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Building Smarter Cities: Trends, Research and Lessons Learned Meghan Cook, Program Director Center for Technology

Building Smarter Cities:

Trends, Research and Lessons Learned

Meghan Cook, Program Director

Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany

Cook, Program Director Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

Cook, Program Director Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Who Am I?
Who Am I?

An applied researcher in public sector innovation for 18 years

My focus is on the intersection of technology, management and policy

I work county state, local, and municipal

governments throughout NYS, the US and the

world

county state, local, and municipal governments throughout NYS, the US and the world Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

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county state, local, and municipal governments throughout NYS, the US and the world Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

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CTG is a globally focused center with partners and projects from around the world Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

CTG is a globally focused center with

partners and

projects from around the

world

CTG is a globally focused center with partners and projects from around the world Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

CTG is a globally focused center with partners and projects from around the world Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

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What is a city?
What is a city?

“…cities are systems of systems, and that there are emerging opportunities to introduce digital

nervous systems, intelligent responsiveness and

optimization at every level of system

integration”

Source: Smart Cities Group, MIT

optimization at every level of system integration” Source: Smart Cities Group, MIT Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

optimization at every level of system integration” Source: Smart Cities Group, MIT Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

The Small Get Bigger
The Small Get Bigger

“While mega-cities have captured much public

attention, most of the new growth will occur in

smaller towns and cities, which have fewer

resource to respond to the magnitude of

change.”

Source: United Nations Population Fund

to respond to the magnitude of change.” Source: United Nations Population Fund Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

to respond to the magnitude of change.” Source: United Nations Population Fund Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

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Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
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Why Getting SMART Matters
Why Getting SMART Matters
Why Getting SMART Matters Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

Why Getting SMART Matters Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

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Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Why Getting SMART Matters Physical problems arising from rapid urbanization • Loss of basic functionalities

Why Getting SMART Matters

Physical problems arising from rapid urbanization

Loss of basic functionalities to be a livable place

For example, difficulty in waste management, scarcity of resource, air

pollution, human health concerns, traffic congestion, inadequate,

deteriorating and aging infrastructures and so on.

Social and organizational problems, rather than technical,

physical or material problems

Concerns associated with multiple diverse stakeholders, high levels of interdependence, competing values and social and political complexity

Wicked and tangled problems

competing values and social and political complexity • Wicked and tangled problems Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

competing values and social and political complexity • Wicked and tangled problems Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Context is Everything

Context is Everything …
An Emerging Issue
An Emerging Issue

Small to medium sized cities are finding it more

challenging (than the mega cities) to deliver innovative

programs and services to their citizens and effectively

engage in the full range of economic and community development initiatives that will result in them being a

“smart city

community development initiatives that will result in them being a “smart city ” Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

community development initiatives that will result in them being a “smart city ” Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

What is a Smart City? No agreed-upon description of what “smart” implies in the context
What is a Smart City?
What is a Smart City?

No agreed-upon description of what “smart” implies in the context of a city

Source: Chourabi et al, 2012

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of what “smart” implies in the context of a city Source: Chourabi et al, 2012 Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

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Conceptual Relatives of a Smart City Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Conceptual Relatives of a Smart City

Conceptual Relatives of a Smart City Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

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Conceptual Relatives of a Smart City Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

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“A city is smart when…. …. investments in human and social capital and traditional and
“A city is smart when….
“A city is smart when….

….investments in human and social capital and traditional and modern communication infrastructure

fuel sustainable economic growth and a high quality

of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory governance.”

Source: Caragliu, Del Bo, & Nijkamp, 2009

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

through participatory governance.” Source: Caragliu, Del Bo, & Nijkamp, 2009 Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

“A smart city… ….looks at all the exchanges of information that flow between its many
“A smart city…
“A smart city…

….looks at all the exchanges of information that flow between its many different subsystems. It then

analyzes this flow of information as well as of services

and acts upon it in order to make its wider ecosystem more resource-efficient and sustainable.”

Source: Velosa III et al., 2010

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ecosystem more resource-efficient and sustainable .” Source: Velosa III et al., 2010 Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

“A smart city is…. ….well performing in a forward -looking way in economy, people, governance,
“A smart city is….
“A smart city is….

….well performing in a forward-looking way in

economy, people, governance, mobility, environment

and living, built on the smart combination of

endowments and activities of self-decisive, independent and aware citizens.”

Source: Giffinger, 2007

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of self-decisive, independent and aware citizens.” Source: Giffinger, 2007 Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

“A smart city uses…. ….smart computing technology to make the critical infrastructure components and services
“A smart city uses….
“A smart city uses….

….smart computing technology to make the critical

infrastructure components and services of a city

which include city administration, education,

healthcare, public safety, real estate, transportation and utilities more intelligent, interconnected and

efficient.”

Source: Washburn et. al. 2010

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– more intelligent, interconnected and efficient.” Source: Washburn et. al. 2010 Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

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A Look at Selected Industry Frameworks Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
A Look at
A Look at

Selected Industry Frameworks

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

A Look at Selected Industry Frameworks Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

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@CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
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CTG: An Analysis Are there common components of a smarter city? A review of: •
CTG: An Analysis
CTG: An Analysis

Are there common components of a smarter city?

A review of:

Academic Literature

Private Sector Frameworks

Non-profit Approaches

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of: • Academic Literature • Private Sector Frameworks • Non-profit Approaches Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

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Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

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Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

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So what might “smart” look like?? Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

So what might “smart” look like??

So what might “smart” look like?? Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

So what might “smart” look like?? Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Pittsburgh, PA

Population 304K

Autonomous Shuttle Network

Partnering with US DOT, Carnegie Mellon University, and Uber

Connects the net-zero energy ALMONO site in Hazelwood with

the Oakland neighborhood and Downtown reducing flooding in

those neighborhoods and enabling accessible, energy-efficient

transportation.

and enabling accessible, energy-efficient transportation. SOURCE: https://www.almono.org/vision SOURCE:
and enabling accessible, energy-efficient transportation. SOURCE: https://www.almono.org/vision SOURCE:

SOURCE:

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

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@CTGUAlbany

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Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

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Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

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Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

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Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

New York City, New York

Population 8.4 Million
Population 8.4 Million

Centralized Citizen

Communication

Service Integration

Platform

Data and Analytics

Hub

Service Integration Platform • Data and Analytics Hub Temporal Analysis of NYC 311 Service Requests Spatial

Temporal Analysis of NYC 311 Service Requests

Spatial Analysis of Service

Requests

Hub Temporal Analysis of NYC 311 Service Requests Spatial Analysis of Service Requests Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

Hub Temporal Analysis of NYC 311 Service Requests Spatial Analysis of Service Requests Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Kansas City, Missouri

Population 467K

The streetcar is the first

step in a longer-range plan

to create a regional, integrated transit system

plan to create a regional, integrated transit system • Public WiFi network – 3 miles of

Public WiFi network 3 miles of downtown

Smart Kiosks provide

network – 3 miles of downtown • Smart Kiosks provide residents and visitors with access to

residents and visitors with access to many types of

information about

entertainment and

services.

Smart Kiosks provide residents and visitors with access to many types of information about entertainment and

Melbourne, Australia

Population 4 Million

Melbourne, Australia Population 4 Million The knowledge sector cuts across all segments of the economy through

The knowledge sector cuts across all

segments of the economy through several knowledge-intensive activities such as design, consulting

and analytical work.

activities such as design, consulting and analytical work. Creators, transferers and intensive users of knowledge and

Creators, transferers and intensive users of knowledge and their activities and outputs whether technical (engineering based), symbolic (art and culture based) or analytical (science based).

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

SNAPSHOT OF A CAPITAL REGION EFFORT FIGHTING URBAN BLIGHT: Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany
SNAPSHOT OF A CAPITAL REGION EFFORT
SNAPSHOT OF A CAPITAL
REGION EFFORT

FIGHTING URBAN BLIGHT:

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

SNAPSHOT OF A CAPITAL REGION EFFORT FIGHTING URBAN BLIGHT: Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Catalyst for This Project

Catalyst for This Project Urban blight represents an ongoing and costly problem for many communities So…code

Urban blight represents an

ongoing and costly problem

for many communities

an ongoing and costly problem for many communities So…code enforcement, police, fire, development, executive

So…code enforcement, police, fire, development, executive officials in

capital region came together to talk

about how to share information across gov’t boundaries and how to leverage

their collective effort to fight blight

gov’t boundaries and how to leverage their collective effort to fight blight Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

gov’t boundaries and how to leverage their collective effort to fight blight Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

• Data Driven Strategies In order to interrupt the cycle of blight, there must be investment

Data Driven Strategies

In order to interrupt the cycle of blight, there must be investment

in the systems and processes that

ensures critical information and practices can be shared both

within cities and throughout the

information and practices can be shared both within cities and throughout the region. Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

region.

information and practices can be shared both within cities and throughout the region. Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

information and practices can be shared both within cities and throughout the region. Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Vision for Sharing Information

Vision for Sharing Information • Formalize information sharing among city and town government about the following:

Formalize information sharing among city and

town government about the following:

Problem Property Owners (with info on violations, properties owned, etc)

Specifics on carrying out code enforcement and

building permit programs (process, fees and fines, etc)

Specific counts can be assembled types of structures, vacant structures, properties by

owner, zombie properties

– types of structures, vacant structures, properties by owner, zombie properties Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

– types of structures, vacant structures, properties by owner, zombie properties Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

USE CASE:

LEARNING HOW OTHERS CARRY OUT THEIR WORK

RAM MODEL, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES , GENERAL PROCESSES AND FORMS

FO

tion (narrative, general process, forms , and listing of fees and fines ) of the

s

a city has in place to address prevent and mitigate blight including vacant

program, landlord registration, rental unit certificate, managing demolitions,

enforcement and

building permit .

ANTS TO USE IT

Building and Code Enforcement Officials

Building and Code Enforcement Administrators

s Economic Development Director

DESCRIPTIONS, PROCESSES, DEFINITIONS, FORMS  Descriptions for Code enforcement, Building Permit, Landlord
DESCRIPTIONS, PROCESSES, DEFINITIONS,
FORMS
 Descriptions for Code enforcement,
Building Permit, Landlord Registration,
Rental Unit Certificate, Demolition
PROBLEM PROPERTY OWNERS FROM
Processes.
EACH PARTICIPATING CITY
 Definitions of common terms vacant,
 Name (individual and LLC)
 Fine and Fee Schedules for Each Program
 Mailing address and phone number
 General Processes
 Property Type and Address
 Forms
 Code Violation history and date
 Contact info for code official in city
ADDRESSING URBAN
WHAT INFO
BLIGHT: SHARED
REGIONAL
INFORMATION
Contractors could also be identified )
RESOURCE
WHO WANTS TO USE IT
City’s Corporation Counsel,
WHY
STATEWIDE COUNTS
 Number of Vacant Buildings
 Number of Zombie Properties
 Number of Single Family
 Number of Multiple Unit
Dwellings
 Occupancy Certificates
 Building Permit Types

Stop Work Orders

to share specific data about each PPO

ams to address housing are designed to develop better strategies when

ng vacant , abandoned or foreclosed properties across all phases of blight and

ment.

USE CASE:

ACCESSING A LISTING OF PROBLEM PROPERTY OWNER

PARTICIPATING GOVERNMENTS

A listing of PPO with details on each including : name (in

mailing address , phone number, property address , dates

of code violations. ( future thinking is that Problem Landl

USE CASE:

GETTING ACCESS TO STATEWIDE COUNTS

FO

e counts and statistics

ANTS TO USE IT

Building and Code Enforcement Officials

s

Corporation Counsel,

s

Economic Development Director

Entities such as AG Office , NYS DOS and Department of Finance

City Building and Code Enforcement Officials

City’s Economic Development Director

Make more informed decisions when selling city -ow

Proactively engage existing property owners that ha

violations and a history of abandonment in other loc

Building a more robust case against a PPO in your cit

re is currently no way of gaining statewide counts on specific items like

nt properties ( not just Zombie ). Some info is reported to NYS DOS but not

h

and not all participate throughout NYS

e entities want access to counts and statistics so that they can better

elop strategies to combat vacancy , abandonment, foreclosure and property

igence from a policy level

er understand the magnitude of blight in their communities

WHAT PROBLEM PROPERTY INFO GETS INTO SHARED R

Cities have agreed that one unresponsive code violation i

which an individual or LLC is considered a PPO , therefore

owners that meet this criteria will be structured in a com

e accurately identify and prioritize resource allocation

com e accurately identify and prioritize resource allocation Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany  Occupancy Rates (Residential,

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

and prioritize resource allocation Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany  Occupancy Rates (Residential, Commercial and Public)

Occupancy Rates (Residential,

Commercial and Public)

Inspections

Occupancy Rates (Residential, Commercial and Public)  Inspections @CTGUAlbany This docume N Y k St t

@CTGUAlbany

This docume

N

Y

k St t

D

t

t

f St

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d

th

Information Challenges There are real challenges associated with obtaining the data needed to inform policy

Information Challenges

There are real challenges associated with obtaining the

data needed to inform policy and decision making at the local, regional, and statewide levels.

Non-standard data collection (i.e.

format)

Half paper / half electronic data collection, management, and storage

Lack relational and easily searchable

and visual data

Limited information sharing within

departments

Little-to-no information sharing among jurisdictions

sharing within departments • Little-to-no information sharing among jurisdictions Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

sharing within departments • Little-to-no information sharing among jurisdictions Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Project Goals

Build technical Develop the Encourage and technical, data, increased organizational and policy foundation of a
Build technical
Develop the
Encourage
and
technical, data,
increased
organizational
and policy
foundation of a
shared code
enforcement
information
resource,
uniformity
code
in process
enforcement
and
capabilities
within each of
the 4 cities so
definition
within the 4
cities to
each can increase
enabling
enable
the efficiency and
effectiveness of
municipalities to
potentially
regional
information
their own code
participate in a
sharing.
enforcement
environment.
future statewide
network

Establish a

culture and

community

of

knowledge

sharing

among the 4 cities-

and other

cities in the future.

of knowledge sharing among the 4 cities- and other cities in the future. Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

of knowledge sharing among the 4 cities- and other cities in the future. Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Enabling Investments for the Cities

Enabling Investments for the Cities • Understanding of how to implement the programs that prevent, mitigate,

Understanding of how to implement the

programs that prevent, mitigate, and

remediate blight Technical infrastructure to run programs that are typically managed in a City’s building and codes departments

Required foundation before a shared regional

information resource can be developed

Required foundation before a shared regional information resource can be developed Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

Required foundation before a shared regional information resource can be developed Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Organizing By Programs of Work Vacant Property Code Violation Landlord Registration Rental Unit Certificate Program
Organizing By Programs of Work
Vacant Property
Code Violation
Landlord Registration
Rental Unit Certificate
Program
Program
Program
Program
To identify, track, &
monitor vacant
properties in the
city
To identify violations and
prescribe reparations (fees &
timeframe)
To identify, register, and
monitor landlords in the
city
To identify rental units in
the city and certify
compliance with all city
& state codes
Public Assembly
Program
Building Permit
Program
Foreclosure
Demolition
Program
Program
To identify areas of public
assembly, and certify
compliance with all city &
state codes
To identify, approve, track,
and monitor
changes/enhancements to
all structures in the city
To identify and address all
tax-delinquent properties

To identify, certify, fund and carry out the demolition of properties within the city

To identify, certify, fund and carry out the demolition of properties within the city Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

To identify, certify, fund and carry out the demolition of properties within the city Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

SELECTED STAKEHOLDERS

Addressing Urban Blight
Addressing
Urban Blight
SELECTED STAKEHOLDERS Addressing Urban Blight Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

SELECTED STAKEHOLDERS Addressing Urban Blight Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany

Thank you! Meghan Cook Program Director Center for Technology in Government University at Albany mcook@ctg.albany.edu

Thank you!

Meghan Cook

Program Director

Center for Technology in Government University at Albany

Director Center for Technology in Government University at Albany mcook@ctg.albany.edu Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany

Director Center for Technology in Government University at Albany mcook@ctg.albany.edu Facebook.com/CTGUAlbany @CTGUAlbany

@CTGUAlbany