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PLANS AND CALCULATIONS 13227

Table 22.4.4.7 HazenWilliams C Values 22.5.1.5 Slatted Floors, Large Floor Openings, Mezzanines,
and Large Platforms. Buildings having slatted floors or large
Pipe or Tube C Value* unprotected floor openings without approved stops shall be
treated as one area with reference to pipe sizes, and the feed
Unlined cast or ductile iron 100 mains or risers shall be of the size required for the total num-
Black steel (dry systems including preaction) 100 ber of sprinklers.
Black steel (wet systems including deluge) 120 22.5.1.6 Stair Towers. Stair towers, or other construction with
Galvanized (all) 120 incomplete floors, if piped on independent risers, shall be
Plastic (listed) all 150 treated as one area with reference to pipe sizes.
Cement-lined cast or ductile iron 140
Copper tube or stainless steel 150 22.5.2 Schedule for Light Hazard Occupancies.
Asbestos cement 140 22.5.2.1 Branch Lines.
Concrete 140
22.5.2.1.1 Unless permitted by 22.5.2.1.2 or 22.5.2.1.3,
*
The authority having jurisdiction is permitted to consider other C branch lines shall not exceed eight sprinklers on either side of
values. a cross main.
22.5.2.1.2 Where more than eight sprinklers on a branch line
22.4.4.9* Pressures. are necessary, lines shall be permitted to be increased to nine
22.4.4.9.1 When calculating flow from an orifice, the total sprinklers by making the two end lengths 1 in. (25.4 mm) and
pressure (Pt) shall be used, unless the calculation method of 114 in. (33 mm), respectively, and the sizes thereafter standard.
22.4.4.9.2 is utilized. 22.5.2.1.3 Ten sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed on a
branch line, making the two end lengths 1 in. (25.4 mm) and
22.4.4.9.2 Use of the normal pressure (Pn) calculated by sub- 114 in. (33 mm), respectively, and feeding the tenth sprinkler
tracting the velocity pressure from the total pressure shall be by a 212 in. (64 mm) pipe.
permitted. Where the normal pressure is used, it shall be used
on all branch lines and cross mains where applicable. 22.5.2.2 Pipe Sizes.
22.4.4.9.3 Flow from a sprinkler shall be calculated using the 22.5.2.2.1 Pipe sizes shall be in accordance with Table
nominal K-factor. 22.5.2.2.1.

22.4.4.10 Minimum Operating Pressure.


Table 22.5.2.2.1 Light Hazard Pipe Schedules
22.4.4.10.1 Minimum operating pressure of any sprinkler
shall be 7 psi (0.5 bar).
Steel Copper
22.4.4.10.2 Where a higher minimum operating pressure for
the desired application is specified in the listing of the sprin- 1 in. 2 sprinklers
p 1 in. p
2 sprinklers
kler, this higher pressure shall be required. 114 in. 3 sprinklers
p 114 in. 3 sprinklers
p
112 in. 5 sprinklers
p 112 in. 5 sprinklers
p
22.4.4.11 Maximum Operating
p g Pressure. For extra hazard oc- 2 in. 10 sprinklers
p 2 in. 12 sprinklers
p
cupancies,
p palletized,
p solid pile,
p in bin box, or on shelf stor- 212 in. 30 sprinklers
p 212 in. 40 sprinklers
p
age,
g thee maximum o operating pressure of any sprinkler shall be 3 in. 60 sprinklers
p 3 in. 65 sprinklers
p
175 psi (12.1 bar). 312 in. 100 sprinklers
p 312 in. 115 sprinklers
p
4 in. See Section 8.2 4 in. See Section
22.5 Pipe Schedules. Pipe schedules shall not be used, except
8.2
in existing systems and in new systems or extensions to existing
systems described in Chapter 11. Water supplies shall conform For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
to 11.2.2.
22.5.1* General.
22.5.2.2.2 Each area requiring more sprinklers than the
22.5.1.1 The pipe schedule sizing provisions shall not apply number specified for 312 in. (89 mm) pipe in Table 22.5.2.2.1
to hydraulically calculated systems. and without subdividing partitions (not necessarily fire walls)
shall be supplied by mains or risers sized for ordinary hazard
22.5.1.2 Sprinkler systems having sprinklers with K-factors occupancies.
other than 5.6 nominal, listed piping material other than that
covered in Table 6.3.1.1, extra hazard Group 1 and Group 2 22.5.2.3 Where sprinklers are installed above and below
systems, and exposure protection systems shall be hydrauli- ceilings in accordance with Figure 22.5.2.3(a) through Fig-
cally calculated. ure 22.5.2.3(c), and such sprinklers are supplied from a
common set of branch lines or separate branch lines from a
22.5.1.3 The number of automatic sprinklers on a given pipe common cross main, such branch lines shall not exceed
size on one floor shall not exceed the number given in 22.5.2, eight sprinklers above and eight sprinklers below any ceil-
22.5.3, or 22.5.4 for a given occupancy. ing on either side of the cross main.
22.5.1.4* Size of Risers. Each system riser shall be sized to 22.5.2.4 Unless the requirements of 22.5.2.5 are met, pipe
supply all sprinklers on the riser on any one floor as deter- sizing up to and including 212 in. (64 mm) shall be as shown in
mined by the standard schedules of pipe sizes in 22.5.2, 22.5.3, Table 22.5.2.4 utilizing the greatest number of sprinklers to be
or 22.5.4. found on any two adjacent levels.

2010 Edition
13228 INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS

branch lines exceeds 12 ft (3.7 m), the number of sprinklers


for a given pipe size shall be in accordance with Table 22.5.3.5.
22.5.3.6 Where sprinklers are installed above and below ceil-
ings and such sprinklers are supplied from a common set of
branch lines or separate branch lines supplied by a common
cross main, such branch lines shall not exceed eight sprinklers
2 in. 2 in. 2 in. 1 in. 1 in. 1 in. 1 in. 1 in. 1 in. 1 in. above and eight sprinklers below any ceiling on either side of
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. the cross main.
22.5.3.7 Pipe sizing up to and including 3 in. (76 mm) shall be
FIGURE 22.5.2.3(a) Arrangement of Branch Lines Supplying as shown in Table 22.5.3.7 in accordance with Figure 22.5.2.3(a),
Sprinklers Above and Below a Ceiling. Figure 22.5.2.3(b), and Figure 22.5.2.3(c) utilizing the greatest
number of sprinklers to be found on any two adjacent levels.
Upright sprinkler in 22.5.3.8 Branch lines and cross mains supplying sprinklers
concealed space installed entirely above or entirely below ceilings shall be sized
in accordance with Table 22.5.3.4 or Table 22.5.3.5.
22.5.3.9* Where the total number of sprinklers above and below
Reducer a ceiling exceeds the number specified in Table 22.5.3.7 for 3 in.
(76 mm) pipe, the pipe supplying such sprinklers shall be in-
creased to 312 in. (89 mm) and sized thereafter according to the
Ceiling schedule shown in Table 22.5.2.2.1 or Table 22.5.3.4 for the num-
ber of sprinklers above or below a ceiling, whichever is larger.
A 22.5.3.10 Where the distance between the sprinklers protect-
Upright sprinkler Plate
ing the occupied area exceeds 12 ft (3.7 m) or the distance
between the branch lines exceeds 12 ft (3.7 m), the branch
Nipple, lines shall be sized in accordance with either Table 22.5.3.5,
diameter D
taking into consideration the sprinklers protecting the occu-
pied area only, or Table 22.5.3.7, whichever requires the
greater size of pipe.
22.5.4* Extra Hazard Occupancies. Extra hazard occupancies
Tee shall be hydraulically calculated.
A 3D
22.6 Deluge Systems. Open sprinkler and deluge systems shall
be hydraulically calculated according to applicable standards.
FIGURE 22.5.2.3(b) Sprinkler on Riser Nipple from Branch
Line in Lower Fire Area. 22.7* Exposure Protection Sprinkler Systems.
22.7.1 Exposure protection sprinkler systems shall be hydrau-
22.5.2.5 Branch lines and cross mains supplying sprinklers lically calculated using Table 22.7.1 based on severity of expo-
installed entirely above or entirely below ceilings shall be sized sure as indicated by a relative classification of guide number or
in accordance with Table 22.5.2.2.1. other approved source.
22.5.2.6* Where the total number of sprinklers above and below 22.7.2 In no case shall compliance with Table 22.7.1 result in
a ceiling exceeds the number specified in Table 22.5.2.2.1 for a sprinkler discharge pressure below 7 psi (0.49 bar).
212 in. (64 mm) pipe, the pipe supplying such sprinklers shall be
22.7.3 Only half of the flow from upright, pendent, and other
increased to 3 in. (76 mm) and sized thereafter according to the
nondirectional sprinklers shall be used in determining the
schedule shown in Table 22.5.2.2.1 for the number of sprinklers
minimum average application rate over the protected surface.
above or below a ceiling, whichever is larger.
22.7.4 The water supply shall be capable of simultaneously sup-
22.5.3 Schedule for Ordinary Hazard Occupancies.
plying the total demand of sprinklers along an exposure to a
22.5.3.1 Unless permitted by 22.5.3.2 or 22.5.3.3, branch lines maximum length of 300 ft (91.4 m). Where systems of open
shall not exceed eight sprinklers on either side of a cross main. sprinklers are used, the water supply shall be capable of simulta-
neously flowing all sprinklers that would flow as part of all systems
22.5.3.2 Where more than eight sprinklers on a branch line are
that could be actuated within any 300 ft (91.4 m) length.
necessary, lines shall be permitted to be increased to nine sprin-
klers by making the two end lengths 1 in. (25.4 mm) and 114 in. 22.7.5 The water supply duration for an exposure protection
(33 mm), respectively, and the sizes thereafter standard. sprinkler system shall be a minimum of 60 minutes.
22.5.3.3 Ten sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed on a 22.7.6 A level of window sprinklers as described in Table 22.7.1
branch line, making the two end lengths 1 in. (25.4 mm) and shall be defined as a floor level of the building being protected.
114 in. (33 mm), respectively, and feeding the tenth sprinkler
22.7.7 Window sprinklers shall be permitted to cover more
by a 212 in. (64 mm) pipe.
than 25 ft2 (2.3 m2) of window area per level.
22.5.3.4 Pipe sizes shall be in accordance with Table 22.5.3.4.
22.7.7.1 The starting pressure shall be calculated based on
22.5.3.5 Where the distance between sprinklers on the the application rate over 25 ft2 (2.3 m2) of window area as
branch line exceeds 12 ft (3.7 m) or the distance between the indicated in Table 22.7.1.

2010 Edition
PLANS AND CALCULATIONS 13229

Upright sprinkler in
concealed space

Reducer

Ceiling
(upper)

A Plate
Upright sprinkler

Nipple, diameter D
90 ell

Tee

Ceiling
(lower)

Plate
Pendent sprinkler
A 3D

FIGURE 22.5.2.3(c) Arrangement


g of Branch Lines Supplying Sprinklers Above,
in Between, and Below Ceilings.

Table 22.5.2.4 Number of Sprinklers Above and Below a Table 22.5.3.5 Number of Sprinklers Greater Than 12 ft
Ceiling (3.7 m) Separations

Steel Copper Steel Copper

1 in. 2 sprinklers
p 1 in. p
2 sprinklers 212 in. 15 sprinklers
p 212 in 20 sprinklers
p
114 in. 4 sprinklers
p 114 in. 4 sprinklers
p 3 in. 30 sprinklers
p 3 in. 35 sprinklers
p
112 in. 7 sprinklers
p 112 in. 7 sprinklers
p 312 in. 60 sprinklers 312 in. 65 sprinklers
2 in. 15 sprinklers
p 2 in. 18 sprinklers
p
212 in.. 50 sprinklers 212 in. 65 sprinklers For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
Note: For other pipe and tube sizes, see Table 22.5.3.4.
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm.

Table 22.5.3.4 Ordinary Hazard Pipe Schedule

Steel Copper

1 in. p
2 sprinklers 1 in. p
2 sprinklers Table 22.5.3.7 Number of Sprinklers Above and Below a
114 in. 3 sprinklers
p 114 in. 3 sprinklers
p Ceiling
112 in. 5 sprinklers
p 112 in. 5 sprinklers
p
2 in. 10 sprinklers
p 2 in. 12 sprinklers
p Steel Copper
212 in.. 20 sprinklers
p 212 in. 25 sprinklers
p
3 in. 40 sprinklers
p 3 in. 45 sprinklers
p 1 in. p
2 sprinklers 1 in. p
2 sprinklers
312 in. 65 sprinklers
p 312 in. 75 sprinklers
p 114 in. 4 sprinklers
p 114 in. 4 sprinklers
p
4 in. 100 sprinklers
p 4 in. 115 sprinklers
p 112 in. 7 sprinklers
p 112 in. 7 sprinklers
p
5 in. 160 sprinklers
p 5 in. 180 sprinklers
p 2 in. 15 sprinklers
p 2 in. 18 sprinklers
p
6 in. 275 sprinklers
p 6 in. 300 sprinklers
p 212 in. 30 sprinklers 212 in. 40 sprinklers
8 in. See Section 8.2 8 in. See Section 8.2 3 in. 60 sprinklers 3 in. 65 sprinklers

For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm.

2010 Edition
13230 INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS

Table 22.7.1 Exposure Protection

Section A Wall and Window Sprinklers

Minimum Average
Application Rate
Over Protected
Level of Wall Minimum Discharge Surface
Exposure Guide or Window Nominal Coefficient
Severity Number Sprinklers K-Factor (K-Factor) gpm/ft2 mm/min

Light 1.50 or less Top 2 levels 2.8 (40) 2.8 (40) 0.20 8.1
Next lower 2 levels 1.9 (27) 1.9 (27) 0.15 6.1
Next lower 2 levels 1.4 (20) 1.4 (20) 0.10 4.1
Moderate 1.52.20 Top 2 levels 5.6 (80) 5.6 (80) 0.30 12.2
Next lower 2 levels 4.2 (60) 4.2 (60) 0.25 10.2
Next lower 2 levels 2.8 (40) 2.8 (40) 0.20 8.1
Severe >2.20 Top 2 levels 11.2 (161) 11.2 (161) 0.40 16.3
Next lower 2 levels 8.0 (115) 8.0 (115) 0.35 14.3
Next lower 2 levels 5.6 (80) 5.6 (80) 0.30 12.2

Section B Cornice Sprinklers

Cornice Sprinkler
Minimal Nominal Application Rate per Application Rate per
Guide Number K-Factor Lineal Foot (gpm) Lineal Meter (L/min)

1.50 or less 2.8 (40) 0.75 9.3


>1.512.20 5.6 (80) 1.50 18.6
>2.20 11.2 (161) 3.00 37.2
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 gpm = 3.785 L/min; 1 gpm/ft2 = 40.746 mm/min.

22.7.7.2 The maximum spacing between window sprinklers 23.1.2 Capacity. Water supplies shall be capable of providing
shall not exceed 8 ft (2.44 m) unless listed for a greater distance. the required flow and pressure for the required duration as
specified in Chapter 11, Chapter 12, and Chapter 21.
22.8 In-Rack Sprinklers.
23.1.3 Size of Fire Mains.
22.8.1 Pipes to in-rack sprinklers shall be sized by hydraulic
calculations. p as provided
23.1.3.1 Except p p p smaller than
in 23.1.3.2, no pipe
6 in. (150 mm) in diameter shall be installed as a private ser-
22.8.2 Water demand of sprinklers installed in racks shall be vice main.
added to ceiling sprinkler water demand over the same pro-
tected area at the point of connection. 23.1.3.2* For mains that do not supply hydrants, sizes smaller
than 6 in. (150 mm) shall be permitted to be used subject to
22.8.3 The demand shall be balanced to the higher pressure. the following restrictions:
22.8.4 Water demand of sprinklers installed in racks or water (1) The main supplies only automatic sprinkler systems, open
curtains shall be added to the ceiling sprinkler water demand sprinkler systems, water spray fixed systems, foam systems,
at the point of connection. Demands shall be balanced to the or Class II standpipe systems.
higher pressure. (See Chapter 8.) (2) Hydraulic calculations show that the main will supply the
22.9 Hose Allowance. Water allowance for outside hose shall total demand at the appropriate pressure. Systems that
be added to the sprinkler and inside hose requirement at the are not hydraulically calculated shall have a main at least
connection to the city water main or a yard hydrant, whichever as large as the system riser.
is closer to the system riser. 23.1.4 Underground Supply Pipe. For pipe schedule systems,
the underground supply pipe shall be at least as large as the
system riser.
Chapter 23 Water Supplies 23.1.5* Water Supply Treatment.

23.1 General. 23.1.5.1 Water supplies and environmental conditions shall be


evaluated for the existence of microbes and conditions that con-
23.1.1 Number of Supplies. Every automatic sprinkler system tribute to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Where
shall have at least one automatic water supply. conditions are found that contribute to MIC, the owner(s) shall

2010 Edition
SYSTEMS ACCEPTANCE 13231

notify the sprinkler system installer and a plan shall be developed 23.2.1.2* The volume and pressure of a public water supply
to treat the system using one of the following methods: shall be determined from waterflow test data or other ap-
proved method.
(1) Install a water pipe that will not be affected by the MIC
microbes 23.2.2* Pumps. A single automatically controlled fire pump
(2) Treat all water that enters the system using an approved installed in accordance with NFPA 20, Standard for the Installa-
biocide tion of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection, shall be an acceptable
(3) Implement an approved plan for monitoring the interior water supply source.
conditions of the pipe at established time intervals and 23.2.3 Pressure Tanks.
locations
(4) Install corrosion monitoring station and monitor at estab- 23.2.3.1 Acceptability.
lished intervals 23.2.3.1.1 A pressure tank installed in accordance with
23.1.5.2 Water supplies and environmental conditions shall NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection, shall
be evaluated for conditions that contribute to unusual corro- be an acceptable water supply source.
sive properties. Where conditions are found that contribute to 23.2.3.1.2 Pressure tanks shall be provided with an approved
unusual corrosive properties, the owner(s) shall notify the means for automatically maintaining the required air pressure.
sprinkler system installer and a plan shall be developed to
treat the system using one of the following methods: 23.2.3.1.3 Where a pressure tank is the sole water supply, an
approved trouble alarm shall also be provided to indicate low air
(1) Install a water pipe that is corrosion resistant pressure and low water level with the alarm supplied from an
(2) Treat all water that enters the system using an approved electrical branch circuit independent of the air compressor.
corrosion inhibitor
(3) Implement an approved plan for monitoring the interior 23.2.3.1.4 Pressure tanks shall not be used to supply other
conditions of the pipe at established intervals and loca- than sprinklers and hand hose attached to sprinkler piping.
tions 23.2.3.2 Capacity.
(4) Install corrosion monitoring station and monitor at estab-
lished intervals 23.2.3.2.1 In addition to the requirements of 23.1.2, the wa-
ter capacity of a pressure tank shall include the extra capacity
23.1.5.3 Where approved biocides and corrosion inhibitors needed to fill dry pipe or preaction systems where installed.
are used together, they shall be compatible with each other
and system components. 23.2.3.2.2 The total volume shall be based on the water ca-
pacity plus the air capacity required by 23.2.3.3.
23.1.6 Arrangement.
23.2.3.3* Water Level and Air Pressure.
23.1.6.1 Connection Between Underground and Aboveground
23.2.3.3.1 Pressure tanks shall be kept with a sufficient supply
Piping.
of water to meet the demand of the fire protection system as
23.1.6.1.1 The connection between the system piping and calculated in Chapter 22 for the duration required by Chap-
underground piping shall be made with a suitable transition ter 11, Chapter 12, or Chapter 21.
piece and shall be properly strapped or fastened by approved 23.2.3.3.2 The pressure shall be sufficient to push all of the
devices. water out of the tank while maintaining the necessary residual
23.1.6.1.2 The transition piece shall be protected against pos- pressure (required by Chapter 22) at the top of the system.
sible damage from corrosive agents, solvent attack, or me- 23.2.4 Gravity Tanks. An elevated tank installed in accor-
chanical damage. dance with NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire
23.1.6.2* Connection Passing Through or Under Foundation Protection, shall be an acceptable water supply source.
Walls. When system piping pierces a foundation wall below 23.2.5 Penstocks, Flumes, Rivers, or Lakes. Water supply con-
grade or is located under the foundation wall, clearance shall nections from penstocks, flumes, rivers, lakes, or reservoirs
be provided to prevent breakage of the piping due to building shall be arranged to avoid mud and sediment and shall be
settlement. provided with approved double removable screens or ap-
proved strainers installed in an approved manner.
23.1.7* Meters. Where meters are required by other authori-
ties, they shall be listed.
23.1.8* Connection from Waterworks System.
Chapter 24 Systems Acceptance
23.1.8.1 The requirements of the public health authority hav-
ing jurisdiction shall be determined and followed. 24.1 Approval of Sprinkler Systems and Private Fire Service
Mains. The installing contractor shall do the following:
23.1.8.2 Where equipment is installed to guard against pos-
sible contamination of the public water system, such equip- (1) Notify the authority having jurisdiction and the property
ment and devices shall be listed for fire protection service. owner or the property owners authorized representative
of the time and date testing will be performed
23.2 Types. (2) Perform all required acceptance tests (see Section 24.2)
23.2.1* Connections to Waterworks Systems. (3) Complete and sign the appropriate contractors material
and test certificate(s) (see Figure 24.1)
23.2.1.1 A connection to a reliable waterworks system shall be (4) Remove all caps and straps prior to placing the sprinkler
an acceptable water supply source. system in service

2010 Edition