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nperia

Iconography and
ofthe Inca Coca

Abstract . .

W ithout a system of writing,
the Incas (ca. 1476-1534 CE.)
presided over an empire of orality
specimens of Inca coca bags in the
collections of the Dallas Museum
of Art and the Museum of Fine Arts,
and performance that stretched Boston. Widespread throughout
along the Andes Mountains from the Inca Empire and now housed
southern Ecuador to northern in museum collections around the
Chile. The Incas relied heavily on world, members of the Inca elite
visual signals to impart information wore these elaborately woven bags
and organize their civilization. to carry the leaves of the coca plant,
Textiles, among other crafted a significant medicinal herb and
objects, were made to perform as sacrificial item. This article offers
visual emblems displaying ideas an iconographie analysis of the
about imperial ideology and the coca bag's surface embellishment
authority embodied by individuals. and will establish the function of
This article explores the capacity of the coca bag both as a quotidian
textiles to carry embedded meaning container and as a symbolic
through the study of several emblem.

Keywords: Inca, coca, Andes, Peru, weaving, communication, emblems,
llama

LAUREN FINLEY HUGHES
Lauren Finley Hughes specializes in the art of
ancient Peru and has lectured and written widely
on ancient Andean textiles, Inca iconography,
and Colonial Andean imagery. As the McDermott
Curatorial Fellow in the Department of the Arts of
Africa, the Americas, and the Pacific at the Dallas
Museum of Art, she worked closely with the Nora Textiie, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp. 148-179
and John Wise collection of Andean Textiles. DOI: 10.2752/175183510x12791896965538
Lauren received her M.A. in Art History from Reprints available directly from the Publishers.
Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. Photocopying permitted by licence only.
Iaurenfhughesí9gmail.com © 2010 Berg. Printed in the United Kingdom.

Weaving Imperial Ideas:
Iconography and Ideology of
the Inca Coca Bag
From the extreme altitudes of type of textile bag, one woven to
mountain peaks to Amazonian hold the leaves of the coca plant,
lowlands and dry desert coastlines, communicated ideas about Inca
the Incas dominated an enormous ideology, social practice, and
and highly diverse empire. A feat the embodied physicality of Inca
accomplished in only about one rulership. With no written language,
hundred years, 1476 C.E. until the Incas experienced their world
the arrival of the Spanish in 1532 in a way which gave power to the
(D'Altroy 2002: 2), the Inca empire sense of sight (Classen 1990: 725).
was the largest of pre-Columbian Visual symbols had the power
South America; one that extended to express much more than the
5,500 kilometers (Stone-Miller mundane, and political authority
1995:181) along the Andes was often vested through visual
Mountains from southern Ecuador means. For the Incas, textiles were
to northern Chile. The Incas' the medium which supported
expansive state relied on a high these visual manifestations of
degree of organization that largely symbolic power (Hogue 2006:114,
depended on the manufacture and Salazar and Roussakis 1999: 273).
regulation of textiles. The primacy Figures associated with the Inca
of textiles in the Inca Empire meant state demonstrated their imperial
that they were much more than relationship through the colors,
just a means of covering the body textures, and patterns of their
or keeping warm. Fiber art was clothing; their authority recognized
a critical aspect of economics, through the sense of sight. The
religious and ceremonial life, social primary figurative function of the
organization, imperial ideology, coca bag was as a visual symbol
and, above all, fiber was a means of of authority. As such a symbol,
communication (Murra 1962: 722). the coca bag incorporated specific
Although textiles certainly cannot iconographie forms to visually
be treated as texts, fiber objects express Imperial power.
functioned as communicative Coca bags were employed
devices through their iconography throughout the vast Inca Empire
ond structure. and most extant examples were
Traditional studies of Inca collected along the south coast
textiles tend to emphasize the of Peru. Woven coca bags were
standardization of tunic patterns produced and used in Peru from
or the economic function of textiles ancient times through the Colonial
within the Inca state; however, Period. It is difficult to date
this study looks at how a certain these extant examples precisely;

The examples from sewn together (Figure 2). are the subject of this study. John D. Dallas Museum of Art. Mr. T41299. U76-1534 C. . the Dallas Museum of Some are very simple incorporating their structure and iconography Art." collections of the Museum of Fine bags take on a variety of forms. and Mrs. most were probably made complex and multipart coca bags. as Arts Boston. Algur H. and Mrs. the Eugene McDermott Family. woven containers are found in the between 1450 CE. gift of Mr. B1359. Weaving Imperial Ideas: Iconography and Ideology of the Inca Coca Bag 151 however. the Harvard Peabody Museum only a small rectangular pouch of illustrate Inca approaches to the of Archaeology and Ethnology. and Mrs. Fine institutions. The specimens of these elaborately the Museum of Fine Arts Boston: Figure 1 Coca bag with shoulder strap. Jake L. Nora and John Wise Collection. fabric and a strap (Figure 1). Murchison. Late Horizon. collections around the world. Hamon. some non-functional.E. Anthropology and of several separate woven bags are now housed in museum History of Peru. among other components. Meadows and the Meadows Foundation. Photo courtesy Dallas Museum of Art. Coca sometimes called "pendant bags. Peru. and 1600. South coast. Pendant coca Archaeology.46. Inca. others figuring and dissemination of and the National Museum of are much more complex consisting imperial authority. and Mr.

B1105 (Figure 5) comprise a group of four similar pendant coca bags thatsome figurai and some purely will be the focus of this article. however. These bags are made up of at least four separate textile components and are constructed Weaving Technique from seven different loom and hand and Construction weaving techniques. Nora and John Wise CoUection. Algur H. the Eugene McDermott Family.'geometric. a portion of . and Mrs. Mr. 1476-1534 C. Inca.E. 1991. Murchison. The fibers The pendant coca bags examined used to construct the coca bags for this study each measure are predominantly camelid fiber between 41 and 59 centimeters long and cotton. number 51. Peru. South coast. Jake L. B1104. Meadows and the Meadows Foundation. Lafe Horizon.152 Lauren Finley iHughes Figure 2 Bag with corner tassels and pendant. John D. Photo courtesy Dallas Museum of Art. and Mrs.= As a group they exhibit (Figure 4). and Mr.2542 (Figure 3) and and between 15 and 21 centimeters the Dallas Museum of Art: B1103 wide. Hamon.380. and Mrs. Dallas Museum of Art. B1104 (Figure 2) and intricate multipart construction and elaborate woven designs. gift of Mr.

the MFA example was woven with mouth. Inca. Photograph © 2009 Museum of Fine Arts. that motifs in the tapestry section of bag proper. Boston. is the area that actually contained the bag proper. The bag proper. cotton fibers edged with thick decorative section of interlocked The anatomy of each coca bag hair-like fiber. Museum of Fine Arts Boston. or opening. The was woven on cotton warps. Elizabeth Day McCormick Collection. 51.2^52. horizontal rows of camelids that . probably unspun tapestry. Weaving Imperial Ideas: Iconography and ideology of the Inca Coca Bag 153 Figure 3 Coca bag with butterflies and llamas. UOO-1600 C. Each bag displays camelid consists of four separate parts: the camelid fiber. and long red fringe.E. a decorative pendant. The rigid pendant either a single tassel or two corner the coca leaves. of each example section of each example presents tassels. ofthe coca first in weft-faced plain weave to a fiber that has been provisionally bag is made of a network of form a panel of white above the identified as human hair.

South coast. and Mr. B1103. Dallas Museum of Art. Algur H. Each strand of fringe consists of Tassels. The final section Coca leaves come from a small of pendant coca bags consists of shrub-like plant which grows in .43. Peru. have Z-plied together. the Eugene McDermott Family. Jake L. Mr. Late Horizon. Inca. and Mrs. color from one face to the other.154 Lauren Finley Hughes Figured Pendant bag witii black and gold checkerboard llamas. U76-153Í CE. been attached just beneath the bag proper so that the tassel is in line with the camelids of the pendant Cultural Context section of the bag. and Mrs. Photo courtesy Dallas Museum of Art. John D. Meadows and the Meadows Foundation. Murchison. and Mrs. Hamon. gift of Mr. constructed from the several (between six and twelve) same technique as the pendant or single S-spun yarns that have been in other cases stem-stitch. Nora and John Wise Collection. T41299. reverse direction and alternate hand-plied red camelid fiber fringe.

T41299." Lime is an essential leaf is minute. and Mrs. used to produce cocaine.3 Coca leaves and ttipta. Algur H. 1476-1534 CE. Dallas Museum of Art. South coast. the Eugene McDermott Family. gift of Mr. Inca. or coca leaves is the very same that is months and packed in bundles limestone (Mortimer 1901: 9. Nora and John Wise Collection. and Mrs. Hamon. Late Horizon. seashells. Murchison. ingredient needed to activate the the Andean mountain valleys Prior to chewing. Weaving imperial Ideas: iconography and ideology of the inca Coca Bag 155 rigure 5 Pendant bag with green and gold llamas and crosses. The amount weighing eighteen pounds and were combined probably within the of this alkaloid present in one coca transported to the highlands by coca bag itself. Jake L.44. Peru. and Mr. the coca leaves alkaloid in coca which produces its (Mortimer 1901: i5i). and Mrs. Meadows and the Meadows Foundation. bone. Photo courtesy Dallas Museum of Art. Mr. the near tropical conditions of llama pack trains (Rowe 1946: 242). B1105. The alkaloid from were harvested every fourteen burnt cactus. lime from the ash of physical effects. John D.155). thus the chewing .

' Coca was an important by Guaman Poma. but these gifts beginning of the empire . coca leaves describes the significance of required long-distance travel to coca as a gift. that following a ritual in which Those who could command long- participants honored the Sapa Inca distance trade to access a good (Inca king) as the son of the Sun. Spanish chronicler Garcilaso de The ethnohistoric documents la Vega points out that coca was are clear that coca was a prized also a precious commodity that commodity as a gift and as a figured largely in the ceremonial religious offering. as of expressing the authority of Pedro Cieza de León notes. Father Bernabé gift as well. social favor. chicha consumption and elite status. or familial is associated with elite status. suggesting that chicha and coca were certainly coca was an item associated meant as celebratory aspects of with the Inca elite from the very an imperial feast.^ Juan de Betanzos. (Mortimer 1901: 433). Garcilaso de la Vega. The Incas were aware individuals by the Sapa. obtained from such a distance lords of Cusco and other caciques were most certainly elites. Indeed. Cieza Incas was ceremonial in nature and de León. includes to drink and large amounts of coca a coca bag attached to his right (Betanzos 1996: 56). and silver. gold. coca. Often connection between coca paired in sacrifice with cloth. highlands of Cusco. Coca leaves most important for the purposes were present in nearly all ritual of this study to recognize the ceremonies and sacrifices.156 Lauren Finley Hughes of coca leaves is much less potent were also meant to solidify and or dangerous than cocaine use demonstrate ideas about rulership. a commodity grown in the Andean 264-5). The coca of the energizing effects of coca leaves are a symbolic means and during the colonial period. and Juan de Betanzos it was often used as a way to show is Inca nobles who have access to political power and its reciprocal. but it is perhaps life of the Inca. The gifts of wrist (Figure 6). coca It should be noted that in the was highly valued and had much aforementioned descriptions of socio-religious significance (Cobo the socio-religious use of coca 1990:137). (maize beer). in his lowlands far away from the 1557 chronicle of the Inca conquest. Gift-giving for the Cobo. As connections (D'Altroy 2002: 200-1.^ Any tourist Access to a sumptuary good such to the Andes region will attest that as coca given in such an important the effects of chewing coca are and visible context demonstrates much like that of drinking a single the power bestowed upon these espresso. On the other hand. the first Inca king. always the Sapa that has been given to carried "small leaves of some sort" these elites.* them. Betanzos explains obtain (D'Altroy 2002: 200-1). in their mouths which they chewed by receiving the coca leaves the from morning until night to assuage various elites acquiesce to the Sapa hunger and to give them strength and accept the authority given to (Cieza 1959: 259). who had gathered in the central Guaman Poma's drawing of Manco plaza of Cusco were given chicha Capac. Coca consumption submission.

to the knee. usually carried a chuspa. Although we Men. El primer nueva coránica y buen gobierno. which generally fell coca use was limited to the nobility likewise limited to Inca nobles. (Stone-Miller 1994:178).4°. they do allow León found that coca was regarded by documentary evidence which the general costume of the Inca as a symbol of divinity and was at describes Inca dress. Ms. Det Kongelige bibliotek. Cieza de and elite individuals is reinforced worn by the Inca. a cloak and religious rites. franco Capac Inca. believed that in Pre-conquest Peru as an element of costume was called unkus. Through to be established. Gl. especially higher-ranking that its use spread to all classes may not take these illustrations officials. 1615. KgLs. Over the tunic. ofthe Inca (Rowe 1946: 292). It was only after Guaman Poma's chronicle provides or mantle was often worn around the conquest when the Spanish a clear image of Inca dress through the shoulders (Cobo 1990:186-7). Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala. It is widely apparent that wearing a coca bag descriptions Inca men wore tunics. expanded the production of coca its many illustrations. According to first only available to Incas of royal these descriptions it becomes these drawings and Cobo's written status (Cieza 1959: 260).2232. Weaving innperial ideas: iconography and ideology of the inca Coca Bag 157 DE IMÖAS Figure 6 The First Inca.' to be exact representations of or bag—presumably to carry coca— The association between coca the tunics and other garments in their hand or wore the bag across . Köbenhavn [Copenhagen].

illustrations.158 Lauren Finley Hughes their chest (Cobo 1990:187).^\560-^6i0. suggests that Inca costume was (Cobo 1990:187) standardized or regimented by Figure 7 Juan Tinge with chuspa. offers hangs around the necii. Det Kongelige bibliotek. dressed in his and about the same in width. c. a Colonial- over the tunic they carry a small Era document pertaining to land bag called a chuspa which rights in the Chupas Valley. Prado-Tello Dossier. mantle. The regularity of Inca dress the strap from which it hangs as illustrated by Guaman Poma passes over the left shoulder.'° waist under their right arm. it is a descriptive illustration of an Inca more or less one span in length male. Folio 51 recto. Köbenhavn [Copenhagen]. . Juan Tingo. and chuspa (Figure 7) This bag hangs down by their (Phipps2oo4:142). uni<u. Cobo Likely a model for Guaman Poma's writes. the brief commentary provided by Guaman Malque in Underneath this mantle and the Prado-Tello Dossier.

local officials. A governor. The coca bag might be usually hereditary local elites." who is presumably a Guaman Poma's drawing of Manco parts together. bag as an imperial accoutrement the control of the state (D'Altroy Material evidence is also indicative of elite status and 2002: 231). His drawing of a provincial that were under the jurisdiction The Inca domain. royal Inca dress (Stone-Miller 1994: built roads. "in the whole of Inca administrative rule is Yupanqui ordained that caciques of our country. The Incas for official Inca administrators. called and caciques. pattern. It can be deduced that the (Figure 6) which demonstrates that at Cusco. geographic location. Guaman not approved by state from trying Guaman Poma's evidence supports Poma specifically describes persons to gain statusequalto thatof the that the coca bag was worn by wearing the coca bag as lords of caciques (ibid. to act as administrators wearing garments that were given to that came from the presence of on behalf of the Sopo Inca at the them by the Inca (Betanzos 1996: 56). the bag or pouch of the type used for control over the infrastructure of pattern of the cloth. His chronicle and diverse kingdom provincial coca bag functioned as an imperial describes the coca bag as part of elites played an important role in emblem outside the capital. It implies that there has been spent time in Cusco." The structure Betanzos also relates that Inca Poma's statement.. but who were not or as "provincial administrators. Coca bags were certainly one of the Sapa Inca." suggests that the particularly important in regard to could not wear fine clothing or other constables were acting on behalf of the coca bag because coca bags accoutrements unless they had been the Sapa Inca in provincial regions have been found in the provinces given to the cacique by the Sapa of the empire. and served as an emblem of power 178)." of the types of textile accessories members of the royal family. depicts a colonial-era lord Capac. The Incas Although the collection of many He writes that the Inca constables. as physically invested with the power curacas. was divided into four curaca. the first Inca king. the capital of the realm coca bag. capital of Cusco. the Sapa Inca. and at the same time retained (Murra 1962: 720-1). Guaman Poma's chronicle way stations to connect the quarters within Cusco and throughout the persuasively establishes the coca of the empire and to strengthen provinces of the Empire.). includes a regions based on geographic and with a coca bag across his chest coca bag attached to this right wrist ethnic boundaries that converged (Figure 9).: 105). a component of costume the coca bag was a component of (D'Altroy 2002: 88-9). maintaining Inca rule. but political status (Pillsbury 2006:126). Violation of this rule would Poma's thousand-page letter to the officials who wear the coca bag result in death (ibid. in this the empire (D'Altroy 2002: 232). worked through local lords of coca bags has been imprecise. or an official transfer of power from the affairs of each province. asserts that the coca bag was indeed in places other than the highland This rule also kept people who were a signifier of imperial authority. The King of Spain he illustrates Inca in Guaman Poma's chronicle are mandated clothing worn by caciques administrators and officials wearing lords of regional Inca provinces allowed their power to be highly the coca bag (Figures 8-13) which governing on behalf of the Inca visible and easily recognizable. Weaving Imperial Ideas: Iconography and Ideology of the Inca Coca Bag 159 the Inca government. Through The word warrant in this statement their resident elite status and their color. Most of the himself. Tawantinsuyu meaning the four tributaries." officials associated with the service "native tributaries. Throughout Guaman of the Inca Empire. and degree of implies personal contact between right to rule. provincial centers.. managed association. As stated above. It is true "as a symbol of office carried a conquered territories to maintain that the fineness of the cloth. Within this expansive persuasive in suggesting that the contact with the Sapa. who fineness Inca tunics could visually the Inca constables and the Sapa was an ethnic Inca and who also describe their wearer's familial Inca. . and the style holding coca leaves. Betanzos describes lords of Cusco officials. the official garb of Inca constables. Moreover. of garments were restricted and way their warrant was recognized Local elites governed on behalf mandated according to the status and respected in the whole of our of theSí7po Inca (the Inca King) and profession of the individual country" (Guaman Poma 1978: 98). Guaman household level." as curacas. called "administrator of ten native of the Sapa Inca. Moreover. the body of the Sapa Inca to these employed intermediate elites.

Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala. As the driest climate. El primer nueva coránica y buen gobierno. The such as the examples presented pendant coca bags examined in here probably were used in the . Textile bags preservation of the textiles. this is not to suggest that not in place. Köbenhavn [Copenhagen]. 1615. most likely came from concerning looting and protecting this dry south-coast region of Peru. the south coast of Peru near the Because of its more temperate lea and Nasca Valleys. highland textiles have not desert in the world.4°. pisqa kamachikuq administrator of five native tributaries. because of their state of Second World War when sanctions preservation. ofAllauca Huanaco lineage mitmaq descendant of Inca-Era immigrants. dating from the period of the this study.160 Lauren Finley Hughes Figure 8 Poma.s. it is believed that coca bags like these did not exist most coca bags have come from in other places in the Inca Empire. Gl. items of national patrimony were however.2232. the climate enjoyed the same protection as of this region has allowed for the south-coast textiles. Det Kongelige bibliotek. Kgl. Ms. of the Pueblo Chipao.

evidenced by objects as offerings. Köbenhavn [Copenhagen]. chunka kamachikuq. the DMA. Accompanying good indicative of the prestige and Guaman Poma's depiction of Hurin the Ice Maiden was a feather bag importance of human sacrifices. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala. and Hanan Cusco administrators containing coca leaves (Reinhard Other high-altitude human wearing the coca bags as part of 2005: 97) similar to an example at sacrifices at Llullaillaco were also their official garb (Figures lo and li). was probably ritually bundle type coca bag found with in many parts of Tawantinsuyu killed and then buried with precious the Ice Maiden is a sumptuary including Cusco. highlands.2232. The so-called as a feather object. coca bags have Although this coca bag is much climatic conditions of the highlands been documented in high-altitude different than pendant coca bags. administrator of ten native tributaries. Det Kongelige bibliotek.s. Weaving Imperial Ideas: Iconography and Ideology of the Inca Coca Bag 161 Figure 9 Chiara of the Pueblo of Muchuca. 1615. found with coca bags (Reinhard . "Ice Maiden" discovered byjohan the hierarchy of fiber arts.4°. at the top of evidence from being conserved. the Most likely the coca bag was worn Reinhard. GL Kgl. Ms. El primer nueva coránica y buen gobierno. has prevented the material sacrificial burials. number B499 (Figure 14). but unfortunately the More recently.

His . torturer. the eastern study. 2005: 326-7. as is likely the case with of object. Det Kongelige bibliotek. as a category a tomb.s. in which a leaves from the Dallas Museum figure appears to place a coca bag of Art. Ceruti 2003:124). Assuming with a human sacrifice supports the that this bag was recovered from notion that coca bags.4°. a fiber bag stuffed with coca quarter ofthe empire. Köbenhavn [Copenhagen]. Kgl. were items reserved for each ofthe coca bags discussed elite contexts.162 Lauren Finley Hughes Figúrelo Chief Law Enforcement Official of Hurin Cuzco. 1615. number B217 (Figure 15). Ms. demonstrates the sacred nature of The burial of this high-status item coca and its container. the coca from the complex type of coca bag. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala. here. it illustrates the sacred role Although different in style of coca and its container. with the body ofthe deceased. Guaman Poma illustrates a bags that are the subject ofthis burial in Cuntisuyu.2232. Gl. chanay kamayuq. Et primer nueva coránica y buen gobierno.

s. burials. The authors that the bodies are found with in death. Köbenhavn [Copenhagen]. although no Spanish dedicated to the Chincha Valley. of imperial authority in life.4°. El primernueva coránica y buen gobierno. specifically. and the burial customs of Kollasuyu bags. principal lord Quapaq Apu Wataq. Their 1558 account offers their finest clothes accompanied by While coca bags were emblems some important information on Inca their most precious possessions. Ms. 242-3). For example. Weaving Imperial Ideas: Iconography and Ideology of the Inca Coca Bag 163 Figuren The Incas Council. Fray cloth (Castro and Ortega Morejón surmised that coca bags existing Cristóbal de Castro and Diego de 1936: 231. he explains chronicler directly states that coca on the central coast of Peru. It can be are present within the tombs. they burial customs (Castro and Ortega In addition to cloth. and goods such as were included in burials. Gl. Kgl. Cobo mentions were also indicators of elite status Morejón 1936: 227). Det Kongelige bibliotek. Elite Inca burials are write that elites were buried with "implements of their occupation" .2232. Hanan Cuzco Inca. Court magistrate who apprehends rebellious lords.'3 therein. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala. were placed in describe the practices of elites where the nobles were buried in tombs. 1615. illustration suggests that coca bags identified by the wealth goods that wives. servants. Guaman Poma in collections today were found Ortega Morejón provide an account also offers information on elite Inca in tombs.

Det Kongetige bibliotek. Ms. would be the kind of that Cieza de Leon's chronicle also wealth good placed inside a tomb relates that Nasca was an Inca (Castro and Ortega Morejón administration center on the south 1936: 227). Archaeological coast with "great buildings and explorations of the Chincha. royal official. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala.^°. contained "great treasures. (Cobo 1990:19). Gl. KgLs. Köbenhavn [Copenhagen].2232. The fineness of and Ancon Valleys corroborate the pendant coca bags indicates the chronicles' descriptions of that they were wealth items Inca tombs of the central and and their function as imperial south coasts.: 349). . T'uqriykuq. It should be noted profession.164 Lauren Fintey Hughes Figure 12 Provincial Administrator. lea. Cieza de León emblems is indicative of their describes burials at lea that owner's profession." and The chronicles make it clear that that the Spaniards found rich an object such as the coca bag. an tombs in the Nasca Valley (Cieza object representative of status and 1959: 348-9). 1615. El primer nueva coránica y buen gobierno. many storehouses" (ibid.

Max Uhle found in the elite status burials. Gl. Kroeber coca bag. Weaving Imperial ideas: Iconography and Ideology of the Inca Coca Bag 165 Figure 13 Old Man. The MFA writing about life in Peru reveal that it these valleys (Uhle 1924. Strong coca bags like it. and other pendant was the noble class of Inca who wore and Strong 1924a. 1615. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala. one often native magistrates.s. The provincial elites who lived at Inca-style ceramics allowed for the in a mortuary context like the Inca- the Inca administrative center of distinction between elite burials style objects that Uhle describes. Uhle found that the iconography. or executioners of this Kingdom. whereas owner's high status. town criers. 1924b. Kgl. Köbenhavn [Copenhagen]. Ms. Det Kongelige bibliotek. Nasca would surely have been and those of commoners. El primer nueva coránica y buen gobierno. Goods Their iconographie and technical buried with wealth items indicative with Inca iconography were present connection to Cusco indicated their of their status. wealth goods such as gold and commoner tombs contained local Spanish chroniclers of the late silver implements and Inca-style styles of ceramics (Kroeber and fifteenth and sixteenth centuries ceramics in tombs within each of Strong 1924a: 127-8). probably functioned but they also show that these officials . Indeed. 1925). with its Inca coca bags as emblems of their office.4°.2232.

gift of Mr. Inca. Late Horizon. Photo courtesy Dallas Museum of Art. and Mrs. T41299. 1476-1534 CE. and Mr. In life coca bags. Dallas Museum of Art. Murchison. Mr. of a local elite. Algur H. or Inca administrators found in the tomb of a provincial Inca working in the provinces on administrator. were curacas. are indicative of the type of the state. found in the south-coast as in death. and Mrs. Hamon. the Eugene McDermott Family. and Mrs. the pendant coca archaeological evidence indicates bag served as an insignia of the that the coca bag was the possession relationship between its wearer of not only individuals of royal status. B499. . Nora and John Wise Collection. The finely crafted pendant relationship was manifested. As the possession behalf of the Sopo Inca. Similarly.45. as a region of Peru. John D. the Inca coca bag. Meadows and the Meadows Foundation.166 Lauren Finley Hughes Figure H Coca bundle with feathers. established its owner as a wealth object that would have been privileged member of the Inca elite. and Cusco. However. Jake L. as a portable but also of those who attained elite accessory the wearer had control status in the provinces of the Inca over precisely when and where this Empire. probably near lea or textile object which was regulated by Nasca.

and lip plates significant of age—as older men about their wearer. gift of Mr. they represented the labor ofthe Inca nobility in a variety of about the imperial ideology of the commanded by the orejones ways. it had the ideological representation ofthe position of orejones as members capacity to convey information Sun. The coca bag are among the most widely studied had larger earspools. Anthony cultural ideas. Inca bags may be considered as body Seeger. The Coca Bag and the Inca Body to have them made. acted as a cultures. Inca.E. John D. writes that earspools as emblems of their the body and conveyed ideas "Body ornaments above all make office. T41299. Dallas Museum of Art. Photo courtesy Dallas Museum of Art. and Mrs. Inca textiles had the ability Inca and how its wearer functioned . For example. Meadows and the Meadows Foundation. about Inca ideology.'' The gold earspools made an important the earspools demonstrated the coca bag does just this. a social anthropologist officials often wore large gold ornaments. earplugs. called orejones. and they were and other Andean textile apparel. intangible concepts tangible and the large reflective surfaces ofthe and cultural self-image. they were to communicate information Tattoos. cosmology. U76-1534C. the Eugene McDermott Family.47. and Mr. B217. body ornaments of indigenous indicative of ethnicity (Vega 1966: like body ornaments.*'' These ornaments change 55-6). and Mrs. or big ears. Murchison. Algur H. Late Horizon. works that patterned and ethnomusicologist. Just as visible" (Seeger 1975: 221). Nora and John Wise CoUection. and Mrs. Weaving Imperial ideas: Iconography and ideology of the Inca Coca Bag 167 Figure 15 Square coca bag stuffed with leaves. Jake L. coca convey certain concepts. Hamon.'5 Although the Inca coca bag means of embellishing the body the appearance ofthe individual decorated the body in a different itself and carried messages of and act as a means of symbolic and less permanent fashion symbolic content in order to communication to express certain than tattooing or piercing. Mr.

Evidently. and how imparted information. the Inca and llama motifs. and the Inca served as an intermediary between Emperor was literally the navel of the sacred aspects ofthe cosmos the universe connecting the people and the terrestrial world. to a to describe a person. As the son of El Cuzco referred to a living center. In addition authority was figured in the Inca to understanding how the Incas Empire is the understanding ofthe expressed ideas through cloth. degree. rather objects assumed important roles it was an essential part ofthe in conveying social identity and universe through which the natural imperial legitimacy (Bray 2000: phenomenon could be interpreted 169). Rather. Cuzco translates to cosmological feature and as such mean center. In the Andean bodily accessories. Inca cosmology. Two elements. or navel. not a place. the Sun. The capital ofthe Inca this discussion will hinge on ideas Empire was the city of Cusco in the about the royal body and the central highlands of Peru. /nf/. understanding the Inca designation for the name the performative culture in which ofthe city. however. controlled. Emperor's given name. the center ofthe diagram represent transferred. the visual immediacy clear that the Inca body was not and thematic richness of visual separate from the cosmos. hence they In Inca cosmology the body used the term cuzco to refer to served as a symbol and mediator the imperial individual (Ramirez ofthe cosmos (Classen 1993: 3). red fringe and explained. or changed by the mediators between the earth and context in which they were enacted. However. From empire of orality and performance. body will demonstrate how the Central to the ideology of the coca bag carried meaning and Inca body. the term cuzco the Incas established their imperial referred to a person who was the ideology and how the Incas figured center of the Inca world. rather than a the corporeal embodiment of a specific location. are perhaps the body was the temporal center of most important message-bearers Inca power which embodied the apparent in the coca bag and their sacred in order to organize and rule interpretation in relation to the the earthly empire. Following this tradition It was through the body that the the first Spanish chroniclers in the processes ofthe earth and sky early 1530s used the word cuzco could be understood and. authority will also be essential it was customary for the Inca to the analysis of the coca bag's people to refrain from using the function as a body ornament. the sky through which power can The Incas presided over an flow (Classen 1993: 22). Coricancha the human figures in Their meaning was easily shaped. The Sapa of his empire to the Sun and Moon .168 Lauren Finley Hughes within this system. the Sapa Inca was the Inca Emperor. as earth and sky met. 2005:19). coca bags native Pachacuti Yamqui's diagram functioned more plastically than (Figure 16) ofthe main altar ofthe permanent body modification. Pachakuti Yamqui's diagram it is In this world. it Inca was the center at which the is important to consider that. relationship between the Inca body the word cuzco might not have been and the cosmos. word cuzco. Moreover.

the Inca. a standardized patterns. The tunic of the Sapa Inca subordinate Inca officials and within this abstract representation characterized him as an individual ethnic groups contained within of the empire. combinations. The tunic expresses army and his position at the head motifs that were used to create its meaning through its relationship of the army. possible (Zuidema 1991:151). clothing. probably to Tocapu are individual square units at the head of the empire (Hogue illustrate the Sapa's control over his filled with various highly geometric 2006:111-12). and placed on his body. (Ramfrez 2005: 7). patterns that occur in the some tunics may have centered a tunic covered entirely in tocapu Royal Tunic are also those of Inca his body within an abstract motifs. is a motif that regularly . by appropriating military tunic with a red yoke have communicated his divine and symbols of conquered peoples' (Figure 17) is repeated several times imperial status (Stone 2007: 38). The Inca key pattern. The center of "system of graphic communication" empire. happened to be (Houston and expression of certain information Apart from patterns that might Cummins 1998: 364). was itself an abstract officials.1613. geographically. of the black and white checkerboard containing tocapu motifs that would The Sapa Inca. Tocapu with the body. c. the so-called military tunic (Houston and Cummins 1998: its individual tocapu referencing and the Inca key pattern appear 374). The abstract diagonal bar with small squares on designs on textiles were part of a patterns represent the people of his either side. and their patterns. Sapa's authority over these people was wherever the Inca emperor and bodily relationships made the becomes an obvious point. Weaving Imperiat Ideas: Iconography and Ideology of the Inca Coca Bag 169 Figure 16 Drawing of the Main Altar of the Coricancha. Juan de Santacruz Pachacuti Yamqui. A miniature version at the center of the empire Tawantinsuyu (Phipps 2004: 8). Tocapu tunic patterns of representation of the empire representation of the empire. the the Inca Empire. demonstrated his place over the Royal Tunic. Elena signify different ethnic groups that As the Inca emperor was the Phipps conjectures that the Inca had come under the hegemony of embodied center of Tawantinsuyu Royal Tunic at Dumbarton Oaks.

As insignia was not present. suggests that the wearers of their authority emblazoned on key-patterned tunics were Inca their tunics for others to recognize. Inca.MCD. bestowed upon individuals by the The foremost emblem of the Sapa they visually represent the Sapa Inca. 1476-1534 C.E. was the the Sapa. in honor ot Carol Robbins. Photo courtesy Dallas Museum of Art. appears on tunics. emphasizing his connection between the wearer of uniqueness and his place at the the emblem and the authority of center of Tawantinsuyu. 1995. most . Guaman Poma's depiction by wearing these patterned tunics of Manco Capac (Figure 6) clearly the Inca soldiers or administrators displays all of the elements of could illustrate their relationship the imperial headdress. Dallas Museum of Art. so 130). Thus. as centers allowing patterns of the checkerboard and the divine power of the Inca to be the Inca key act as emblems that invoked when the Sapa Inca himself reference the Sapa Inca.32. administrators. The Eugene and Margaret McDermott Art Fund. Inc.170 Lauren Finley Hughes Figure 17 Tunic with checkerboard pattern and stepped yoke. The abstract as cuzcos. probably enjoying Wearing these culturally coded a status higher than that of soldiers tunics the Inca administrators acted (Stone 2007: 28-31). Late Horizon. just as the Sapa royal fringe headdress called Inca's tunic graphically expressed the mascapaycha (Dean 1999: his domination over the empire. Rebecca Stone with the center of the Inca Empire.

this body imperial power into the object. youngest of the brothers. Llamas were how the mascapaycha could be item belonging to the Sapa Inca the principal pack animal of the understood as a piece of the Sapa and allowed its wearer to act on Andean Highlands and an important Inca that could be approximated behalf of the Sapa Inca. but it would not be red Poma 1978: 97). The scarlet their badge of rank these officials administrators. Guaman Poma established that coca use was They supplied wool for clothing and describes how "Mayors of the reserved for Inca nobility and that leather for sandals. whether through gift from the other components of the bag emphasizes the provincial or in person. appears on quality of its wearer. The red fringe impress powerful offenders with their owners were higher-ranking headdress was unique to the Sapa the absolute nature of the authority officials. shifts imperial power toward the llama imagery of pendant coca Attached to the body the fringe was wearer of the coca bag. Others might wear fringe on delegated to them" (Guaman their closeness to the Sapa Inca their head. demonstrate the Inca during the Colonial Period similarly to the tunics that employ wearer's access to fine cloth and (Larea i960:114). "The one the Sapa Inca. exemplifies of the coca bag approximated an Inca Empire as cloth. (Guaman Poma 1978: 81). Asserting this phenomenon not only through the presence of Sapa Inca could be communicated Guaman Poma writes. The connection between a provincial ornament designated the Sapa appropriation of this iconography elite and the Inca King. and messengers. Weaving Imperial Ideas: Iconography and Ideology of the Inca Coca Bag 171 notably the mascapaycha which Palace" appropriated the fringe as the coca bag was part of a standard is unmistakably visible just above a body ornament. fringe of the mascapaycha hung [Mayors of the Palace] wore a Likewise. and more bags illustrates how the wearer's enacted as a visual symbol vestingspecifically to his center. the red fringe indicating Inca. and iconography function imperial fringe and became from The attachment of red fringe together to express cultural that moment the supreme ruler" to pendant coca bags was a information. so the red fringe central to the economy of the the colonial period. Thus. but also through to others. but bodies as satellite centers of Inca Llama and alpaca were as also. conscious choice. put on the Cummins 1998: 374). places in the empire activated wearer of the coca bag and the 100-1). separated that decorates the body. but the Inca as a center of imperial power. and indeed the coca the Second Coat of Arms of the fringe on the coca bag functioned bag as a whole. The polychromy of imperial headdress. the red fringe of I believe that the multicolored The red fringe placed his body the coca bag decorates the body. Perhaps. As an ornament wearer's participation in these The mascapaycha. In this way the himself. He writes. mascapaycha. Just as these tunic his elevated status that allowed mascapaycha displays the powerful patterns designated their wearers' him this privilege. the was worn by the crown prince. Rather body can be understood to invoke the Inca with the power of the Sunthan adorning the head like the the temporal center of Inca power. an effort to invest The red fringe establishes the above anything else. even if he were the imperial status (Houston and communication in which design. The red these llamas. This use of the tocapu motifs. "As costume for Inca officials: curacas. and incorporates its form so head the Sapa Inca took possession fringe. there could be many that the relationship between the of the empire (Zuidema 1991. and connecting him to the cosmos. the coca ceremonies. elsewhere. and were the . color.'' authoritative role like the Sapa Inca foremost component of imperial Placing the mascapaycha on his himself by donning the Imperial garb. the addition of red fringe over the forehead just above the fringe similar to the Inca's so as to to pendant coca bags asserts that eyes of the Inca. The red fringe of the coca in color. It has been sacrificial animal (Murra 1965:185). although conceived during Imperial authority. of the Inca state. Thus. the textile bag who was designated miraculously something associated with his has become a vehicle for graphic by the Sun. yellow fringe Inca mayors were performing an bag mimics the mascapaycha. Manco Capac's eyes.'^ singularity of the symbol. llamas contained on the bag proper at the center of the empire and perhaps indicative of the wearer's symbolize the ritual significance established him as a conqueror of satellite relationship to the head of the llama and the coca bag- other peoples. For instance.

and season.108). of the bag relating directly to a and their bodies quartered (Stone ceremony in which it was enacted. they were of Tawantinsuyu. They were regarded parts. in which llamas were as an item reserved for special led in circles four times around occasions—the llama iconography the plaza of Cusco. and white llamas and the dry upright ears.'9 Tom Zuidema. llama (Zuidema 1992: 66-7). Thus. llamas were also associated with each llama has four corresponding the Inca king. a of each month and a different statement of power itself. legs.172 Lauren Finley Hughes main source of animal protein for 2007: 37). Inca festivals in addition the Incas (Murra 1956: 85). rather. then.^" The colors of the crown. in his Inca realm expanded. Viracocha. Each ofthe MFA and DMA coca wild llamas with multicolored bags incorporate quite abstract hair and llamas with brown hair representations of llamas within were sacrificed as dedications to the tapestry-weave bag proper. camelid figures have been was also a correlation between reduced to mere signs which evoke black llamas and the rainy season the essence of a llama—a snout. color of llama was selected for the llama was a symbol ofthe Inca each season. body. and llamas of tribute goods from the provinces specific colors were required for were transported to Cusco. There Here. festival. Llamas to Capac Raymi often called for the were also the means by which sacrifice of llamas. These llamas have also been of these animals announced the divided into colored quadrants appearance and disappearance of which resemble a checkerboard the black cloud constellation ofthe pattern. or their presence allowed to live long lives and upon might be religiously symbolic their death were buried in a special (Stone 2007: 37). celebrating Inca monarchs. Their four-part ceremony (Zuidema 1992: 68). ritually killed. As the each event.^' design might refer to a ceremony The festival activities associated that took place during the Capac with multi-colored llamas and the /?oym. or green and gold. conquered analysis of sacrifices performed lands. rivers. were sacrificed at the beginning Ownership of llamas was. . White gold and tan. Either black and white. In intermediate 1956: 59. Herding either black and white or brown and llama-chasing were reenacted and white. and llamas in Cusco. relates that 100 llamas became property ofthe Inca state. The quarters of the animals as representations of the king and might represent the four quarters were never killed. the llama played a checkerboard llamas' bodies central role in the ceremonial life might reflect the particular colors ofthe Sapa Inca. During the harvest season noble lineages during processions llamas with two colors of hair. the creator god. were sacrificed—their during royal initiations. Miniature llamas of llamas associated with certain of gold and silver were carried by events. the principal festival sacrifice of these animals are also dedicated to the Sun and hence indicative ofthe coca bag's purpose the Sapa. seasons when there was no rain. mountains. Indeed. and royal binary color opposition associated burial was accompanied by a with and dedicated to Thunder sacrifice of countless llamas (Murra (Zuidema 1992: 65). A ceremony involving each tail.

Gl. the llamas carrying the coca leaves on their The iconographie forms process like a pack train. Ms. device for coca and this narrative the visual manifestation of power. El primer nueva coránica y buen gobierno. 1615." ofthe pendant sections. Köbenhavn [Copenhagen]. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala. In each specimen in a long single-file procession ofthe coca bag. here are the llama motifs ofthe from the lowland growing regions Just as the pack llamas delivered pendant section ofthe bag. These hundreds of animals and the lead burden of coca leaves for its wearer. The coca bag. the llama concerning the transport of coca is but more specific to my concern motifs refer to the transport of coca replicated in the pattern ofthe bag.^^ ofthe coca bag. The ofthe eastern Andean slopes to the coca to Cusco.il°. Det Kongelige bibliotek. Kgl.^" The llamas would have been a participant in the coca bag's symbolic function within progress across the landscape festival or merely made an offering state ideology. is a transportation section of the bags contribute to up the switchbacks of the Andes. present in the tapestry weave file line of animals progressing like the llama.s. led by the animal symbolic red fringe is attached Llama caravans would consist of depicted on the tassel. carry the presents a visual allegory. a single. backs in cloth bags.2232. images on the pendant's surface llama would be decorated with The pendant llamas are oriented . Weaving Imperial Ideas: Iconography and Ideology of the Inca Coca Bag 173 FIESTA Figure 18 Feast of the Incas. The owner ofthe coca bag could illustrate an important facet ofthe ear tassels. so the llama motifs textile component to which the highlands in llama pack trains. Arranged in a caravan.

a corporeal center of power rains (Figure 18). and iconography toward the wearer's center and function together to express symbolically the llamas process cultural information. During the White metaphor about imperial ideology Llama Ceremony in late August and the ritualism of the Inca state the emperor would literally sing that established the wearer as a like a llama in an effort to summon cuzco. dramatization the emperor. The alternation the wearer and attest to the cultural from row to row and from side significance of the coca bag as a to side ensures that the llamas conveyor of an imperial statement always process toward the wearer of power. performing as the beast 1. Analysis of toward Cusco. were bags was constructed so that the chosen as decorative elements to llamas appear in alternating rows interact directly with the body of on both sides. the center of the body. emblems of the state pendant section each of the coca and sacred religious offerings. rather than interacting with a symbol of the llama. Through the decoration no matter which side of the bag of the coca bag and its function was positioned outward. performance. When coca bag was like the ruler grasping worn across the chest as Guaman at the reins of the lead llama in an Poma describes. the llamas woven imperial caravan always making its into the coca bag would touch the way toward the center—his person. color. examined from the Dallas I believe. Worn as a body ornament the The coca bag is a llama. the royal body. The provincial lord with his with their wearer's body.174 Lauren Finley Hughes toward the wearer of the coca the relationship as a performance. state could be communicated. his body has the symbolic caravan of llamas become a center of imperial power. The coca acquired by the Museum bag does not merely symbolize in 1976 as part of the Nora the power of llamas and the Inca and John Wise Collection. The as a container and as an insignia llamas on the tassel of the MFA this information about the Inca coca bag change direction as well. acted directly with Notes animal. Thus. nobility. This scene. woven into the bag interact with The Sapa Inca also performed the wearer's body to illustrate a as a llama.^' During this in Tawantinsuyu. is effectively enacted Museum of Art were by pendant coca bags.^^ The Llamas. but allowed them to stage a pre-Columbian collection . bag. it is the llamas on the coca bag interact caravan. The fringe and metaphorically. The pendant coca bags to harness its power. The always leading the caravan toward textile bag has become a vehicle the body of the wearer. to describe concepts in the body of the wearer by of Inca cosmology of the human positioning his body as Cusco. the body. and cultural center of the Inca Empire. torso. This intersection the pendant coca bag as a body between physical representation ornament has allowed the object and symbolic narrative culminates to speak. Visually for graphic communication in which the llama would seem to walk design.

coca as a gift. but has transcribed a passage lessened the value of the coca predominantly represents from Padre BlasValera. curacas reported to details about the production to Inca imperial rule and their hierarchical superiors. stating that it could displays their connection to provincial governors who were be made from limestone and his authority. Covey (2006: is still considered the most significance of the gift and 170) explains that Inca elites definitive work on the coca specifically the function of were placed at the top of plant and its narcotic effects. Another major responsibility medicinal properties of coca. of Andean art ever assembled goods frequently appeared ca. according to Betanzos. The consumption among the plantations that took place collection includes items from Incas. Betanzos indicates that the 11. Mr. also their of the provincial governor was His lengthy tome concerning finest. Library in Copenhagen. Rowe given to them by the Sapa in positions of authority. Like costume. Coca and C/7/C/70 were also diminishing its status as a Wendell Bennett lauded it as linked in rituals that did not wealth good. Murchison. is now in the in the United States or Europe. The that this widespread use the leaves were contained in hallucinogenic quality of coca of the leaf lessened its value. The enlargement of coca objects. Andean so satisfied they can work all rule. thegiftingof coca was meant 13. still valuable" (Cieza 1959: particularly the Suya. it does not appear proliferation of coca use during in these documents it was that this aspect of the plant the Colonial Period and notes not indicated whether or not was exploited by the Incas. ethnic Incas. coca was a part. He leaf because it made the leaf the art of the Andes. together in ceremonial possession of the Danish Royal Mrs. but that 4. Weaving Imperial Ideas: Iconography and Ideology of the Inca Coca Bag 175 composed of about 2. The two 10. of lime. contexts. Spanish Chroniclers as having produce hallucinations. seashells. had been given to them by the lords of Cusco" (Betanzos 3. This clothing local hierarchies. Eugene McDermott. and Mr. Mr. gained access to coca. In the further quotes Valera. were could be identified and so they 2. Father Joseph Acosta is quoted worn by provincial elites but local elites were often left by Mortimer (1901:155). The clothes that 1996:105). The coca leaf is often cited by 5. This information about to organize and supervise coca. interested in the history and were gifted to the caciques 12. gifted garments harkens the labor tribute. Along early part of the twentieth that coca. lords of Cusco were dressed standardized costume was. Mortimer was a physician the Sapa. 8. "makes the Indians with the cultural changes century as ]ohn Wise amassed stronger and fitter to work and that occurred under Spanish his collection. and 7.700 art 6. and Mrs. writing more readily available. (1946: 292) gives further establishes their submission Thus. the most important collection involve sacrifice. provincial elites not be equality and the vassals collection for Dallas. Algur H. and Mrs.G. "So now this coca 14. In his study of Suya body in any of the many ceremonial is not worth anything like ornaments (Seeger 1975: and religious rites in which what it used to be. Large doses of coca can to strengthen political bonds. choose . is not documented as a feature He writes. textile bags. According to Betanzos. W. in their finest garments while "To ensure that there would ]ake L. Garcilaso de la Vega during the Colonial period ancient Mesoamerica. Hamon secured the the caciques. The Prado-Tello Dossier.1560-1640. however. thereby Bird. Cieza describes the been part of burials. 9. first published in 1901. but it is 211) explains why cultures. most likely. many textiles. Meadows. For his description of coca 260). were. Alfred Tozzer. however. and Mrs. people from all classes archaeologists such as )unius day without eating" (Vega: 509). John D. The estimated length includes dressed in clothing that would not try to be equal to the fringe.

to announce the rainy or dry piercing ceremony and how season. especially those of that. penis sheath." Stone believes oftheTukano Indians. others' loyal limited. scarification. "Llamas were selected the Moche culture found in according to breed.176 Lauren Finley Hughes certain items as symbols. Llamas would have that expresses a wide range transported both coca and of information about social cotton to the highlands. status. Zuidema (1992: 63) writes attention. tombs at Sipan. 16. sex. expressing information. an element of the information can be gleaned. on age. Cobo. and hair styles. age. in ancient times was very Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatofi'has elegant and of many very studied the body ornamentation fine colors. Cabello de Garcilaso de la Vega (1966) Balboa. Betanzos (1996: were killed during ceremonies 63-4) describes the ear. which was worn by the lords ear discs. Seeger (1975) quotes Terence 22. Earspools. common subjugation by their limited ornaments of ancient Andean monochromy. Rowe (1946: 210-11) notes that plugs. and earspool size was dependent Cristobal de Molina. Stone (2007: 37) posits the Turner on how body ornaments idea that the top of the bag can act as a symbolic language may represent Cusco. profession. have been given some 19. ear plugs. hierarchy or purpose." cultures." unusually large due to the 20. 18. "Lip 23. but these llamas were young men were inducted to featured in ceremonies in the become orejones. The appropriation of tassels. "the clothing plates. coca and cotton were grown hair style. Stone (2007: 36) cites Cobo. the coca bag to be a body representative of thest/nfur ornament from which similar paucuar. and sex. color. These ornaments include: lip who writes. cotton leg and arm in the same lowland valleys bands. 15. Neither black nor white llamas ethnicity. and body painting on the Eastern slope of the make up a symbolic language Andes. plaza of Cusco." I believe 24. 17. earplugs. Martín de Murua. that the "powerful and especially their traditions of inclusive multiplicity of the body painting. Zuidema (1992: 64) cites Polo wearing of sizeable earspools. and 21. explains that the hierarchy of Guaman Poma. imperial headdress which . Zuidema (1991:179) cites Seeger introduces his study Garcilaso de la Vega for his by providing examples of body information on the fringe ornaments of modern cultures colors of the mascapaycha. Orejones is the Spanish and distinctions like nickname given to Inca fertility/sterility and wild/ officials whose ears appeared domesticated. de Ondegardo. which have been researched. Ancient studies ruler was represented by his of body ornaments are more polychromy.

vested within the lead animal. CO: that symbolic appropriation of Ceruti. New TX: University of Texas Press. I still believe and the Human Body. Letter to a King: A Peruvian American Anthropologist. Young-Sánchez and F. Uhle. and ed. F. 2002. It is interesting to note Museum. the connections between the City: University of Utah Press. 1999. References Duke University Press. Ann Arbor." folio 321) records the song Imperial Strategies in the Sacred Córdoba: Facultad de Filosofía y ofthe Sapa Inca and notes Valley. Vail & Company.: 239). Durham. imperial emblems may have Sacrificios y Ofrendas en un extended to animals (ibid. Inka Bodies and the Murra. and Strong. How the Incas the bag. the Art of Empire in the Andes. and ed. ). MA: Blackwell. "Inca Iconography. Peru History of interprets this ceremony D'Altroy. Berlekey. C. T. Dutton. made. Incas and Under Spanish Rule. D. de. Austin. Presence. 0. Dilke. 1993. D. If the coca American Ethnologist 17 Kroeber. L. "Cloth and Its ofthe Incas. The Uhle Collections from in his hand or if he wore the Classen. Rulership. 1924a. CA: University of still walk toward the owner of California Press." Hamilton and D. pp. Peru. TX: University of Texas Press. D. Dean. on either side ofthe head." Res Translated from Nueva Corónica y to the lead llama in caravan 38:168-78.. lea with Three Appendices by Max situations. "La Mascapaicha: 26. de Onis. 1962. bag's owner grasped the coca (November): 722-35. . The Uhle Collections from near the body in any of these Customs. T. Trans. ]." In tassels the same way an Inca Quellen zur Kutturegeschichte des M. S. Covey. W. Weaving imperial Ideas: iconography and Ideology of the Inca Coca Bag 177 included a tassel that fell Bray. A. 2000. Built Their Heartland: State Larea. Berkeley. 1956. A. Castro. Llullaillaco: Denver Art Museum. pp. "Cosmology in The llama probably wears the moda que este calle de Chincha. would have to be rather short. Hamilton. and Strong. New York: ]. "Sweet Colors. Arranged and ed. 101-19. R. B. and Morejón. and Cummins. 359-98. Norman. L. Ml: Humanidades. Pillsbury (eds) Palaces ofthe University of Oklahoma Press. H. Washington. The straps could have Classen. Stuttgart: Strecker Papers from the 2001 Mayer Center associate him with the Sapa unde Schroeder. Inca Cosmology Chincha. W. del carnero. Coca: The "Divine Plant" ofthe Incas. might suggest a different of the Andes and the Amazon. invocation ofthe rainy season. W. 1959. The Incas. Trans. CA: University of bag on the wrist. Dumbarton Oaks. R. Inca Religion and 1924b. and Space wearer's center the strap in Andean and Mesoamerican Cieza de León. P. 1990. the llamas would Austin. ]. Peru. [1615]. Toby Evans and Trans. y. The Incas. been lost or their absence Fragrant Songs: Sensory Models 1998." Colonial Cuzco. R. NC: Ph. 1990. Simpson administrator wears his fringe präkolumbianischen Amerika. 1996. C. i960. Symposium at the Denver Art Inca. M. y al tono University of Michigan Press. method of wear. New York: E. Buchanan. Fray C. Guaman Poma de Ayala. Santuario Inca de Alta Montaña. Guaman Poma (1978 [1615]: Formation and the Innovation of Corona del Imperio Incaico. 217-62. "The Economic Body of Christ: Corpus Christi in Organization ofthe Inca State. H. University of Chicago. P. 2003.D. Salt Lake California Press. 710-28." Zuidema (1992) Mortimer. 25. T. Narratives Murra. exemplifies the authority C. ]. "Body. Ca. [eds) Andean Textile Traditions: to signify his power and to pp. OK: The MFA coca bag and others |. Betanzos. Chief's Account of Life Under the Series 64 (August). diss. 1998." In S. October 10-11. and suggests that it was an Maiden. D. W. 2006. Denver. 1978 Function in the Inca State. 1936. body and the center can be Kroeber. To place the coca bag at the Salta: Universidad Católica de Salta. "Y. Relación y declaración del Hogue. 2006." DC: Dumbarton Oaks. 1901. The coca bag would be Cobo. A. Houston. C. In Inca Tunics and Tectonics. that he sings. Buen Gobierno. like it do not have existing Ancient New World Symposium at straps.

Lore 18(1-2): 63-77. Leeds and Crédito del Perú. DC: United Berkley. H. 2007 "And All Theirs Advancement of Science. Tapestries and Silverwork 1530- 1830. V. 2004. Uhle. G. Young. A. R." TMs Phipps. Austin. Andes: from Chavfn to Inca. W. Denver.) Handbook of Europeans and Andeans in the South American Indians. T. Adorno the Time ofthe Spanish Conquest. The Ice Maiden: Livermore. New York: Metropolitan Stone-Miller. Press. S. D. Commentaries ofthe Inkas and Stanford. The Uhle from the 2001 Mayer Center Collections from Ancon. "Guaman Poma Washington. 1965. 2006. 1992. 143 Vol. V. Andrien and R. Different From His: Dumbarton Oaks Royal Tunic in Context. J. Museum. 1994. Royal Authority and Identity in the Andes. by H. J. 263-97. London: Thames & Hudson. DC: National and the Art of Empire: Toward an Geographic. T. CA: University of California States Government Printing Office. J. 2005. R. pp. 1925.178 Lauren Finley Hughes Murra." In A." In F. Be Fed: The Cosmological Bases of Vega. Pillsbury. Colonial Andes: [photocopy]. CA: University of Ramirez. J. R. London: Sanchez and F." journal of Latin American (ed. Reinhard. "Inca Colonial Tunics: A Case Study of the Stone-Miller. E. J. Explorations at Chincha. CO: Denver Art Museum. 1946. Andean Textile Traditions: Papers Strong. M. 1966. Washington." Rowe. Berkeley. CT: Yale the Sun: Ancient Andean textiles in University Press. 199^. 151-202. A. Trans. of Cuzco. H. with an Intro. DC: American Association for the Stone.) Los Incas: arte y símbolos. Zuidema. P. One. 120-68. "The 1999. . Berkeley. Part Press. TX: University of Inca Mummies. Steward (ed. Mountain Gods. R. Washington. Simpson (eds) Thames & Hudson. and Roussakis. 1991. 2. pp. Vayda (eds) Man. 1975 "The Meaning of Animals: The Role of Animals in Body Ornaments: A Suyu Example. W. Art ofthe Bandelier Set. New Haven. Lima: Banco de in the Inca State." (eds) Transatlantic Encounters: In J. L. 3 Ouly): 211-24. R. 185-212. "Inca Culture at In K." Human Ecological Adjustments. Symposium at the Denver Art CA: University of California Press. Bulletin Sixteenth Century. Texas Press. To Weave for Museum of Art. Y. pp. Pease G. the Museum of Fine Arts. To Feed and California Press. and Seeger. 2005." In M. de la. CA: Stanford University General History of Peru. and Sacred Sites in the Andes. Boston. 1924. "Tejidos y Tejedores del Organization of Sacrifice in the City Tahuantinsuyo. Ethnology i¿i No. E. Culture. Iconography of Inca Royal Dress. "Herds and herders pp. Zuidema. Salazar.

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