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INTRODUCTION

GENERAL without a flange. Both Perkins engines made for Hyster


Company normally have a flange on the cylinder liner.
This section has descriptions and repair instructions for The cylinder head is castiron and has an intake valve
the Perkins 4.236 and the Perkins 4.2482 diesel en- and an exhaust valve for each cylinder. The injectors
gines. Checks and Adjustments and Troubleshooting are in the cylinder head. The overhead valve assembly
procedures are included in this section. is actuated by the camshaft found on the right side of
the cylinder block.
DESCRIPTION
The crankshaft has five main bearings. Number three
main bearing is the thrust bearing and has thrust wash-
The 4.2482 engine is a modification of the 4.236 design ers on each side of the main bearing.
to give decreased exhaust emissions and smoke. Some
parts are not common to the two engines, but the repair The pistons are aluminum alloy castings. The piston for
procedures are similar. When the procedures or parts the 4.236 engine has five piston rings and a combustion
are different, a description is given for each engine. chamber in the top of the piston. The piston for the
4.2482 engine has three piston rings. The combustion
The cylinder block is castiron and has cylinder liners chamber in the 4.2482 engine is a modification of the
that can be replaced. The 4.236 engine is available with 4.236 engine and is called a squish lip by the
two types of cylinder liners: either with a flange or manufacturer.

9494

FIGURE 1. PERKINS 4.2482 ENGINE

1
The timing and quantity of fuel sent to the injectors is This serial number is found above the tappet
controlled by a throttle and governor in the fuel injec- cover on the blocks of early engines. The serial
tion pump. The static timing is set by the position of the number is found above the generator of later en-
gines.
injection pump when it is installed. The throttle linkage
must be correctly adjusted to control the quantity of During the middle 1970s, the introduction of a
fuel sent to the injectors. new serial number system was made in the dif-
ferent Perkins plants.
Serial number beginning in 1974 are as follows:
Special tools are needed to repair the injection pump.
LD 21498 U 510256 D
The injection pump must be sent to an authorized deal-
1 2 3 4 5
er if repairs are necessary.
1 Type of engine LD = 4.236, LF = 4.248,
LG = 4.2482
2 Parts list number
ENGINE SERIAL NUMBER CODES
3 Country of manufacture
4 Serial number
5 Year of manufacture. The letter indicates
the year of manufacture starting with A
Serial numbers before 1974 were as follows: in 1974 (D = 1977). The letters I, O, Q, R
and Z will not be used. Not all of the
236 U 470028 A
manufacturers plants started the newer
1 2 3 4
serial number sequence in 1974. Some en-
1 Type of engine 4.236 gines made after 1974 can have the earlier
2 Manufactured in the United Kingdom serial number sequence.
3 Serial number
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
4 The letter A after the serial number indi-
cates the engine has 0.5 in diameter cylinder See the section for THE FRAME for the specific mod-
head studs. The letter C after the serial el of interest for the procedure for removing and instal-
number indicates the engine has chrome ling the engine and transmission. See the sections for
cylinder liners. THE TRANSMISSION to separate the transmission
from the engine.

ENGINE
move the wire to the cold start aid. Clean the cylinder
WARNING head so that dirt cannot enter the cylinder head or fuel
Always disconnect the connections at the battery be- system.
fore making repairs to the engine. (Disconnect the
negative cable first.) 2. Drain the cooling system. Remove the hoses.
3. Disconnect and remove the air cleaner, hose bracket
CYLINDER HEAD and hose. Disconnect the linesthe secondary filter and
remove the air cleaner bracket. Remove the inlet and
Removal exhaust manifolds.
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable at the battery. 4. Make sure the area around the fittings is clean. Re-
Remove the brackets for the wires to the alternator. Re- move the fuel line to the cold start aid. Disconnect the

2
high pressure and drain lines at the fuel injectors and at
the fuel injection pump. Remove the injectors. Remove
1
the brackets and tubes.

CAUTION
DO NOT bend the tubes.

5. Remove the hose for the crankcase ventilation valve.


Remove the rocker arm cover. Remove the rocker arm
assembly. Remove the push rods.
NOTE: Keep the push rods in order so that they can be 2
installed in the same positions.

6. Remove the cylinder head nuts and capscrews in op- 8105


posite order of the tightening sequence shown in
1. OIL SUPPLY CONNECTION
FIGURE 2. Remove the cylinder head.
2. SEAL
Installation
FIGURE 3. OIL FEED CONNECTION
1. Clean the threads of all the studs and capscrews. Use 4. Install the push rods in the same positions from
a tap to clean threads of the holes in the block. Put a which they were removed. Put a new Oring for the oil
small amount of oil on the threads. tube in the correct hole in the cylinder head.
2. Make sure the surfaces of the engine block and cylin- 5. Install the rocker arm assembly on the cylinder head.
der head are clean. Install the cylinder head gasket with Make sure each push rod is in position in the rocker
the words TOP FRONT in view on the fan end of the arm before tightening the capscrews. Tighten the caps-
engine block. Use only the HYSTER APPROVED cyl- crews to 43 N.m (32 lbf ft).
inder head gasket. Do not use sealant on the gasket.
6. Adjust the clearance between the valves and the
3. Put the cylinder head on the engine block. See rocker arm as described in CHECKS AND ADJUST-
FIGURE 2. for the correct location of studs and caps- MENTS in this section.
crews. Tighten the nuts and capscrews to 27 N.m (20 7. Install new copper washers on the injectors. Install
lbf ft) in the sequence shown in FIGURE 2. Tighten the the injectors and brackets. Connect the lines to the in-
nuts and capscrews again the same sequence to 102 jectors and to the fuel injection pump. Tighten the caps-
N.m (75 lbf ft). Tighten the nuts and capscrews in the crews for the injector bracket 16 N.m (12 lbf ft).
same sequence to a final torque of 136 N.m (100 lbf ft).
Repeat the final tightening procedure. 8. Install a new gasket for the rocker arm cover. Put a
steel washer and a rubber washer on each rocker arm
capscrew. Install the cover, rubber washers, steel wash-
ers and capscrews.
9. Make sure the surfaces of the inlet and exhaust man-
ifolds are clean and smooth. Install new gaskets and
install the manifolds. Connect the hose for the crank-
case ventilation valve.
10. Connect the fuel line and wire to the cold start aid.
Connect the wire to the temperature sender. Connect
9467
the hose to the radiator. Install the bracket for the air
FIGURE 2. CYLINDER HEAD TIGHTENING cleaner. Connect the lines to the secondary filter. Install
SEQUENCE the air cleaner, hose and clamp.

3
11. Fill the cooling system with coolant. Check for the cylinder head be tightened after the engine has
leaks. Connect the negative battery terminal. been operated for 25 to 50 hours.

12. Remove the air from the fuel system as described in Cylinder Head Repairs
CHECKS AND ADJUSTMENTS in this section. Re-
The maximum clearance along the length of the surface
move the air from the cold start aid before starting the
of the cylinder head is 0.15 mm (0.006 in). The maxi-
engine.
mum clearance across the width of the surface of the
cylinder head is 0.08 mm (0.003 in). See FIGURE 4.
13. Run the engine until the normal operating tempera-
ture is reached. The cylinder head nuts and bolts must The surface of the cylinder head can be machined to a
be tightened to the final torque again when the engine maximum of 0.030 mm (0.012 in). The nozzles of the
has reached operating temperature. After the engine injectors must not extend more than 4.44 mm (0.175 in)
has been run for 25 to 50 hours, the nuts and capscrews below the surface of the cylinder head. Use only one
must be tightened again. Use the sequence shown in washer for each injector. The correct thickness for the
FIGURE 2. and tighten to 136 N.m (100 lbf ft). If the washers is 2.13 mm (0.084 in).
nut or capscrews does not turn when tightened to the
final torque, loosen it 30 to 60. Tighten it to 136 N.m VALVE SEATS
(100 lbf ft). After all the capscrews or nuts have been NOTE: Perkins 4.236 and 4.2482 engines made for
tightened, again tighten the first ten capscrews or nuts Hyster Company do not have separate valve guides nor
to the final torque. valve seats. Valves are available with oversize valve
stems of 0.08, 0.038 and 0.76 mm (0.003, 0.015 and
CAUTION 0.030 in) valve seats can be installed if necessary when a
It is very important that the nuts and capscrews for cylinder head is repaired.

4.44 mm (0.175 in) MAX 0.30 mm (0.012 in) MAX

WIDTH LENGTH

8102

0.08 mm (0.003 in) 0.15 mm (0.006 in)


CLEARANCE STRAIGHT EDGE CLEARANCE
FIGURE 4. CYLINDER HEAD DIMENSIONS

4
A 169 to 187 N
(38 to 42 lb)

30 45.2 mm
45 (1.78 in)

9481
OUTER VALVE SPRING

A: 2.39 to 2.51 mm
(0.094 to 0.099 in)
63.6 to 69.4 N
FIGURE 5. VALVE SEAT ANGLES (14.3 to 15.6 lb)

39.7 mm
(1.56 in)
1. If the surface of the valve seat is not smooth, the seat
must be cut or ground. The seat must ground at two
angles so that the surface for the valve is not too wide. INNER VALVE SPRING 8106

Grind the seat with the 45 stone until the surface is FIGURE 7. VALVE SPRINGS
smooth. Use the 30 stone to make the seat narrow. See
3. Do not lubricate the valve seats before installation.
FIGURE 5.
Grind or cut the valve seats after installation as de-
scribed above.
2. Check the depth of a new valve head below the sur-
face of the cylinder head after the seat is machined. See VALVE SPRINGS
FIGURE 6. The exhaust valve head must not be more Check the pressure of the valve springs when the cylin-
than 1.4 mm (0.055 in) below the surface of the cylin- der head is disassembled. The springs must be square.
der head. The inlet valve head must not be more than The height of an inner spring that is compressed by a
1.5 mm (0.061 in) below the surface of the cylinder load of 63.6 to 69.4 N (14.3 to 15.6 lb) must be 39.7
head. If the depth of the valve head is more than the mm (1.56 in). A load of 169 to 187 N (38 to 42 lb) is
specification, the valve seat or valve must be replaced. needed to compress the outside spring to a height of
45.2 mm (1.78 in). If the springs are not at the correct
height when the specified load is applied, they must be
replaced. See FIGURE 7.
The correct height for the inner springs when they are
installed is 39.7 mm (1.56 in). The correct height for
the outer springs is 45.2 mm (1.78 in).
The spring coils that are together must be installed to-
ward the cylinder head.
VALVES
The valves must be checked for wear on the stems. The
valve head must not be bent or have cracks. The valve
face must be ground to a 45 angle. Do not grind too
much metal from the valve or the valve head will be too
far below the surface of the cylinder head.
Lubricate the valve with engine oil before installing the
FIGURE 6. CHECKING THE DEPTH OF THE
VALVE HEAD valve in the valve guide. Use new valve seals when as-
sembling the valve mechanism.

5
mm (0.005 in) the bushings must be replaced. The cor-
1 rect clearance between the rocker arm bushings and the
shaft is 0.025 to 0.075 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in).

Assembly
2
If new bushings are needed, make sure the oil holes are
aligned. Slide the oil tube fitting on the shaft. Align the
3 hole for the screw in the shaft with the hole in the fit-
ting. Install the screw. Install the support brackets,
springs and rocker arms in the correct order. Install the
washers and snap rings on the shaft.

5 OIL PUMP

Removal
1. Remove the sump. Remove the screen assembly and
inlet tube.
4 2. Remove the tube between the pump and the relief
valve.

3. Remove the crankshaft pulley, timing gear cover,


6 timing gears and timing gear case.

Disassembly
7 1. Remove the snap ring for the drive gear for the
pump. Remove the Woodruff key from the drive shaft.
1. RETAINERS 2. Remove the end plate. Remove the drive and driven
2. RETAINER CAP
3. SEAL rotors from the pump body. Remove the Oring.
4. INNER SPRING
5. OUTER SPRING Inspection (See FIGURE 11. and FIGURE 12.)
6. SPRING SEAT
7. VALVE 1. Check the rotors and plate and body for grooves or
cracks.

2. Check the clearance between the inner rotor and the


outer rotor. See FIGURE 11.
FIGURE 8. VALVE ASSEMBLY

ROCKER ARM SHAFT

Disassembly
8107
Remove the rocker arms from the shaft by removing
the snap rings on the ends of the shaft. Remove the 1
washers, rocker arms, springs and support brackets. 2 1. ROCKER ARM
Remove the screw from the oil tube fitting and slide the 3 2. BUSHING
fitting from the shaft. If the clearance between the 3. OIL HOLE
rocker arm bushings and the shaft is more than 0.127 FIGURE 9. ROCKER ARM

6
7

10048

1
1. SNAP RING
2. WASHER
6 3. ROCKER ARM
5 5
3 4. SUPPORT BRACKET
3 4 5. SPRING
2 6. OIL SUPPLY CONNECTION
7. ROCKER ARM SHAFT
8. PLUG

FIGURE 10. ARRANGEMENT OF THE ROCKER ARM SHAFT

3. Check the clearance between the outer rotor and the 2. Install the idler gear with the boss toward the oil
pump body. See FIGURE 12. pump. Install the snap ring. The clearance between the
idler gear and the mount flange must be 0.05 to 0.41
4. Check the clearance between a straight edge across mm (0.002 to 0.016 in). The clearance between the
the pump body and the driven rotor. See FIGURE 13. idler gear and the oil pump gear must be 0.15 to 0.23
5. Check the clearance between a straight edge and the mm (0.006 to 0.009 in).
inner rotor. See FIGURE 13.

If any parts of the pump are damaged or worn, the oil


pump must be replaced. The parts are not available sep-
arately.

Assembly

1. Install the inner and outer rotors into the oil pump
body. The ends of the rotors with the chamfer must be
installed first. Install a new Oring and the end plate. 9472

2. Install the Woodruff key on the shaft. Install the


drive gear with the boss toward the snap ring groove. CLEARANCE
Install the snap ring.
OUTER ROTOR HAS 4 LOBES:
3. Put the inlet tube in a container of clean engine oil. 0.025 to 0.076 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in)
Turn the drive gear until oil flows from the oil pump. OUTER ROTOR HAS 5 LOBES:
0.025 to 0.152 mm (0.001 to 0.006 in)
Installation FIGURE 11. CHECK THE CLEARANCE
BETWEEN ROTORS
1. Install the oil pump on the main bearing cap.

7
9471

9470
CLEARANCE

OUTER ROTOR HAS 4 LOBES: CLEARANCE


0.28 to 0.033 mm (0.011 to 0.013 in)
OUTER ROTOR HAS 5 LOBES: 3 LOBE INNER ROTOR:
0.139 to 0.254 mm (0.0055 to 0.010 in) 0.008 to 0.076 mm (0.0015 to 0.003 in)
4 LOBE INNER ROTOR:
FIGURE 12. CHECK THE CLEARANCE 0.025 to 0.127 mm (0.001 to 0.005 in)
BETWEEN ROTOR AND BODY 4 LOBE OUTER ROTOR:
0.013 to 0.063 mm (0.0005 to 0.0025 in)
5 LOBE OUTER ROTOR:
0.025 to 0.127 mm (0.001 to 0.005 in)
3. Install the timing case, timing gears, timing case FIGURE 13. CHECK END CLEARANCE OF THE
cover, and crankshaft pulley. ROTORS

Remove the cap, spring and plunger.


4. Install the oil tube between the oil pump and relief
valve. 4. Clean all the parts. Inspect the spring for damage.
The length of the spring must be 32.51 mm (1.28 in)
5. Install the inlet tube and screen. Install the sump. with a 34.5 to 36.7 N (7.76 to 8.24 lb) load. Inspect the
bore and plunger for scratches or wear. There must be
6. Before starting the engine fill the sump with oil to 0.03 to 0.10 mm (0.001 to 0.004 in) clearance between
the correct level. Run the starter with the stop cable plunger and bore.
pulled until the warning light for oil pressure does not
5. Lubricate the parts with engine oil. Install the plung-
illuminate.
er and spring in the bore. Install the cap and cotter pin.

RELIEF VALVE 6. Install the relief valve body on the crankcase. Install
the capscrew and lock washer.

1. Remove the sump. Remove the tube to the oil pump. 7. Connect the tube to the oil pump. Install the sump.
Make sure there is oil in the sump before starting the
2. Remove the capscrew and remove the relief valve engine.
body from the crankcase. 8. The relief valve must open at 345 to 415 kPa (50 to
60 psi).
3. Remove the cotter pin from the body.
TIMING GEAR CASE AND TIMING GEARS
WARNING
Removal
The cotter pin holds a compressed spring in the relief
valve body. 1. Remove the crankshaft pulley.

8
2. Remove the capscrews that hold the cover to the tim- 6. Remove the fuel injection pump. Remove the nine
ing gear case. Remove the cover. Do not damage the oil capscrews and washers that hold the timing gear case to
seal. the crankcase. Remove the four capscrews and washers
NOTE: Each drive gear for the crankshaft, camshaft that hold the timing gear case to the sump. Remove the
and fuel injection pump has timing marks that must be timing gear case.
aligned with the idler gear so that the engine will oper- Installation
ate. See FIGURE 13. See also that each drive gear and
1. Install a new gasket and install the timing gear case
shaft has marks that must be correctly aligned during as-
on the crankcase. Make sure the thrust washer is on the
sembly.
camshaft. Install the capscrews to the crankcase and
sump.
3. Rotate the crankshaft until the timing marks on the
timing marks on the timing gears are aligned. See 2. If the crankshaft gear was removed, install it on the
FIGURE 14. Remove the nuts for the retainer for the crankshaft.
idler gear. Remove the idler gear and hub assembly.
3. Install the Woodruff key and camshaft gear with the
mark away from the engine. Install the retainer plate,
CAUTION
lock plate, lock washer and capscrew. Tighten the caps-
Do not rotate the crankshaft or camshaft when the
crew to 68 N.m (50 lbf ft). Bend the lock plate over the
idler gear is removed. You will damage the pistons
nut.
and/or the valves.
4. Install the fuel injection pump on the timing gear
4. Remove the capscrew, lock washer and lock plate for case. Make sure the mark on the fuel injector pump
the camshaft gear. Use a puller to remove the camshaft aligns with the mark on the timing gear case. Install the
gear. gear for the fuel injection pump. Install the three caps-
crews and lock washers. Make sure the mark on the
5. Remove the three capscrews for the gear for the fuel gear is toward the idler gear.
injection pump. Remove the gear.
5. Lubricate the thrust washers and bushing for the
idler gear. Install the hub and thrust washer. Put the
idler gear on the hub with the marks for the camshaft,
crankshaft and fuel injection pump gears aligned. If the
marks are not aligned within three teeth, remove the
idler gear and turn the gear that is not aligned. If the
gears are not aligned more than three teeth, the rocker
arm assembly must be removed. This action prevents
damage to the valve mechanism when the camshaft or
crankshaft is rotated. Install the idler gear so that the
marks are in alignment. Install the other thrust washer,
the plate and nuts. Tighten the nuts to 41 N.m (30 lbf
10051 ft).
6. Check the clearance between the thrust washer and
the idler gear. The correct clearance is 0.25 to 0.41 mm
1. CRANK SHAFT (0.010 to 0.016 in).
2. IDLER GEAR
3. INJECTION PUMP GEAR 7. Check the clearance between the teeth of the gears.
4. CAMSHAFT GEAR The minimum is 0.08 mm (0.003 in). There is no maxi-
5. TIMING MARKS
mum clearance, but the gears can be replaced if they
6. HYDRAULIC PUMP DRIVE
are worn and make too much noise. The maximum
FIGURE 14. TIMING GEARS clearance on new engines is 0.24 mm (0.009 in).

9
8. Install a new seal in the cover for the timing gear
case. Press the seal in from the front until the seal is
9.73 to 9.97 mm (0.38 to 0.39 in) from the front face of
the cover. See FIGURE 15.

9. Put the spacer on the crankshaft. Install the cover for


the timing gear case. The three capscrews for the bot-
tom of the cover must have aluminum washers on
them.

CAUTION
The cover must be installed so that the crankshaft is
exactly in the center of the bore for the seal.

10. Install the crankshaft pulley. Tighten the capscrew 8455


and washer to 406 N.m (300 lbf ft).
FIGURE 16. CONNECTING ROD
PISTONS AND CONNECTING RODS
CAUTION
Removal If the cylinder liners are worn, use a ridge reamer to
cut the ridges before removing the pistons.
1. Remove the cylinder head. See Cylinder Head Re-
moval. NOTE: The 4.236 engine has five piston rings on each
piston. See FIGURE 19.
2. Drain the oil and remove the sump.
NOTE: The 4.2482 engine has three piston rings on
3. Remove the nuts for the connecting rod caps. Re- each piston. See FIGURE 20.
move the caps and bearings. Make sure the caps have a
number on them before removal. See FIGURE 16. Disassembly
Each connecting rod cap and connecting rod are a ma-
1. Remove the rings from the pistons.
chined assembly and must not be mixed with another
assembly.

4. Push the piston and connecting rod away from the


crankshaft. See FIGURE 17. Be careful so that the
bolts for the connecting rods do not touch the crank-
shaft and damage the bearing surface.

6.35 mm 1
(0.25 in)

8119
1. TIMING GEAR CASE 2
2. SEAL 8454
FIGURE 15. CRANKSHAFT SEAL FOR TIMING FIGURE 17. REMOVING THE PISTON AND
GEAR CASE CONNECTING ROD

10
2. Remove the snap rings from the piston. 1
3. Push out the piston pin. If necessary, heat the piston
2
in warm water 40C (120F) to remove the pin.

Inspection 3

1. Clean the carbon from the grooves for the piston


rings. Check the clearance of a new ring in its groove.
If the clearance is more than 0.20 mm (0.008 in) re- 4
place the piston.

2. Check the fit of the piston pin in the connecting rod 5


6
and piston. Measure the piston pin. Measure the diame-
ter of the holes in the piston and connecting rod. The
piston pin diameter must be 34.92 to 34.93 mm 1.3748
to 1.3750 in). The inside diameter of the bushing in the
connecting rod must be 34.94 to 34.96 mm (1.3757 to
1.3765 in). The clearance between the piston pin and
the connecting rod bushing must be 0.02 to 0.04 mm
7
(0.0007 to 0.0017 in). If the bushing is replaced, use a 8
reamer to make the bushing the correct size. The diam-
eter of the bores in the piston must be 34.92 to 34.93
mm (1.3748 to 1.3750 in).
3. Check the alignment of the connecting rod bores.
11
The bores must be parallel to within 0.06 mm (0.0025
in) with the bushing installed when measured at 127
mm (5 in) from the center of the connecting rod. See
FIGURE 16. When the bushing is removed the bores
must be parallel to 0.25 mm (0.010 in). 9
4. Check the pistons for wear or scratches on the sides
of the pistons. Clean the carbon from the top of the pis-
12
tons. 10 10050
NOTE: The pistons for the Perkins 4.2482 are special.
Do not remove any metal from the top of the piston. 1. TOP COMPRESSION RING
2. COMPRESSION RING
3. OIL CONTROL RING
4. PISTON (4.236)
5. PISTON PIN
6. SNAP RING
7. BUSHING
8. CONNECTING ROD
0.25 mm 0.25 mm 9. CONNECTING ROD BEARINGS
(0.010 in) 127 mm 127 mm (0.010 in) 10. CONNECTING ROD CAP
(5.0 in) (5.0 in) 11. BOLT
12. NUT

FIGURE 19. PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD


8136 ASSEMBLY

FIGURE 18. ALIGNMENT OF CONNECTING


ROD BORES WITH BUSHING REMOVED

11
Assembly
4.2482 ENGINE (See FIGURE 21.)
1. Install the oil control ring on the the number 1 pis-
ton. Install the spring so that both ends of the spring are
in the pin. Install the oil control ring so that the space is
opposite the pin. Make sure the spring is in the inner
groove of the oil control ring.
2. Install the second ring into the groove with the step
toward the top of the piston. The ring for the second
groove has a tapered face. Move the second ring so that
the space does not align with the space of the oil control
ring. See FIGURE 21.
3. Install the top compression ring in the top groove
8137
with the step toward the top of the piston. The gap for
the top ring must not be aligned with the gap of the sec-
ond ring. See FIGURE 21.
FIGURE 20. CHECKING THE CLEARANCE AT 4.236 ENGINE (See FIGURE 19.)
THE ENDS OF THE PISTON RINGS
1. Install an oil control ring below the bore for the pis-
5. Check the bore for the crankshaft in the connecting ton pin (number five groove). Install an oil control ring
rod to make sure it is round. above the bore for the piston pin (number four groove).

6. Check the clearance of the ends of the rings in the 2. Install an iron compression ring in the second and
cylinder bore. See FIGURE 20. See SPECIFI- third grooves. These rings have a step on the inside di-
CATIONS in this section for correct dimensions. ameter. This step must be towards the top of the piston.
3. Install the top compression ring. This ring normally
has a chrome finish.
1
BOTH ENGINES
2
4. Lubricate the bores with oil for the piston pin in the
connecting rod and piston. Put the connecting rod in
between the piston bores. The letter F on the piston
must be toward the fan end of the engine when the
number on the connecting rod is away from the cam-
shaft. See FIGURE 22. Push the piston pin into the pis-
3
ton and connecting rod. Heat the piston in warm water
if the piston pin will not enter the piston. Install the
snap rings.
5. Install the connecting rod bearings in the connecting
rods and caps. Do not touch the bearing surface with
your fingers.
1. TOP COMPRESSION RING
2. SECOND COMPRESSION RING Installation
8442
3. OIL RING
1. Lubricate the piston, rings and bearings with engine
FIGURE 21. PISTON RINGS (4.2482 ENGINE) oil. Install the piston in their cylinders with the letter

12
F toward the fan end of the engine. Use a ring com- NOTE: DO NOT remove the metal from the tops of the
pressor so that the pistons will fit in the cylinders. Use a pistons for the 4.2482 engine. This action will change
wood handle to push the pistons into the cylinders. the special combustion chamber and decrease the per-
Make sure the bolts of the connecting rod do not touch formance of the engine.
the crankshaft.
3. Install the oil sump. Install the cylinder head as de-
2. Install the caps for the connecting rods. Install the scribed in Cylinder Head Installation in this section.
nuts. Tighten the nuts to 102 N.m (75 lbf ft). Bend the
lock plates over the nuts (4.2482 engines). 4.236 en- CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARINGS
gines do not have lock plates. Use new nuts on the bolts
for the connecting rods on the 4.236 engine. Removal
NOTE: If new pistons are installed in a 4.236 engine, 1. Remove the sump, the screen for the oil pump, the
check the piston height. Measure the difference between relief valve and the oil pump.
the top face of the cylinder block and the top of a piston
2. Remove the timing gears and case. See TIMING
installed in the engine. The piston will normally extend
GEAR CASE AND TIMING GEARS, Removal for
0.08 to 0.25 mm (0.003 to 0.010 in) above the top face of
the procedures.
the cylinder block. A maximum limit is 0.41 to 0.61 mm
(0.016 to 0.024 in) for the piston to extend above the top 3. Remove the flywheel and flywheel housing. See Fly-
face of the cylinder block. Remove metal from the top of wheel and Flywheel Housing.
the piston if necessary to make the correct clearance.
4. Remove the connecting rod caps.

TOWARD FRONT OF THE ENGINE 5. Remove the housing for the rear oil seal. Remove the
support from the rear main bearing.
6. Remove the capscrews from the main bearings. Re-
move the caps for the main bearings.
7. Remove the crankshaft. Remove the bearings and
thrust washers.
Inspection
1. Inspect the bearing surfaces of the crankshaft for
grooves or damage.
2. Measure the bearing surfaces of the crankshaft. Each
bearing surface must be measured four times. Measure
at each end of the bearing surface and then measure at
positions 90 from the first positions. The bearing sur-
8135 faces must not be worn more than 0.04 mm (0.0015 in).
FIGURE 22. IDENTIFICATION OF THE PISTON See FIGURE 23. for the specifications.

13
E C D C E F

B B

A A R A R R A
R A

R R B B R R
R 9469

E E

1. CRANKSHAFT 5. OIL SEAL


2. MAIN BEARING CAP 6. CRANKSHAFT PULLEY
3. THRUST WASHER 7. THRUST RING
4. CRANKSHAFT GEAR
FIGURE 23. CRANKSHAFT SPECIFICATIONS

3. Check the surface for the rear seal on the crankshaft. Assembly
If the surface has a groove, the new seal must be
installed in a different position. The surface for the seal 1. Install the new main bearings in the crankcase and
can be machined when the surface has too many groov- main bearing caps. Lubricate all the main bearings with
es. The diameter of the flange must not be less than oil. Install and lubricate the thrust washers.
133.17 mm (5.234 in).
2. Put the crankshaft in the crankcase. Install the main
4. The surfaces for the bearings can be ground to diam- bearing caps in the correct positions. The number 1
eters that are 0.25, 0.51 or 0.76 mm (0.010, 0.020 or main bearing cap is toward the timing gears.
0.030 in) smaller than the original size. The crankshaft
must be replaced if the surface must be ground more
than 0.76 mm (0.030 in).

5. Clean the oil passages in the crankshaft. Clean the


bearing caps.

6. Check the capscrews for the main bearings for dam-


age. Use only capscrews for the main bearings that are
HYSTER APPROVED.

7. The thrust washers are found in the support for the


center main bearing. Check the thrust surfaces of the
crankshaft for wear. The correct total clearance be-
tween the crankshaft and the thrust washers is 0.10 to
0.38 mm (0.004 to 0.015 in). Thrust washers are avail-
9475
able that are 0.19 mm (0.0075 in) thicker than the stan-
dard thrust bearings. A pair of thick thrust washers can
be used on one side of the main bearing with a pair of FIGURE 24. MAKE SURE SUPPORT IS EVEN
WITH CRANKCASE
standard thrust washers on the other side.

14
3. Install and tighten the capscrews to 44 N.m (180 lbf CAMSHAFT AND CAM FOLLOWERS
ft).
Removal

4. Check the clearance between the crankshaft and the The engine must be on an engine stand to remove the
thrust washers. The clearance must be 0.010 to 0.38 camshaft and cam followers.
mm (0.004 to 0.015 in). Install thicker thrust washers if 1. Remove the crankshaft pulley, timing case cover,
the clearance is more than 0.38 mm (0.015 in). timing gears and timing case. See TIMING GEAR
CASE AND TIMING GEARS, Removal.
5. Install the connecting rod bearings in the connecting
2. Rotate the engine so that the cylinder head is toward
rods and caps. Lubricate the bearings and install the
the floor.
caps on the connecting rods. Tighten the nuts to 102
N.m (75 lbf ft). 3. Remove the sump. Remove the fuel pump.
4. Remove the thrust ring for the camshaft. Remove the
6. Install the support for the rear main bearing. Use new camshaft.
seals when installing the support. Make sure the rear
5. Remove the cam followers as shown in FIGURE 27.
surface of the support is even with the rear surface of
the crankcase. See FIGURE 24.

7. Install the new seal in the seal housing as shown in


FIGURE 25. The seal must be installed so that the lip
does not touch a groove in the crankshaft flange. Install
a new gasket with sealant. Lubricate the seal and install
the seal housing. Make sure the flange of the crankshaft
is in the center of the seal.
3.2 mm
(0.125 in)
CAUTION 6.4 mm
Do not damage the seal when installing the seal hous- (0.250 in)
ing.

8. Install the flywheel housing and flywheel. Tighten


the place bolts in the flywheel 122 N.m (90 lbf ft).

8131
9. Install the oil pump and relief valve. Install the tim-
ing gear case and timing gears. Install the crankshaft
pulley.

10. Install the oil pump screen and tube. Install the
sump. FIGURE 25. REAR OIL SEAL AND HOUSING

15
9476

8122 FIGURE 27. REMOVING THE CAM


FOLLOWERS
CAMSHAFT

3. Install the thrust washer. Check that the thrust wash-


er extends beyond the front face of the cylinder block
FIGURE 26. REMOVING THE CAMSHAFT surface by 0.66 to 0.79 mm (0.026 to 0.031 in).

4. Install the timing gear case. Check that the clearance


Inspection between the thrust washer and the camshaft is 0.10 to
1. Inspect the cams of the camshaft for wear or damage. 0.41 mm (0.004 to 0.016 in).
The cam lift must be 7.62 to 7.70 mm (0.300 to 0.303 5. Install the timing gears as described in TIMING
in). GEAR CASE AND TIMING GEARS, Installation.
2. Check the thrust surfaces for wear or damage. Install the cover for the timing gears and the crankshaft
pulley.
3. Inspect the bearing surface for wear or damage.
Measure the bearing surfaces of the camshaft. The di- 6. Install the push rods and rocker arm assembly. Ad-
ameter of the bearing surface next to the camshaft gear just the valve clearances to 0.030 mm (0.012 in) (cold).
must be 50.71 to 50.74 mm (1.9965 to 1.9975 in). The 7. Install the cover for the rocker arms.
diameter of the middle bearing surface must be 50.46
to 50.48 mm (1.9865 to 1.9875 in). The diameter of the
rear bearing surface must be 49.95 to 49.98 mm
(1.9665 to 1.9675 in). The clearance between the front
bearing surface and the bore must be 0.06 to 0.11 mm
(0.0025 to 0.0045 in). The clearance for the other two
bearing surfaces must be 0.06 to 0.14 mm (0.0025 to
0.0053 in).

4. Check the cam followers for wear or damage. The


clearance between the cam followers and the bores
must be 0.04 to 0.10 mm (0.0015 to 0.0038 in).

Assembly 8123

1. Lubricate the cam followers with oil. Install the cam


followers in their bores. CAMSHAFT THRUST RING
2. Lubricate and install the camshaft. Install the sump. FIGURE 28. CAMSHAFT THRUST RING

16
FLYWHEEL AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 2. The pilot bearing in the flywheel can be replaced.
Push out the old bearing and push in a new bearing.
Apply the force only on the outer bearing.
Removal
Installation
1. Remove all but two of the place bolts that hold the
1. Install a new seal in the flywheel housing. If
flywheel to the crankshaft. Install two long studs into
equipped, install the flywheel housing and pump drive
the crankshaft with your fingers. Remove the two place
assembly as described in the HYDRAULIC PUMP
bolts.
DRIVE ASSEMBLY for the model of interest.
2. Pull the flywheel away from the crankshaft. If the 2. Install to studs into the flywheel. Slide the flywheel
engine has a hydraulic chain drive, remove the gear, on the studs. Install the place bolts and tighten the caps-
chain and shims as described in the HYDRAULIC crews to 122 N.m (90 lbf ft). Remove the studs and
PUMP DRIVE ASSEMBLY, 1900 SRM 64. Remove install the place bolts. Tighten the place bolts to 122
the flywheel housing and the two studs. N.m (90 lbf ft).

Repairs STEERING PUMP DRIVE


(See FIGURE 29.)
1. Replace the ring gear on the flywheel as follows:
Removal
a. During removal or installation, do not heat the
gear to more than 230C (450F). 1. Removing the steering pump (5)
b. During installation, push the ring gear fully 2. Remove the four adapter mount nuts and the adapter
against the shoulder of the flywheel. (4).

4
5
1

3
12099

6 7

1. IDLER GEAR 4. ADAPTER 6. GASKET


2. PUMP DRIVE GEAR 5. STEERING PUMP 7. GASKET
3. TIMING GEAR COVER (REFERENCE) 8. NUT
FIGURE 29. STEERING PUMP DRIVE

17
1 EARLY UNITS

2
1. PCV VALVE
2. DRAFT TUBE

LATER UNITS
12099

FIGURE 30. CRANKCASE VENTILATION

Installation 3. Install the steering pump (5).

1. Install the adapter gasket (6) and adapter 4. Tighten PCV VALVE (See FIGURE 30.)
the adapter mount nuts to 20 Nm (15 lbf ft).
Early units used a PCV valve for crankcase ventilation.
2. If the steering pump gear (2) was removed, reinstall Later units use an open draft tube. See the Periodic
the gear and tighten the nut (8) to 45 Nm (33 lbf ft). Maintenance Section for the maintenance procedures.

FUEL SYSTEM

FUEL PUMP (See Figure 31) 3. Remove the diaphragm assembly by rotating it 90
in either direction.
Removal
4. Remove all other parts as necessary.
1. Disconnect and remove the fuel lines at the fuel
Assembly
pump.
1. Install the lever and spring into the lower half of the
2. Remove the nuts and washers that hold the fuel fuel pump body.
pump to the engine. Remove the fuel pump.
2. Install the spring and diaphragm. Push on the dia-
Disassembly phragm and rotate it 90 in either direction. This action
engages the diaphragm and the lever.
1. Clean the outside of the fuel pump. Make a mark be-
tween the flanges of the fuel pump. 3. Align the marks and assemble the housings of the
fuel pump. Tighten the screws evenly.
2. Remove the cover on the top of the fuel pump. Re-
move the screws on the housing and separate the parts. 4. Install the cover on top of the fuel pump.

18
4

6
5

3 8465
8144
FIGURE 32. FUEL INJECTION PUMP
5. Remove the fuel pump gear as described in TIMING
1. DIAPHRAGM 4. COVER GEAR CASE AND TIMING GEARS, Removal.
2. SPRING 5. SPRING
3. LEVER 6. HOUSING 6. Remove the nuts that hold the pump on the timing
FIGURE 31. FUEL PUMP gear case.
7. Remove the fuel injection pump.
Installation
Repairs
1. Use a new gasket and install the fuel pump on the en-
gine. Tighten the capscrews to 27 N.m (20 lbf ft). Repairs to the fuel injection pump cannot be made
Tighten the capscrews again after the engine is hot. without special tools. Any necessary repairs must be
made by a dealer.
2. Connect the inlet and outlet fuel lines. Remove air
from the fuel system as described in Checks and Ad- Installation
justments. 1. Check the timing for the fuel injection pump as de-
scribed in CHECKS AND ADJUSTMENTS. Install
FUEL INJECTION PUMP the fuel injection pump to the timing gear case. Tighten
the nuts.
Removal
2. Connect the throttle cable and the engine stop cable.
1. Clean the outside of the fuel injection pump and the
fuel lines. 3. Connect all the fuel lines to the fuel injection pump.

2. Disconnect and remove all the fuel lines to the fuel CAUTION
injection pump. Remove the lines carefully. Do not Do not bend the fuel lines.
bend the fuel lines. When removing the fuel lines make
4. Remove the air from the system as described in
sure to disconnect the lines at each end. Put caps on the
Checks and Adjustments.
lines that are disconnected.
3. Remove the throttle cable and the engine stop cable.
FUEL INJECTORS

4. Remove the inspection plate for the fuel pump on the Removal
timing case cover. 1. Clean the outside of the fuel injectors.

19
2. Disconnect and remove the fuel lines.
3 4
CAUTION 1 2
Do not bend the fuel lines

3. Remove the capscrews and brackets from the fuel in-


jectors. Remove the fuel injectors and gaskets.

Repairs 8460

Unless special equipment is available, do not repair the


fuel injectors. 1. IGNITER 5 6
2. SHIELD
3. HEATER COIL
Installation 4. BALL VALVE
5. VALVE SYSTEM
1. Clean the fuel injectors. Clean the seals for the fuel 6. TUBULAR BODY
injectors in the cylinder head. Make sure the old copper
FIGURE 33. COLD START AID
washers are removed.
Removal
2. Install new copper washers on the fuel injectors. The
correct thickness is 2.13 mm (0.084 in). Use only one 1. Disconnect the fuel line to the cold start aid. Put a
washer for each injector. Install the injector into the cap on the fuel line.
cylinder head. 2. Disconnect the wire at the cold start aid.

3. Install the brackets for the fuel injectors. Install the 3. Remove the cold start aid.
capscrews and tighten them to 16 N.m (12 lbf ft).
Installation
4. Connect the fuel lines to the fuel injectors. Tighten 1. Install the cold start aid in the inlet manifold.
the fittings on the fuel lines to 20 N.m (15 lbf ft).
2. Connect the fuel line for the cold start aid. Do not
5. Remove the air from the fuel system as described in tighten the fitting. Connect the wire to the cold start
CHECKS AND ADJUSTMENTS. aid.

CAUTION
COLD START AID (See FIGURE 33.) Do not operate the button for the cold start aid until
all the air is removed from the fuel line to the cold
Description start aid.

The cold start aid is used to help start a cold diesel en- 3. Remove the air from the fuel line to the cold start aid
gine. A fuel line goes from the fuel filter to the cold as follows:
start aid. The heater coil installed in the intake man- a. Rotate the engine until fuel flows from the fuel
ifold heats the fuel when the control button is pushed. line.
The fuel burns and the hot gas is pulled into the cylin-
b. Tighten the fitting for the fuel line to the cold start
ders as the starter rotates the engine. The hot gas heats
aid.
the cylinders and increases the compression tempera-
ture in the cylinders. The increased temperature helps 4. Start the engine and check for leaks and correct op-
start the cold engine. eration.

20
COOLING SYSTEM

THERMOSTAT 3. Remove the snap ring for the front bearing.

Removal 4. Remove the bearings, spacers and seals.

1. Drain the cooling system. Assembly

2. Disconnect and remove the top radiator hose. 1. Install the felt seal,seal hosing, and seal retainer plate
into the housing. Make sure the seal retainer plate is
3. Remove the nuts and the washers at the thermostat installed so that the center will not come in contact with
housing. Remove the housing and the thermostat. the rear bearing.
Inspection 2. Lubricate the bearings and fill half the space be-
Put the thermostat into a container of water. Heat the tween them with high temperature grease.
water slowly. The thermostat valve must begin to open 3. Push the bearings and spacer into the pump body as a
at 75 to 78C (167 to 173F). The thermostat must be unit. Install the snap rings.
fully open at 92C (198F). Replace the thermostat if it
does not open according to the specifications. 4. Push the rear seal on the end of the shaft. Install the
ceramic seal so that the face of the seal makes contact
Installation with the carbon face.
1. Put the thermostat into the housing.
5. Push the shaft into the pump body.
2. Use a new gasket and install the housing.
6. Push the impeller on the shaft until the clearance be-
3. Connect the top radiator hose. tween the blades and the body is 0.38 to 0.64 mm
(0.015 to 0.025 in).
4. Fill the cooling system.
7. Push the pulley on the shaft making sure the shaft
5. Run the engine and check for leaks.
does not move to the rear.
WATER PUMP Installation

Removal 1. Apply sealant to new gaskets for the water pump and
bypass connector. Install the water pump with the by-
1. Drain the cooling system. pass connector to the engine.
2. Disconnect and remove the radiator hose at the water 2. Tighten the nut for the water pump pulley to 82 N.m
pump. (60 lbf ft).
3. Remove the belt.
3. Install the belt. Adjust the belt so that there is a 10
4. Remove the water pump and the bypass connector mm (0.375 in) movement along the longest length of
as a unit. the belt.

Disassembly 4. Connect the coolant hose to the water pump.

1. Use a puller to remove the water pump pulley. 5. Fill the cooling system.

2. Push the shaft and impeller out of the housing. 6. Start the engine and check for leaks.

CHECKS AND ADJUSTMENTS

CHECKING THE INJECTORS Injector nozzles that are damaged will cause black
smoke in the exhaust, a decrease in engine output, and
an increase in engine noise.
21
1. Start the engine and run it at half speed.

2. Loosen the fitting for the high pressure fuel line at


the injector. If the engine speed does not change, the in-
jector is damaged. C
3. Use an injector tester to check the pressure at which
the nozzle operates. See FIGURE 35. The setting pres-
A
sure is as follows:
4.236 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.8 MPa (2575 psi)
4.2482 (new injector) 26.4 MPa (3822 psi)
4.2482 (previously installed
B
injector) . . . . . . 22.3 MPa (3234 psi)
4. To change the pressure at which the nozzle operates,
remove cap, loosen lock nut and turn adjusting screw.
8463
5. Check the spray pattern of the nozzle. If the spray
pattern is not correct, the needle valve is not seated cor- FIGURE 34. REMOVING THE AIR FROM THE
FUEL SYSTEM
rectly against the valve seat. Remove carbon deposits
or replace parts as required. CAUTION
Repairs Do not start the engine until air is removed from the
fuel system. Do not push the button for the cold start
Unless special equipment is available, do not repair the aid until air is removed from the fuel line to the cold
fuel injector. start aid.
Installation
1. Loosen vent screw A at the fuel injection pump. See
1. Clean the fuel injector. Clean the seal for the fuel in- FIGURE 34.
jector in the cylinder head. Make sure the old copper 2. Loosen vent screw B at the pump.
washer is removed.
3. Manually operate the lever under the fuel pump. If
2. Install a new copper washer on the fuel injector. The necessary, rotate the engine so that the fuel pump lever
correct thickness is 0.76 mm (0.030 in). Install the in- inside of the engine is not on top of the camshaft lobe.
jector into the cylinder head. When fuel, without air bubbles, comes from each
3. Tighten the fuel injector nuts evenly to 15 N.m (12 screw, close the vent screws in the following sequence:
lbf ft). a. Vent screw B.
b. Vent screw A.
4. Connect the fuel lines to the fuel injectors. Tighten
the fittings on the high pressure fuel lines to 20 N.m (15 4. Loosen the top nut C for the fuel tube at the fuel in-
lbf ft). jector pump.

5. Remove the air from the fuel system as described in 5. Operate the lever under the fuel pump until fuel, free
CHECKS AND ADJUSTMENTS. from air bubbles, comes out of the threads. Tighten the
nut.
REMOVING AIR FROM THE FUEL
6. Loosen the nuts for the high pressure fuel lines at
SYSTEM two fuel injectors.
Air must be removed from the fuel system if the engine 7. Set the accelerator to the fully open position. Make
has run out of fuel, or a fuel line was disconnected. Re- sure the engine stop cable is in the Start position. Ro-
move air from the fuel system as follows: tate the engine until fuel, without air bubbles, comes

22
out of the threads. Tighten the nuts to 20 N.m (15 lbf There is a rotor inside the fuel injection pump that has
ft). marks on it. A snap ring, also inside the pump, must be
set to align with one of the marks.
8. Loosen the nut at the cold start aid. Rotate the engine
until fuel, without air bubbles, flows from the threads. Method A
Tighten the nut.
1. Remove the fuel injection pump from the engine.
Remove the inspection cover from the fuel injection
CAUTION pump.
Do not push the button for the cold start aid until
there is fuel at the cold start aid. The cold start aid 2. Connect the fitting on the fuel injection pump for the
will be damaged if there is not fuel to cool it. number 1 cylinder (W) to a pump for testing fuel in-
jectors. See FIGURE 35. Add pressure until it reaches
3 MPa (440 psi).
CHECKING THE TIMING MARKS
CAUTION
Fuel pressure must be used. Do not use air pressure
Two methods of checking the timing of the fuel injec-
and do not go above the specified pressure.
tion pump are given. Method A is for fuel injection
pumps that are removed for service or replacement fuel
3. Rotate the fuel injection pump by hand in the direc-
injection pumps. Method B is a procedure that uses a
tion of the arrow until it stops. Adjust the position of
special timing tool. This method checks the timing
the snap ring. The straight edge of the snap ring must
mark on the fuel injection pump and timing gear case.
align with letter C on the rotor. Move the snap ring to
align it with the line for letter C. See FIGURE 36. If
the fuel
injector pump has a hydraulic governor, the correct let-
ter is A.

4. Install the fuel injection pump. Make sure the timing


mark on the fuel
injection pump aligns with the mark on the timing gear
case. See FIGURE 37.

3698

8464
FIGURE 35. DEVICE FOR TESTING THE FUEL
INJECTORS FIGURE 36. TIMING OF THE FUEL INJECTION
PUMP

23
8466

FIGURE 38. ADAPTER FOR CHECKING


TIMING MARK ON CASE
9477
FIGURE 37. ALIGNING THE TIMING MARKS Method B
1. Repeat steps 5. to 8. as described in Method A for
timing.

5. Rotate the crankshaft until the number 1 piston is at 2. Remove the inspection plate on the timing cover for
TDC on the compression stroke. the fuel pump. Remove the fuel pump.

3. Install the adapter. See FIGURE 38. to the rear of the


6. Remove the rocker arm cover. Remove the springs
gear for the fuel injection pump. Make sure the slot on
for the number 1 inlet valve. Let the valve stop on top
the adapter aligns with the dowel of the gear for the fuel
of the piston.
injection pump.
7. Install a dial indicator to measure the movement of 4. Loosen screw (1) on the timing tool. See
the valve. Set the dial indicator to zero at TDC. FIGURE 37. Remove the shaft that has splines.

8. Turn the crankshaft in the opposite direction of nor- 5. Install the alignment bar (3) with the slot at the front
mal rotation approximately one eighth of a revolution. of the tool. Make sure the washer behind the screw (4)
Rotate the crankshaft in the normal direction until the holds the bar in position.
dial indicator indicates 3.17 mm (0.125 in). This posi-
tion is the static timing position of 16 BTDC on the 3 4 5 6 1 2
4.2482 engine. Rotate the crankshaft on the 4.2482 en-
gine until the dial indicator indicates 5.8 mm (0.230
in). This position is 22 BTDC on the 4.236 engine.

9. If the timing is correct, the snap ring in the fuel injec-


tion pump and the line for the letter C will align. See
FIGURE 36.

1. SCREW
10. If the timing marks in the inspection opening do not
2. SHAFT 8439
align, loosen the nuts for the fuel injection pump. Ro- 3. ALIGNMENT BAR
tate the body of the fuel injection pump until the adjust- 4. SCREW
ment is correct. Make a mark on the fuel injection 5. BRACKET
6. SCREW
pump near the mark on timing gear case for future ref-
erence for installation. FIGURE 39. TIMING TOOL

24
6. Loosen the screw (6). Set the bracket (5) so that the 5. Connect the number 1 outlet (W) of the fuel injection
edge with the chamfer aligns with the correct mark. pump to a pump for testing fuel injectors. Operate the
The 4.2482 is 280.5, 4.236 is 281. test pump until the pressure of the fuel pressure is 3.0
MPa (440 psi).
7. Install the timing tool in the position of the fuel in-
jection pump. See FIGURE 37. Make sure the timing 6. Install the timing tool on the drive shaft of the fuel
tool is in the seat for the fuel injection pump. Tighten injection pump. Tighten screw (1) of the timing tool to
screw (1) to hold the shaft to the tool. hold the shaft in position.

8. If the pointer is 180 from the timing mark, the en- 7. Turn the pump in the direction of normal rotation un-
gine is on the wrong stroke. Remove the tool and rotate til it stops. Move the alignment bar in position at the
the crankshaft one revolution. fuel injection pump. See FIGURE 41.
8. If the marks to not align, make a new mark on the
9. Move the alignment bar so that it just touches the
fuel injection pump at the slot of the alignment bar.
face of the timing gear case.
9. Install the fuel injection pump with the new mark
10. Rotate the timing tool by hand in the opposite direc- aligned with the mark on the timing gear case. Install
tion to pump rotation. (See the nameplate on the fuel the fuel lines.
injection pump.) This procedure will remove the clear-
ance between the gears. Check that the timing mark on
the timing gear case aligns with the slot in the align-
ment bar.

CHECKING THE TIMING ANGLE OF THE


FUEL INJECTION PUMP WITH THE
SPECIAL TOOL

1. Remove the fuel injection pump from the engine.

2. Loosen screw (1) on the timing tool. Move the shaft


with splines to the rear. See FIGURE 36.

3. Loosen screw (4) on the timing tool. Move the slot of


the alignment bar o the rear. Make sure the washer for
the screw (4) is in position to hold the alignment bar in
position.

4. Loosen screw (6). Set the bracket so that the edge 8467

with the chamfer aligns with the 289 (4.2482) or 292 FIGURE 40. INSTALLATION OF THE TIMING
(4.236) mark for the timing of the fuel injection pump. TOOL

25
1. Remove the rocker arm cover. Pull engine stop cable
to the stop position.

2. Rotate the crankshaft so that the number 4 exhaust


valve is almost closed and the number 4 inlet valve is
beginning to open. Adjust the valves on the number 1
cylinder.

3. Use the same procedure as described in step 2. and


adjust the clearance of the other valves as follows:

a. When the number 2 cylinder is in position, adjust


the clearance of the valves on cylinder number 3.

b. When the number 1 cylinder is in position, adjust


the clearance of the valves on cylinder number 4.
8151
c. When the number 3 cylinder is in position, adjust
FIGURE 41. TIMING TOOL INSTALLED ON the clearance of the valves on cylinder number 2.
FUEL INJECTION PUMP

4. Install the rocker arm cover.

VALVE CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT


(See FIGURE 42.)
ADJUSTING THE THROTTLE LINKAGE
(See FIGURE 43.)
The correct valve clearance is 0.30 mm (0.012 in) for
both the inlet and exhaust valves when the engine is
cold. Adjust the clearance as follows:
1. Disconnect the throttle cable at the lever on the fuel
injection pump. Set the idle speed to 700 to 750 RPM.
Use the adjustment screw on the fuel injection pump to
set the RPM at idle.

2. Loosen the clamp to adjust the length of the cable.


The ball joint must align with the throttle lever on the
fuel injection pump. Tighten the clamp.

3. Adjust the clamp at the throttle or Monotrol pedal.


The pedal must just touch the floor plate as the throttle
lever on the pump reaches the fully open position.
Tighten the clamp when the adjustment is correct.

8152 4. Adjust the pedal stop. The pedal and the throttle le-
ver on the injection pump must reach the full return
FIGURE 42. ADJUSTING THE CLEARANCE OF
positions at the same time. Turn the pedal stop to adjust
THE VALVES
the return position of the pedal.

26
5

2 3

4 7
1
1. FUEL INJECTION PUMP
2. STOP LEVER
3. THROTTLE LEVER
4. CLAMP
5. THROTTLE PEDAL
6. MONOTROL PEDAL
7. PEDAL STOP
4 9482

FIGURE 43. ADJUSTING THE THROTTLE LINKAGE

27
TROUBLESHOOTING
PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSE
The starter rotates the engine slowly 1, 2, 3, 4
The engine will not start 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 31, 32, 33
The engine is difficult to start 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 29, 31, 32,
33
The engine does not have enough 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 31, 32,
power 33, 58
The engine has low compression 11,19, 25, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 45, 57
The engine uses too much fuel 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 58
There is black exhaust smoke 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 42
There is blue/white exhaust smoke 4, 16, 18, 19, 20, 25, 27, 31, 33, 34, 44
The engine has low oil pressure 4, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 56
The engine has high oil pressure 4, 37, 40
The engine gets too hot 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 24, 25, 44, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55
There is too much vibration 13, 14, 20, 23, 25, 26, 29, 30, 33, 44, 46, 47, 48
The engine makes too much noise 9, 14, 20, 23, 25, 26, 29, 30, 33, 44, 46, 47, 48
The engine does not run correctly 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28,
29, 30, 32, 33, 44, 57
The engine stops and starts 2, 11, 12
There is too much pressure inside the 25, 31, 33, 34, 44, 54
sump

List of Possible Causes for engine problems: 29. Valve movement is not free
30. Fuel lines for high pressure are not correct
1. The battery is weak 31. Cylinder bores have wear
2. Bad electrical connections 32. Valves and seats have corrosion
3. Starter is damaged 33. Piston rings are worn or have damage
4. Wrong oil 34. Valve stems and guides have wear
5. Starter rotates engine slowly 35. Crankshaft bearings have wear or damage
6. Fuel tank is empty 36. Not enough oil in the sump
7. Stop control operation is not correct 37. Fuel gauge reading is not correct
8. Fuel inlet line has a restriction 38. Oil pump has wear
9. Fuel pump is damaged 39. Relief valve for oil pressure will not close
10. Fuel filter(s) are not clean 40. Relief valve for oil pressure will not open
11. Air inlet system has a restriction 41. Spring for the relief valve is damaged
12. There is air in fuel system 42. Oil suction pipe is not clean
13. Fuel injection pump is damaged 43. Oil filter has a restriction
14. Fuel injectors are damaged or are not correct type 44. Piston does not move freely
15. Cold start aid is not used correctly 45. Piston height is not correct
16. Cold start aid is damaged 46. Fan has damage
17. The drive for the fuel injection pump has damage 47. Engine mounts are loose or damaged
18. The timing for the fuel injection pump is not correct 48. Flywheel or housing is not in alignment
19. The valve timing is not correct 49. Thermostat(s) are damaged
20. The compression is low 50. Water passages have a restriction
21. Vent for the fuel tank is not clean 51. Drive belts are loose or damaged
22. Fuel type is not correct 52. Radiator passages are not open
23. Throttle linkage has a restriction 53. Water pump is damaged
24. Exhaust pipe has a restriction 54. Breather pipe has a restriction
25. Cylinder head gasket has a leak 55. Not enough coolant in the engine
26. Engine runs too hot 56. Suction filter for the sump has a restriction
27. Engine runs too cold 57. Valve spring(s) has damage
28. Valve clearance is not correct 58. Air inlet system has leaks

28
SPECIFICATIONS
ITEM DIMENSIONS
GENERAL 4.236 4.2482
Type 4stroke, Direct Injection 4stroke, Direct Injection
Firing Order 1342 1342
Capacity 3.86 litres (236 in3) 4.06 litres (248 in3)
Bore 98.48 to 98.50 mm 101.05 to 101.08 mm
(3.877 to 3.878 in) (3.9785 to 3.9795 in)
Stroke 127 mm (5 in) 127 mm (5 in)
Compression Ratio 16:1 18:1
Static Timing 22 BTDC 16 BTDC
Piston Movement 5.8 mm (0.230 in) 3.18 mm (0.125 in)
Engine Checking Angle 281 280.5
Fuel Injection Pump Marking Angle 292 289
COOLING SYSTEM
Thermostat 77 to 83C (170180F) 75 to 78C (167 to 173F)
CYLINDER HEAD
Surface Machining Maximum 0.30 mm (0.012 in) 3.765 in) 0.30 mm (0.012 in)
Injector Extension (Maximum) 4.44 mm (0.175 in) 4.44 mm (0.175 in)
Clearance from Straight Edge
Length 0.15 mm (0.006 in) 0.15 mm (0.006 in)
Width 0.08 mm (0.003 in) 0.08 mm (0.003 in)
VALVE MECHANISM
Valve Clearance 0.3 mm (0.012 in) Cold 0.3 mm (0.012 in) Cold
Valve Seat Angle 45 45
INLET VALVE
Stem Diameter 9.46 to 9.48 mm 9.46 to 9.48 mm
(0.3725 to 0.3735 in) (0.3725 to 0.3735 in)
Stem to Bore Clearance 0.02 to 0.07 mm 0.02 to 0.07 mm
(0.0007 to 0.0027 in (0.0007 to 0.0027 in)
Wear Limit 0.13 mm (0.005 in) 0.13 mm (0.005 in)
Valve Head Depth Below Cylinder 0.89 to 1.14 mm 0.89 to 1.14 mm
(0.035 to 0.045 in) (0.035 to 0.045 in)
Wear Limit 1.55 mm (0.06 in) 1.55 mm (0.06 in)
Length of Valve 122.71 to 123.11 mm 122.71 to 123.11 mm
(4.831 to 4.847 in) (4.831 to 4.847 in)
Available Oversize Valves 0.08, 0.38, 0.76 mm 0.08, 0.38, 0.76 mm
(0.003, 0.015, 0.030 in) (0.003, 0.015, 0.030 in)

29
ITEM DIMENSIONS
EXHAUST VALVE 4.236 4.2482
Stem Diameter 9.45 to 9.47 mm 9.45 to 9.47 mm
(0.372 to 0.3728 in) (0.372 to 0.3728 in)
Stem to Bore Clearance 0.04 to 0.08 mm 0.04 to 0.08 mm
(0.0015 to 0.0031 in) (0.0015 to 0.0031 in)
Wear Limit 0.15mm (0.006 in) 0.15mm (0.006 in)
Valve Head Depth Below Cylinder 1.07 to 1.32 mm 1.07 to 1.32 mm
(0.042 to 0.052 in) (0.042 to 0.052 in)
Wear Limit 1.40 mm (0.055 in) 1.40 mm (0.055 in)
Length of Valve 123.11 to 123.52 mm 123.11 to 123.52 mm
(4.847 to 4.863 in) (4.847 to 4.863 in)
Available Oversize Valves 0.08, 0.038, 0.076 mm 0.08, 0.38, 0.76 mm
(0.003, 0.015, 0.030 in) (0.003, 0.015, 0.030 in)
INNER VALVE SPRINGS
Installed Length 39.7 mm (1.5625 in) 39.7 mm (1.5625 in)
Load at Installed Length 68 to 69 N (15.3 to 15.5 lb) 68 to 69 N (15.3 to 15.5 lb)
Installed Position Damper Coils to Cylinder Head Damper Coils to Cylinder Head
OUTER VALVE SPRINGS
Installed Length 45.2 mm (1.780 in) 45.2 mm (1.780 in)
Load at Installed Length 169 to 187 N (38 to 42 lb) 169 to 187 N (38 to 42 lb)
Installed Position Damper Coils to Cylinder Head Damper Coils to Cylinder Head
Cam Lift 7.2 to 7.7mm 7.62 to 7.70 mm
(0.300 to 0.303 in) (0.300 to 0.303 in)
PISTONS
Piston Pin Bore Diameter 34.92 to 34.93 mm 34.92 to 34.93 mm
(1.3748 to 1.3751 in) (1.3748 to 1.3751 in)
Ring Grove Width
Top Groove 2.43 to 2.46 mm 2.58 to 2.60 mm
(0.0957 to 0.0967 in) (0.1016 to 0.1024 in)
Second Groove 2.43 to 2.46 mm 2.56 to 2.58 mm (0.1008 to
(0.0957 to 0.0967 in) 0.1016 in)
Third Groove 2.43 to 2.46 mm
(0.0957 to 0.0967 in)
First Oil Groove 6.41 to 6.44 mm (0.2525 to 5.04 to 5.06 mm (0.1986 to
0.2535 in) 0.1994 in)
Second Oil Groove 6.41 to 6.44 mm (0.2525 to
0.2535 in)

30
ITEM DIMENSIONS
PISTON RINGS 4.236 4.2482
Clearance in Groove Rings 1, 2 and 3:
Top Ring 0.05 to 0.10 mm 0.009 to 0.135 mm
(0.0019 to 0.0039 in) (0.0035 to 0.0053 in)
Second Ring Rings 4 and 5: 0.070 to 0.115 mm
(0.0027 to 0.0045 in)
Oil Ring 0.06 to 0.11 mm 0.05 to 0.095 mm
(0.0025 to 0.0045 in) (0.0020 to 0.0037 in)
End Clearance When in Cylinder Top Ring: All Rings:
0.41 to 0.86 mm (0.0160.034 in) 0.41 to 0.66 mm
All Other Rings: (0.016 to 0.026 in)
0.30 to 0.76 mm
(0.012 to 0.030 in)
PISTON PINS
Outside Diameter 34.92 to 34.93 mm 34.92 to 34.93 mm
(1.3748 to 1.3750 in) (1.3748 to 1.3750 in)
Clearance in Connecting Rod 0.02 to 0.04 mm 0.01 to 0.04 mm
Bushing (0.00075 to 0.0017 in) (0.00075 to 0.00170 in)
Clearance In Piston 0.002 to 0.006 mm 0.002 to 0.006 mm
(0.0001 to 0.0002 in) (0.0001 to 0.0002 in)
Length 83.74 to 84.12 mm 83.74 to 84.12 mm
(3.297 to 3.312) (3.297 to 3.312)
CONNECTING RODS
Piston Pin Bushing
O.D. 38.99 to 39.03 mm 38.99 to 39.03 mm
(1.5350 to 1.5365 in) (1.5350 to 1.5365 in)
I.D. (Machined) 34.94 to 34.96 mm 34.94 to 34.96 mm
(1.3756 to 1.3764 in) (1.3756 to 1.3764 in)
Bore for Piston Pin 38.90 to 38.92 mm 38.90 to 38.92 mm
(1.5315 to 1.5322 in) (1.5315 to 1.5322 in)
Bore For Crankshaft 67.21 to 67.22 mm 67.21 to 67.22 mm
(2.6460 to 2.6465 in) (2.6460 to 2.6465 in)
End Clearance on Crankshaft 0.21 to 0.37 mm 0.21 to 0.37 mm
(0.0085 to 0.0145 in) (0.0085 to 0.0145 in)
Alignment of Bores
With Bushing Parallel to 0.06 mm (0.0025 in) Parallel to 0.06 mm (0.0025 in)
Without Bushing Parallel to 0.25 mm (0.010 in) Parallel to 0.25 mm (0.010 in)

31
ITEM DIMENSIONS
CRANKSHAFT 4.236 4.2482
Diameter of Main Bearing Surface 76.16 to 76.18 mm 76.16 to 76.18 mm
(2.9984 to 2.9992 in) (2.9984 to 2.9992 in)
Diameter of Connecting Rod 63.47 to 63.49 mm 63.47 to 63.49 mm
Surface (2.4988 to 2.4996 in) (2.4988 to 2.4996 in)
Clearance of Crankshaft to 0.04 to 0.08 mm 0.04 to 0.08 mm
Connecting Rod Bearings (0.0015 to 0.0030 in) (0.0015 to 0.0030 in)
Clearance of Crankshaft to Main 0.06 to 0.12 mm 0.06 to 0.12 mm
Bearings (0.0023 to 0.0046 in) (0.0023 to 0.0046 in)
Clearance between Thrust Bearing 0.10 to 0.38 (0.004 to 0.015 in)
and Crankshaft
Wear Limit 0.35 mm (0.14 in) 0.46 mm (0.018 in)
CYLINDERS LINERS
With Flange
O.D. of Liner 103.24 to 103.26 mm 104.254 to 104.280 mm
(4.0645 to 4.0655 in) (4.104 to 1.55 in)
I.D of Liner 98.48 to 98.50 mm 101.05 to 101.08 mm
(3.877 to 3.878 in) (3.9785 to 3.9795 in)
Wear Limit 0.2 mm (0.008 in) 0.2 mm (0.008 in)

TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
ITEM TORQUE SPECIFICATION
Cylinder Head 136 N.m (100 lbf ft)
Connecting Rod Nuts * 102 N.m (75 lbf ft) Silver / 129 N.m (95 lbf ft) Black
Main Bearings Capscrews 244 N.m (180 lbf ft)
Camshaft Gear Capscrew 68 N.m (50 lbf ft)
Crankshaft Capscrew 406 N.m (300 lbf ft)
Idler Gear Capscrews 41 N.m (30 lbf ft)
Flywheel Place Bolts 122 N.m (90 lbf ft)
Fuel Injector Capscrews 15 N.m (12 lbf ft)
Fuel Tube Nuts 20 N.m (15 lbf ft)
Cold Start Aid 13 N.m (10 lbf ft)

* The silver nuts are cadmium plated.


The black nuts are phosphated.

32