Chapter 1

:
Engineering, Technology &
Development

1-4 New advances in world of
engineering and technology.
Chapter 1 Engineering, Technology and Development

History of Engineering and Technology. Role of engineering and technology as indicators of
development. The contribution of Government in the deployment of engineering and
technology for economic development. New advances in world of engineering and
technology.

Contents
 Advances in Engineering and
Technology
 The Needs of Present and Future
Generations
 Protecting the Environment
 Science and Technology

Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineer and Society 2

Advances in Engineering and Technology  Advanced manufacturing involves the use of technology to improve products and/or processes.  What does this mean?  What are the needs of the present? Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 3 .

processes and methods to product design and production Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 4 . Advances in Engineering and Technology Advanced engineering centres upon improving the performance of industry through the innovative application of technologies.

Its something like drafting machine converting this 3D object into 2D data form which can be later taken for further analysis or for making a mold. Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 5 . Example of new advances in world of engineering and technology CMM ( coordinate measuring system ) this is an instrument used to measure every possible physical geometry of a 3D object.

Example of new advances in world of engineering and technology Reverse engineering : Its the method of studying an already available model by disassembling them. Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 6 . Currently reverse engineering is also possible using computers. This is done to get some useful information about an object.

Chapter 214 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 7 . Example of new advances in world of engineering and technology Machine vision: Its a system which is used commonly in quality management area which uses automatic inspection. The computer can scan every object passing through the conveyor belt and check for right dimensions and quality.

Example of new advances in world of engineering and technology Automation in CNC or 3D printer using hydraulics with links and mechanisms. 3D printer is able to produce products without wastage. Hydraulics are used because they are precise and don't have much mechanical losses. Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 8 .

Example of new advances in world of engineering and technology Carnegie Mellon University's Chris Bettinger and Jay Whitacre found that cuttlefish ink provides just the right chemistry and nanostructure to power tiny. ingested electronic devices. Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 9 .

between 50 percent to 100 percent of the world's energy production could come from solar. Example of new advances in world of engineering and technology • . Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 10 . In the next 20 years.

All have been brought about by these continuous technological advancements. learn and so on. Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 11 .Example of new advances in world of engineering and technology Our personal life is highly dependent on the technology that people have developed. Technology has advanced with years and it has changed the way we live. travel. communicate.

The needs of present and future generations Social Equity Participation Empowerment Social Mobility Cultural Preservation Economic Environment Services Biodiversity Household Needs Natural Resources Industrial Growth Carrying Capacity Agricultural Growth Ecosystem Integrity Efficient Use of Labour Clean Air and Water Chapter 214 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 12 .

Critical Needs of the Present and Future Generations Survey conducted in Wales in 2013 Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 13 .

To meet Future Generations’ Needs  Efficient use of resources  water. green buildings  Protection & enhancement of quality of life  Healthy environment  Creation of businesses in managing waste  waste management. material (metals. ventilation. concrete)  Efficient infrastructures  natural lighting. recycling Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 14 . plastics. glass.

recycling  Use of alternative energy  Proper provision of environmental education  Review of legal and policy Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 15 . waste management.To meet Future Generations’ Needs  Biodiversity.

Protecting the Environment from Advanced Technology Mishaps  People are working together to protect the environment and using science and advanced technology to improve living conditions around the world.  The main questions are: • To what extent are people doing to protect the environment? • What changes are recent advances in science and technology that can safeguard the world? Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 16 .

Protecting the Environment from Advanced Technology Mishaps Fukushima Nuclear Disaster March 11. 2011 Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 17 .

Protecting the Environment from Advanced Technology Mishaps Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 18 .

Protecting the Environment from Advanced Technology Mishaps Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 19 .

development have environment placed great strain on world’s resources. medical treatment • Economic development that does have led to dramatic increase in not permanently damage world’s population resources • 1 billion to over 6 billion since 1800 • Try to balance need for development with protection of • Industrialization. environment – Limit use of resources • Major challenge: achieving – Set aside areas where no sustainable development development allowed Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 20 . Protecting the Environment How do we balance growth and development with practices that will help protect the resources and environments we all count on? Resource Use Sustainable Development • Improved nutrition.

air. Protecting the Environment The global environment has been seriously affected by pollution. began to temperature of earth global warming be threat to human over time survival Chapter 214 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 21 . land caused by human • Rise in surface activity has caused • By 1960s. issue of • Many scientists products that harmed global warming believe air pollution water. Threat How To Fight Global Warming • Revolution brought • Countries cannot • Could bring new industrial agree on how best to disastrous changes in processes fight pollution Earth’s climate • Created waste • One debate. but pollution did not become a serious issue until the Industrial Revolution. Human beings have always polluted their environments.

pollution. toxic gas leak at Indian factory killed over 15.000. meltdown of Soviet Union’s Chernobyl nuclear plant • Some fear strict emissions sent deadly radiation into air limits could harm economic over parts of Europe development Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 22 .Laws and Problems Environmental Laws Accidents • Some governments have taken • Even with environmental laws legal action against pollution. toxic waste global warming can be released due to accidents at industrial facilities • Many nations do not have strict pollution controls in place • 1984. in place. • United States has passed many injured a half-million more environmental laws but is one of largest polluters • 1986.

technology have greatly changed world in recent years  New discoveries brought great benefits. challenges  Space Exploration  Data from satellites. raised new questions. space shuttle missions have given scientists new information about origins. planets  Other data helping scientists understand earth’s climate change  Development of new technologies from space experiments  Scratch-resistant eyeglass lenses  Farther-flying golf balls Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 23 . development of stars. galaxies. Science and Technology Advances in science.

maintain friendships online Digital Divide • Not all areas of world have joined Information Age • Difference in access to Internet and other information and communications technologies called digital divide. some say this is Information Age Instant Communication • Space satellites transmit signals for cell phone. obstacle many trying to overcome Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 24 .The Information Age More Advances • Other advances in science. educational institutions. businesses. shop. satellite television • Personal computers. people work. technology have led to great changes in way we transmit. Internet link people. receive information • Exchange of information so important. governments.

laser. techniques developed to transplant organs • Advances in ultrasound. Medicine and Genetic Engineering • Great medical advances took place in years following World War II • Medicines. research in industry animal called genetic engineering • Some biotechnology companies • Plants can be hardier. use of biological • Altering genetic makeup of plant. • Other biotechnology companies heredity have led to rapid growth in genetically modify food plants biotechnology. and computer technology allow doctors to more easily treat human body Genetics Altering Genetic Makeup • Developments in study of genes. mental illness. vaccines developed to prevent spread of contagious diseases. treat physical. more manufacture vaccines to treat productive than conventional diseases • Grown where other crops struggle Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 25 .

other food crops • Attempt by agricultural • With enough water. rice. scientists to increase world’s pesticides. Modified Crops Green Revolution Food Production • Genetically modified plants part • Scientists developing new types of green revolution of wheat. fertilizer. modified crops food production produce more than unmodified Advocates Concerns • Believe genetically modified • Genetically modified crops crops can reduce pesticide use might have harmful effects on • Say farmers will make more humans. environment money on crops • Could see possible reduction of genetic diversity Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 26 .

Human Genetics Cloning Possibilities. Questions • Another use of genetic • Cloning offers possibilities for engineering being debated. improving livestock. medical cloning research • Process of creating identical • Presents serious moral. organisms from a cell of original legal questions organism Chapter 1-4 EHM3066 Engineers and Society 27 . ethical.

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