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“Philosophical hermeneutics” redirects here. For 1.1 Folk etymology
other uses, see Hermeneutics (disambiguation). For
the history of hermeneutics, see History of hermeneutics.

Hermeneutics (/hɜːrməˈnjuːtɪks/)[1] is the theory and
methodology of interpretation,[2][3] especially the in-
terpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and
philosophical texts.[4][5]
Modern hermeneutics includes both verbal and non-
verbal communication[6][7] as well as semiotics,
presuppositions, and pre-understandings. Hermeneutics
has been broadly applied in the humanities, especially in
law, history and theology.
Hermeneutics was initially applied to the interpretation,
or exegesis, of scripture, and has been later broad-
ened to questions of general interpretation.[8] The terms
“hermeneutics” and “exegesis” are sometimes used inter-
changeably. Hermeneutics is a wider discipline which in-
cludes written, verbal, and non-verbal[6][7] communica-
tion. Exegesis focuses primarily upon texts.
Hermeneutic, as a singular noun, refers to some partic-
ular method of interpretation (see, in contrast, double

1 Etymology
Hermeneutics is derived from the Greek word ἑρμη-
νεύω (hermeneuō, “translate, interpret”),[9] from ἑρμη-
νεύς (hermeneus, “translator, interpreter”), of uncertain
etymology (R. S. P. Beekes (2009) suggests a Pre-Greek
origin).[10] The technical term ἑρμηνεία (hermeneia, “in-
terpretation, explanation”) was introduced into philoso-
phy mainly through the title of Aristotle's work Περὶ Ἑρ-
μηνείας (“Peri Hermeneias”), commonly referred to by
its Latin title De Interpretatione and translated in English
as On Interpretation. It is one of the earliest (c. 360
B.C.) extant philosophical works in the Western tradition
to deal with the relationship between language and logic Hermes, messenger of the gods.
in a comprehensive, explicit and formal way.
The early usage of “hermeneutics” places it within the Folk etymology places its origin with Hermes, the mytho-
boundaries of the sacred.[11] A divine message must be logical[13]Greek deity who was the 'messenger of the
received with implicit uncertainty regarding its truth. gods’. Besides being a mediator between the gods and
This ambiguity is an irrationality; it is a sort of mad- between the gods and men, he led souls to the underworld
ness that is inflicted upon the receiver of the message. upon death.
Only one who possesses a rational method of interpre- Hermes was also considered to be the inventor of lan-
tation (i.e., a hermeneutic) could determine the truth or guage and speech, an interpreter, a liar, a thief and
falsity of the message.[12] a trickster.[13] These multiple roles made Hermes an


2 2 IN RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS ideal representative figure for hermeneutics. they have distinctly ment [known in Hebrew as ‫ — קל וחומר‬kal v'chomer]) different interpretive traditions. texts.3 Buddhist hermeneutics noted. at least. Platonism of his time. the 5th or 6th century CE). He stresses the importance of hu- Traditional Jewish hermeneutics differed from the Greek mility in the study of Scripture. 3rd to 1st century BCE) with a major commentary “a biblical text is to be deciphered according to the ‘plain by Śabara (ca. particularly those texts which messages he delivered. a fortiori argu. Main article: Talmudic hermeneutics See also: Judaism § Rabbinic hermeneutics 2. who was Buddhist hermeneutics deals with the interpretation of said to relish the uneasiness of those who received the the vast Buddhist literature. In Augustine’s hermeneutics. They also derived the rules for the various rituals that had 2. Hillel the Elder.4 Biblical hermeneutics Main article: Biblical hermeneutics Summaries of the principles by which Torah can be in- terpreted date back to.[15] Vedic hermeneutics involves the exegesis of the Vedas.[14] doctrina christiana. and which teachings 2. most of all.2 Vedic hermeneutics diligent study of the Bible and prayer as more than mere human knowledge and oratory skills. The foundational text is the Mimamsa Sutra of Jaimini Encyclopædia Britannica states that literal analysis means (ca. Any apparent in. He underscores the meaning of 2.g. words have the power to reveal or conceal and can deliver messages in an ambiguous way. rabbis did not ascribe equal persuasive power to the var- Augustine offers hermeneutics and homiletics in his De ious principles.. These principles terpretation of the Bible. Thus. There were different levels of interpretation: some and the knowledge of signs are an essential hermeneuti- were used to arrive at the plain meaning of the text. The ward unification in later schools of biblical hermeneutics.” The intention of the authors is believed . love. God can communicate with the believer examination of a given text within the context of other through the signs of the Scriptures. The Mimamsa was There are traditionally four different types of biblical the leading hermeneutic school and their primary pur. are said to be spoken by the Buddha (Buddhavacana) and other enlightened beings. he modifies the classical theory of or- atory in a Christian way. such as the rule that a passage The early patristic traditions of biblical exegesis had few could be interpreted by reference to another passage in unifying characteristics in the beginning but tended to- which the same word appears (Gezerah Shavah). in a practical discipline. Buddhist hermeneutics is deeply tied to Buddhist spiritual practice and its ulti- mate aim is to extract skillful means of reaching spiri- 2 In religious traditions tual enlightenment or nirvana. A central question in Bud- dhist hermeneutics is which Buddhist teachings are ex- plicit. Augustine encourages the interpreter and preacher of the Bible to seek a good manner of life and. humility. While Jewish and Christian bib- ranged from standard rules of logic (e.4.1 Literal to be performed precisely. and pose was understanding what Dharma (righteous living) anagogical. sign has an consistencies had to be understood by means of careful important role. and others found tures. the earliest holy texts of Hinduism. He also regards the du- method in that the rabbis considered the Tanakh (the Jew. Christian faith. As Socrates 2. allegorical (spiritual).[16] involved by a detailed hermeneutic study of the Vedas. although the thirteen principles set forth in the Baraita of Rabbi Biblical hermeneutics is the study of the principles of in- Ishmael are perhaps the best known. The Mimamsa meaning’ expressed by its linguistic construction and his- sutra summed up the basic rules for Vedic interpretation. he corrects and recasts it accord- ing to a theocentric doctrine of the Bible. moral. Although Augustine endorses some teaching of the secret or mystical levels of understanding. Similarly. As a concluding re- Main article: Mimamsa mark. to love God and neighbor. plex commandment of love in Matthew 22 as the heart of ish bibilical canon) to be without error. representing ultimate truth.[13] The Greek Main article: Buddhist hermeneutics view of language as consisting of signs that could lead to truth or to falsehood was the essence of Hermes.1 Talmudic hermeneutics are merely conventional or relative. lical hermeneutics have some overlap. torical context. hermeneutics: literal. some cal presupposition for a sound interpretation of the Scrip- expounded the law given in the text. to more expansive ones.

readings August Böckh (methodological hermeneutics[20] ). Calvin used Moral interpretation searches for moral lessons which can brevitas et facilitas as an aspect of theological hermeneu- be understood from writings within the Bible. the Italian humanist Lorenzo standing in relation not just to the problem of deciphering Valla proved in 1440 that the Donation of Constantine was sacred texts but to all human texts and modes of commu- a forgery. In Christianity. to view Scriptural texts as 2. 2. which (Marxist hermeneutics). namely deconstruction).[29][28] Jacques Derrida (radical tical interpretation. objects.and 20th-century hermeneutics emerged as a logical. events and things that are explicitly mentioned.However.1 Schleiermacher (1768–1834) The discipline of hermeneutics emerged with the new humanist education of the 15th century as a historical and critical methodology for analyzing texts. an attempt to try and situ- ate Heidegger’s hermeneutic project in debates concern- ing realism and anti-realism: arguments have been pre- 3 Philosophical hermeneutics sented both for Heidegger’s hermeneutic idealism (the thesis that meaning determines reference or.4 Anagogical Ricœur (hermeneutic phenomenology). for example. It purports to explain the events of hermeneutics. Allegories tics. tics[18] and methodological hermeneutics[19] ). One type of allegorical interpretation is known as typo.3 Allegorical secular classical texts. Literal hermeneu. it can be seen in analytic Heideggerians and those working on Heideg- Mariology. According to this theory. and events.3. events. are often placed in this category.[27] Walter Benjamin (Marxist hermeneutics). the Protestant Reformation brought about a re- Bible. particularly among the medieval Zohar.[17] tics.2 Modern hermeneutics 3 to correspond to the literal meaning. This is evident in the Jewish Kabbalah. For ex- tics is often associated with the verbal inspiration of the ample.4. Regarding the relation of hermeneutics with problems of In Judaism. The interpretation of a text must proceed by framing its dieval role of explaining the true meaning of the Bible. and establishments theory of understanding (Verstehen) through the work of of the Old Testament are viewed as “types”.[32] and John Thompson (critical attempts to reveal the mystical significance of the numer- hermeneutics). They interpreted Scripture as re- sponses to historical or social forces so that.2 Moral Martin Luther and John Calvin emphasized scriptura sui ipsius interpres (scripture interprets itself).[17] newed interest in the interpretation of the Bible. there has been. content in terms of the overall organization of the work. .[26] Paul 2.[22] hermeneutic phenomenology. 3. Thus hermeneutics expanded from its me.1 Ancient and medieval hermeneutics that our understanding of the being of entities is what determines entities as entities)[33] and for Heidegger’s Main article: History of hermeneutics hermeneutic realism[34] (the thesis that (a) there is a na- ture in itself and science can give us an explanation of how that nature works. the text itself. which took a step away from the interpretive tradition developed during the Middle Ages back to the texts themselves. espe- cially Protestant exegetists.2.4.4. equivalently. meanings with contemporary Christian practices. anagogical interpretation is also evident in analytic philosophy.[17] ger’s philosophy of science. Martin Heidegger (ontological hermeneu- start. Fredric Jameson ture holds.[35] 3. ical values of Hebrew words and letters.2 Modern hermeneutics 3.19th. and (b) that (a) is compatible with the ontological implications of our everyday practices). like Noah’s Ark could be understood by using the Ark as Wilhelm Dilthey (epistemological hermeneu- a “type” of Christian church that God expected from the tics[21] ). In a triumph of Friedrich Schleiermacher explored the nature of under- early modern hermeneutics.[28] Ernst Bloch This type of interpretation is more often known as mys- (Marxist hermeneutics). biblical hermeneutics did not die off.[17] The rationalist Enlightenment led hermeneutists. Allegorical interpretation states that biblical narratives apparent contradictions and difficult passages in the New have a second level of reference that is more than the Testament might be clarified by comparing their possible people. This was done through intrinsic evidence of nication.[23][24] and transcendental hermeneutic phenomenology[25] ) Hans- Georg Gadamer (ontological hermeneutics). where the key figures.[30][31] Richard the Bible and how they relate to or predict what the fu- Kearney (diacritical hermeneutics). In the New Friedrich Schleiermacher (Romantic hermeneu- Testament this can also include foreshadowing of people.

Un. and the inner meaning. he called for a “special hermeneutic of empathy” to dissolve the classic philosophic issue of “other minds” by Wilhelm Dilthey broadened hermeneutics even more by putting the issue in the context of the being-with of hu- relating interpretation to historical objectification. thus drawing upon arguments similar to outer to inner. Indeed.4 Gadamer (1900–2002) et al.He said that we can never step outside of our tradition — sciousness may not fully understand. The former comprehension.2 Dilthey (1833–1911) ple. is comprehension. he who does not under- terpretation is a problem of understanding and even de. Dilthey suggested that we can always grasp 3. and this most important thing is to unfold the nature of individual practice has the same objective value as an experi. understanding is not a process of reconstructing the reader with a means of sharing the experiences of the au- state of mind of the author. According side of oneself. all we can do is try to understand it.understanding or mastering our experience. Every saying is an expression. especially to its written form. Incomprehension means. understands others. texts are conventionalized expressions of the experience tification with the Other.2.3 Heidegger (1889–1976) During Schleiermacher’s time. This further elabo- • The last structural level of the science of the mind.2. We can reach the truth only by cause the discourse has an appeal to someone out. “The Un. Moreover.4 3 PHILOSOPHICAL HERMENEUTICS Schleiermacher distinguished between grammatical in. The possibility of returning makes Gadamer pointed out that prejudice is an element of our scientific analysis possible. they claim that such not based on empathy. will provide the relatedness. Thus. stand stays alone. direct — and thus more authentic — way of being in the world than merely as “a way of knowing. Empathy involves a direct iden. in the sense of pre-judgements of the thing assumed that an expression may be “saying” more we want to understand. our understanding is not fixed but rather is Dilthey suggested that one can always return to an changing and always indicating new perspectives. The expression.perience and reflection. were formed. expression. (Heidegger himself did not complete [39] derstanding moves from the outer manifestations of hu. the hermeneutics of his teacher. Among the key into three structural levels: experience. is expressed in his work. Interpretation involves an indi. and. which was treated more as a writer’s distinctive character and point of view. more or studies how a work is composed from general ideas. are unavoidable. wrong understanding. rates the idea of the hermeneutic circle. but one of articulating what thor. 3. Being alien to than the speaker intends because the expression a particular tradition is a condition of our understanding. from expression to what is expressed. he prejudices.) man action and productivity to the exploration of their Advocates of this approach claim that some texts. stands.2. cannot be studied by means derstanding of Other Persons and Their Manifestations of using the same scientific methods that are used in the of Life” (1910). manities may be labeled as science. Heidegger. the interpretation of such texts will rect or mediated understanding that can only be attained reveal something about the social context in which they by placing human expressions in their historical context. Dilthey made clear that this move from natural sciences. the meaning of unknown thought when we try to ex- perience it. His understanding of experience is very Hans-Georg Gadamer's hermeneutics is a development of similar to that of phenomenologist Edmund Husserl.understanding and is not per se without value. of the author. He assumed that com- latter studies the peculiar combinations that characterize prehension produces coexistence: “he who under- the work as a whole. The reciprocity between text and context is part of what Dilthey divided sciences of the mind (human sciences) Heidegger called the hermeneutic circle.understanding. Gadamer as- serted that methodical contemplation is opposite to ex- • Expression converts experience into meaning be.” fined hermeneutics as the art of avoiding misunderstand- ing.this inquiry. more significantly. ment in science. to Gadamer. He said that every problem of in. Moreover. Weber. a fundamental shift oc- In the 20th century. and thinkers who elaborated this idea was the sociologist Max comprehension. which is Bernard Lonergan's (1904–1984) hermeneutics is less . to an understanding of the [36][37] existential understanding. Misunderstanding was to be avoided by means of knowledge of grammatical and psychological laws. brings forward meanings which the individual con. people who produce them. and therefore the hu. In his last important essay. is those of antipositivism. Martin Heidegger's philosophical curred from understanding not merely the exact words hermeneutics shifted the focus from interpretation to and their objective meaning. • Experience means to feel a situation or thing per- sonally. according to Dilthey.”[38] For exam- 3. the less. a level that contains both comprehension and in- terpretation and psychological interpretation.

3. Habermas incorporated the notion of the lifeworld and Our approach has grown out of the empir- emphasized the importance for social theory of interac. 1956). and the in the light of prior hermeneutically elucidated work of Northrop Frye. communication. in the social sciences.6 Objective hermeneutics is based upon Heidegger’s concepts. titled “On Interpretation”[43] Jame- son re-interprets (and secularizes) the fourfold system (or 4 Applications four levels) of Biblical exegesis (literal. ical study of family interactions as well as re- tion. Lawrence. He also criticized In one of the few translated texts of this German school Marxism and previous members of the Frankfurt School of hermeneutics. the standard. 1929) criticized the conservatism sciences. which is a type of hermeneutics tic methods of quantitative social research can that is based upon interpretation and takes into account only be justified because they permit a short- the plurality of aspects of meaning. For the time be- ing we shall refer to it as objective hermeneu- Andrés Ortiz-Osés (b. Karl Popper first used the term "objective hermeneu- [45] Karl-Otto Apel (b. we regard hermeneutic pro- cedures as the basic method for gaining pre- The method of Marxist hermeneutics has been devel. based on American semiotics. They are in fact use- legory in his study Ursprung des deutschen Trauerspiel [28] ful wherever the loss in precision and objec- (“Trauerspiel” literally means “mourning play” but is of. for social criticism and transformation. He drew categories cut in generating data (and research “econ- both from analytic and continental philosophy.[40] Paul Ricœur (1913–2005) developed a hermeneutics that 3. from the history of thought. cise and valid knowledge in the social sciences. validity. to be succeeded by standardized ap- proaches and techniques as the actual scien- tific procedures (assuring precision. and production. labor. history. Whereas the conventional methodological atti- Two scholars who have published criticism of Gadamer’s tude in the social sciences justifies qualitative hermeneutics are the Italian jurist Emilio Betti and the approaches as exploratory or preparatory ac- American literary theorist E. 1955) and Maurizio Ferraris (b. 1922) elaborated a hermeneutics tics" in his Objective Knowledge (1972). D. His work differs in many ways from that of Gadamer. His main statement regarding tions. Its goal is to provide all scholars who use the of previous hermeneutists. Jameson’s Marxist hermeneutics is outlined in the first chapter of the book. the Association for Objective Hermeneutics discourse ethics with political motivations akin to those (AGOH) was founded in Frankfurt am Main by schol- of critical theory. He viewed flection upon the procedures of interpretation hermeneutics as a dimension of critical social theory.5 Marxist hermeneutics and objectivity). nonhermeneu- analogic hermeneutics. primarily. He applied his model to In 1992. tivities. but a case for considering his work as the cal. in- Two other important hermeneutic scholars are Jean terpretive methods constitute the fundamental Grondin (b. Walter Benjamin and However. allegori- .[44] that began with Heidegger was made in several articles by Lonergan specialist Frederick G.[47] hermeneutics in his influential The Political Unconscious. Benjamin outlines his theory of the al. procedures of measurement and of the genera- tion of research data relevant to theory. The general significance for sociolog- symbolic understanding of the world is that meaning is a ical analysis of objective hermeneutics issues symbolic healing of injury. especially Gadamer. Ernst Bloch.2. anagogical) to relate interpretation to the Mode of culmination of the postmodern hermeneutical revolution Production. from the fact that. ars of various disciplines in the humanities and social Jürgen Habermas (b. its founders declared: for missing the hermeneutical dimension of critical the- ory. From Mauricio Beuchot coined the term and discipline of our perspective. 5 well known. approaches dogmatically. as well as omy” comes about under specific conditions). [41] Fredric Jameson search economy can be condoned and tolerated [42] draws on Biblical hermeneutics. and eventually. we do not simply reject alternative Fredric Jameson. 1943) has developed his symbolic tics in order to distinguish it clearly from tra- hermeneutics as the Mediterranean response to Northern ditional hermeneutic techniques and orienta- European hermeneutics. Hirsch. tivity necessitated by the requirement of re- ten translated as “tragic drama”). employed in our research. because methodology of objective hermeneutics with a means of [46] their focus on tradition seemed to undermine possibilities exchanging information. to advance his theory of Marxist research experiences. moral. oped by the work of.2.

sance” in the 11th century. It was an interpretative (e. Subsequently.[51] He also deploys argu. of dominion. among others. forms of hermeneutics because of their need to interpret legal tradition or scriptural texts.[53] Italian philosopher Gianni Vattimo and Spanish philoso- pher Santiago Zabala in their book Hermeneutic Commu- nism.and constitutive theory (both of which have made impor- sible meanings and social uses. Friedrich Carl von Savigny and critique of the Enlightenment[50] and has also informed Emilio Betti.1 Archaeology 4.[49] This tradition fits within a ter of legal thought. We can only apply modern Steve Smith refers to hermeneutics as the principal way values when interpreting. and that all the many thousands of near-identical instances were something else entirely. 4. Legal interpretivism. tence is interpretation” and that “hermeneutics is weak . it has been applied Proponents argue that interpretation of artifacts is un.interpretation as anarchy and affirmed that “exis- lationship of the body to the world.g. be highly subjective and actually unproven until the de. All attempts at systematic materialist classification become nonsense.5 Law proach leads us. Renaissance.6 Political philosophy design. these were fully developed and historians). commentatores..Radical postmodernism is an example of a postpositivist velopment of microwear analysis some thirty years ago. users. avoidably hermeneutic because we cannot know for cer- tain the meaning behind them. when discussing contemporary capitalist regimes. the re. which pursues truth in the form of im- cluding "nature" and "wilderness" (both terms are mat. may be seen as a branch of tical encounter with otherness. landscapes. Adrian Snodgrass sees the study tions to general hermeneutics. ecosys. ments from hermeneutics to explain design as a process of interpretation. hermeneutics means the interpretation Insofar as hermeneutics is a basis of both critical theory and understanding of material through analysis of pos.3 Environment stated that. such as Christian Norberg-Schulz. position (violence).6 4 APPLICATIONS 4. how a building is interpreted by critics. philosophical hermeneutics. guished themselves by their approach to the interpreta- ship that draw upon the hermeneutics of Heidegger tion of “laws” (mainly Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis). This is most commonly seen of grounding a foundationalist yet postpositivist theory of in stone tools. rather.4. yet anti-foundationalist paradigm of international rela- Of course. and international relations. inter-species relationships. Lind. interpretation has always been at the cen- thinking to architecture. and The University of Bologna gave birth to a “legal Renais- Nader El-Bizri in the circles of phenomenology. is functional for the continued existence of a society vironmental issues conceived broadly to subjects in. Main articles: Jurisprudence and Law Opponents argue that a hermeneutic approach is too relativist and that their own interpretations are based on Some scholars argue that law and theology are particular common-sense evaluation. and Gadamer. Moreover. conservation (realism). (history). which is where this kind of ap. and triumph ters of hermeneutical contention). 4.[48] Dalibor Vesely situates hermeneutics by Thomas Aquinas and Alberico Gentili. and usus modernus distin- There are several traditions of architectural scholar. the schools of glossatores. when the Corpus Juris Civilis say Jones examines the way architecture is received was rediscovered and systematically studied by men such and how that reception changes with time and context as Irnerius and Johannes Gratian. one could argue that only the individual lithic tions. “A politics of descriptions does not impose power in order to dominate as a philosophy. within a critique of the application of overly scientific Since then.4 International relations In archaeology. most of history and Asian cultures by architects as a hermeneu. built environments (where it overlaps architectural Vattimo and Zabala also stated that they view hermeneutics[54][55] ). where descriptions such as “scraper” can international relations. the problem of interpretation has been central to legal theory since at least the 11th century. tant inroads into the postpositivist branch of international relations theory and political science). being examined was ever used as a “scraper”. it Environmental hermeneutics applies hermeneutics to en. famously Ronald Dworkin's.[52] Along with Richard Coyne.2 Architecture In the Middle Ages and Italian Renaissance. made significant contribu- design-studio teaching.”[56] tems. he extends the argument to the nature of architectural education and 4.

having in. as a hermeneutist. and that safety sci- The French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan later extended ence must look at the meaning of accidents for human [64] Freudian hermeneutics into other psychical realms.[68] Hermeneutics in sociology was also terpreted the profane as a hierophany.emphasizes the importance of both context and form telligence has been influential among psychologists who within any given social behaviour. putting a piece of paper into a box might be considered a meaningless act unless it is See also: Exegesis. and Maurice Merleau-Ponty's hermeneuti. while the understanding of lines that the relation between the sacred and the profane the whole text is dependent on the understanding of each is not of opposition. and especially in the study In 1900 Freud wrote that the title he chose for The Inter. Talmudical put into the context of democratic elections (the act of hermeneutics. of human reliability. In the field of safety science. as discussed by philosophers such as it is only possible to know the meaning of an act or state- Martin Heidegger (cf. Context is critical to compre- Hermeneutics is also influential in humanistic psychol.[58] terms of their categorisation of qualitative data. interpreter to understand the work of another author.[67] Similarly. fers from other interpretive schools of sociology in that it [66] Hubert Dreyfus's critique of conventional artificial in.taxonomies that make use of hermeneutic concepts in cal phenomenology. in order for an reader’s particular hermeneutical viewpoint. the Bible). His beings.11 Sociology See also: Postcognitivism In sociology. It en- come interested in hermeneutics.meanings for the human participants in the events. understands religion as a frequently referenced model that claims one’s under- 'experience of the sacred'.[60] The Romanian scholar under. must familiarize themselves with the historical context sophical hermeneutics to theological texts (in Ricœur’s in which the author published their thoughts. are interested in hermeneutic approaches to meaning The central principle of sociological hermeneutics is that and interpretation. Embodied cognition) and Ludwig ment within the context of the discourse or world view Wittgenstein (cf.7 Psychoanalysis introduces the concept of 'total hermeneutics’.hension.” Myth should not be interpreted as an illusion or a lie.[63] See also: Freud and Philosophy 4. widely regarded as the father The understanding of a theological text depends upon the of sociological hermeneutics believed that. have applied modern philo.[69] .'[57] so far in terms of accident reduction. be- cause there is truth in myth to be rediscovered. and interprets the sacred in standing of individual parts of a text is based on their un- relation to the profane.4.[i. such as Paul Ricœur.. hermeneutics is the interpretation and un- derstanding of social events through analysis of their Psychologists and computer scientists have recently be. heavily influenced by German philosopher Hans-Georg tics of the myth is a part of the hermeneutics of religion.] “interpreting” a dream implies assigning a mechanist models of human behaviour will only take us “meaning” to it. an action or event that carries substantial weight ogy.[65] 4.[61] The hermeneu. For example.10 Safety science Psychoanalysts have made ample use of hermeneutics since Sigmund Freud first gave birth to their discipline. scientists have become increasingly pretation of Dreams 'makes plain which of the traditional interested in hermeneutic approaches. He 4. from which it originates. His work case.joyed prominence during the 1960s and 1970s. and dif- native to cognitivism.[62] Myth is interpreted by Mircea Eliade as 'sacred history'. led to the inspiration of Heidegger’s "hermeneutic circle" Mircea Eliade. giving the “thumbs-up” gesture is widely accepted as a sign of a job well done in the United States. they rists. early work from the 1930s–50s is particularly influenced Other scholars in the field have attempted to create safety by Heidegger.e. while other cultures view 4. approaches to the problem of dreams I am inclined to It has been proposed by ergonomist Donald Taylor that follow. Gadamer. Some theo.. Biblical hermeneutics.10 Safety science 7 thought. individual part.8 Psychology 4. especially as an alter. but of complementarity.9 Religion and theology it as an insult. Friedrich Schleiermacher.[59] to one person or culture may be viewed as meaningless or entirely different to another. Discursive psychology). and Quranic hermeneutics putting a ballot paper into a box). derstanding of the whole text.

55. Dictionary of Philosophy and 6 See also Religion. Research Starters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Truth theory [17] 'Hermeneutics’ 2014. [5] Reese. Introduction to Philosophical Hermeneutics. • Friedrich August Wolf[74] [20] Thomas M. The Critical Circle. Journal of Chris- • Theosophy tian Philosophy. [13] Hoy. [10] R. Ernest. Elsevier. • Johann August Ernesti [72] Continuum. The Hermeneutics Reader. • Structuration theory [12] Grondin. p. 72. 1981. The Cambridge Dictionary of Phi- of “invading” economics. Springer. 2 • Hermeneutic circle [9] Klein. • Allegorical interpretations of Plato [6] The Routledge Companion to Philosophy in Organization • Biblical hermeneutics Studies. 377.). Yale University Press. • Philology [11] Grondin. Introduction to Philosophical Hermeneutics. Introduction to Philosophical • Gymnobiblism Hermeneutics. 344. (1980). 113. P. Yale University Press.g. Hermeneutics: Method and • Georg Anton Friedrich Ast[74] Methodology. Routledge. 2007. Brill. p. 21. ISBN 0521637228.[71] losophy (2nd ed. pp. 2015. criticized hermeneutics [4] Audi. Yale University Press. like la- bor and domination. Jean (1994). Jean (1994). ISBN 0-300- • Quranic hermeneutics 05969-8. 462. 1994. From Dance to Text and Back to Dance: • Biblical law in Christianity A Hermeneutics of Dance Interpretive Discourse. p. Beekes. Oxford. ISBN 0855271477. p. Seebohm. A complete etymological dictionary of the • Narrative inquiry English language: dealing with the origin of words and their sense development. ISBN 978-0520046399 • Tafsir [14] see. • Close reading [8] Grondin. Texas Woman’s University.. Rodopi.1 Notable precursors [18] Kurt Mueller-Vollmer (ed. e. Univer- • Syncretism sity of California Press. 21–22. Hoon (2013). [16] Hermeneutics – Britannica. an economist. p. PhD the- sis. • Pesher 2009. 17: 97–117. Jean (1994). William L.[70] [3] Merriam-Webster Dictionary Murray Rothbard. Robert (1999). ISBN 0-300- 05969-8. 1988. thus illustrating the history of civ- • Ontological hermeneutics ilization and culture. . p. 221.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Rambam Hilkhot Talmud Torah 4:8 • Talmudical hermeneutics [15] Woo. viewed 17 March 2015 6. [19] Edward Joseph Echeverria. B. “Augustine’s Hermeneutics and Homiletics in De doctrina christianae”. EBSCOhost. S. Criticism and Commitment: • Johann Gottfried Herder[73] Major Themes in Contemporary “Post-Critical” Philoso- phy. David Couzen (1981). Etymological Dictionary of Greek. 2000.8 7 REFERENCES 5 Criticism 7 References Jürgen Habermas criticizes Gadamer’s hermeneutics as [1] Random House Unabridged Dictionary being unsuitable for understanding society because it is [2] American Heritage Dictionary unable to account for questions of social reality. p. p. ISBN 0-300- • Symbolic anthropology 05969-8. p. Sussex: Harvester Press. [7] Joann McNamara. 221.

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