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Name: Chase Smith

Africa: States of Independence The Scramble for Africa

1. What lasting effects did the Berlin Conference have on modern


Populations in Congo were decimated while, the men only got richer
People needed to hit harsh quotas and the punishments for failing were
Roads and schools were built; colonization creates high planning, but
the process is not democratic
Sucked the wealth out of Africa, both natural and human resources;
African soldiers both in World War I

2. How did Europeans choose to justify their colonial holdings? What

assumptions did they make about African culture and civilization vs.
that of Europe?

Europeans justified colonial holdings by reasoning that they were

helping the colonies
General idea that African culture was inferior to that of European
Europe, as the superior continent, had the right to take control

3. Compare French and British methods of colonial rule. How did

they differ and how were they alike?

French created towns for Africans, cultural assimilation, the more

French an African became the better his life was
Africans were proud of their British culture
British took indirect control by choosing local leaders to rule the
colonies; African leaders working for the British lacked credibility to the
other people

4. What pressures undermined colonial authority in Africa in the

twentieth century? (Economic, Social, Political, Ideological?)

Political: African Nationalism; World War II destroyed the invincibility of

the Europeans
Ideological: United Nations signed after World War II to never again to
partake in colonization of Africa
Economic: Devalued the price of African goods; burden of running
colonies over seas
Social: People in Africa want freedom, and rights. Race becomes the
CenterPoint of conflict; prominent African nationalists arise. Rise of
Civil Rights Movement and Black Rights
5. Who was Kwame Nkrumah? What was his political philosophy?

Father of African Nationalism, leader of the first Free African State of

Ghana. Created a union in which power was centered.
Kwame inspired other leaders in Senegal, Kenya, etc.
European governments now had to work together with the Nationalists

6. How did the Cold War complicate and/or undermine the

independence of African states?

Communists had opposed colonizations; Africa had a power friend in

the Soviet Union
Both Russia and America fought over the African countries and created
Created a scramble for resources; and questions about what would
replace colonial rule

7. How did colonial rule sow the seeds of ethnic and regional

Many new sovereign states had trouble building due to bitter power
Militia men overran the national government; over 40 successful coups
British territories torn apart by ethnic conflict
Two million people died in the 30 years after The Year of Africa in
past British colonies alone
Tribes in Kenya or Nigeria were not ready to live as a united country
instead of as individual tribes

8. How has globalization helped and hurt the progress of post-

colonial Africa?

Some countries never left the countries to give them independence

French foothold in Africa was still very much present
Domination of natural resources still present as countries create deals
for the seizure of natural resources.
Africa is now the largest recipient of external aid in the world
Shadow Financial System in Africa; money laundering, trade
mispricing, tax havens.