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Biology

End of Year Exam Revision

Learning Objectives Unit 9 From One Cell to Puberty

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Pupils should be able to:


Draw the structure of a basic animal cell and describe the
function of the cell parts (cell membrane, cytoplasm,
nucleus, mitochondria)
Correctly define the terms Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ
System and Organism and give examples.
List the changes that happen during puberty to a male
and female
Accurately label the diagrams of the female and male
reproductive systems.
Give the definition of fertilisation and explain how sexual
intercourse results in the deposition of semen in the
female.
Understand the role of the placenta in maintaining a
healthy pregnancy

Some cells have special jobs to do. They often have special shapes to help them to
do their job. We say that these cells are adapted to their to their jobs
A group of the same type of cells, all working together is called a tissue. Muscle cells
help us to move
This cell is adapted to remove dirt from peoples lungs because the hair traps the dirt
particles and moves it away from the lungs
The male and female sex cells have different shapes to help them do their jobs. They
are said to be adapted to their jobs
A sperm cell has a tail to help it swim
An egg cell has a food store
Both egg cell and sperm cell contains half the information to start a new life.
A sperm cell has a special chemical on the tip of its head to help it get into things.
A sperm cell has only a little cytoplasm so that it can have a thin streamline shape.
A sperm cell is 0.043 millimeters long. Its head is 0.003 millimeters wide. An egg cell
is 0.07 millimeters wide
The heart and all of the blood vessels make up the circularity system.
Other examples of systems
- Urinary system
- Immune system
- Respiratory system
- Nervous system
- Reproductive system

All of these systems working together make an originsm

1. Appearance
of chick embryo, alimentary tract, vertebral
column, nervous system, head, eye
2. Beginning of heart, ear and heart beats
3. Beginning of nose, legs and wings
4. Beginning of tongue
5. Formation of reproduction organs and differentiation of sex
6. Beginning of beak
8. Beginning of feathers
10. Beak starts to firm
13. Appearance of scales and claws
14. Embryo moves into position suitable for breaking shell
16. Scales, claws and become firm and horny
17. Beak turns towards air cell
19. Yolk sac begins to enter body cavity
20. Yolk sac drawn into body cavity. Embryo occupies most space in egg wall except air
cell
21. Chick hatches

Puberty

Changes to females during Changes which happen in Changes to males during


puberty both males and females puberty
Production of oestrogen Growth hormones Production of
and progesterone released causing growth testosterone by the testes
of body (height and
weight increase) and
reproductive organs.
Hips widen (often but not Growth of pubic hair Voice becomes deeper
always) and breasts
develop
Ovaries begin to release Increased interest in Muscles develop and
ova (singular: Ovum) opposite sex shoulders widen
Menstrual cycle starts Increased body odour Testes begin to produce
from sweat glands (many sperm cells
found in armpits) and
genitals
Increase in erection

Human Body systems

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION MAIN ORGANS


Digestive Breaks down the large complicated Liver, stomach,
substances that we eat into smaller simple intestines,
ones which can be transported around the oesophagus,
body in the blood anus
Respiratory Concerned with the exchange of respiratory Heart, lungs,
gases- oxygen is taken in to be used to brain stem,
break down substances produced by the nose,
digestive system to release energy. Carbon diaphragm,
dioxide is a waste product and is Tricia, muscles,
transported out of the body. intercostal
muscles
Circulatory Transports oxygen and food to the cells in Heart, vein,
the body and removes carbon dioxide from artery
them when respiration has taken place in
the cells
Excretory Removes waste products from the body- Bladder wall,
many of these are harmful kidney, ureter,
bladder outlet
Nervous Concerned with the control and Brain, facial
coordination of the body. Allows the body nerves, special
to formulate a response to a stimulus it has cord, nerve
recognised. Transports messages from one fibres
part of the body to another
Skeletal Supports and protects the body and allows Skull, ribs,
movement spine, femur,
ulna, scapular
Muscular Concerned with the movement of joints Triceps, biceps,
deltial

Sperm cells are made in the testes. The tubes that sperm cells travel down on their
way out of the body are called the urethra and the sperm duct. The foreskin protects
the head of the penis. Glands add special liquids to the sperm cells to make semen


he
egg
cells
are
relea
sed
from
the
ovari
es. Egg cells travel down the oviducts on their way to the uterus. When a woman is
pregnant the cervix helps to hold he baby in place. A baby develops in the uterus.
An egg cell is released from an ovary once a month.
Cervix holds the baby in place.
The name given for the mixture of sperm cells and fluids are called semen.
Sperm cells pass through a sperm duct, and a urethra on their way out of the body
Sperm cells are made are made in a part of the body that hangs outside, this is
because you need to keep the sperm to develop at a cooler temperature.

MUSCLES QUESTIONS
1. How many bones are there in the human skeleton?
Over 500, up to 100, over 200
2. Fill in below the mineral found in milk that bones contain: calcium
3. Name one reason why bones are hollow like a tube. Lightweight so it is easier to
move and it is stronger.
4. What holds bones in place and stops the skeleton collapsing? Muscles holds our
bones in position
5. How many muscles are there in the body?(tick the correct answer) Less than 100
,over 650 ,over 1000
6. What attaches muscles to bones? Tendons
7. What does a muscle have to do to make a part of the body move? By contracting
and relaxing.
8. Name the two muscles found in the upper arm. Biceps and triceps.
9. Complete the following sentence circling the right answer. Muscles work alone/in
pairs/in threes.
10. Name a sport where all muscles are worked very hard. Athletics/gymnastics.

Embryo

Fertilised egg
cell

Fertilisation
occurs here
Implantation

Sperm cell
Sperm cells start swimming when the got to the oviduct.
Sperm cells swim about 1mm every minute.
The fertilized egg cell turns into an embryo by cell division. The fertilized egg cell
divides into two new cells. These two new cells divide into two more cells each
The implantation is when the embryo fixes itself on the wall of the womb.
Identical twins happen when a fertilized egg cell divides in two, but the two cells split
apart
Identical twins wont always be different sexes
Non identical twins happen when two egg cells are fertilized
Non identical twins can be the same sex or different sexes
Identical twins don't happen when two eggs are fertilized
Non identical twins don't happen when egg cells turn into embryos on their own.

PART FUNCTION
Placenta Transfers the nutrients and the oxygen to the baby. Where the
blood of the mother and the baby meet
Umbilical To bring the nutrients and the oxygen into the baby
cord
Uterus The baby develops
Cervix Holds the baby in place
Fluid To keep the baby safe and not be damaged
filled sac
The fertilized egg cell grows and divides to form an embryo. It grows inside the
mothers uterus. The mothers blood stream and the babys bloodstream are
separate, but food and oxygen can be transferred to he baby via the placenta. The
connection between the placenta and the baby is called the umbilical cord.
Learning Objectives Unit 1 Lab Rules

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I know the relevant hazard for the
symbol that defines it, and what the
hazard means.
I will bring the basic equipment with me
for each Science lesson; pen, pencil,
calculator, ruler.
I can recognise a hazard and act
appropriately.
I know the importance of housekeeping.

Learning Objectives Unit 2 The Bunsen Burner and Scientific Writing

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Pupils should know:


For any fire, there needs to be present
FUEL, HEAT and OXYGEN = The Fire
Triangle
The Bunsen Burner has three major
settings; air hole closed, half open and
fully open.
When the air hole closed, the flame is
yellow and luminous.
The Bunsen Burner should always be lit
with the air hole closed.
The luminous flame is an indication of
incomplete combustion.
The luminous flame is also called the
Safety Flame
Incomplete combustion produces carbon
(soot) as a visible product, and the more
dangerous non-visible gas carbon
monoxide.
When the air hole half closed, the flame
is blue.
When the air hole is fully open, the flame
is roaring
The blue (or roaring) flame is an
indication of complete combustion.
Complete combustion of methane
produces carbon dioxide and water.
The hottest flame is roaring, as more
oxygen can get to the flame (more
complete combustion)
When not in use, the Bunsen burner
flame should be luminous.
Pupils should be able to
Safely use the Bunsen burner to heat
objects, and use the correct type of
flame for the appropriate job.
Label the roaring blue flame in terms of
inner cone, outer cone and hottest part.

Learning Objectives-Unit 3 Variables

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Pupils should know:

Scientific investigations/experiments,
there are factors that van vary and these
factors are called VARIABLES.

Variables can be DEPENDENT,


INEPENDENT or CONTROL.

The factor what you deliberately vary to


find out what effect it has, is called the
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (input
variable).

The factors that you keep constant


during the experiment to ensure that a
fair test occurs are called CONTROL
VARIABLES.

The factor that is affected by changing


the input variable is called the
DEPENDENT VARIABLE (output
variable).

Pupils should be able to

Identify the DEPENDENT and the


INDEPENDENT variables in the data
given.

Understand the concept of FAIT TEST


PROGRESSING PROFICIENT ADVANCED BREAKTHROUGH
(Grade 5) (Grade 4 & 3) (Grade 3 - 2) (1 - Exceptional
Performance)
You should be able to You should be able to You should be able You should be able to
identify the to identify
Input identify what write a modifications
(Independent) needs to be method as a where needed and
Variable and controlled set of correctly alter the
Output within an instructions, investigation to
(Dependent) investigation written in improve the
Planning

Variable (Control steps results.


write a list of Variables) write a
apparatus write a prediction
understand the prediction which
units of describing the includes
measurement expected scientific
relationship reasoning.
between the
variables

You should be able to You should be able to You should be able You should be able to
identify to undertake an
different pieces choose the take investigation
of apparatus correct measurement safely and
apparatus for s with accurately
Lab Skills

the experiment accuracy and repeat the


undertake an precision experiment
investigation correctly enough times to
safely control the get reliable results
control
variables

You should be able to You should be able to You should be able You should be able to
make some to draw a line of best
measurements repeat your produce a fit
write your readings and graph to use the graph to
measurements accurately show the make
in a table, with calculate a findings of predictions/estima
a title and units mean value your tes
in the table draw a table in experiment.
headings. pencil, with a produce a
title and with graph in
units in the concordance
table headings with How
your graphs
Results

will be
marked
guidelines
You should be able to You should be able to You should be able You should be able to
say what you to produce a detailed
saw happen use some explain what write up following
give a short science to you have the set up for
explanation of explain what found out in a Conclusion;
what you have you have way that Observations,
found out found out shows that Trends and
use scientific you fully Scientific Reason
words to understand
explain the science
Conclusion

patterns/trend involved
s that you
discovered

You should be able to You should be able to You should be able You should be able to
say how you to produce a detailed
experiment suggest a explain why write up following
could be made number of your the set up for
better improvements improvement Evaluation; what
Evaluation

to your s would work went well, what


method did not go well,
what could be
improved
Learning Objectives Unit 4 Scientific Diagrams and Measurements

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Pupils should know:


Scientific drawings are done in cross
section with a pencil, ruler and no
shading. SHARP pencil with a ruler (DO
NOT use crayon, pen etc.)
Scientific drawing apparatus are labelled
and lines connect the labels to the
apparatus.
Cross-section, not 3-dimensions.
Graphs need a title, key, scale and fully
labelled axes.
Different apparatus have different
precisions.
The more accurate piece of apparatus
has the smallest graduations.
The volume of a measuring cylinder is
read from the bottom of the MENISCUS
Accuracy is when your results are close
to the true (accepted) value.
Precise is when you repeat your
experiment a number of times and the
results are consistent (grouped together)
The more precise an instrument the
smaller the units it will measure in.
To improve the reliability of an
experiment you would need to do more
repeats.
Pupils should be able to:

Draw and label simple apparatus using


scientific diagrams.
Know the names of common laboratory
apparatus, and their uses.
Decide which apparatus to use for a
particular task.
Read correctly the scale on a number of
different apparatus, and know when to
round up or round down.
Understand that the unit of length is the
metre, and use the prefix milli, centi,
deci, and kilo appropriately.

Learning Objectives Unit 5 Graphs and Conclusions

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Pupils should know:


All graphs should have a title
The axes of a graph should be labelled
including units
The points should be plotted clearly in
pencil
A line of best fit should be drawn in
pencil
ANOMALOUS points should be
identified.
There are three general types of variable
CONTINUOUS: these can take any
numerical value
DISCRETE: these can only have a whole
number value
CATEGORIC: no numerical value can be
given
Pupils should be able to:

Present data given as line graphs / bar


charts
Draw conclusions that are consistent
with the evidence and relate these to
their scientific knowledge and
understanding.
Learning Objectives Unit 6 Volume Mass and Density

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Pupils should know that:
Volume is the amount of space an object
occupies.
Volume has units of cm3, dm3 or m3.
Mass in the amount of matter that is
contained within an object.
Mass has units of g or kg
Density is a property of the material, and
is independent of shape.
Density is the amount of matter in a
given volume
Density = Mass / Volume
Density has units of g/cm3 or kg/m3
Pupils should be able to:
Measure the volume of regular and
irregular objects.
Measure the mass of an object using a
top-pan balance.
Identify and use techniques to increase
accuracy of readings.
Determine the density of a regular object
given its mass and volume, and explain
how to perform the experiment.
Determine the density of a liquid, by
finding its mass and its volume, and
explain how to perform the experiment.
Determine the density of an irregular
solid that (a) floats and (b) sinks, and
explain how to perform the experiment
Learning Objectives Unit 7 Forces

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Pupils should know:


The scientific name for a push or pull is a
FORCE
Forces are measured in Newtons (N)
A device that measures force is a Newton
meter
The force with which gravity attracts an
object is the objects weight
As weight is a force, it is measured in
Newtons, NOT kilograms
On Earth, a mass of 1 kg has a weight of
10 N. The Earth is said to have a
gravitational field strength of 10 N/kg
Whenever two solid surfaces move past
each other, a friction force is produced
which tries to stop the movement. The
friction force always acts in the opposite
direction to the motion.
The friction between two surfaces can be
reduced by using a lubricant.
Whenever an object is stationary, the
forces on it are balanced
The direction of a force can be
represented by an arrow.
Learning Objectives Unit 8 States of Matter and Physical Change

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Pupils should know:


When heating objects using a Bunsen
burner, you begin with the Blue Flame
first, only using the Roaring Flame when
necessary.
There are three states of matter; solid,
liquid and gas.
When a substance changes state, a
physical change has occurred.
MELTING is the process of converting a
solid to a liquid.
FREEZING is the process of converting a
liquid to a solid.
BOILING is the process of converting a
liquid to a gas.
CONDENSATION is the process of
converting a gas to a liquid.
SUBLIMATION is the process of
converting a solid to a gas.
Everything is made up of PARTICLES.
The particles in a solid are closely packed
in a regular arrangement. The particles
are tightly packed together.
The particles in a liquid are in a random
arrangement. The particles are very close
together.
The particles in a gas are in a random
arrangement. The particles are far apart.
Pupils should be able to:

Determine which change of state is


occurring at a given time
Know the correct procedure to affect a
change of state in terms of the energy
change involved.
Learning Objectives Unit 9 From One Cell to Puberty

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Pupils should be able to:


Draw the structure of a basic animal cell and describe the
function of the cell parts (cell membrane, cytoplasm,
nucleus, mitochondria)
Correctly define the terms Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ
System and Organism and give examples.
List the changes that happen during puberty to a male
and female
Accurately label the diagrams of the female and male
reproductive systems.
Give the definition of fertilisation and explain how sexual
intercourse results in the deposition of semen in the
female.
Understand the role of the placenta in maintaining a
healthy pregnancy
Learning Objectives Unit 10 Solutions and Mixtures

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Pupils should know:


A SOLUTE dissolves in a SOLVENT to form a SOLUTION
A SOLUTION must be CLEAR (transparent)
Different solvents dissolve different solutes
Solids are more soluble in hot solvents than in cold
solvents.
Some solutes are insoluble (do not dissolve) in certain
solvents.
An element is made up of one atom, a compound is two
or more elements joined together via a chemical reaction.
A mixture is a more than one element/compounds mixed
together but they are not joined by a chemical reaction
and therefore can be easily separated.
DISTILLATION is used for separating out a mixture of a
solvent from a solute (i.e. removing the solvent from a
solution)
The solvent is boiled off, and the vapour is then COOLED
and CONDENSED, and collected. This leaves the solute
behind.
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION is used for separating a
mixture of solvents as the different solvents BOIL at
DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES.
Know the difference between evaporation and boiling
Chromatography is a method for separating solutes from
a solvent - usually the dyes that are found in ink.
Different dyes in the ink will wash through the paper at
different rates, thus each different dye will form a spot in
a different place.
The more soluble the dye, the further it will run
Pupils should be able to
Filtration
Explain how to separate two solids from each other, using
Filtration.
Draw and label the apparatus required to separate two
solids from each other.
Understand and correctly use the terminology; filter,
filtrate.
Distillation
Label the apparatus required for distillation.
Explain the individual steps that occur during distillation
boiling/evaporation and condensation
Chromatography
Identify spots in a chromatogram by comparison of
position and colour.
Carry out paper chromatography competently.

Learning Objectives Unit 11 How to treat or bee sting or a wasp sting

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Pupils should know:


When a substance dissolves in water, it forms an aqueous
solution that may be acidic, alkaline or neutral.
Pure water itself is neutral.
The pH scale is used to show how acidic or alkaline a
solution is, and ranges from 0-14.
Acids have a pH lower than 7, a sour taste and can be
corrosive.
A neutral solution can be obtained by adding equal
amounts of an acid to an alkali. This is an example of a
chemical reaction.
A chemical reaction occurs between an acid and an alkali.
Alkalis have a pH greater than 7, often feel soapy and can
be corrosive.
Acids and alkalis can change the colour of some dyes,
known as indicators, and this can be used to classify them.
Indicators can be used to show whether a solution is
acidic, neutral or alkaline by the way their colours change.
Three common indicators are Universal Indicator, Litmus
solution and methyl orange.
Acids and alkalis are used in a range of everyday
situations: hair and skin care, treatment of stings and
bites, treatment of indigestion, treatment of soil, humans
in digestion.
When acids and added to alkalis neutralisation occurs.
Pupils should be able to
Use the pH scale to decide whether or not a substance is
acidic, alkaline or neutral.
Know the names of hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid,
and recognise these chemicals as common laboratory
acids.
Know the name sodium hydroxide, and recognise the
chemical as a common laboratory alkali.
Recall which colours Universal Indicator and Litmus Paper
turn in acidic, alkaline and neutral solutions.
Give clear scientific reasons in their answers to the
question How to cure a bee/wasp sting?

Learning Objectives Unit 12 Chemical and Physical Change

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Pupils should know:


A physical change involves a change of
state (i.e. solid to liquid, liquid to gas
etc.), no new substance is/are made.
A chemical change occurs when a
substance is changed into a completely
new one. Signs of a chemical reaction
include a gas given off, a new substance
(i.e. a solid) is formed, there is a visible
colour change or light is given off.
The air consists mostly of nitrogen (79 %)
and oxygen (20 %), and that oxygen is a
reactive gas.
When metals react in air, they react with
oxygen to produce the metal oxide (a
corrosion and oxidation reaction)
The mass of the metal oxide at the end
of the reaction is greater than the mass
of the metal at the beginning.
Some substances, however, lose mass on
heating. This is thermal decomposition.
Pupils should be able to:

Determine whether a change is either


physical or chemical, based on
experimental evidence.

Highly flammable

Oxidising

Toxic
Harmful
May course asthma
symptoms or difficulty
breathing problems if
inhaled

Corrosive

Irritant

Always remember to put the extra information for harmful.


In the test the symbols might be different but they will still be the same idea

Cross sections are below- remember to put these in you diagrams instead of
the real shape
NOT IN 3D!!!!
When you are drawing a diagram use pencil then label it in pen.
Draw neatly because you will be marked on the neatness as well
Cross sections are like cutting something in half, always be simple.
Definitions of accuracy
In your experiments, you need to consider the accuracy of your measuring
instrument.
It will give a result nearer to the true value.
For example:
An expensive thermometer is likely to be more accurate than a cheap one.
It is likely to be more sensitive so it will respond to smaller changes in
temperature.
Definition of precision
Precise results show consistent readings. The precision of an instrument is
the scale of its measurements.
In a Bunsen burner a gas called methane (which consists of carbon and
hydrogen) is burned in oxygen (which forms about 21% of the air).
How you graphs will be marked-
1. Axes drawn in pencil and ruler
2. Labels on the axes and correct way round
3. Both labels have units on them (not on each number)
4. Labels and the scale written in pen
5. Sensible scale using up most/all of the paper
6. Points marked as x in pencil
7. A best fit line drawn
1. Straight line drawn with ruler
2. Curved line free hand.
8. All points plotted correctly
9. A sensible title
10. The general appearance of your graph

Conclusion-
The eye-
State what you see/ have observed
The arrow-
Are variables increasing decreasing? It is a linear relationship.
The question-
What is the scientific reason behind your results?

To find the density of an irregular object


A glass stopper was used for this experiment.
Its mass was found by weighing it = 30.4g
Its volume was found by doing the displacement method
1. Fill the measuring cylinder with water 50cm3 up.
2. Measure the weight of the objects e.g. using a scale
3. Drop the glass stopper into the water. Record how much it rises by (this is
the volume).
4. If the object is floating tie it a glass stopper the take away the volume of the
glass stopper away
5. Divide the mass by the volume of the glass stopper
6. Record that, and then put g/cm2 by the side of the final result.
Eureka can method
1. Fill the can with water up to the hole
2. Measure the weight of the irregular object e.g. glass stopper using a scale
record the weight
3. Put the measuring cylinder by the nozzle of the Eureka can so the water can
fall into it.
4. Drop the glass stopper into the Eureka can
5. Measure the water that fell into the measuring cylinder that fell out of the
Eureka can.
6. If the object is floating tie it to glass stopper to weight it down then take
away the volume of the glass stopper using the same method as before.
7. Dived the mass by the volume
8. Put g/cm2 at the end of the answer as a unit of measure

Contact forces Examples

Friction Rubbing to things together


Push Pushing a chair
Pull Pulling a chair
Up-thrust Up-thrust on a boat

Non contact forces Examples

Air resistance Sport cars have less air resistance


Magnetism Modern trains
Weight An apple falling
Static electricity Static electricity

Definition Word
From a solid into a liquid Melt
The substance that dissolves in a liquid Solute
to form a solution
A liquid is when the particles are Liquid
touching but not that tightly packed
together like a solid
Filter paper is a very thin paper where Filter paper
only the finest substances can get
through.
From a liquid into a gas. This is because Evaporate
the heat of the sun on the particles of a
liquid makes them get more energy and
move around more freely to make a gas
An evaporating basin is a kind of bowl Evaporating basin
which you put a solution in, then the
solvent will evaporate and then you are
left with the solute
A change directly from the solid to the Sublimation
gaseous state without becoming liquid
A solution is the mixture formed when Solution
the solute has dissolved the solvent
Insoluble describes a substance that will Insoluble
not dissolve
A filter funnel is used to filter one solute Filter funnel
from a solution
Condensation is when a gas turns into a Condensation
liquid. This is because when the gas is so
high up in the sky and is so cold the
energy starts to decrees turning it into
water, then the water comes down as
rain then the cycle starts all over again.
A solid is when the particles is very Solid
tightly packed together
To solidify or to freeze is to have a liquid Solidify/freeze
turned into a solid. This is because when
the liquid is so cold more energy starts
to decrees leaving the particles very
tightly packed together
In chemistry, residue is the material Residue
remaining after distillation, evaporation,
or filtration
To filter is to separate to substances Filter
normally a solute from a solution.
Boiling is to turn a liquid into a gas. This Boiling
is because the liquid gets so hot that the
heat gives energy to the particles, so the
particles move much more, the particles
break apart to make gas
Crystallisation is a method used to Crystallisation
separate a solution, which is made out of
a solid that has dissolved in a liquid. The
solution is heated, this is to evaporate
the solvent, and this leaves a saturated
solution. Then you cool the saturated
solution down. Some of the solute that
cannot dissolve any more grow out of
the solution and will turn into crystals.
The faster it cools the smaller the
crystals but the more of them, the
slower it cools the bigger the crystals but
there are less of them
Dissolving is when you put a solute in a Dissolve
solvent and the solute mixes in with the
solvent, this is called a solution. It has to
be transparent
A solvent is the liquid in which the solute Solvent
dissolves in
When the solvent is too tightly packed Saturated
with the solute particles no more can get
in
Re product of filtration; a gas or liquid Filtrate
that has been passed through a filter
Remove by passing through a filter;
"filter out the impurities.
Fluid that has passed through a filter
Gas is when the particles of something Gas
are very spaced out
Clear and transparent is see through. All Clear/transparent
solutions are transparent. Transparent
objects don't always have to have no
colour. Things can still be transparent
with some colour in it as well
Soluble is a substance that will dissolve Soluble
different solutes