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Vanessa Alvarez

Nervous System Lab Report

In this lab report, the nervous system is covered. When met with neurotoxins, the
nervous system can be altered and even shut down. This occurs when the body is exposed to
certain natural or artificial toxic substances. As you can see in Table 1 below, each animal has
different toxins. These toxins cause damage to the nervous tissue and cause blockage, thus
stopping the electrical impulses from reaching the brain.
In Figure 1, a sheep brain was used to show the structures and functions of the brain.
The brain was cut in half and dissected to show and identify the structure. The structures that
are labeled in the picture have special functions that work with the nervous system. The
functions are listed below the figure, it explains how the sheep brain process through the
nervous system.
Now in figure 2, the sheep brain is shown the nerves that are listed in the figure. Each
nerves has its own function that could be the five senses. Some of the nerves in the figure are
sensory, motor or both sensory and motor. Sensory nerves carries information to the central
nervous system. The motor nerve is where it is carrying the impulses from the brain or spinal
cord to the muscle or gland.
For the cranial nerve lab, the class had to do a little experiment of themselves. As you
see table 2, each classmate had to smell in order to test the olfactory function. The optic
function was to test the eye vision and read from a chart 20 ft away. Now the oculomotor is to
test the eye but for movements by following a finger. This experiment also test sensory and
motor nerves. Meaning the sensory is based on sensory information such as touch, pressure,
and temperature. While motor nerves is somatic and automatic. There are 12 functions that
have been tested, the results and explanation is on table 2.
After identifying the nerves of the mink, the class bent their minks back and slice to see
the spine. In figure 3 you can see the labels. The spinal cord is protected by the structure of the
vertebral column. This is covered by three membranes that is the dura mater, arachnoid and the
pia mater.
In figure 4, the class had been dissecting an mink and identifying nerves. In the figure
the nerves are labeled from the upper body and lower body. The upper body is called cervical
and the lower is the lumbar. The purpose of the cervical nerves is for the PNS, that have an
complex system that travels to the spinal nerve. The lumbar nerves have five pairs of the spinal
nerves that travels to the lumbar vertebrae.
The class did another experiment of reflexes. Some classmates are different from one
another. As you see in table 3, the results had some difficulties or was negative because there
was no reflex due to the experiment. In the table you would see what the reflex is tested for
example the biceps is tested for C5 and C6 meaning that C5 is the fifth cervical vertebra from
the top of the neck. Which is almost similar to C6 but the difference is C6 is the sixth cervical
vertebra but is also from the top of the neck.
Now in figure 5, it shows the layers of an sheep eye. From the beginning to the end. The
class had dissect the sheep eye by first cutting around the cornea. While cutting it out there was
a pudding of liquid that is the anterior compartment. Now after the anterior is all out, you would
see a ring where the cornea was cut out. You pull the black ring that is called ciliary body, after
pulling that out you would see an white marble when you look inside the eye. The white marble
is the lens, when you pull it out there is vitreous humor right behind the lens. After taking the
vitreous humor out, theres a little piece that would fall out called an retina. Then take a look
inside the eye, you will see blue in the back of the eye, that's called choroid. Now that you take
everything out the eye, if you turn the eye to the back you would see the optic nerve that
transmit to the brain.

Neurotoxin Table 1: The neurotoxin action and effects are listed below.
Action Potential Interrupter Effects

Maculotoxin Blocks sodium channels

Latrotoxin Enhances acetylcholine release

Bungarotoxin Blocks acetylcholine (nicotinic) receptor

Tetrotoxin Blocks sodium channels

Apamin Blocks potassium channels

Charybdotoxin Blocks potassium receptors

Conotoxin One type blocks voltage sensitive calcium

channels, one blocks voltage sensitive
sodium channels, and open blocks ACh

Abnormality of the sodium protein channel Produces channels that are nonfunctional

Synthetic Toxin Destroys the myelin covering your optic

nerves and motor neurons

Batrachotoxin Causes voltage gated sodium channels to

open at a more negative membrane potential
and also prevents their inactivation

Dendrotoxin K Blocks voltage gated potassium channel

General Anesthetic Opens more potassium channels in neurons

of the reticular formation in the brain stem.

Potassium Causes irritation to the cell and causes

depolarization to gial cells.

Abnormality of sodium channel Alters voltage sensitivity of the sodium

channel so that it only opens at more positive
membrane potentials.
Medulla Oblongata- controls vital centers, Pons- relays sensory info between
cerebellum and cerebrum, lateral ventricle- creates Cerebrospinal fluid, 4th ventricle-
holds csf and forms central canal of spinal cord, cerebellum- balance, equilibrium, and
quick response, superior colliculus- response to visual stimulus, thalamus- emotional
and memory functions, pineal gland-produces serotonin and melatonin cerebrum-
read, remember, judgment, sulci- divide the brain and increase surface area, gyri-
increases surface area of cerebrum, longitudinal fissure- groove that separates the
two hemispheres, corpus callosum-connects left and right hemispheres dura mater-
outermost tough fibrous layer protects the brain, arachnoid- middle layer holding csf,
pia mater- inner layer that adheres to the brain.
Figure 1, Sheep brain structures and functions: From dissecting the sheeps brain the class
identify the structure and the functions of each structure.
Figure 2, Sheep brain cranial nerves: Classmates identify the cranial nerves that is listed above.

Cranial nerve assessment Table 2: This experiment was to test the sensory and the function
from the results responded.
Cranial Nerve Motor or Where does Test Performed Results Assessment
Sensory the nerve of the of Nerve
or both innervate tests Function

Olfactory (I) Sensory Upper nasal Smelled coffee +,+ Normal

cavity with each nostril

Optic (II) Sensory Retina Light, Reading + Normal

chart 20,15 Astigmatism
15,20 in eyes

Oculomotor (III) Motor Eyes Moved q-tip up + Normal

down and inward

Trochlear (IV) Motor Extreme eye Moved q-tip + Normal

muscle inward,

Trigeminal (V) Both Eye, Mouth, Touch area of + Normal

Jaw face with cotton
Abducens (VI) Motor Orbit of eye Moved q-tip left +,+ Normal
to right, eyes

Facial (VII) Both Side of the Able to smile and +,+ Normal
face close eyes tight

Vestibulocochlear Sensory Inner ear Tuning fork Walk +,+ Normal

(VIII) in straight line

Glossopharyngeal Both Pharynx, Say Ahh-hh + Normal

(IX) tonsils

Vagus (X) Both Neck, chest Swallow + Normal


Accessory (XI) Motor Soft palate, Shoulder shrug +,+ Normal

pharynx and Neck Movement

Hypoglossal (XII) Motor Tongue Stick tongue out + Normal

Figure 3, Mink Spinal cord: Classmates bent the minks and sliced in the middle in order to see
the spine.
Figure 4, Mink Spinal nerves: Dissecting the mink to identify the nerves that is labeled above.

Reflex assessment results Table 3: This experiment is to test reflexes and to show where the
reflex is tested from.
Test Result Left Result Right Varying Comments Test For

Biceps - - N/A unresponsive C5 & C6

Triceps + + N/A slight C7 & C8

Brachioradiali + + N/A slight C5 & C6

Hoffmanns + + N/A No movement Pyramidal tract

Patellar + + Jeans Difficult to find L2, L3, & L4

Achilles + + N/A Good S1 & S2


Babinski + + N/A slight S1, S2, L4, &


Crossed + + N/A slight C5 & C6


Glabella + + N/A Good C1 & C2


Figure 5, Sheep eye: From dissecting a sheeps eye and taking each part out and putting them
in order. This is shown the direction of the light that passes through.

Figure 1: Photo by author
Figure 2: Vanessa Sanchezs brain
Figure 3: Briana Aguillons photo
Figure 4: Photo by author
Figure 5: Photo by author