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Optik 125 (2014) 457460

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Temperature sensitivity of long period ber grating in SMF-28 ber

Amit Singh a, , Derick Engles b , Anish Sharma c , Maninder Singh b
Department of Electronics and Communication Technology, Swami Sarvanand Institute of Engineering & Technology, Dinanagar, Gurdaspur, Punjab, India
Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India
Department of Electronics and Communication Technology, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this paper we have presented long period ber grating (LPFG) as temperature sensor. Temperature
Received 5 January 2013 based sensors have found a number of applications in commercial and industrial elds. In LPFG based
Accepted 30 June 2013 temperature sensors, they respond to shift in various peak resonant wavelengths corresponding to var-
ious attenuation bands of the transmission spectrum. Temperature effect on the various attenuation
bands of a LPFG have been investigated to create a highly sensitive measurement device. The tempera-
ture sensitivities of various attenuation bands of a LPFG over the wavelength region of 1.11.7 m, for a
Fiber optics
grating period of 280 m period, are obtained by monitoring the wavelength shift of each peak resonant
Long period ber grating
Fiber Bragg grating
wavelength with temperature increment of 20 C, ranging from 0 C to 100 C.
Temperature sensors 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Temperature sensitivity

1. Introduction to other forward co-propagating cladding modes (LP0m mode with

m = 1, 2, 3, 4 . . .) in the ber with periodical variation of the RI is
In recent years, long period ber grating (LPFG) has been one of shown in Fig. 1.
the most important ber-optic devices. LPFG has found enormous The phase matching condition between the fundamental core
applications in optical communication and sensing systems. LPFG mode and the forward co-propagating cladding modes for the long-
promotes the coupling between the propagating core mode and co- period ber grating (LPFG) is given by [7].
propagating cladding modes. The high attenuation of the cladding
res = (neff,co () neff,clm ()) (1)
modes results in the transmission spectrum of the ber contain-
ing a series of attenuation bands centered at discrete wavelengths, where res is the resonant wavelength, neff,co is the effective refrac-
each attenuation band corresponding to the coupling to a different tive index of the core mode and neff,clm is the effective index of the
cladding mode. In optical communications, LPFG devices have been mth cladding mode.  is the grating period.
demonstrated for numerous applications such as in band-rejection
lters [1], temperature and strain sensors [2] and refractive index 2.1. Core effective index
sensors [3]. These sensors possess a number of unique advantages
over conventional sensors. For example, they possess low inser- Each core mode propagation constant is found from a LP mode
tion loss, low back reection, good sensitivity and good long-term dispersion relation in the form of an Eigen value equation. In this
stability. They are also free from corrosion attack [4], and electro- approach the inner cylinder is made up of core and outer cylinder
magnetic interferences [5] that seriously affect many conventional made up of innite and uniform cladding [8].
sensors. Physical quantity changes are reected as wavelength shift  J (u )   K (w ) 
1 co 1 co
of the peak resonant wavelength in the transmission spectrum of uco = wco (2)
J0 (uco ) K0 (wco )
LPFG (Table 1).
where J0 (uco ) and J1 (uco ) are Bessel functions of rst kind, of zero
and rst order respectively and K represents the modied Bessel
2. Theory
function of second kind. Where uco and wco are normalized trans-
verse wave numbers that can also be written in terms of the bers
The basic principle of the LPFG is to couple light from the fun-
V-number. The relation between uco and wco is as follows:
damental guided core mode (i.e. the LP01 mode present in the core)
wco = V 2 u2co

Corresponding author. co
V= n2co n2cl
E-mail address: (A. Singh). 

0030-4026/$ see front matter 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
458 A. Singh et al. / Optik 125 (2014) 457460

Table 1
Parameters used for simulation.

Symbol Parameter used Value used

aco Core radius 4.15 m

acl Cladding radius 62.5 m
nco Core refractive index 1.4640
ncl Cladding refractive index 1.46
next External refractive index 1
 Free space wavelength 1.310 m

Fig. 1. Coupling of a fundamental guided core mode to a cladding mode in a long- Fig. 3. Calculation of various cladding mode effective indices using two layer geom-
period ber grating [6]. etry [8].

where aco = core radius; nco = core refractive index; ncl = cladding similar to the procedure for determining the core effective refrac-
refractive index;  = free space wavelength. tive index. Calculation of various cladding mode effective indices
Thus using graphical approach we can nd the intersection point using two layer geometry is shown in Fig. 3.
and corresponding value of uco . Approximations used in above method are corrected by using
  u 2 three layer geometry. In this method corecladding interface is not
co ignored, and the required dispersion relation incorporates the exact
co = (pnco )2 (3)
aco modes corresponding to the three-layer ber structure [9], shown
in Fig. 4.
co Using three layer geometry we can directly obtain cladding
neff,co =
p modes effective indices as shown in Fig. 4.
p is free space propagation constant (Fig. 2).
3. LPFG as temperature sensor
2.2. Cladding effective indices
Taking the derivative of phase matching condition given in Eq.
There are two different techniques for determining cladding (1) with respect to temperature, we yield [10]:
effective indices. One technique employ two layer geometry [1,11]  
dres dneff,co dneff,clm d
and second technique employ three layer geometry [9]. Calcula- = + (neff,co neff,clm ) (4)
dT dT dT dT
tion of cladding mode effective indices using two layer geometry
is rather simple because in this approach the presence of the core The most reformed form of the temperature differentiated
is ignored so that the ber geometry once again comprises two phase-matching condition is the following [10]:
concentric cylinders with a step-index prole. This method is very  
dres d0 dneff,co dneff,clm dres 1 dL
= + (5)
dT d(neff ) dT dT d L dT

where (1/)(d/dT) = (1/L)(dL/dT), and L is the length of long period

ber grating. Since silica has a small thermal expansion coefcient,
(1/L)(dL/dT) = 4.1 107 / C. The right-hand side of Eq. (5) contains

Fig. 4. Calculation of the various cladding mode effective indices using three layer
Fig. 2. Calculation of core mode [8]. geometry.
A. Singh et al. / Optik 125 (2014) 457460 459

Fig. 6. Shift in a peak resonant wavelength of a long-period ber grating with

temperature corresponding to fourth attenuation band. The spectra correspond to
Fig. 5. Transmission spectrum of long period ber grating, the location of peak res-
temperatures of 0 C, 20 C, 40 C, 60 C, 80 C and 100 C from left to right [2]. The
onant bands are at 1.6278 m, 1.3159 m, 1.1978 m and 1.1283 m with 0 C as
resonant wavelength shift from 1.6278 m at 0 C to 1.6378 m at 100 C (reference
the reference temperature.
temperature = 0 C).

separate terms that contribute to the thermal sensitivity of the

LPFG: the rst term represents thermo-optic effects (the material
contribution), and the second term mainly denotes the change in
grating periodicity (waveguide contribution) [2,11]. From Eq. (5),
changes in the LPFG transmission spectrum arising from tempera-
ture are therefore dependent on the physical parameters of the ber
as well as the order of the relevant cladding mode and the period of
the grating. The waveguide contribution is either positive or nega-
tive, depending on the cladding modes dres /d polarity. Different
temperature-induced spectral behavior can be observed when cou-
pling occurs with lower-order cladding modes as opposed to modes
of higher order [2]. For a xed resonant wavelength, the lower-
order cladding modes will be accessible with a large grating period
Fig. 7. Shift in the peak loss wavelengths with temperature corresponding to var-
(in excess of 100 m), and in this case the material contribution ious resonance bands of the grating. The location of the bands A, B, C, D are at
is the dominating effect [13]. The material contribution is strong 1.6278 m, 1.3159 m, 1.1978 m and 1.1283 m with 0 C as the reference tem-
function of the difference between the thermo-optic coefcients of perature. The dashed line (E) is the shift for a Bragg grating at 1.550 m with a
the core dnco /dT and cladding dncl /dT. Since for the standard ber temperature coefcient 0.013 nm/ C (reference temperature = 0 C) [2].
under analysis, the cladding is fabricated from pure silica, we will
approximate the cladding thermo-optic coefcient with that of sil-
ica, dncl /dT = 7.8 106 . The core of the ber contains Germania
and the presence of external dopants modies its thermal proper-
ties [12]. The average value of thermo-optic coefcient for the core
of the SMF-28 bers was calculated to be dnco /dT = 7.97 106 . So
far, the material effect is based on assuming that the grating period
remains unchanged under temperature variations. In order to keep
the period constant, the phase-matching condition dictates that the
ratio res /neff should remain unchanged.
The transmission spectrum is shown in Fig. 5. In this gure, we
have four attenuation bands, whose peak resonant wavelengths are
at 1.6278 m, 1.3159 m, 1.1978 m and 1.1283 m with 0 C as
the reference temperature.
By using Eq. (5), the shifted transmission spectrum with temper-
ature corresponding to fourth attenuation band is shown in Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Wavelength shift as a function of period for SMF-28 ber.
This gure illustrates the thermally induced shift in the peak loss
wavelength from 1.6278 m at 0 C to 1.6378 m at 100 C, thus
giving sensitivity of nearly 0.10 nm/ C. In Fig. 8, shows the wavelength shift as a function of grating
Fig. 7 gives the wavelength shift of four attenuation bands with period for different sets of attenuation bands of SMF-28 ber. If we
temperature for a grating written in SMF-28 ber for  = 280 m choose higher period we will get higher wavelength shift. Fig. 8 also
(next = 1). For a peak index change, the bands are located at shows that for a xed period the higher order attenuation bands are
1.6278 m (A), 1.3159 m (B), 1.1978 m (C) and 1.1283 m found to have a larger temperature induced shifts [2].
(D) with 0 C as the reference temperature. The temperature
coefcients of band A, B, C, D are determined to be0.10 nm/ C, 4. Conclusion
0.045 nm/ C, 0.036 nm/ C, 0.032 nm/ C respectively. Thus for the
normal region of operation the higher order attenuation bands at We proposed a model of long period ber grating based temper-
longer wavelengths are shown to possess higher temperature sen- ature sensor and studied various parameters which are helpful in
sitivity [2]. enhancing the sensitivity of long period ber grating. The fourth
460 A. Singh et al. / Optik 125 (2014) 457460

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