You are on page 1of 5

Trevor Farquharson

Chemistry
11-20-15
Classifying Chemical Reactions
Purpose: This lab was done to observe a variety of chemical reactions and to see what
happened to the reactants and what products were created.

Hypothesis: When a liquid and a liquid or a liquid and a solid are mixed bubbles will
form. When a solid is heated it will melt or burn.

Materials List:
Ammonium Carbonate, (NH4)2CO3 , 0.5g
Calcium Carbonate, CaCO3 , 0.5g
Copper(II) Chloride solution, CuCl2 , 0.5M, 4ml
Ethyl Alcohol, C2H5OH , 1ml
Hydrochloric Acid, HCL , 4ml
Magnesium ribbon, Mg, 2-4cm strips, 2
Phenolphthalein indicator, 1 drop
Sodium Hydroxide solution, NaOH, 1M, 1ml
Sodium Phosphate solution, Na3PO4 , 0.5M, 1ml
Distilled Water
Zinc, mossy, or zinc shot, Zn, 1-2 pieces
Bunsen or laboratory burner
Butane safety lighter
Evaporating dish, porcelain
Forceps
Heat-resistant pad
Litmus paper
Pipets, Beral-type, 6
Spatula
Small test tubes, 6
Test tube clamp
Test tube rack
Wash bottle
Wood splints, 3

Procedure:
Reaction 1:
1. Obtain a 3-4 cm stip of magnesium metal ribbon. Hold the piece of
magnesium with forceps over a laboratory burner flame. Do not look directly at
the burning magnesium.
2. When the magnesium ignites remove it from the flame and hold it over
and evaporating dish until the metal has burned out completely. et the product
fall into the evaporating dish.
3. Turn off the burner and observe the properties of the product in the
evaporating dish.
4. Record observations in the data table.
Reaction 2:
1. Using a Beral-type pipet, add about 2ml of 1M hydrochloric acid solution to
a small test tube.
2. Obtain a 2-3 cm strip of magnesium metal ribbon and coil it loosely into a
small ball. Add the magnesium to the acid in the test tube.
3. Carefully feel the sides of the test tube and observe the resulting chemical
reaction for 30 seconds.
4. While the reaction is still occurring, light a wood splint and quickly place
the burning splint in the mouth of the test tube. Do not put the burning splint ing
the test tube.
5. Record observations in the data table.
Reaction 3:
1. Obtain a clean and dry test tube and place a small amount of ammonium
carbonate into the test tube.
2. Use a test tube clamp to hold the test tube and gently heat the tube in a
laboratory burner flame for about 30 seconds.
3. Remove the test tube from the flame and place a piece of moistened
litmus paper in the mouth of the test tube. Identify any odor that is readily
apparent by wafting the fumes toward your nose.
4. Record observations in the data table.
Reaction 4:
1. Place a small amount of calcium carbonate in a clean and dry test tube.
2. Using a Beral-type pipet, add about 1ml of 1M hydrochloric acid to the test
tube. Feel the sides of the test tube and observe the reaction for 30 seconds.
3. Quickly light a wood splint and insert it about halfway down the test tube.
Do not allow the burning splint to contact the reaction mixture.
4. Record observations in the data table.

Reaction 5:
1. Using a Beral-type pipet, add about 2ml of 0.5M copper(II) chloride
solution into a small test tube.
2. Add 1 piece of zinc shot to the test tube and observe the resulting
chemical reaction.
3. Record observation in the data table.
Reaction 6:
1. Using a Beral-type pipet, add about 2ml of 0.5M copper(II) chloride
solution into a small test tube.
2. Using a fresh pipet, add about 25 drops of 0.5M sodium phosphate
solution to the test tube.
3. Record observations in the data table.
Reaction 7:
1. Using a Beral-type pipet, add 20 drops of 1M sodium hydroxide solution
into a small test tube.
2. Add one drop of phenolphthalein indicator to the test tube and mix the
solution by gently swirling the tube.
3. Using a clean Beral-type pipet, add 1M hydrochloric acid solution one drop
at a time to the test tube. Count the number of drops of acid required for a
permanent color change to be observed.
4. Record results in the data table.

Observations:
In reaction 1 when the magnesium metal ribbon came in contact with the flame
the magnesium burned and it produced a very bright white light. In reaction 2 bubbles
formed when the magnesium was added the the hydrochloric acid solution. A loud pop
occurred when a burning wood splint was placed halfway down the test tube containing
the HCL and Mg. In reaction 3 a strong ammonia scent was produced when the test
tube with ammonium carbonate was heated. The ammonium carbonate spun for several
seconds after it was heated. In reaction 4 bubbles were formed when the HCl was
added to the calcium carbonate. When a burning splint was placed halfway down the
test tube containing the HCL and CaCO3 the flame immediately went out and the smoke
quickly settled to the bottom of the test tube. In reaction 5 the zinc immediately turned
black and changed to brown over time, bubbles also formed around the zinc when it
was added. In reaction 6 when the sodium phosphate and copper chloride were mixed a
light blue colored thick gel like substance formed. In reaction 7 the sodium hydroxide
turned magenta when the phenolphthalein indicator was added. It then turned into a
cloudy/clear color when 30 drops of HCL was added.

Data/Results:
Reaction Appearance of Reactants, Properties of Reactants,
Evidence of Reaction

1 The magnesium burned and produced a bright white light.


2MgO

2 Bubbles formed around the magnesium. A loud pop occurred when


the burning wood splint was put halfway down the test tube.
MgCl2+H2

3 A strong ammonia scent was produced and the ammonium


carbonate spun when it was heated.
NH4+CO3

4 The calcium carbonate bubbled when the HCL was added. The
flame on the wood splint immediately went out when it was placed
halfway down the test tube.
H2O+CO2+CaCl2

5 The zinc turned black and the went to brown when it was put in the
copper chloride. Bubbles formed around the zinc.
2ZnCl+Cu

6 The sodium phosphate solution mixed with the copper chloride and
created a gel like substance.
Cu3(PO4)2+6NaCl

7 The sodium hydroxide turned magenta when the phenolphthalein


indicator was added. It changed to a cloudy/clear color when 30
drops of HCL were added.
Na3PO4+3H2O

Conclusion:
A possible error that could have occurred during this lab is that the burning wood
splint could have been dropped into the test tubes. Another error the could have
occurred is that the test tubes that get heated could get heated for too long and break.
Another possible error is that to many or too few drops of the solutions could have been
added to each other or added to the solids and caused the reaction to change.
When a liquid and a liquid or a liquid and a solid are mixed bubbles will form.
When a solid is heated it will melt or burn. This hypothesis was mainly correct because
most of the reactions either had bubbles forming or a solid burning but none of them
had a solid melt. In reactions 2,4,5 there were bubbles forming from the solid and liquid
or the liquid and liquid. In reaction 1 the magnesium burned when it came in contact
with the flame. None of the solids melted but the ammonium carbonate evaporated
when it was heated up.
The results relate the what the class is doing because the class is learning about
chemical change and what products come from chemical reactions and the lab is about
putting two chemicals together and trying to figure out what the product is.
If this lab was to be redesigned to make it more accurate one of the things that
would get changed is that three trials of each reaction would be done to gather more
accurate data. Another thing that would get changed is that more precise
measurements of each of the substances would be taken to ensure that a similar
reaction occurs each time. To make each of the heating time more accurate a digital
stopwatch could be used to record the time that the test tube is held over the flame.