to eq. 8, ˆ a† |ψ0 = ˆ ψ1 (x) = mω 2 x− (0) + 1 |ψ1 mω π
**

1/4 1/4

(8)

d mω dx mω π

e−mωx

2

/2

.

ψ1 (x) = 2

mω 2

xe−mωx

2

/2

(9)

With eq. 9 determined for the ﬁrst excited state we can integrate the probability integral on the interval [x0 , 2x0 ] where x0 = ˆ P =

x0

9 2 4m2 ω 2

1/4

.

2x0

∗ ψ1 ψ1 dx 2

ˆ P =

2x0

2

x0

P =4

mω 1/4 −mωx2 /2 xe π ˆ mω mω 2x0 2 −mωx2 / x e dx π 2 x0 mω 2

dx (10)

The integral in eq. 10 looks like another type of Gaussian integral. However, it has ﬁnite limits of integration which means the solution will be in terms of error functions. The solution would be relatively complex to work out if it were not for the observation that the limits are given such that a change of variables in the integrand will yield an integral that can be evaluated numerically. We begin by letting 3 x= u 2mω

4

then making the appropriate change of variables which transforms the probability integral into the following. 3 2π ˆ

1 2

P =3

u2 e−3u

2

/2

du

Evaluating the integral numerically gives the following solution to the problem. 0.192121

A solution to a quantum harmonic oscillator problem using ladder operators.

A solution to a quantum harmonic oscillator problem using ladder operators.

- Computing Project 4
- Electrostatic Poisson Cube Solution
- Selected Solutions, Griffiths QM, Chapter 1
- Method of Images for Magnetostatics
- p211lec1
- Notes on EPR Paradox
- PrinciplesofQM
- sol87
- Dirac Notation of Quantum Mechanics
- Solutions 3
- 19870008689
- IFEM.Ch19.pdf
- If Em
- 46ad47
- physics through problem solving
- High Voltage Engineering Lec2
- Dynamics
- Week2 ODEs
- Cramer John[1]
- Maccormack
- Fem Notes
- Lecture 7
- lsevp
- pdf.pdf
- One Dimensional Finite Depth Square Wel1
- Pde Numerically
- 0803.0217v1
- Parisi-Statistical Mechanics of Optimization Problems
- Alioscia Hamma and Daniel A. Lidar- Adiabatic Preparation of Topological Order
- 1971-OntheCalculationofConsistentStressDistributionsinFiniteElementApproximations

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd