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Summary

The combination of Open Simulation and Scratch4OS can be a beneficial innovation for
introductory programming courses. A study was done on 81 high school students to see if there
was any correlation between a 3-D gaming environment and learning processes. A theoretical
model known as the Col model was used as a background to offer a valid organizational-
instructional framework to study the different interactions between students in communities. The
study was carried out over 6 weeks and 18 hours of various exercises in blended settings,
meaning that 8 hours were spent in the schools computer labs and another 10 were done through
supplementary online courses when the teacher instructed to do so. There were two purposes to
this method of experimentation, firstly, it would allow students to become familiar with the basic
structures of programming, and secondly, to see if there was an easier way to increase the
students engagements with each other; to make them work collaboratively. The results of the
experiments showed that there is a positive linear correlation between the two different
implementations of the Col method that were done in the experiment. This means that students
attention and the time they spent on educational activities seemed to be in direct correlation with
the implementation of exploration, collaboration, and construction knowledge in already set
instructional settings. There were some limitations to this study, for one, the sample size was
considerably small and most of the volunteers came from a Greek high school, meaning that
students characteristics could significantly differ than those from other schools.

Rhetorical Analysis
The intended audience for this scientific study would be those who are interested in learning the
impact a gaming environment can have on various learning processes. Another group of
individuals who this study may be directed at are who those who are in favor of the increased use
of technology in schools and other learning environments. The purpose of this journal is to show
the correlation between the use of a digital learning environment and the interactions between
students and to see if a digital world innovates or improves learning processes for students. The
way this experiment has been set up the authors seem to acknowledge the different variables that
might be responsible, however, the volunteers were mainly from a Greek high school. The school
is made up of a community of individuals who possibly share the same backgrounds and beliefs,
this could be an indication that the study was made just for the purpose of stating that there is a
positive linear correlation between digital learning and conventional learning due to the
similarity between the individuals. There are several genre conventions at play here, mostly what
would be expected from an academic journal. Figures and graphs were utilized to visually
illustrate the findings of the study. References to other publications and citations of quotes to
back up their statements were present throughout the journal.
Citation:
Pellas, N. (2017). An exploration of interrelationships among presence indicators of a
community of inquiry in a 3D game-like environment for high school programming
courses. Interactive Learning Environments, 25(3), 343-360.
doi:10.1080/10494820.2015.1127819