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7. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS
Homogeneous Functions
A function , is said to be homogeneous of degree if
, ,
The differential equation
,
,
,
is said to be homogeneous if , and , are homogeneous of the same degree.
Alternatively a differential equation in standard form is homogeneous if
, ,
for every real number . Homogeneous equation can be transformed into a separable equation by making the
substitution

along with its corresponding derivative

The resulting equation in the variables and is solved as a separable differential equation; the required solution
to original equation is obtained by back substitution.
Note: The word Homogeneous used for a function and for a differential equation are completely different.

Example: Solve

Solution:
Let us consider,

, ,

Therefore, the given DE is a homogeneous one.


Let us make the following transformation,

After the transformation given DE becomes,

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Example: Solve

Solution:
Let us consider,

, ,

Therefore, the given DE is a homogeneous one.


Let us make the following transformation,

After the transformation given DE becomes,

ln
ln
ln ln
Example: Solve

sin

Solution:
Let us consider,

, sin

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, ,
Therefore, the given DE is a homogeneous one.
Let us make the following transformation,

After the transformation given DE becomes,

sin

sin

sin

csc

ln tan # ln ln
2
tan
2
2 tan $

Problems: Solve

% 2 cos , % 3 sec , % 4 tan , % 5 cot , % 6 csc


, 2 3 4 5
% , % cos , % sec , % tan , % cot ,

6
% csc

Example: Solve
,
3 ,
2 0
Solution:
Let us first write the differential equation into derivative form as follows,
3 , ,

2
Now consider,
3 , ,
,
2
3 , , , ,
3 , ,
, ,
2 2
Therefore, the given DE is a homogeneous one.

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Let us make the following transformation,

After the transformation given DE becomes,


3 , , ,

2 ,

3 ,
1
2
,
1
2
Now separating variables and integrating, we obtain,
2
, 1
ln ,
1 ln
Taking exponentials on both sides, we get,
/01 2 $3 /0 45

/01 2 $3 5 /0

,
1 6
,

,
1 6

Example: Solve
, ,

2
Solution:
Let us consider,
, ,
,
2
, , , , , , ,
, ,
2 ,2 2
Therefore, the given DE is a homogeneous one.
Let us make the following transformation,

After the transformation given DE becomes,


, ,

2
1 ,

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1 ,
1 ,

2 2
2
1 ,

Integrating we obtain,
2 1
1 ,

,|
ln|1 ln| | ln
ln| | ln|1 ,|
ln
ln | ||1 ,|
ln
,
8 91 , :8

,
91 ,:

,
91 ,:

,
1

, ,
;1 <

% =;1 <

Example: Solve
>
2 , , >

Solution:
Let us consider,
>
2 , , >
, ?

>
2 , , >
, ?
,

Therefore, the given DE is a homogeneous one.


Let us make the following transformation,

After the transformation given DE becomes,

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>
2 , , >

1 2 , >

1 2 , >
1 , >

Now separating variables and integrating both sides, we obtain,

1 , >

ln
1 , , ,

@ ,
, @ 2
1
@ ln
1 @ @,
1
, @ ln
1 , 3
@
2# 92:

2 2@ 1
tan $
; < ln
3 3
2@ 1 3
tan $
; < ln B
3 2
2@ 1 3
; < tan 9 ln B:
3 2

3
2@ 1 3 tan 9 ln B:
2

3
2 ,
1 3 tan 9 ln B:
2
,
3
2 1 3 tan 9 ln B:
, 2

3
2 , ,
3 ,
tan 9 ln B:
2

Example: Solve
?
3 ,

? 3 ,

Solution:
Let us consider,

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?
3 ,
, ? 3 ,

?
3 , , ?
3 ,
, ,
? 3 , ? 3 ,

Therefore, the given DE is a homogeneous one.


Let us make the following transformation,

After the transformation given DE becomes,


? ?
3 ,

? 3 , ,

?
3
1 3 ,
?
3
1 3 ,
?
3 3 ?

1 3 ,

2 ?

1 3 ,

Now separating variables and integrating both sides, we get,


1 3 ,
2
?

1 3 ,

?
2 ln 1

Now the integral on the left side may be evaluated in the following way
1 3 ,
6 C
1 1 1 1
1 3 ,
6 1 1 C 1 1
Now putting 0 we get,
6 1
Similarly, by putting 1, and 1, we get,
C 2, 2
1 3 ,
1 1 1
2 2
1 1 1 1
ln 2 ln 1 2 ln 1
ln ln 1 ,
ln 1 ,

ln
1 , 1 ,

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Now equation (1) becomes,

ln 2 ln 1
1 , 1 ,

6 ,
1 , 1 ,

, , 6 ,

1 # 1 #

, ,
6

Problems
2 2 5
, , , , , ,
2 2 2 5
> >
2
, , , , ,
E
, ? , ,

,
0, , ? ?

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