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Cell Theory

Cells and Cell Organelles

The cell theory states:

All organisms are composed of one or more cells.

Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in


All cells come only from other cells.

How many cells in your body? Two Basic Cell Types

Prokaryote Eukaryote
50 million million (trillion)
Pro = before Eu = true
Thats 50,000,000,000,000 cells!!!!!! karyote = nucleus karyote = nucleus
Relative size very small large
And not only that, there are many
True No yes
different types. Nucleus
Cells are diverse Organelles No Yes
But only two BASIC types Present
DNA loose, sometimes packed into
structure circular chromosomes
Examples Bacteria Plants, animals, protists

Prokaryotic Cell Eukaryotic Cell
Note the lack of nucleus, DNA free floating DO HAVE a membrane-bound nucleus
DO HAVE cell membrane, ribosomes, and DO HAVE membrane-bound organelles: mitochondria,
cell wall (sometimes) chloroplasts (plants), cell wall (plants), smooth and
rough endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus,
lysosomes, vacuoles, etc.

Relative sizes-- Note that:

Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotes (bacteria) Eukaryotes (plant and animal
are 1-10 m. cells) are 10-100 m

Lots of internal

Cell Membrane
Cell Membrane
Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have
this cell membrane
Holds the CYTOPLASM inside the cell and
keeps unwanted things out of the cell
Gives cells their shape and flexibility
Helps to maintain HOMEOSTASIS by
allowing certain substance to flow in and out

Structure of Cell Membrane Structure of the Cell Membrane

The cell membrane is a PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER Fluid Mosaic Model
Phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins that
make up the cell membrane all flow like the
ilic head surface of a wavy lake, moving and shifting.

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Fluid Mosaic Model
Cell Walls
Located outside the cell membrane

Can be made of thick fibers of cellulose

(plants), chitin (fungi), or peptodoglycan
(some bacteria)--all of these are carbs

Animal cells DO NOT have cell walls

Cell Wall of Plants


Is this a prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell?

Control Center of the cell
Chromatin in the Nucleus
Contains CHROMATIN (loose DNA)
Bundles into CHROMOSOMES when cell is ready to
divide (it packs before moving) Directs PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Contains a NUCLEOLUS, which is made up of a (building proteins)
mass of nucleotides used for making DNA and
RNA It contains the blueprints for the
organism; this is the DNA

Chromatin Chromosomes

The Nucleus and the Nuclear Membrane

Outside the Nucleus:
the Cytoplasm

The Nuclear Membrane or Envelope is a double membrane with pores to let

certain things in and out of the nucleus.

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and
Outside the Nucleus: Ribosomes
The Cytoplasm
Lots of action!
Many organelles and ribosomes are
floating around
Cytoplasm includes organelles and the
gel-like fluid they are suspended in

Smooth and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a system of membrane
Smooth and
channels and little sacs that acts as a workspace for Rough ER
cellular reactions.

Rough ER is studded with ribosomes and is where

proteins are made and processed.

Smooth ER has no ribosomes and is where the cell

makes phospholipids and packages proteins into vesicles
(small storage sacs), among other functions.

Ribosomes can be attached to ER or free. They are tiny

organelles that make proteins.

After leaving the ER, proteins are often sent to the Golgi
for folding and finishing.

Golgi Apparatus

Smooth and
Rough ER

Golgi Apparatus and

Golgi Apparatus:
A flattened set of membranes
The post office of the cell
Processes and packages proteins for export
Makes lysosomes

Small sacs full of hydrolytic (digestive)
Break apart (digest) foreign substances Golgi Apparatus And Lysosomes

Vacuoles Vacuoles
Used for storage
Waste products
Food and water
Enzymes, etc.
In plants, this is usually very large, called a
central vacuole

Mitochondrion Mitochondrion
plural = mitochondria
The powerhouse of the cell
Double membrane
Releases energy from food molecules
Creates ATP, an energy containing molecule that
acts as a battery to power other cell reactions
ATP is the energy currency of the cell


Chloroplast Chloroplast
Only found in green plant cells
Trap energy from sunlight to build food
Stored for later use
Double membrane

The Cytoskeleton Centrioles
Centrioles are short
The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is a network of cylinders made of
microfilaments and microtubules that microtubules.
extends from the nucleus to the plasma (cell)
Centrioles are only found
membrane. in animal cells and are
involved in building and
Microfilaments and microtubules: taking apart microtubules
Give cell its shape during cell division and in
Help organelles move within the cell the organization of cilia
Help the cell move and flagella.

Cilia andFlagella
Cilia (small and numerous) and flagella (large and
single) are made of microtubules and are involved
End of Show
in cell movement.
Extra pictures follow

Animal Cell Anatomy Plant Cell Anatomy