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Kanban

kanban

http://availagility.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/kenji-kanban-2.jpg
kanban systems
WIP (Work In Progress) limited pull system.
kanban systems
WIP (Work In Progress) limited pull system.
Toyota knew they couldnt
(and didnt want to) build cars
in the same mass production
way that Ford and GM did.
kanban systems
WIP (Work In Progress) limited pull system.
Toyota knew they couldnt
(and didnt want to) build cars
in the same mass production
way that Ford and GM did.

Taiichi Ohno pioneered the


use of kanban systems at
Toyota as a way of providing a
Just in Time capability. This is
the basis for Toyotas
approach to building cars at
the rate of demand.
kanban systems
WIP (Work In Progress) limited pull system.
Toyota knew they couldnt
(and didnt want to) build cars The inspiration for kanban
in the same mass production came from supermarkets that
way that Ford and GM did. were becoming popular in
Japan in the early 50s.

Taiichi Ohno pioneered the


use of kanban systems at
Toyota as a way of providing a
Just in Time capability. This is
the basis for Toyotas
approach to building cars at
the rate of demand.
Shelf (WIP)
Shelf (WIP)
Shelf (WIP)
Shelf (WIP)
Shelf (WIP)
Shelf (WIP)
Shelf (WIP)
Shelf (WIP) Back store (Buffer)
Shelf (WIP) Back store (Buffer)
Shelf (WIP) Back store (Buffer)
Shelf (WIP) Back store (Buffer)
Shelf (WIP) Back store (Buffer)
Shelf (WIP) Back store (Buffer)
Shelf (WIP) Back store (Buffer)
} Buffer

Shelf (WIP) Back store (Buffer)


} Buffer

Shelf (WIP) Back store (Buffer)


} Buffer

Shelf (WIP) Back store (Buffer)


The Kanban Method

stop starting, start finishing


David J Anderson
Born in Edinburgh
raised in Saltcoats
David J Anderson
Born in Edinburgh
raised in Saltcoats

Frustrated with resistance to change


he found when trying to help teams
adopt Agile methods David decided to
pursue a different approach to help
software development organisations
improve.
Microsoft XIT
Worst to Best in 9 months

http://www.agilemanagement.net/AMPDFArchive/From_Worst_to_Best_in_9_Months_Final_1_3.pdf
DJA was asked to help the XIT
team who were considered one of
the worst in there business unit in
2004.

Microsoft XIT
Worst to Best in 9 months

http://www.agilemanagement.net/AMPDFArchive/From_Worst_to_Best_in_9_Months_Final_1_3.pdf
DJA was asked to help the XIT
team who were considered one of
the worst in there business unit in
2004.

The backlog of work was

Microsoft XIT
exceeding capacity 5 times and
it was growing every month.

Worst to Best in 9 months

http://www.agilemanagement.net/AMPDFArchive/From_Worst_to_Best_in_9_Months_Final_1_3.pdf
DJA was asked to help the XIT
team who were considered one of
the worst in there business unit in
2004.

The backlog of work was

Microsoft XIT
exceeding capacity 5 times and DJA helped introduce a WIP
it was growing every month. limited pull system to change
how work was queued.

Worst to Best in 9 months

http://www.agilemanagement.net/AMPDFArchive/From_Worst_to_Best_in_9_Months_Final_1_3.pdf
DJA was asked to help the XIT
team who were considered one of
the worst in there business unit in
2004.

The backlog of work was

Microsoft XIT
exceeding capacity 5 times and DJA helped introduce a WIP
it was growing every month. limited pull system to change
how work was queued.

Worst to Best in 9 months


With no new resources, no changes to how the team
performed software engineering tasks like design, coding
and testing, the changes to how the work was queued
and estimated resulted in a 155% productivity gain in 9
months. The lead time was reduced to a maximum of 5
weeks typically 14 days. Due date performance
improved to greater than 90%. The backlog was worked
off and the department is no longer seen as an
organizational constraint. Customers are delighted.

http://www.agilemanagement.net/AMPDFArchive/From_Worst_to_Best_in_9_Months_Final_1_3.pdf
Corbis IT Way
Corbis IT Way

During his time at Corbis the


majority of what is now the
Kanban Method emerged.
There is no Kanban Software
Development Process or
Kanban Project Management
Method
Before we go any further, lets
make this clear...

There is no Kanban Software


Development Process or
Kanban Project Management
Method
Before we go any further, lets
make this clear...

There is no Kanban Software


Development Process or
Kanban Project Management
Method
... you apply Kanban to what
you do now. Torbjrn
Gyllebring calls it Andban
It helps in 3 ways:

The Sustainability way


The Service Oriented way
The Survivability way
Sustainability
Helps you understand your capability which helps
you better balance the demand.
By understanding what we can do helps us work
at a sustainable pace
Helps us focus on reducing non-value-added
demand (failure demand... aka bugs)
By being predictable it can helps us reduce
disruptive expediting
Service Orientated
Improve service delivery by taking variability out of
the process
By reducing work in progress we spend less time
multi tasking and this helps us improve
predictability and lead times
Scale Kanban in an organisation by scaling it out in
a service-oriented fashion
Survivability

By limiting WIP and managing flow kanban systems


help provoke change.
Kanban Method can also help create a catalyst for
evolutionary change and in turn help to create a
culture of continuous improvement.
principles
principles

Kanban is based on four


principles, they are...
start with what you do now
start with what you do now
agree to purse incremental and evolutionary change
start with what you do now
agree to purse incremental and evolutionary change
initially, respect current roles, responsibilities & job titles
start with what you do now
agree to purse incremental and evolutionary change
initially, respect current roles, responsibilities & job titles
encourage acts of leadership at all levels
Heres a simple example
Start where you are and deeply
understanding how our work
works.
Heres a simple example
Start where you are and deeply
understanding how our work
works.

Ask yourself:
Who are our customers?
What do they ask us for?
What do we do to the requests?
And where do they go when you are finished with them?
practices
practices

Kanban has 6 practices...


visualise
Demand Analysis Development Test Released
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We can see the workflow
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what work is where in the workflow


what kind of work there is (colours)
who is working on what
what is blocked
and much more...
Work item type
- Bug Digital tracking
- Feature number
- Non Functional
- etc
Type: Feature 2146767

Ability to search by product


Cust: Chris
BA: Mike Due: 09/06
Dev: Liz Start: 07/06
QA: Brian End: 08/06

Contacts

Tracking dates
Standard - Fixed Date - Expedite
or whatever suits
What can you see here?

A queue
Unhappy customers

What would you do? Join it? Come back later?


What could the staff at the shop do?
What can you see here?
What can you see here?

Is there a queue?
What can you see here?

Is there a queue?

Is anyone over worked?


What can you see here?

Is there a queue?

Does anyone need help?

Is anyone over worked?


What can you see here?

Is there a queue?

Does anyone need help?

Is anyone over worked?

Is there a problem with the way the


work works?
What can you see here?

Is there a queue?

Does anyone need help?

Is work blocked?
Is anyone over worked?

Is there a problem with the way the


work works?
What can you see here?

Is there a queue?

Does anyone need help?


What kind of work is the team doing?

Is work blocked?
Is anyone over worked?

Is there a problem with the way the


work works?
What can you see here?

Is there a queue?

Does anyone need help?


What kind of work is the team doing?

Is work blocked?
Is anyone over worked?

The digital tools are great, but where


Is there a problem with the way the possible use physical boards. They radiate
work works? constantly and provide a shared space for
the team.
limit work in progress
Demand
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Limiting WIP is the magic sauce.


They create slack to allow us to improve
They are what makes it a pull system
Demand
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In
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Apply work in progress limits to the


Limiting WIP is the magic sauce.
columns on your board.
They create slack to allow us to improve
Identify limits that are not so low that
They are what makes it a pull system
they starve the team but are also not so
slack that issues wont be highlited.
Demand
 (4) Analysis
 (5) Dev
 (6) Test Released
In
 Progress Done In
 Progress In
 Progress
214***
Done Done 214***

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Apply work in progress limits to the


Limiting WIP is the magic sauce.
columns on your board.
They create slack to allow us to improve
Identify limits that are not so low that
They are what makes it a pull system
they starve the team but are also not so
slack that issues wont be highlited.
Demand
 (4) Analysis
 (5) Dev
 (6) Test Released
In
 Progress Done In
 Progress In
 Progress
214***
Done Done 214***

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Apply work in progress limits to the


Limiting WIP is the magic sauce.
columns on your board.
They create slack to allow us to improve
Identify limits that are not so low that
They are what makes it a pull system
they starve the team but are also not so
slack that issues wont be highlited.
Demand
 (4) Analysis
 (5) Dev
 (6) Test Released
In
 Progress Done In
 Progress In
 Progress
214***
Done Done 214***

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Apply work in progress limits to the


Limiting WIP is the magic sauce.
columns on your board.
They create slack to allow us to improve
Identify limits that are not so low that
They are what makes it a pull system
they starve the team but are also not so
slack that issues wont be highlited.
Demand
 (4) Analysis
 (5) Dev
 (6) Test Released
In
 Progress Done In
 Progress In
 Progress
214***
Done Done 214***

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Apply work in progress limits to the


Limiting WIP is the magic sauce.
columns on your board.
They create slack to allow us to improve
Identify limits that are not so low that
They are what makes it a pull system
they starve the team but are also not so
slack that issues wont be highlited.
manage flow
Demand
 (4) Analysis
 (5) Development
 (6) Test Released
In
 Progress Done In
 Progress In
 Progress
Done Done
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Cycle Time

Lead Time
Demand
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In
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Cycle Time

Lead Time
Demand
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In
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Done Done
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Cycle Time

Lead Time
Demand
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In
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Done Done
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Manage flow using:


- Daily meetings

Cycle Time - Cumulative Flow Diagrams


- Delivery rate (velocity/throughput) control
chart
- SLA or lead time target
- Flexible staff allocation or swarming
behaviour
Lead Time - Deferred pull decisions, or dynamic
prioritisation
- Metrics for assessing flow such as number of
days blocked, lead time efficiency
CFD helps us see irregularities in flow, it also
shows the correlation between work in
progress and lead time. The more WIP the
higher the average lead time. See Littles Law
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little's_law
make process policies explicit
Demand
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Exit Criteria Exit Criteria Exit Criteria


Goal is clear Code clean & checked in Customer accepted
First tasks defined Integrated & tested Ready for production
Story split, if necessary Running on UAT env

Pull Criteria: 1) Expedite 2) Fixed Date in danger 3) Oldest


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Explicit policies like exit criteria, pull


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criteria, WIP limits, work item types
etc help us create a shared
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understanding of the system. This


helps when we come to improve, our
discussions move away from
emotional and anecdotal to focus on
how the system actually works.
Exit Criteria Exit Criteria Exit Criteria
Goal is clear Code clean & checked in Customer accepted
First tasks defined Integrated & tested Ready for production
Story split, if necessary Running on UAT env

Pull Criteria: 1) Expedite 2) Fixed Date in danger 3) Oldest


implement feedback loops
Daily stand up meetings in front of the board
Update key stakeholders regularly
Managers go see regularly
...
improve collaboratively, evolve
experimentally
(using models and the scientific method)
Small continuous, incremental and evolutionary
changes that stick
Understand theories of work, workflow, process
and risk
Carry out regular retrospectives
what can it tell us?
Demand
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Exit Criteria Exit Criteria Exit Criteria


Goal is clear Code clean & checked in Customer accepted
First tasks defined Integrated & tested Ready for production
Story split, if necessary Running on UAT env
Demand
 (4) Analysis
 (5) Development
 (6) Test Released
In
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Done Done
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214*** 214***
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Story title Story title


Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011

Bottleneck
**/**/2011

214*** 214***
214***

Story title Story title


Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011

214*** 214***

Story title Story title


**/**/2011 **/**/2011

214***
214***

Story title Story title


**/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011

Exit Criteria Exit Criteria Exit Criteria


Goal is clear Code clean & checked in Customer accepted
First tasks defined Integrated & tested Ready for production
Story split, if necessary Running on UAT env
Demand
 (4) Analysis
 (5) Development
 (6) Test Released
In
 Progress Done In
 Progress In
 Progress
Done Done
214***

Story title (2)


**/**/2011

214*** 214***

Analysis has reached ita WIP


214***

Story title Story title


Story title limit and there is nothing after
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011
development.
214*** 214***
214***

Story title Story title


Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011

Bottleneck
**/**/2011

214*** 214***
214***

Story title Story title


Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011

214*** 214***

Story title Story title


**/**/2011 **/**/2011

214***
214***

Story title Story title


**/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011

Exit Criteria Exit Criteria Exit Criteria


Goal is clear Code clean & checked in Customer accepted
First tasks defined Integrated & tested Ready for production
Story split, if necessary Running on UAT env
Demand
 (4) Analysis
 (5) Development
 (6) Test Released
In
 Progress Done In
 Progress In
 Progress
Done Done
214***

Story title (2)


**/**/2011

214*** 214*** 214*** 214*** 214*** 214***


214***

Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title
Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011

214*** 214*** 214***


214*** 214*** 214***
214***

Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title
Story title Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011
214***
214***
214*** 214***

Story title Story title


Story title Story title
**/**/2011
**/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011

214***

Story title
**/**/2011

Exit Criteria Exit Criteria Exit Criteria


Goal is clear Code clean & checked in Customer accepted
First tasks defined Integrated & tested Ready for production
Story split, if necessary Running on UAT env
Demand
 (4) Analysis
 (5) Development
 (6) Test Released
In
 Progress Done In
 Progress In
 Progress
Done Done
214***

Story title (2)


**/**/2011

214*** 214*** 214*** 214*** 214*** 214***


214***

Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title
Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011

214*** 214*** 214***


214*** 214*** 214***
214***

Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title
Story title Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011
214***
214***
214*** 214***

Story title Story title


Story title Story title
**/**/2011
**/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011

214***

Story title
**/**/2011

Failure Demand

Exit Criteria Exit Criteria Exit Criteria


Goal is clear Code clean & checked in Customer accepted
First tasks defined Integrated & tested Ready for production
Story split, if necessary Running on UAT env
Demand
 (4) Analysis
 (5) Development
 (6) Test Released
In
 Progress Done In
 Progress In
 Progress
Done Done
214***

Story title (2)


**/**/2011

214*** 214*** 214*** 214*** 214*** 214***


214***

Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title
Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011

214*** 214*** 214***


214*** 214*** 214***
214***

Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title
Story title Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011
214***
214***
214*** 214***

Story title Story title


Story title Story title
**/**/2011
**/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011

214***

Story title
**/**/2011

Failure Demand Black dots signify defects


Failure Demand: demand caused
by a failure to do something or
do something right for the
Exit Criteria Exit Criteria customerExit Criteria
Goal is clear Code clean & checked in Customer accepted
First tasks defined Integrated & tested Ready for production
Story split, if necessary Running on UAT env
Demand
 (4) Analysis
 (5) Development
 (6) Test Released
In
 Progress Done In
 Progress In
 Progress
Done Done
214***

Story title (2)


**/**/2011

214*** 214*** 214*** 214*** 214*** 214***


214***

Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title
Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011

214*** 214***
214*** 214*** 214***
214***

Story title Story title Story title Story title


Story title Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011
214***
214***
214*** 214***

Story title Story title


Story title Story title
**/**/2011
**/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011

214***

Story title
**/**/2011

214***

Story title
**/**/2011

214***

Story title

Exit Criteria Exit Criteria Exit Criteria **/**/2011

214***

Goal is clear Code clean & checked in Customer accepted


Story title
First tasks defined Integrated & tested Ready for production
Story split, if necessary Running on UAT env **/**/2011

214***

Story title
**/**/2011

214***

Story title
Demand
 (4) Analysis
 (5) Development
 (6) Test Released
In
 Progress Done In
 Progress In
 Progress
Done Done
214***

Story title (2)


**/**/2011

214*** 214*** 214*** 214*** 214*** 214***


214***

Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title
Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011

214*** 214***
214*** 214*** 214***
214***

Story title Story title Story title Story title


Story title Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011
214***
214***
214*** 214***

Story title Story title


Story title Story title
**/**/2011
**/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011

214***

Story title
**/**/2011

Transaction Cost Story title


214***

**/**/2011

214***

Story title

Exit Criteria Exit Criteria Exit Criteria **/**/2011

214***

Goal is clear Code clean & checked in Customer accepted


Story title
First tasks defined Integrated & tested Ready for production
Story split, if necessary Running on UAT env **/**/2011

214***

Story title
**/**/2011

214***

Story title
Demand
 (4) Analysis
 (5) Development
 (6) Test Released
In
 Progress Done In
 Progress In
 Progress
Done Done
214***

Story title (2)


**/**/2011

214*** 214*** 214*** 214*** 214*** 214***


214***

Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title Story title
Story title
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011

Transaction Cost :
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011

214***

e.g An expensive time


214*** 214*** 214*** 214***
214***

Story title Story title Story title


Story title Story title Story title consuming release process
**/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011 **/**/2011
**/**/2011
214***
214***
214*** 214***

Story title Story title


Story title Story title
**/**/2011
**/**/2011
**/**/2011 **/**/2011

214***

Story title
**/**/2011

Transaction Cost Story title


214***

**/**/2011

214***

Story title

Exit Criteria Exit Criteria Exit Criteria **/**/2011

214***

Goal is clear Code clean & checked in Customer accepted


Story title
First tasks defined Integrated & tested Ready for production
Story split, if necessary Running on UAT env **/**/2011

214***

Story title
**/**/2011

214***

Story title
Portfolio
Product Proj Duration Done

New ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~
BAU ~
~ ~ ~
OS

Product/Project Operational
Dev Test
Backlog Done Next
(3) (2) Demand Doing Done
(3)

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~ ~
~ ~
~

~ ~

Personal
Todo Doing Done

~ ~ ~

~
Portfolio
Product Proj Duration Done

New ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~
BAU ~
You can apply Kanban at many ~ ~ ~
levels. However, the trick is not OS
to look up or down, but left ~
and right

Product/Project Operational
Dev Test
Backlog Done Next
(3) (2) Demand Doing Done
(3)

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~ ~
~ ~
~

~ ~

Personal
Todo Doing Done

~ ~ ~

~
Agile software development
team... can you spot the
blockers?
Waterfall project team
its not just for software
development teams...
Operations team
HR recruitment... no software
development here.
Personal Kanban
left to right
Todo : Next : Doing : Done
some reading
Theory of much more...
DJAs Kanban
Constraints
Book

System of Profound
Knowledge Lean &
Toyota Production System
Kanban summary
Kanban summary
start with what you do now
Kanban summary
start with what you do now

make the work visible


Kanban summary
start with what you do now

make the work visible

limit the work in progress


Kanban summary
start with what you do now

make the work visible

limit the work in progress

establish flow and pull work when ready


Kanban summary
start with what you do now

make the work visible

limit the work in progress

establish flow and pull work when ready

identify and remove impediments to flow