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Fire Design

of Aluminium Structures

Frantiek Wald
Czech Technical University in Prague
Introduction

Properties Objectives of the lecture


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat Summary of structural aluminium and steel design


Unprotected
Protected at ambient temperature
Elemental analyses Properties of structural aluminium
Classification
Beams
Columns
Particularities of aluminium fire design
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction

Properties Outline of the lecture


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  Introduction


Unprotected  Thermal properties
Protected
 Mechanical properties
Elemental analyses  Transfer of heat
Classification
Beams  Unprotected elements
Columns  Protected elements
Critical temp.
 Elemental analyses
Summary  Classification of sections
Worked example  Columns
Notes
 Beams
 Critical temperature
 Summary
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Introduction
Structural aluminium/steel behaviour?
Properties
Thermal Ambient temperature
Mechanical

Transfer of heat Stress-strain diagram


Unprotected
Protected No yield stress
Elemental analyses Modulus of elasticity 1/3 of steel
Classification
Beams Lower ductility
Columns
Critical temp. Different production of sections
Summary Majority wrought aluminium
Worked example
Notes Buckling curves more favourable

Heat affected zones HAZ


Reduction of material properties
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Introduction
Structural aluminium/steel design?
Properties
Thermal Ambient temperature
Mechanical

Transfer of heat Diferent procedures


Unprotected
Protected
HAZ for resistance
Elemental analyses
Classification HAZ for stability
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.
Lugs for stiffening
Summary Material model
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction
Structural aluminium/steel design?
Properties
Thermal Ambient temperature
Mechanical

Transfer of heat Standards different structure


Unprotected
Protected EN 1999 Design of Aluminium Structures:
Elemental analyses EN 1999-1-1 General structural rules
Classification
Beams EN 1999-1-2 Structural fire design
Columns
Critical temp.
EN 1999-1-3 Structures susceptible to fatigue
EN 1999-1-4 Cold-formed structural sheeting.
Summary
Worked example EN 1999-1-5 Shell structures
Notes

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Introduction

Properties Relative thermal elongation


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  As a function of the temperature


Unprotected
Protected

Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction

Properties Relative thermal elongation


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  Mathematical model


Unprotected
Protected

Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction

Properties Specific heat of aluminium


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  As a function of the temperature


Unprotected
Protected Specific
Mrn teplo, J/ heat
(kg K) J/kg K
1400
Elemental analyses
Classification 1200 prEN 1999-1-2
Beams
Columns 1000
Critical temp. Tavenina alloy
Liquid
800

Summary 600
Worked example
Notes 400

200

0
European Erasmus Mundus 0 200 400 600 800 Teplota, C
Master Course Temperature, C

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c al
Introduction

Properties Specific heat of aluminium


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
Unprotected
 Mathematical model
Protected

Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.
1200

Summary 1000
Worked example cal / (J/kgC)
800
Notes
600

400

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0
0 100 200 300 400 500
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and Catastrophic Events 10
Introduction
Thermal conductivity
of aluminium alloy al
Properties
Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat The thermal conductivity for 0 C < al < 500 C


Unprotected
Protected

Elemental analyses Thermal


Tepeln
-1 -1
vodivost,conductivity,
Wm K W/m K
Classification
Beams 250
Columns ada 1000, 3000 a 6000
Series

Critical temp. 200

Summary 150
Worked example ada 2000, 4000,
Series

Notes 5000 a 7000


100

50
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0
0 100 200 300 400 Teplota, C
Temperature, C
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Introduction

Properties Thermal conductivity


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  Mathematical model


Unprotected
Protected

Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes
250
al / (W/mC) A
200
B
150

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0
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and Catastrophic Events 12
Introduction
Mechanical properties
Properties
Thermal of aluminium alloys
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  At 20 C should be taken as those given


Unprotected in EN 1999-1-1 for normal temperature design
Protected
 For up to 2 hours thermal exposure period
Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
 0,2 % proof strength at elevated temperature
Columns
Critical temp. fo, = ko, fo
Summary where
Worked example
Notes fo, is 0,2 proof strength at elevated temperature
fo is 0,2 proof strength at room temperature
according to EN 1999-1-1
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Introduction
0,2 % proof strength
Properties
Thermal at elevated temperature
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  0,2% proof strength ratios ko,


Unprotected
Protected
 Two tables
 Lower limits
Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams Aluminium alloy temperature C
Columns
20 100 150 200 250 300 350 550
Critical temp.
Lower limit values 1,00 0,90 0,75 0,50 0,23 0,11 0,06 0
Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction
0,2 % proof strength
Properties
Thermal at elevated temperature
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  0,2% proof strength ratios ko,


Unprotected
Protected
 Two tables for different alloys and tempers
1,0
Elemental analyses
Eal, 0,9
Classification
Beams Eal
0,8
Columns
ko, 0,7 E
Critical temp.
0,6
Summary 3004-H34
0,5
Worked example 6082-T4 6063-T5
6061-T6
Notes 0,4 6082-T6
6063-T6
0,3

0,2

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0 100 200 300 400 500
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Introduction
0,2 % proof strength
Properties
Thermal at elevated temperature
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  0,2 % proof strength ratios ko,


Unprotected
Protected
 Two tables for different alloys and tempers
1,0
Elemental analyses 5005-O
Eal, 0,9
Classification 5083-O
Beams Eal
0,8
Columns 5454-O
ko, 0,7
Critical temp.
0,6
Summary 5052-H34
0,5
Worked example 5083-H12 E
Notes 0,4 5005-H14
5454-H34
0,3

0,2

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0 100 200 300 400 500
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Introduction

Properties Exposure period


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
Unprotected 0,2mrnosti,
Mez proof strength
MPa fo, N/mm2
Protected
400
Elemental analyses
160 C
Classification 200 C
Beams 300
Columns
Critical temp. 250 C
200
Summary
Worked example prEN 1999-1-2: 2004 Time
Notes
100 of Time of
300 C Doba vystaven prvku
exposure
exposure
zven teplot,
log minlog min
log min.
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0 15 30 60 360

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Introduction

Properties Modulus of elasticity Eal,


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  Ratio E = Eal,/Eal for aluminium alloys


Unprotected at elevated temperature al C
Protected
Aluminium alloy Modulus of elasticity,
Elemental analyses temperature, Eal,
Classification
(C) (N/mm)
Beams
Columns
20 70 000
Critical temp.
50 69 300
Summary 100 67 900
Worked example
150 65 100
Notes
200 60 200
250 54 600
300 47 600
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350 37 800
400 28 000
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Introduction

Properties Modulus of elasticity Eal,


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  Ratio E = Eal,/Eal for aluminium alloys


Unprotected at elevated temperature al C
Protected
1,0
Elemental analyses 5005-O
Eal, 0,9
Classification 5083-O
Beams Eal
0,8
Columns 5454-O
ko, 0,7
Critical temp.
0,6
Summary 5052-H34
0,5
Worked example 5083-H12 E
Notes 0,4 5005-H14
5454-H34
0,3

0,2

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Introduction

Properties
Thermal
Assessment 1
Mechanical

Transfer of heat What thermal exposure is expected for


Unprotected
Protected aluminium alloys during fire?
Elemental analyses When starts at elevated temperature the
Classification
Beams reduction of 0,2 % proof strength?
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction
Unprotected aluminium
Properties
Thermal temperature development
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  Simple analytical model


Unprotected
Protected
 Step by step procedure (the lumped mass method)
Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

t should not be taken as more than 5 s


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Master Course Am/V the section factor should not be taken as less than 10 m-1

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Introduction
Section factor
Properties
Thermal for unprotected aluminium members
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
Unprotected
Protected

Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction
Section factor
Properties
Thermal for unprotected aluminium members
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
Unprotected
Protected

Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction
Section factor
Properties
Thermal for unprotected aluminium members
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
Unprotected
Protected

Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction

Properties Grooves with gap in the surface


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  The calculation of the exposed surface area


Unprotected
Protected
 Grooves with gap in the surface less than 20 mm
should not be included in the exposed surface
Elemental analyses
Classification
area.
Beams
Columns
 Grooves with gap in the surface > 20 mm,
Critical temp. the area of the groove should be included
in the area of the exposed area
Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction

Properties
Surface emissivity m
Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  The values of hnet,d


Unprotected should be obtained from EN 1991-1-2 using
Protected

Elemental analyses
Classification m = 0,3 for clean uncovered surfaces
Beams
Columns m = 0,7 for painted and covered
Critical temp.
(e.g. sooted) surfaces
Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction

Properties
Surface emissivity m
Thermal
Mechanical
Element
Transfer of heat temparature,
Teplota C
prvku , C
Unprotected Section
Souinitelfactor
prezu
Protected
300 200150125 100 75 50 35 A m/ V =25
Elemental analyses 400A m/ V =300200150125 100 50 35 25
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp. 300

Summary
Worked example 200 m = 0,3
Notes m = 0,7

100
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Time, min
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Introduction Aluminium element
Properties insulated by fire protection
Thermal
Mechanical material
Transfer of heat
For a uniform temperature distribution
Unprotected in a cross-section, the temperature increase
Protected

Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction
Section factor Ap/V
Properties
Thermal for insulated members
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
Sketch Description Section factor (Ap/V)
Unprotected
Protected

Contour encasement of aluminium perimeter


Elemental analyses
uniform thickness, aluminium cross - section area
Classification exposed to fire on four
Beams sides.
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Hollow encasement of 2 (b + h )
Notes uniform thickness, aluminium cross - section area
h

exposed to fire on four


sides.
b
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Introduction
Section factor Ap/V
Properties
Thermal for insulated members
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
Unprotected Contour encasement of aluminium perimeter - b
Protected uniform thickness, aluminium cross - section area
exposed to fire on three
Elemental analyses sides.
Classification
Beams b
Columns
Critical temp.
Hollow encasement of 2h + b
Summary uniform thickness, aluminium cross - section area
h

Worked example exposed to fire on three


Notes sides.

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Introduction

Properties Design tools TALAT


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
 Reference thickness of fire protection
Unprotected dp = k dp,ref (k based on material form 0,4 to 1,4)
Protected
Teplota, C
200 300
Elemental analyses 500
Classification
150
Beams
Columns 400 Porn
odolnost Ap
Critical temp. 100 =
R 30 V
300 300
Summary Porn
Worked example odolnost
R 15 50 200
Notes 100
200 150
Ap
= 25 m-1 m-1
V 50
100
25
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Introduction

Properties
Thermal
Assessment 2
Mechanical

Transfer of heat What differences are for step by step procedure


Unprotected
Protected of aluminium compare to steel?
Elemental analyses Desribe the section factor Ap/V
Classification
Beams for insulated member by bords?
Columns
Critical temp. What surface emissivity m is expected for
Summary clean uncovered surface?
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction

Properties Structural fire design


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat Simple calculation models


Unprotected Efi,d Rfi,d,t
Protected
Efi,d is the design effect of actions for the fire design situation
Elemental analyses
Rfi,d,t is the design resistance of the aluminium structure or
Classification
Beams structural member, for the fire design situation
Columns
Critical temp.
Advanced calculation models
Summary
Worked example
The development and distribution of the temperature
Notes within structural members (thermal response model);
The mechanical behaviour of the structure or of any part
of it (mechanical response model).
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Introduction

Properties Effect of actions


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat For time t = 0


Unprotected
Protected Using combination factors 1,1 or 2,1 according to
EN1991-1-2
Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams Efi,d = fi Ed
Columns
Critical temp. Where Ed is the design value of the corresponding
force or moment for normal temperature design
Summary
Worked example
Notes As a simplification the recommended value
of fi = 0,65 may be used
(Except areas susceptible to accumulation of goods,
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Introduction

Properties Classification of cross-sections


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat Classified as for normal temperature design


Unprotected
Protected
Based on the same relative drop in the 0,2 %
Elemental analyses proof strength and modulus of elasticity
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.
Actual drop in modulus of elasticity
Summary
Worked example
Classification of the section changes
Notes
Larger capacity value of the section

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kde t je tlouka tto sti,
b
k
souinitelIntroduction
napt

Properties coefficient
Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat To introduce different materials = 250 / f o


Unprotected
Protected
Plate slenderness
Elemental analyses b b
Classification p = = =
Beams
28,4 t k 2
t E k
Columns 12 fo (1 2)

Critical temp.
b b b
= = =
Summary 2 235 E E
Worked example
t E k 0,0620 t k 0,950 t k
12 fo (1 ) 2 fo fo
Notes

t is plate thickness
b is width,
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is Poisson ratio
E is modulus od elasticity
Sustainable Constructions fo is 0,2 % proof strength
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kde t je tlouka tto sti,
b
k
souinitelIntroduction
napt

Properties Reduction of coefficient


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat At elevated temperature


Unprotected
Protected
E k E, E k E, E
= =
Elemental analyses f o, k o, fo k o, fo
Classification
Beams
Columns kE, E E
Critical temp. 1,00
k y, fy fy
Summary
Worked example
Notes

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kde t je tlouka tto sti,
b
k
souinitelIntroduction
napt
Reduction of coefficient
Properties
Thermal for structural steel
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
Unprotected
Protected

Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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kde t je tlouka tto sti,
b
k
souinitelIntroduction
napt
Reduction of coefficient
Properties
Thermal for steel
Mechanical

Transfer of heat Currently for steel k E, E E


Unprotected 0,85
Protected k y, fy fy
kE, / k y,
Elemental analyses 1,2
Classification
Beams 368 C
1
Columns 436 C 766 C
Critical temp.
0,8
Summary 0,85
539 C
Worked example 0,6 kE, / k y,
Notes
0,4

0,2
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0 200 400 600 800 1000 , C
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kde t je tlouka tto sti,
b
k
souinitelIntroduction
napt
Reduction of coefficient
Properties
Thermal for aluminium
Mechanical

Transfer of heat 250


Unprotected =
Protected f0
Elemental analyses at elevated temperature
Classification
Beams
k E,al, E al, / E al
Columns
Critical temp.
=
k o, fo, / fo
Summary
Worked example
Notes

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kde t je tlouka tto sti,
b
k
souinitelIntroduction
napt
Reduction of coefficient
Properties
Thermal for aluminium
Mechanical

Transfer of heat 250


Unprotected
=
Protected
f0

Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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kde t je tlouka tto sti,
b
k
souinitelIntroduction
napt
Reduction of coefficient
Properties
Thermal for aluminium
Mechanical

Transfer of heat 250


Unprotected
=
Protected
f0

Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Introduction

Properties Tension members


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat The design resistance


Unprotected

Nfi,t,Rd = Ai ko,,i fo / M,fi


Protected

Elemental analyses
Classification where
Beams
Columns Ai is an elemental area of the net cross-section
with a temperature i , including a deduction if
Critical temp.

Summary required to allow for the effect of HAZ


Worked example
Notes
softening.
The deduction is based on the reduced thickness
of o,HAZ t
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ko,,i is the reduction factor for the effective 0,2 %
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proof strength at temperature i.
and Catastrophic Events 43
is the temperature in the elemental area A
Introduction

Properties Beams
Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat The design Mfi,t,Rd of a cross-section


Unprotected in class 1, 2, 3 or 4
Protected
with a uniform temperature distribution at time t
Elemental analyses
Classification
Mfi,t,Rd = ko, MRd (Mx/M,fi)
Beams where
Columns
Critical temp. MRd is the moment resistance of the cross-section for
normal temperature design. MRd is either Mc,Rd or Mu,Rd
Summary
Worked example
Mx is the material coefficient according to EN 1999-1-1. M1
Notes is used in combination with Mc,Rd and M2 is used in
combination with Mu,Rd

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MRd and Mx which gives the lowest capacity.
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Introduction

Properties Columns
Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat The design buckling resistance Nb,fi,t,Rd of a


Unprotected
Protected compression member at time t
Elemental analyses Nb,fi,t,Rd = ko,,max Nb,Rd (M1/1,2 M,fi)
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.
where
Summary
Worked example Nb,Rd is the buckling resistance for normal
Notes temperature design according to EN 1999-1-1
1,2 is a reduction factor of the design resistance
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due to the temperature dependent creep
Master Course
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Introduction
Buckling length
Properties
Thermal of a column in intermediate storey
Mechanical

Transfer of heat Braced frame in which each storey comprises


Unprotected
Protected a separate fire compartment
with sufficient fire resistance
Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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B: Separate fire compartments in each storey
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Introduction

Properties Relative slenderness


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat The same relative drop in the 0,2 % proof


Unprotected
Protected strength and modulus of elasticity.
Elemental analyses If the actual drop in modulus of elasticity is
Classification
Beams taken into account, a larger capacity value can
Columns be obtained.
Critical temp.

k E,al, E al, / E al

Summary
= =

Worked example
Notes
k o, fo, / fo

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Introduction

Properties Buckling curves


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
Buckling classes: A
Unprotected 1,2 is a reduction factor of the design resistance due to the
Protected

temperature
Souinitel vzprnosti dependent creep of aluminium
alloys
Reduction factor for buckling Class A
0,20 - tepeln upraven
Elemental analyses 1,0 Class B
0,32 - tepeln neupraven
Classification Aluminum
hlink
Beams 0,9 Class A
0,20 - tepeln upraven
Class B
0,32 - tepeln neupraven
Columns 0,8
Curvea a
0,21 - kivka
Critical temp. 0,7 Steel
ocel
Za poru
1,2 Curved d
0,76 - kivka
0,6 reduction
redukce 1,2
Summary
for fire
Worked example 0,5
design
Notes 0,4
0,3
0,2
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Pomrn thlost
0,0
0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0
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Introduction
Buckling resistance
Properties
Thermal at elevated temperature
Mechanical

Transfer of heat  Buckling length od rectangular hollow section 60x60x4


Unprotected
Protected nosnost, kN
Buckling resistance
200,0
Elemental analyses 60 x 60 x 4
180,0
Classification
Beams 160,0
Steel
Ocel S235 S235
Columns 140,0 f y = 235 MPa ; = 0,21 (kivka a)
Critical temp. Alloy EN AW
Slitina 6082
EN AW-6082
120,0 Temper T6
T6, tepeln upraven;
f 0 = 250 MPa ,
Summary 100,0 20 C = 0,20; = 0
0
Worked example 80,0 200 C
Notes
60,0

40,0 300C

20,0
Slenderness
thlost
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course 0,0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 49
Introduction
The critical temperature
Properties
Thermal of aluminium alloys
Mechanical

Transfer of heat Critical temperature C


Kritick teplota prvku , C
Unprotected 800
Protected

700
Elemental analyses
Classification Steel
ocel
Beams 600
Columns
Aluminium
Slitiny hlinku
Critical temp. 500
EN AW-5454
EN AW-5086
Summary 400
EN AW-5083
Worked example
EN AW-6082
Notes 300
EN AW-3003
200
170
European Erasmus Mundus 100 Simplified value 170 C
Master Course

0
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 Stupe vyuit prezu, 0
Degree of utilisation 0 50
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
The critical temperature
Properties
Thermal of aluminium alloys
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
1
Unprotected a ,cr = C ln 1 + B
A 0
Protected D

Elemental analyses
Classification where the degree of utilisation 0 = Efi,d / Rfi,d,0
Beams may not be taken lass than 0,015
Columns
Critical temp. Efi,d is the design effect of actions for the fire
Summary
design situation according to EN 1991-1-2 and
Worked example Rfi,d,0 is the corresponding design resistance of
Notes
the steel member for fire design situation at
time t.
European Erasmus Mundus The accuracy of the prediction varies is limited.
Master Course

The prediction of critical temperature of steel


Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards shows a deviation 3,73%. 51
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction
The critical temperature
Properties
Thermal of aluminium alloys
Mechanical

Transfer of heat Constants for calculation of critical temperature


Unprotected
Protected
of aluminium alloys
Alloy Thermal Constants Maximal
Elemental analyses treatment A B C D deviation
Classification EN AW-5052 O 0,9905 428 74,88 0,2063 14,7 %
Beams EN AW-5052 H34 0,9797 420 90,06 0,1273 27,0 %
EN AW-5083 O 0,9942 430 62,53 0,1485 10,5 %
Columns
EN AW-5083 H113 0,9843 424 89,97 0,2711 0,9 %
Critical temp. EN AW-5454 O 0,9885 424 74,01 0,1519 15,7 %
EN AW-5454 H32 0,9806 422 85,83 0,1427 15,6 %
Summary EN AW-6061 T6 0,9957 427 65,38 0,1169 1,8 %
EN AW-6063 T6 0,9902 422 74,06 0,1048 8,7 %
Worked example EN AW-6082 T6 0,9826 420 89,37 0,1377 4,6 %
Notes EN AW-3003 O 0,9806 424 95,59 0,3199 4,5 %
EN AW-3003 H14 0,9753 412 95,87 0,1263 9,4 %
EN AW-5086 O 0,9843 424 89,97 0,2711 0,8 %
EN AW-5086 H112 0,9826 428 78,80 0,2438 19,6 %
EN AW-7075 T6 0,9763 412 94,12 0,1143 12,0 %
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Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 52
ECCS nomogram for aluminium
Reduction of material Transfer of heat
Kritick teplota, al,cr ,C
Section factor
Souinitel prezu, A m / V -1
Critical temperature m
300 200 150 125 100 75 50 35 2000
500

1500
450
EN AW -5086
EN AW -3003
25 1200
400 EN AW -5083
EN AW -6061
EN AW -5454 1000
350 EN AW -6082
EN AW -7075
900
300
800

250 700

600
200
500
170 400
150 Pokud teplota nepekro 300
Critical
nen teba temperature
posuzovat
250
200
100
150
100
50 (A p / V ) /( p / d p ) W K m
-1 -3

Utilisation
Stupe vyuit prezu, 0

0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0,0 5 10 15 20 25 Time, min
as, min.
53
Introduction

Properties
Thermal
Assessment 3
Mechanical

Transfer of heat What advantage may be utilesed for


Unprotected
Protected classification of aluminium cross-sections?
Elemental analyses How is treated the temperature dependent
Classification
Beams creep of aluminium alloys for simple modelling
Columns of buckling resistance?
Critical temp.
What is the simplified value of critical
Summary
Worked example temperature of aluminium alloys?
Notes

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Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 54
Introduction

Properties Summary
Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
 EN1999-1-2 first standard for fire design of aluminium str.
Unprotected  Based on steel knowledge
Protected
 Lower fire resistance compare to steel
Elemental analyses  The low melting point of aluminum (590 C a 650 C)
Classification
Beams  The good emisivity 0,3
Columns Reduction
Redukn factor
souinitel
Critical temp. 1
0,9 Steel - effective yield strength ratio
Summary 0,8
ky, mez kluzu oceli
Smluvn
Worked example 0,7
Notes 0,6
Aluminium - 0,2 % proof strength ratios ko,
0,5 Mez mrnosti hlinkovch slitin
0,4
0,3
European Erasmus Mundus 0,2
Master Course
0,1
0
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
0 200 400 600 800 1000 Teplota, C C
Temperature,
and Catastrophic Events 55
Introduction

Properties Worked example beam column


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat Laterally restrained beam


Unprotected
Protected
Load (gk + qk) 2 kN/m
Load reduction factor F = 1,45
Elemental analyses
Classification
Alloy EN AW-5083 (material class B)
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
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Section classification
Flage in compression not decide
Web in compression stiffened plate
is taken form diagram 6.4 in EN 1999-1-1
b 180
= = 0,95 = 34, 2 > 3 = 18 = 18 1,51 = 27,1
t 5

Web and all section Class 4

Web in bending
section asymmetry coefficient
varying the stress coefficient g
b 180
= g = 0,95 0,351 = 12, 0 < 1 = 13 = 13 1, 63 = 21,1
t 5
Web and all section Class 1
57
Effective section

Reduction factor for web in compression


material buckling class B

C1 C2 29 198
c = = = 0,894
b t (b t ) 2
180 5 (180 5 ) 2

Effective area
Aeff = Ag (1 c ) 2 b t = 3848 (1 0,894 ) 2 180 5 = 3752 mm 2

Shift of the center of gravity due to buckling


180
(1 0,894 ) 2 180 5 83
(1 c ) 2 b t z 2 = 0,36 mm
zt = =
Aeff 3752
58
Resistance check

Section bending resistance


Section poor compression resistance
Buckling factor
Combination of buckling and pure bending
c 0,8
N Ed M Ed 27,9 15,3
+ = + = 0,895 < 1, 0
N Rd M y,Rd 0, 483 375, 2 22,8
kde c = max ( 0,8;1,3 min ) = max ( 0,8;1,3 0, 483) = 0,8
OK

59
Serviceability check

Full gross section


Due to lower stessess no local buckling
Web in compresion
Simplified
Secant modulus of eleasticity for maximal stress
Ramberg-Osgood material model

E 70 103
Es = n
= 5
= 61 022 MPa
E Ed,ser 70 10 55,8
3

1 + 0, 002 1 + 0, 002
Ed,ser f 0 55,8 110

OK
Introduction

Properties Design et elevated temperature


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat Hall of a train station


Unprotected
Protected

Elemental analyses
Classification Localised fire of newsstand
Beams
Columns The largest diameter of fire 2 m
Critical temp.
Fire load 4 640 MJ
Summary
Worked example Medium speed fire development t = 300 s
Notes
The fastest rate of heat release
RHRf = 1250 kW/m2
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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
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Mechanical actions at fire

Reduction factor fi
For snow loading 1,1 = 0,2

Gk + 1,1 Qk 0,66 + 0,2 1,33


fi = = = 0,321
Gk G + Qk Q 0,66 1,35 + 1,33 1,5

M fi ,Ed = M Ed fi = 15,3 0,321 = 4 ,91 kNm

N fi ,Ed = N Ed fi = 27 ,9 0,321 = 8,96 kN


Termal loading during fire

Annex E standard EN 1991-1-2:2004


Rate of heat release Q

Rate of heat release, MW


Rychlost uvolovn tepla, MW
4,0
3,5
3,0
2,5
2,0
1,5
1,0
0,5

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
as, min
Time, min
Thermal heat during fire
Flame heigt in time t
Diameter of the fire in time t
Temperature along the flame axes
Convective part of the rate of heat release Qc
6,0 Flame
Dlka heigt,
plamen, m m

5,0

4,0

3,0

2,0

1,0

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
as, min
Time, min
Transfer of heat into structure

Step by step procedure


Surface emissivity of the member m = 0,3
Cleen aluminium element
Coefficient of heat transfer by convection c = 35 W/m2K
Section factor Am/V = 130 m-1
Section exposed to three sides
Transfer of heat into structure

Maximal beam temperature 272 C in 22 min 40 s


Reduction factor for k0,,max = 0,596
400 Teplota, C
Temperature, C
350 Gas plyn
teplota

300
250
200
150
100 teplota
Beam nosnku
50

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
as, min
Time, min
Resistance at elevated temperature

Bending resistance
Buckling resistance
Buckling length as at ambint temperature

Interaction as at ambient temperature

c
N fi ,Ed M fi ,Ed 8,96
0 ,8
4 ,91
+ = + = 0,475 < 1,0
N b , fi ,t ,Rd M fi ,t ,Rd 99,0 14,95

OK
Introduction

Properties List of Lessons at Seminar


Thermal
Mechanical
1. Fire safety RZ
Transfer of heat 2. Fire and mechanical loading RZ
Unprotected 3. Thermal response RZ
Protected
4. Steel structures RZ
5. Concrete structures JMF
Elemental analyses
6. Composite structures JMF
Classification
Beams 7. Advanced models JMF
Columns 8. Composite floors FW
Critical temp. 9. Aluminium structures FW
10. Timber structures FW
Summary 11. After fire and Historical structures FW
Worked example 12. Definitions of Design for Robustness JMD
Notes 13. Global response of structures JMD
14. Design recommendations JMD
15. Alternative load path method JMD

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 68
Thank you
for your attention

Frantiek WALD
wald@fsv.cvut.cz
Introduction

Properties Notes to users of the lecture


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat Further readings on the relevant


Unprotected
Protected documents from website of
www.eaa.net/eaa/education/TALAT
Elemental analyses
Classification
Beams
Columns
Critical temp.

Summary Keywords for the lecture:


Worked example
Notes fire design, aluminium structures,
material properties,
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events 70
Introduction

Properties Notes to users of the lecture


Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
Text books
Unprotected Wang Y., Burgess I., Wald F., Gillie M.,
Protected
Performance Based Fire Engineering of Structures
Elemental analyses CRC Press 2012, ISBN: 978-0-415-55733-7.
Classification Buchanan A. H.,
Beams
Columns Structural Design for Fire Safety,
Critical temp. Wiley, 2001, ISBN 0471889938.

Summary
Worked example
Notes

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Introduction

Properties Sources
Thermal
Mechanical

Transfer of heat
EN 1999-1-1 Design of Aluminium Structures:
Unprotected General structural rules, CEN, Brussels, 2008.
Protected
EN 1999-1-2 Design of Aluminium Structures:
Elemental analyses
Classification Structural fire design, CEN, Brussels, 2008.
Beams
Columns Bulson P.S.: Aluminium structural analysis: recent
Critical temp.
European advances, Elsevier, London, 1992,
Summary ISBN 1-85166-660-5.
Worked example
Notes Educational programme TALAT
www.eaa.net/eaa/education/TALAT

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Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events