Welcome to

Electric Power Systems
Wind farm

Source: balticcable.com
HVDC

www.iea.lth.se/eks
Olof Samuelsson
Olof.Samuelsson@iea.lth.se 1 Olof Samuelsson 2

This lecture Blackout!
• What is a blackout?
1. Initial fault
2. New power flow situation
3. Loads and generators disconnected
4. Restoration
• About the course
• Single line diagram
• Per unit normalization
Olof Samuelsson 3 Olof Samuelsson 4

1

5-6. What is a blackout? Sweden 23 September 2003 • Initiating event • Initiating event – Fault (short-circuit) or malfunction – Two-phase short-circuit at substation – Disconnection of faulted part • Final stage • Problem spreads – Voltage collapse – Lines overload and disconnect • 4 Million people affected • Collapse and blackout – Stability limit is reached • Restoration time 1.5 h • Restoration Olof Samuelsson 5 Olof Samuelsson 6 Starting point Sequence of events P Sweden 15 000 MW 12:35 Nuclear plant Oskarshamn Disconnector fails 12:30 -1200 MW O1 and O2 out of service Nuclear plant Ringhals O3 1200 MW in Horred substation O3 Emergency stop R1 out of service 12:35 -1800 MW R2 870 MW R3 and R4 to house R3 and R4 2x900 MW operation Import from Danmark 450 MW Karlshamnsverket out of service (48 h startup) Nuclear plant Barsebäck (B1 and) B2 out of service Olof Samuelsson 7 Olof Samuelsson 8 2 .

Karlshamnsverket starting. 19:05 Last customers in Open: Closed: Denmark brought on -line 18:20 Most Sydkraft customers on-line isolate for maintenance carry load current visual open -circuit Olof Samuelsson 11 Olof Samuelsson 12 3 . Gas turbines in South Sweden in operation. Blackout! System frequency 12:37 Voltage collapse The blackout is a fact Olof Samuelsson 9 Olof Samuelsson 10 Pantograph type disconnector Restoration ∼14:00 400 kV network intact 13:46 Denmark allowed to reconnect to Sweden ∼15:30 (max 200 MW).

USA 14 August 2003 System split into islands • Initiating event – Generator shutdowns • Final stage – Voltage collapse • 50 Million people affected • Restoration time up to 30 h Olof Samuelsson 13 Olof Samuelsson 14 Area hit by blackout Italy 28 September 2003 • Initiating event – Two lines trip in stormy weather • All lines into Italy lost one by one • Final stage unknown • 58 Million people affected • Restoration time 16.5 h Olof Samuelsson 15 Olof Samuelsson 16 4 .

30 million – See Textbook chapter 13 Olof Samuelsson 17 Olof Samuelsson 18 Post mortem analysis Video 10 August 1996 • Pre-fault operating state • Hot weather – Generator and line status • Line sags into tree • Sequence of events • Other lines overload – Digital fault recorders • 4 island networks – Time of breaker openings – Time uncertainty • Fast analysis with new tools • Large amounts of information • Sweden: Windpower trips cause/effect? Olof Samuelsson 19 Olof Samuelsson 20 5 . Italy blackout Famous blackouts • USA 2 July 1996 – Line into tree. voltage collapse • USA 1965 ”The great blackout” – Generator trip.5 million • Sweden 27 December 1983 – Disconnector failed. report 2 August • USA 10 August 1996 – Line into tree. voltage collapse. angle instability. 7. angle instability.

larger area affected • Restore service • Remove fault and repair damage • Automatic reclosing – Lightning strikes only temporary – Light back in <1s • Restore service Olof Samuelsson 21 Olof Samuelsson 22 Detect fault current Interrupt current • Moving contacts apart not enough • Relay protection – Arc current flows through arc (ionized air) – Measures U and I – Extinguish arc. AC current passes zero – Detects fault • Fuse – Controls breaker – Measures current! • Earth fault protection – Manually replaced – ˜ Relay protection + small breaker • Circuit breaker • Disconnector Olof Samuelsson 23 Olof Samuelsson 24 6 . Fault handling Events at fault • Detect fault • Isolate fault • Fault occurs – Isolate fault and minimum part of the system • Isolate fault – Neighboring parts back to normal • Remove fault – Component can fail.

400 kV – High reliability Source: vattenfall. 220.se – Meshed network Olof Samuelsson 27 Olof Samuelsson 28 7 . cannot extinguish arc • Hidden breaking point Source: Nicklasson • Manual control • Visual open-circuit for safety • Challenge: Several kA • Challenge: Open construction unprotected Olof Samuelsson 25 Olof Samuelsson 26 Transmission and distribution Bridging distances Generation | Transmission Transmission | Distribution – Hundreds of km | Consumption – Hundreds of MW – Economical V˜ 15 P – SE: 130. Disconnector Circuit breaker • Interrupts large current Arcing at opening – Cooling of disconnector carrying too large – Pressurized air. oil current • Remote control – Protection – Control center • For small current.

4 kV Load Olof Samuelsson 29 Olof Samuelsson 30 Meshed network N-1 reliability criterion • Transmission • Intact system has N components • Meshing • Withstand loss of any single – Many infeeds – Generator – Many supply points – Line or cable – Many paths for power – Transformer • Reliability – Busbar (interconnection point) – N-1 criterion • No overload on remaining components • Major outages: N-1 turns into N-2… Olof Samuelsson 31 Olof Samuelsson 32 8 . 50 kV 30-70 kV 21100 km – Single infeed – Radial network 10-20 kV 152000 km Node 400 V 280000 km – Many supply points • Reliability City Countryside – Single fault interrupts service 0. Reach addresses Radial network Distribution Line length SE 1996 • Distribution Infeed 400 kV 9851 km – Distance few km 130. 20.220 kV 19740 km • Tree shape Line – SE: 10.

Angle stability. power system control • Adding little load – 3. how to practice? – 5. Voltage stability. Load flow • Energizing lines • Blackout when stability limit is reached – Careful with voltage – 2. synchronous generators – Limited control capacity • Short-circuits initiate problems • Adding generation and load – 4. Unsymmetrical faults Olof Samuelsson 35 Olof Samuelsson 36 9 . Relay protection and symmetrical faults • Restoration important. Power flow in PowerWorld Stability limits • Angle instability – Active power imbalance – Mechanical generator dynamics excited – Generator loses synchronism – Generator disconnected • Voltage instability – Lack of reactive power – Overload of power lines – Loads disconnected Olof Samuelsson 33 Olof Samuelsson 34 Restoration Blackout and course modules • Blackstart generating units • Problem spreads – Batteries and diesel for starting – 1.

A course module Learning sequence • Tuesday: Lecture • Demonstrate need for knowledge • Thursday: Hand exercise • Learn theory – Work in pairs – Lecture – Small system in detail by hand • Practice principle • Monday: Computer exercise – Hand exercise – Work in pairs • Practice principle in practice – Large system in detail with computer – Computer exercise – Large system simplified by hand Olof Samuelsson 37 Olof Samuelsson 38 Other activities Schedule • Laboratory exercises W Monday Tuesday Thursday – Power in AC networks 1 L1 L2 E1 Lecture – Synchronous generator 2 SV1 L3 E2 Exercise • Study visits 3 C1 L4 E3 Computer – Real-time simulator. Malmö Högskola 4 C2 L5 E4 Study Visit – Substation in Lund 5 C3 L/E5 L/E6 • Current topics lecture 6 C4 L/E7 L/E8 7 C5 SV2 L6 Olof Samuelsson 39 Olof Samuelsson 40 10 .

15 • Akademibokhandeln today – E:1406 this week Internet cheap but slow M:E – M:E other weeks Olof • PowerWorld CD included • Notice board • Lab 7 Olof Samuelsson 41 Olof Samuelsson 42 Assumed knowledge Substation • Parts of a power system – Generator. Glover & M. Rooms Textbook • Mondays 13-15 • J. US. line. ISBN 0-53495-367-0 • Thursdays 13. D. transformer Source: Lakervi & Holmes • Three-phase voltage and currents • AC power • Electric machinery basics • Matlab/Simulink Olof Samuelsson 43 Olof Samuelsson 44 11 . 2002 • Tuesdays 15-17 – M:B • 3rd ed. Sarma: – M:E Power System Analysis and Design – E:Neptunus. E:Pluto • Brooks-Cole.

=V actual /V base =11kV/10kV=1.1p.u.u. indicates if situation is normal • Voltage levels comparable • Simplifies transformer calculations Olof Samuelsson 47 Olof Samuelsson 48 12 . circuit breakers. Substation functions Single line diagram symbols Three-phase component Comment Busbar No impedance • Voltage transformation (reduction) Three-phase line Line with impedance – Power transformer Power transformer US: • Switchyard for network configuration Generator – Busbars. • p.u. disconnectors Load Circuit breaker US: Open Closed • Monitoring point for control center Disconnector – Potential and current transformers Surge arrester Overvoltage protection • Fuses and other protection Current transformer Potential transformer Olof Samuelsson 45 Olof Samuelsson 46 Substation layout Per unit normalization • Normalize to nominal value Source: Lakervi & Holmes • Example: 11 kV at 10 kV bus – V p.

Per unit base values • Theoretically – Any two of S. V. I and Z • Practically – System MVA base + One voltage base – Three-phase: Sbase/(v3V base) => Ibase – V base2/Sbase=> Zbase • Transformer turns ratio => voltage base on other side of transformer Olof Samuelsson 49 13 .