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Design

for Fire and Robustness

Frantiek WALD
TAN Kang Hai
Jean-Marc FRANSSEN
Jean-Franois DEMONCEAU
Zdenk SOKOL

After fire
Principles
Assessment List of Lessons at Seminar
procedure
Design for
repair 1. Fire safety FW
Case study 2. Fire and mechanical loading FW
Summary 3. Thermal response FW
4. Steel structures JMF
Historical 5. Concrete structures JMF
structures
6. Composite structures JMF
Statistics
7. Advanced models JMF
Cultural value
Technology 8. Composite floors FW
Management 9. Aluminum structures FW
Case studies 10. Timber structures FW
11. After fire and Historical structures FW
Notes 12. Overview of Explosion-blast Resistance KHT
13. Response to blast KHT
14. P-I diagram KHT
15. Equivalent single degree KHT
16. Design example KHT
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course 17. Definitions of Design for Robustness JMD
18. Global response of structures JMD
Sustainable Constructions 19. Design recommendations JMD
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 20. Alternative load path method JMD 2
Structures after fire
and
Historical structures in fire
Frantiek Wald
Czech Technical University in Prague

After fire
Principles
Assessment Objectives of the lecture
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study The treatment of reconstruction of fire damaged
Summary
structures
Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value The particularity of fire safety of historical
Technology
Management structures
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 4
After fire
Principles Structures after fire
Assessment
procedure Outline of the lecture
Design for
repair
Case study o Principles
Summary
o Assessment procedure
Historical
structures o Design for repair
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology o Case study
Management
Case studies o Summary
Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 5

After fire
Principles
Assessment Structures after fire
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study In fire design
Summary

Historical
structures the structure should resist the required time
Statistics of fire
Cultural value
Technology the structure should survived all fire exposure
Management
Case studies

Notes

Based on rules and models

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 6
After fire
Principles
Assessment Structures after fire
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study The structural behavior after fire is not determined
Summary

Historical
After compartment fires
structures all the interior is substantially damaged
Statistics
Cultural value Bearing structure is only
Technology
Management part of the cost of the building
Case studies
Except of special cases, like
Notes
Tunnels
Highrised
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Towers

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 7

After fire
Principles
Assessment Assessment procedure
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary Site visit
Historical
structures Desk study
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology Detailed collection of evidence
Management
Case studies

Notes
Damage assessment

Specification of repairs
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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
After fire
Principles
Assessment Site visit
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary To gain early scale of damage
Historical
structures To advise on safety of building
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology To recommend protection measures
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events

After fire
Principles
Assessment Desk Study
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study Collect relevant information
Summary

Historical Original design of building


structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Construction materials, usage before
Technology fire, cause of fire
Management
Case studies
Duration of fire
Notes
Fire spread
Contents left unburnt
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Master Course

Establish a strategy for gathering


of more detailed information
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
After fire
Principles Detailed Assessment Strategy
Assessment
procedure Demage classification
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary A. No damage
Historical
structures
B. Repairable damages
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
detailed collection of evidences
Management
Case studies C. Major damage
Notes
replacement of structural member
D. Total damage
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scrap
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events

After fire
Principles
Assessment References to assesment procedure
procedure
Design for
Concrete structures,
Fire

repair causing
possible
structural

Case study damage

Summary Concrete Soc., 1990 Preliminary inspection and immediate


measures for securing public safety

Historical Is
building/structure
No Is
building/structure
Yes

Carry out damage
classification survey
safe

structures
essential

No

Statistics
Yes
Has Consider scheme
structure adequate for repair and Prop

Cultural value life expectancy propping

Technology No Preliminary
design for major
Is
structural repair
No

Management
re-building required
scheme
Yes

Case studies Any defects


outstanding
Yes Yes Is major
new work
required
No No

Notes Consider method


of repair and
consult with
Yes

Can
original strength
specialist repair be restored
contractors
No
Re-analyse and
re-appraise the
No loadings, safety
Is scheme
factors, actual
still viable
strengths and use
Yes No
Yes
Detail design Can and adequate
repair now be
done
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Client approval Client/Legislative Assembly
Master Course to demolish Approval for
Agreement of Legislative Assembly
Approval of client
repair scheme for remedial work

Structural Non
Sustainable Constructions Demolish
repair structural
remedial
under Natural Hazards work
and Catastrophic Events
After fire
Principles
Assessment
References to assesment procedure
procedure Concrete structures
Design for
repair Fire
Case study causing
Summary possible
structural
damage
Historical
structures
Statistics Preliminary inspection and immediate
Cultural value measures for securing public safety

Technology
Management
No Yes
Case studies Is Is
Carry out damage
building/structure building/structure classification survey
essential safe
Notes
No
Yes
Has Consider scheme
structure adequate for repair and Prop
life expectancy propping

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Master Course

No Preliminary Is
design for major structural repair
Sustainable Constructions re-building required
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events scheme
Y

Is No Is Yes
Carry out damage
building/structure building/structure classification survey
essential safe
After fire
References to assesment procedure
No
Principles Yes
Assessment Has Consider scheme

procedure Concrete structures



structure adequate
life expectancy
for repair and
propping
Prop

Design for
repair No Preliminary Is No
design for major structural repair
Case study re-building required

Summary scheme
Yes

Yes Yes Is major


Any defects
Historical outstanding
new work
required
structures No No
Statistics Consider method
Yes
Cultural value of repair and
consult with
Can
original strength
Technology specialist repair
contractors
be restored

Management
No
Re-analyse and
Case studies No
re-appraise the
loadings, safety
Is scheme
factors, actual
still viable
strengths and use
Notes Yes No
Yes
Detail design Can and adequate
repair now be
done

Client approval Client/Legislative Assembly Agreement of Legislative Assembly


to demolish Approval for Approval of client
repair scheme for remedial work
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course

Structural Non
Demolish structural
Sustainable Constructions repair
remedial
under Natural Hazards
work
and Catastrophic Events
After fire
Principles
Assessment References to assesment procedure
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study Steel structures
Summary
Kirby et al, 1986
Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events

After fire
Principles References to assesment procedure
Assessment
procedure Steel structures
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
After fire
Principles
Referencesto
References toassesment
assesmentprocedure
procedure
Assessment Steel structures
procedure Steel structures
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events

After fire
Principles
Assessment Detailed Collection of Evidence
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary Residual strength and stiffness of
Historical material
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Temperature attained in structure
Technology
Management Fire development
Case studies

Notes
Cooling
Result of firemen's intervention
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course Correlation of results
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
After fire
Principles
Assessment Fire Developments
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary Depends on
Historical
structures Burnt combustible materials
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology Openings
Management
Case studies
Construction materials of enclosure
Notes

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Should fulfill
Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
Correlation with physical evidence
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events

After fire
Principles Temperatures Attained
Assessment
procedure in Structural Members
Design for
repair
Case study Fire development + thermal analysis
Summary

Historical
Metallurgy analysis
structures
Statistics Colour changes in concrete
Cultural value
Technology
Management More detailed testing:
Case studies
thermoluminescence test
Notes

Physical evidence
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Master Course
Correlation of results
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
After fire
Principles
Assessment Mechanical Properties
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study Temperatures + residual properties
Summary
relationships
Historical
structures
Statistics
Non-destructive testing
Cultural value
Technology
Schmit Hammer Test
Management
Case studies
Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test
Notes

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Destructive testing
Master Course

Correlation of results
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events

After fire
Principles
Assessment Destructive Tests
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
Concrete core test
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Steel coupone test
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
After fire
Principles
Assessment Steel coupone test
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Steel degradation after heating to 950C
Stress, N/mm 2
Summary
550 Test pieces taken before high-temperaure tests

Historical 500
structures 450 Test pieces taken after high-temperature tests
Statistics
400
Cultural value
Technology 350
Management 300
Case studies
250
Notes 200

150

100

50
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Master Course 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Strain, %

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events see Outinen and Mkelinen, 2004

After fire
Principles
Assessment Design calculations for repair
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study Load
Summary
Include extra weight of repair materials
Historical
structures Temporary support loads
Statistics
Cultural value Reduced material factors
Technology
Management
Case studies
Model
Notes
Treat structure as simply supported
Complex modelling at elevated
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Master Course
temperature

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
After fire
Principles Design calculations for repair
Assessment
procedure of steel structures
Design for
repair
Case study Compressed members
Summary
Check of straitness
Historical
structures Imperfections and tolerances
Statistics
Cultural value Change of deformed compressed members
Technology
Management Local buckling of plates heated
Case studies
up to 500 C
Notes

Steel connections
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Master Course
Bolts - change
Welds - 90 % resistance of heated up to
500 C
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events

After fire
Principles Design calculations for repair
Assessment
procedure of steel structures
Design for
repair
Case study Fireman intervention
Summary
Hardening and los of ductility
Historical
structures Source fireman reports of fire attack
Statistics
Cultural value Hardeness check by impact hammer
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
After fire
Principles
Assessment
procedure
Repair Methods
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary
Reconstruction
Historical
Sprayed concrete
structures
Statistics Resin repair
Cultural value
Technology Overcladding
Management
Case studies Others
Notes
FRP strengthening
Change of use
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Additional supports
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events

After fire
Principles
Assessment
procedure
Advanced techniques
Design for
repair
Case study Consideration of actual fire
Summary
fire generate non-uniform temperature
Historical
structures Fire advanced modelling
Statistics
Cultural value Thermal deformation measurements
Technology
Management Destructive + non-destructive testing
Case studies

Notes
Advanced models of damaged structure

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Case study
Steel coal feeding bridge

Fire - September 2005, Opatovice power station, Czech Republic


Coal belt transport infrastructure completely burned
Bearing structure noticeably damaged

120 m
of the steel transport bridges attact

Steel partially demaged bridges


Concrete tunels Discarge

37 m 30 m 30 m 30 m 50 m
Observations

Geodetic measurements of major positions of the structure,


joints of the trusses and the rail of the conveyor
Geometric measurements of straightness of compressed
elements

Mechanical property by 54 coupon tests - reduction 10 %


Microstructure of steel changes acceptable

Deformed upper stiffening truss


Reconstruction

Replacing of the end frame

Elements with excessive deformations were replaced


Maximum allowed out of straightness 10 mm

Operational test after reconstruction

View into the reconstructed bridge

Replacement
Horizontal bridges
Upper truss stiffeners
Upper crossbeams

Upper parts of the props of the end stiffeners

Inclined bridge
Also lower cross beams
Also lower stiffening trusses
Straightening
of riveted
connections
Straightening of frame geometry

Not visibly deformed


After detailed calculation
Assumed 15 % reduction of resistance

Unsatisfactory connection

strengthened by welding

Bridge after reconstruction

Uncovered
bridge

Reconstruction
in three weeks
After fire
Principles
Assessment
procedure
Summary
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary
Assessment differs
Historical from fire resistant design of the structure
structures
Statistics From structural material
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Steel fire damaged structures
Case studies can be mostly repaired
Notes Concrete fire damaged structures
have to be damaged

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Timber fire damaged structures
Master Course
mostly does not exists
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 37

After fire
Principles
Assessment
procedure
Assessment
Design for
repair
Case study Which structures are designed after fire?
Summary

Historical
What are the steps of detailed Assessment
structures Strategy?
Statistics
Cultural value What are the steps Assessment Procedure?
Technology
Management
Case studies
What is the procedure for compressed
members after fire?
Notes
What is the procedure for bolted connections
after fire?

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What is the procedure for welded connections
after fire?
Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 38
After fire
Principles Historical structures in fire
Assessment
procedure Outline of the lecture
Design for
repair
Case study Data, loss statistics and evaluating risks
Summary

Historical Cultural and financial value


structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Available and developing technology
Technology
Management Property management strategies
Case studies

Notes Case studies

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 39

After fire
Principles
Assessment 15th C Sdra Rda Church, Sweden
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 40
After fire
Principles
Assessment 15th C Sdra Rda Church, Sweden
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 41

After fire
Principles Burns Monument after November
Assessment
procedure 2004 fire, Kilmarnock. Scotland
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 42
After fire
Principles Burns Monument after November
Assessment
procedure 2004 fire, Kilmarnock. Scotland
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 43

After fire
Principles
Assessment Historic fire incidents in cities
procedure
Design for
repair London, England 1212 and 1666
Case study Uppsala, Sweden 1702
Summary
Copenhagen, Denmark 1795
Historical Edinburgh, Scotland 1824
structures Chicago, USA 1871
Statistics Boston, USA 1872
Cultural value
Technology Jacksonville, USA 1901
Management Baltimore, USA 1904
Case studies Alesund, Norway 1904
Chelsea, USA 1908
Notes
Salem, USA 1914
Thessaloniki, Greece 1917
Tokyo, Japan 1923
Chiado, Lisbon, Portugal 1988
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Master Course Edinburgh, Scotland 2002
Trondheim, Norway 2002
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 44
After fire
Principles Major European heritage fire losses
Assessment
procedure the mid 1980s to the mid 1990s
Design for
repair
Case study York Minster, England July 1984
Summary
Hampton Court Palace, England March 1986
Historical Uppark House, England August 1989
structures
Statistics Proveantgarden, Copenhagen, Denmark February 1992
Cultural value Odd Fellow Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark April 1992
Technology
Management Christianborg Palace Church, Copenhagen, Denmark June
Case studies 1992
Notes Windsor Castle, England November 1992
Redoutensal, Hofburg Palace, Vienna, Austria November
1992
Pont de la Chapelle, Lucerne, Switzerland August 1993
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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 45

After fire
Principles Example
Assessment
procedure Fire Loss to Historic Buildings
Design for
repair
Case study
Monthly and Cumulative in UK Historic
Summary Buildings
Historical
structures
Lost or damaged heritage buildings
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Jan 2002 Jun 2006


Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 46
After fire
Principles Trinity Cathedral,
Assessment
procedure St Petersburg, Russia
Design for
repair
Case study York Minster, England July 1984
Summary Hampton Court Palace, England March 1986
Historical
Uppark House, England August 1989
structures Proveantgarden, Copenhagen, Denmark February 1992
Statistics Odd Fellow Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark April 1992
Cultural value Christianborg Palace Church, Copenhagen, Denmark
Technology
Management
June 1992
Case studies Windsor Castle, England November 1992
Redoutensal, Hofburg Palace, Vienna, Austria
Notes November 1992
Pont de la Chapelle, Lucerne, Switzerland August 1993

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 47

After fire
Principles Most common causes
Assessment
procedure of fire in historic buildings
Design for
repair
Case study 1. Arson
Summary

Historical
2. Electrical fault
structures
Statistics 3. Match
Cultural value
Technology 4. Smoking Materials
Management
Case studies 5. Candle
Notes
6. Heating equipment
7. Natural causes (lightning)
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8. Hot works
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 48
After fire
Principles
Assessment Causes of Fire Loss
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures Arson
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course to UK Historic Buildings
(Jan 2002 - June 2006)
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 49

After fire
Principles Hofburg Palace,
Assessment
procedure Vienna December 1992
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 50
After fire
Principles Thatched Cottage, Stanford in the Vale,
Assessment
procedure
Oxford, England August 2005 fire
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 51

After fire
Principles Bower Building, Glasgow University,
Assessment
procedure Scotland
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 52
After fire
Principles Evaluation of risks:
Assessment
procedure measures for historic buildings
Design for
repair Considering the consequences of the loss of a historic building,
Case study
Summary the risk analysis should include:

Historical
loss of economic value (in terms of providing a modern
structures replacement of premises of the same quality as the building
Statistics which has been lost)
Cultural value
Technology loss of historic cultural and emotional value
Management
Case studies loss of a positive image for the local community

Notes loss of economic impact on the tourist industry


additional costs for reconstruction

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 53

After fire
Principles Evaluation of risks:
Assessment
procedure special measures for historic buildings
Design for
repair
Case study The special characteristics of historic buildings
Summary
should be described and analysed in the risk
Historical analysis to recognise the:
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
particular vulnerability of the building
Technology
Management activities taking place in the building
Case studies
fabric of the building and its structural features
Notes
surroundings of the building, and the activities that
take place there

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probability of fire ignition
Master Course

length of time required for the fire brigade to arrive


Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 54
After fire
Principles
Assessment Fire risk from spot lamp
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 55

After fire
Principles Introducing technology
Assessment
procedure into historic and cultural buildings
Design for
repair Essential
Case study
The fire systems should be central to meeting the objectives of the
Summary
protection of life, buildings and contents.
Historical Appropriate to Risk
structures Any system that is installed should be apposite to the risks being
Statistics considered.
Cultural value Compliant with legislation
Technology Systems should be installed according to demonstrable
Management performance-based and other legislatively prescribed
Case studies standards of safety.
Notes
Minimally invasive
The retrospective fitting of fire systems should involve minimal
degrees of physical intervention on the historic structure.
Sensitively integrated
Installed systems should be designed to be integrated
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sympathetically with the historic fabric and its detail.
Master Course
Reversible
Fire systems should be installed according to a reversible, plug-in,
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
plug-out installation philosophy.
and Catastrophic Events 56
After fire
Principles Inserted
Assessment
procedure intumescent door sealing strip
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 57

After fire
Principles
Assessment Sprinkler
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 58
After fire
Principles Technical solution
Assessment
procedure Example - pull fire escape
Design for
repair Museo diocesano Santa Chiara di Sulmona
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events

After fire
Principles Technical solution
Assessment
procedure Example - pull fire escape
Design for
repair Museo diocesano Santa Chiara di Sulmona
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
After fire
Principles Technical solution
Assessment
procedure Example - pull fire escape
Design for
repair Museo diocesano Santa Chiara di Sulmona
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events

After fire
Principles
Assessment Improvements by records/rules
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study A Fire Safety Log Book
Summary Fire training sessions
Historical Fire drills undertaken
structures Inspections
Statistics by the insurance company, fire brigade or other
Cultural value
Technology persons including brief details of any observations
Management made
Case studies Full details of all fire equipment
Notes fire systems maintenance, including
emergency lighting
fire detection or alarm systems
Details of any fire incidents, false alarms or
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Master Course
other matters of interest, together with the
responses or remedial action taken.
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 62
After fire
Principles Schloss Schonbrunn Damage
Assessment
procedure Limitation Team structure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 63

After fire
Principles Herzogin Anna Amalia Library
Assessment
procedure in Weimar
Design for
repair
Case study Built in 1565 as a palace for Duke Johann Wilhelm
Summary
In 1766, the Duchess Anna Amalia converted to
Historical Library
structures
Statistics Goethe the librarian (1797 1832)
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 64
After fire
Principles
Assessment Engraving
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 65

After fire
Principles
Assessment Fire
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study Evening of 2 September 2004 severely demages
Summary The fire started in the attic and spread to the rococo
Historical hall
structures Automatic fire report
Statistics
Cultural value Fire compartmentation, fire walls and doors
Technology
Management 50,000 books were completely destroyed
Case studies
62,000 suffered fire and/or water damage
Notes saved as the fire blazed by staff and the public,
who organised hand-to-hand chains.
included the Luther Bible from 1534
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 66
After fire
Principles
Assessment Library on fire: 2 September 2004
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 67

After fire
Principles
Assessment Post fire situation
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 68
After fire
Principles The interior
Assessment
procedure after the fire
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 69

After fire
Principles The interior
Assessment
procedure after the fire
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 70
After fire
Principles
Assessment Book salvage
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 71

After fire
Principles
Assessment Historic books do burn
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 72
After fire
Principles
Assessment Book salvage
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 73

After fire
Principles
Assessment The Colosseum fire 217 AD
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study According to study of Prof. Enzo Cartapati
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 74
After fire
Principles
Assessment The Colosseum fire 217 AD
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study For up to 45 000 viewers
Summary
Timber stands and equipment
Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 75

After fire
Principles
Assessment The Colosseum fire 217 AD
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study Construction from 69 AD under Emperor Vespasian
Summary
Open hand 80 AD at emperor Titus
Historical
structures Fire in 217, 23 August??
Statistics
Cultural value Earthquakes year August-October 223
Technology
Management
Case studies Reconstruction in 230
Under the Emperor of Alexander Severus
Notes
Abandoned in 523

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 76
After fire
Principles
Assessment The Colosseum fire 217 AD
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary
Fire simulation by prof. Enzo Cartapati
Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Temperature of fire Temperature of structure


Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 77

After fire
Principles
Assessment The Colosseum fire 217 AD
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary
Fire simulation by prof. Enzo Cartapati
Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Transfer of heat
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 78
After fire
Principles
Assessment The Colosseum fire 217 AD
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary
Fire simulation by prof. Enzo Cartapati
Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Mechanical model
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 79

After fire
Principles
Assessment The Colosseum fire 217 AD
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary
Fire simulation by prof. Enzo Cartapati
Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Temperature of structure
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 80
After fire
Principles
Assessment The Colosseum fire 217 AD
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study
Summary
Fire simulation by prof. Enzo Cartapati
Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Colosseum today
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 81

After fire
Principles
Assessment The Colosseum fire 217 AD
procedure
Design for
repair
Case study Virtual fire show 17.-19.9.2010
Summary

Historical
structures
Statistics
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 82
After fire
Principles
Assessment List of Lessons at Seminar
procedure
Design for
repair 1. Fire safety FW
Case study 2. Fire and mechanical loading FW
Summary 3. Thermal response FW
4. Steel structures JMF
Historical 5. Concrete structures JMF
structures
6. Composite structures JMF
Statistics
7. Advanced models JMF
Cultural value
Technology 8. Composite floors FW
Management 9. Aluminum structures FW
Case studies 10. Timber structures FW
11. After fire and Historical structures FW
Notes 12. Overview of Explosion-blast Resistance KHT
13. Response to blast KHT
14. P-I diagram KHT
15. Equivalent single degree KHT
16. Design example KHT
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course 17. Definitions of Design for Robustness JMD
18. Global response of structures JMD
Sustainable Constructions 19. Design recommendations JMD
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 20. Alternative load path method JMD 83

Thank you
for your attention

Frantiek WALD
wald@fsv.cvut.cz
After fire
Principles
Assessment Sources
procedure
Design for
repair Chan D., 2009. Fire damage assessment of structural steel in a
Case study school, The Structural Engineer, 87 (19) 6 October, pp. 18-20.
Summary
Concrete Society, 1990. Assessment and Repair of Fire-Damaged
Historical Concrete Structures, Technical Report No. 15, The Concrete
structures Society, UK.
Statistics
Cultural value Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA),
Technology 1986, Testing Concrete in Structures, A Guide to Equipment for
Management Testing Concrete in Structures, Technical Report 143, CIRIA, UK.
Case studies
Dias W. P. S., 1992. Some properties of hardened cement paste and
Notes reinforcing bars upon cooling from elevated temperatures, Fire and
Materials, 16 (1), pp. 29-35.
Hajpl M. 2008. Heat effect by natural stones used by historical
monuments, 11th International Congress on Deterioration and
European Erasmus Mundus
Conservation of Stone (STONE 2008).
Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events

After fire
Principles
Assessment Sources
procedure
Design for
repair Hajpl M., Trk . 2004. Physical and mineralogical changes in
Case study sandstones due to fire and heat. Environmental Geology, 46, 3, 306-
Summary 312.
Historical Kirby, B.R., Lapwood, D.G. & Thomson, G., 1986. The
structures Reinstatement of Fire Damaged Steel and Iron Framed Structures,
Statistics British Steel Corporation (now Corus), London, p. 46
Cultural value
Technology Outinen, J., Mkelinen, P., 2004. Mechanical properties of structural
Management steel at elevated temperatures and after cooling Fire and Materials,
Case studies 28 (2-4), pp. 237-251.
Notes Pang P. T. C., 2006. Fire engineering design and post fire
assessment, The Structural Engineer 84, (16) 6 October, pp.23-29.
Steel Construction Industry Forum (SCIF), 1991. Structural Fire
Engineering: Investigation of Broadgate Phase 8 Fire, Steel
European Erasmus Mundus
Construction Institute, UK.
Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
After fire
Principles
Assessment Sources
procedure
Design for
repair The Institution of Structural Engineers (ISE), 1996. Appraisal of
Case study Existing Structures, Institution of Structural Engineers, London, UK.
Summary
Trk ., Hajpl M. 2005. Effect of Temperature Changes on the
Historical Mineralogy and Physical properties of Sandstones. A Laboratory
structures Study. International Journal for Restoration of Buildings and
Statistics Monuments, 11, 4, Freiburg, 211-217.
Cultural value
Technology Vcha, J., 2006. Reconstruction of coal feeding bridge after fire. in
Management Czech Rekonstrukce zauhlovacch most po poru, Konstrukce, 01,
Case studies pp. 22-24. ISSN 1803-8433.
Notes Wang Y.C., Wald F., Trk A., Hajpl M., 2008. Fire damaged
structures, in Technical sheets Urban habitat constructions under
catastrophic events, Print Prask technika, Czech Technical
University in Prague, ISBN 978-80-01-04268-7.

European Erasmus Mundus


Yan, X., Li, H., Wong, Y. L,. 2007. Assessment and repair of fire-
Master Course
damaged high-strength concrete: Strength and durability Journal of
Materials in Civil Engineering 19 (6), pp. 462-469.
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events

After fire
Principles
Assessment Sources
procedure
Design for
repair Ingval Maxwell I:. COST Action C17, Built Heritage: Fire Loss to
Case study Historic Buildings - Executive Summary of Recommendations,
Summary Historic Scotland, Edinburgh 2007, ISBN 978 1 904966 53 1.
Historical Cartapati E., Cerone M., The Colosseum fire: 217 AD,
structures COST Action C17: Built Heritage: Fire Loss to Historic Buildings:
Statistics Conference Proceedings - Part 4, Rome, 2006.
Cultural value
Technology
Management
Case studies

Notes

European Erasmus Mundus


Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events