Subregionalism in India: The Case of Telangana Author(s): Duncan B. Forrester Source: Pacific Affairs, Vol. 43, No. 1 (Spring, 1970), pp.

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Subregionalism inIndia: The Case ofTelangana
DuncanB. Forrester
been closelystudied, and it is now possibleto speak of an acceptedinthe terpretation the forces of behindthemovement, reasonsforits finalsucof cess in the i95os, and at leastsome of the consequences the resultant reorganization.' The rootsof the variousparticular movements redrawing for of provincialboundarieslie in regional culturalrenaissances which can oftenbe traced back to the nineteenth century. An enhanced sense of regionalidentity and a new culturalawarenessquicklymobilizedthe supportof risingcastesand alliancesof castesseekingenhancedstatusand economicpower;but they werealso awarethattheir in influence multilinguistic provincesdominated by an English-educated elite must necessarilybe restricted. Linguisticseparatism of capturedthe imagination large sections of the student population partly, perhaps, because of the problems involved in highereducationthroughthe medium of English,but more markedly becauseof the desirefora pool of jobs withinthe stateeffectively reserved forthem.The movement was strengthened becauseCongress had attempted overseveraldecadesto mobilizeit in support thenationalstruggle, it of and had also found some, rathermore grudging,supportfrom government prior to independence. The Congressgovernment finally, and somewhat reluctantly, concededmost linguistic demandsby i959. The consequences of thisredrawing boundaries of appear to have been an indigenization and democratization provincial of politics, which gave a strongimpetusto the development diverseregionalpoliticalcultures, of enhancingthe political significance casteand ofregional of educated elites. In thispaperI use theterm"region"to refer a cultural to and socialarea, the regionalboundaries peninsular in India now in most cases being those of the major languages? By regionI mean verymuch the same as Lenin
II am grateful Mr. N. Ram and the staffof the Hindu library to for making much material concerning Telanganaproblemavailableto me, and to a number my colleagues the of and students, K. particularly SivamohanReddi, N. Dilip Uthappa, C. A. Ponnappa,P. N. Vaithyanathan, N. AnandaKumar,forhelpful and suggestions criticism. and 2 Cf. N. M. Srinivas' essay,"The Problemof Indian Unity," his Caste in ModernIndia in and OtherEssays (Bombay: Asia Publishing House, i962), pp. 98-III; and W. H. MorrissJones, "Language and Regionwithinthe Indian Union,"in PhilipMason (ed.), India and Ceylon: Unity Diversity and (London: Oxford University Press,I967), pp. 5i-66.

T

HE MOVEMENT FOR

states thenon-Hindi linguistic in areasof Indiahas

5

Pacific Atairs discussionthe of "national Marxists andStalin allthe (and question" among is their meant "nation": nation a his"A which flows from writings) by economic torically evolved, stable communitylanguage, of territory, life, in of Naandpsychological make-up manifesteda communityculture."3 in boundaries also tional regional or frontiers nowusually political are India. "subregion" By I understand a smaller within region "naarea a or reasons aware is tion" which economic, for geographic, historical, social and ofpossessing a distinct in identity. Telangana as we shallsee shortly, is, many ways typical a subregion. significance The of suchsubregions and their claims separate to consideration rather sight during were lost of the movement linguistic for states. subregionalism theaccompanyBut and ingpolitical subcultures nowincreasingly fortheattention are calling of political scientists as phenomena toprove mounting likely of importance in Indiaandprobably tobe explained thesame not in terms regionalism. as Historical economic and factors produce subregional problems enand courage growth compelling the of political subcultures notonly which do not correspond conflict thelarger but with unities language, of culture, and caste representedthelinguistic Insofar subregionalism by state. as is the result economic of imbalances between historically defined subregions, it may considered be a by-product ofmodernization. which of of districts corPradesh today a state twenty is The Andhra and responds accurately area which fairly tothe in Telugu language culture to was The are dominant. total population according the i96i census well-defined 35,983,447. state divided The is intothree subregions: the For and calledthe Circars, Delta,sometimes Rayalaseema, Telangana. are as the administrative most purposes Delta and Rayalaseema treated and and is one.The Delta,well-irrigated fertile, themostprosperous is a of three infertile subject wealthy the subregions; Rayalaseema dry, area, Telwhich The to frequent and droughts famine. ninedistricts comprise are backward angana relatively economically.4 In terms caste there nofundamental the of are differences between three tend havea horizontal to subregions-the castes same spread throughout the state. Kammas Reddis the dominant are two and agricultural alcastes, the sometimes are in though Kammas concentratedtheDelta districts, known Kamma as are while centred Rayin Rashtra, theReddis heavily and is In also alaseema. Telangana theReddis predominant, there a are for Reddi conflictsdisregard to tendency traditional caste andfactional ties the boundaries. two subregional The significant untouchable ofMalas castes are andMadigas similarly the and spread throughout region, most Chris8J. Stalin,Marxismand the National and Colonial Question(London: MartinLawrence, n.d.), p. 8. 4Adilabad, Nizamabad,Medak, Mabhubnagar, Nalgonda,Khammam,WaranHyderabad, gal, Karimnagar.

6

in SubregionalismIndia: The CaseofTelangana
TABLE I: TELANGANA COMPARED WITH THE REST OF ANDHRA PRADESH: POPULATION

Population (Lakhs) Density (persq. mile)
Telangana

and Rayalaseema Delta

232.71 I27, I2

286

376

Andhra SOURCE: Handbook Statistics: Bureau of Pradesh, 1966-7 (Hyderabad: of Government Andhra ofEconomics Statistics, and Pradesh, i967). tians in Andhra Pradesh are drawn fromthese two castes.Muslims and North Indian Marwaris,the tradingand moneylending are communities, morenumerous the townsof Telangana, and indeed throughout old the in in HyderabadState,thanelsewhere AndhraPradesh.The Telangana village may be more backwardand traditional than the villagesin the Delta,5the castesystem less modified modernizing by influences, landlessagriculand tural labour-very open to Communistinfluence-more numerousin the Delta than in Telangana. But it remainstruethatit is not possibleto distinguish Telangana sharply fromthe restof Andhra Pradesh in termsof caste.The principalcastesin the threesubregions the same, although are thereare certainly interesting minor differences caste configuration in betweenTelangana,Rayalaseema, theDelta.6 and If subregional distinctiveness cannotoften tracedto caste,cultural, be or it of linguistic factors, is clear thata history divisiongoes farto createsubregionalfeelings withina broad culturalregion.Andhra has a long history of unity,but in the middle of the eighteenth it century was brokenup. Most of it came underBritish rule,but Telangana remainedunder Indian rule as partof the territories theNizam of Hyderabad.Telangana thereof fore a separate has political history sometwocenturies. of The four coastal districts, known as the NorthernCircars,developed rapidlyunder Britishadministration and benefited fromthe particularly works which harnessedthe Krishna and Godavari large-scale irrigation rivers agriculture. for The Circarsbecame the most prosperous partof the and the rice-bowl Andhra enjoyingthe benefits a of Telugu country of stable and enlightened administration and developingnot only economically but sociallyand politically a far faster at rate than the Nizam's Dominions.Thus we may agree with the statement a Communistparty in publication: It is an undeniable ofhistory itwastheCircar fact that districts, theonceunited from to Vizag district Nellore, especially four the deltadistricts Guntur, of Krishna, West
5 Good studiesof ruralTelangana are S. C. Dube, Indian Village (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, I955); and P. Y. Luke and John Carmen,VillageChristians Hindu Culture B. and (London: Lutterworth Press,i968). 6 See the unsignedarticle, "Telangana and Caste," in the Economicand PoliticalWeekly (EPW), March8, i969, pp. 455-6.

7

Pacific Aflairs
and East Godavaries, whichhad been thehub of socialand political activities. Whether non-brahmin it was the so-called movement the early twentieth in century, the or languagerenaissance movement grandhic of blashaversus gramya bhasha, themoveor ment of a separate Andhra province for Visalandhra, the successive or or national movements the 1920S, 30s, or 40s, or the progressive of student, youth, and women's or movement in the spreading the socialist of and communist movement-it from is thisregionthatthe major contingents came forth....7

in perousdistrict Telangana. But local peasantsseemedlackingin initiative, were reaped by immigrant and many of the profits farmersfrom the has Thus Telangana backwardness essentially Circars.9 politicalroots:with the betteradministration considerablewater resourcescould have been more fullytapped for irrigation. Telangana is stillmainlya dry farming but the reasonfor this in Telangana is long-term area, like Rayalaseema, of failure harness potentialities the area. The rule of the Nizams was the to and the official autocratic language, both in politicsand education,was Urdu. The people of Telangana were effectively insulated fromthe Telugu renaissance and both theirlanguage and theirculturecame under strong Islamic and Urdu influences. Popular participation politicswas actively in and the Indian National Congresswas cautiousabout extenddiscouraged, to ing the nationalstruggle the princely states. was not until I938 thata It HyderabadState Congresswas formed, to be banned shortly only afterby the Nizam, and not until i95i was the HyderabadCongressmergedwith the Indian National Congress. Withinthe HyderabadCongresstherewere threeProvincialCongressCommittees, foreach of the threelinguistic one areas of Karnatak, Marathwada,and Telangana. Thus, along with an
7 Why the Ultra-'Left' Deviation?An Examination the Basic Causes of Left Defections of in Special Reference Andhra (Calcutta: Communist to partyof India (Marxist), i968), pp.

constructed a major scheme the century Nizam's government irrigation Nizamabad most on Nizamsagar thereby the based the dam, making pros-

In cultivation."8theearly of to ryot attempt intensive any years thepresent

of were in the districtsRayalaseema alsoincorporated Madras The ceded was in and but Presidency, nature lessamenable Rayalaseema in economic backwardcomparedthe as to Circar coast. terms area the remained was from of For twohundred Telangana separate therest the years in backward maintaineda rather feudal condition the Telugu country, by The of seems Nizams the of Asaf dynasty. jagirdar Jahi system landholding in to havestood thewayofagricultural endowed development: "Though the soil with fairly rainfall good averaging inches 35.2 annually, poor and seem to the a rugged decountry topresenthandicap intensive agricultural theagrarian conditions theJagirdar under in velopment. Besides, system to olden didnotseem haveprovided incentivesthe to the days adequate

20-I.

8

i969.

CensusofIndia,1961. Vol. II. Andhra Pradesh. PartI-A(i) General Report, 20. p. 9 "Unitedby History, DividedbyPassion,"unsigned in article Citizen, Vol. I, No. 9, July I2,

8

in SubregionalismIndia: The CaseofTelangana
backwardness vis-a-vis restof the the and awareness economic political of of based a developed feeling distinctiveness on Telangana Telugucountry, cultural experiences."' and,to someextent, different political werelatein becoming politically The peopleof Telangana mobilized, in for wereinvolved themovement the nor and neither masses theelite the led This had been initially by Telugu setting of AndhraPradesh. up of in by Brahmins wereannoyed thepredominance Tamil Brahmins who of and systems theexisting theadministration in thelegaland educational in had ThesesameBrahmins controlled Congress the MadrasPresidency. in its PCC from inception I9I7. Non. Andhra and districts, theAndhra as in was as Brahmin feeling never strong theTelugucountry in Tamilnad, challenged therising by was Brahmin dominance gradually butnevertheless the castes, particularly Kammas and Reddis,who tended non-Brahmin finding the party and theAndhraMovement, initially support Justice to the up themselves loggerheads eachother only after setting ofAndwith at of rivalry a feature Telangana was in Reddi-Brahmin hra Pradesh 1953.11 None arena.12 rather a political than as well, itwas expressed a social in but to or the seemed attract involve peopleofTelangana any to ofthese events They them politically. madeto mobilize great extent, was anyattempt nor bepresumably affected theTelugu renaissance, by wereonlymarginally by Telugu was despised the Urduizedand unliterary causetheir rather was slowto involve as Congress, we haveseen, very people theCircars.'3 of struggle; hereagain the in states thenational thepeopleof theprincely The moveas actedmainly spectators. non-Brahmin peopleof Hyderabad mentdid not spreadto Telanganaor politicize peoplebecausethe the beNizam as they under Muslim a beenas dominant Brahmins never had political India.Nor didthehorizontal parts camein neighbouring ofBritish of linguistic politics, which beenso characteristic has mobilization caste, of up and Reddis kept marriage other frontier. Telangana cross Hyderabad the and fellows theCircars Rayalaseema, in with caste traditional contacts their
10Anand Rao Thotha (ed.), The TelanganaMovement: An Investigative Focus. Based on Papers Presented the Telangana University at and College Teachers' Convention May 20, on i969, at Hyderabad.(Hyderabad: publishedby the editor,i969, pp. 9-i0.) 11Selig S. Harrison, India: The Most DangerousDecades (Madras: Oxford University Press, i960); pp. 2II-3; Eugene F. Irschick, Politics and Social Conflict SouthIndia (Berkeley in and Los Angeles:University California of Press,i969), pp. 38-4I, I76-7, 244-51; Lloyd I. Rudolph and SusanneH. Rudolph,The Modernity Tradition(Chicago: University ChicagoPress, of of i967), pp. 78-9; G. N. Sarma, "Aspectsof Andhra Politics" in Iqbal Narain (ed.), State Politics India (Meerut:Meenakshi in Prakashan, n.d.), pp. 99-i00; N. M. Srinivas, cit.,pp. op. 26-8. 12 Krishna P. Mukerjiand SuhariniRamaswamy, Reorganization Indian States(Bombay: of Popular BookDepot, 1955), p. 88. 13 "There is much anthropological wisdomin the Shavian remark about two countries being dividedby a common language."Srinivas, cit.,p. 99. Cf. Thotha,op. cit.,p. 9; Mukerji op. and Ramaswamy, cit.,p. 83; and Sarma,op. cit.,p. 98. op.

9

Affairs Pacific ac. as as were a backwaterfar caste in political Reddis buttheTelangana Pradesh ofTelangana Andhra with until integration tion concerned the was Andhra in politics theReddi-dominated of involved them thefactional a or faction pressure did they notform separate Congress. then, Even of reasons oneor other thealready to but for group gravitated various C. as Professor vonFiirer-Haimendorf Nevertheless, existing groupings. districts thedismemof of out, inclusion theTelangana haspointed "the tilted Pradesh definitely has Andhra State bered Hyderabad in thegreater districts farstronger are who of thescales favour theReddis, in those in the than Kammas."'14 first unit set The Communists up their illegal in theTelugu-speaking most of at the five only part Hyderabad in I940, andfor least first years of The in were the leaders Telangana from Deltadistricts.'5 theCommunist themselves in favour a linguistic in which state of Communists proclaimed control the of be and would united sooncaptured all theTeluguareas and more became front which a organization adopted Mahasabha, Andhra in to objective and policies addition itsoriginal radical agrarian economic dissatisfaction the with oppresofa united on Capitalizing peasant Andhra. adand of sive rule theNizamandtheexactions thelandlords, taking of of atthe government time the ofthe vantage the of vacillations Hyderabad the an upspearheaded agrarian of in transferpower India, Communists districts Nalgonda of and border mainly theTelangana in rising centred The lasted extent Madras. revolt into but tosome from Warangal stretching section the of leadership in supressed i950. A large I945 until wasfinally it to accordinga Communist wasstill drawn the from Deltaandatonetime, of had and "a party document, total 3,000villages beenSovietized, one guerrilla Regular acres landhadbeenseized thepeasants. of by million an provided estimated and squads 2,000 squads numbered members village and sisted these Communist it guerrillas, indeed tooka considerable by the In say alfor Indian forces quell revolt. general may that to one time the Telangana, a united Andhra including the supported though Communists remarkable in Telangana be attributed tothis to must but their success not in party localandparticular the problems thearea.Although Communist base area, social ofthe the Telugu wasformally a united for whole one the
14C. von Firer-Haimendorf, "Caste and Politicsin South Asia," in C. H. Philips (ed.), and Society India (London: GeorgeAllen and Unwin,i963), p. 62. It is notablethat in Politics a few Kamma groupsin the Circarsat present support separate a Telangana,presumably a as of way of reducing political the dominance the Reddisin Andhrapolitics. Nor is it an accident that the Swatantra party,led in AndhraPradeshby N. G. Range, a Kamma, also supports separation. 15 Whythe Ultra-'Left' Deviation?pp. 25, 29; Gene D. Overstreet Marshall and Windmiller, of in Communism India (Berkeleyand Los Angeles: University California Press, i960), pp. 266-7,286, 292, 439. 16 Overstreet op. and Windmiller, cit., p. 300.
I0

of io,ooomore."16 The government India's "police action"of I948 was re-

in Subregionalism India: The Case of Telangana as party rather and was differentTelangana theDelta.In thelatter, Selig in on S. Harrison shown, party has the relied Kamma heavily theprosperous movement the of in an landlords; Telanganait was largely anti-landlord landagrarian masses. few The fact that relatively ofthelarger Telangana in lords wereKammas to mayhavehelped avoidan opensplit theAndhra to party, which theDeltawas willing co-operate landlords some in with to andlasting topoliticize masses. the presence Telangana permanently in or as After police the remained a separate action Hyderabad political entity, the and indeedthere was a certain amount publicfeeling of against diof in vision thestate a linguistic on basis:on June I952, a motion the i6, of the Hyderabad for was Legislative Assembly thedismemberment state defeated 79 votesto 63.18Awareof their the by backwardness, mulkist9 feared exploitationthehands their at in of fellows Andhra. Telangana played no partin theagitation whichresulted thesetting of the stateof in up AndhraPradeshin I953, composed the Telugu districts in of formerly Madras. The national withthe leadership theCongress of seemed flirt to idea thatHyderabad might retained a multilingual be as a state, kindof bastion against linguistic feelings. addition, was suggested the In it that Urdu tradition Hyderabad in madeit an ideal centre from whichHindi couldbe propagated throughout South. largesection theMuslims the A of and many professional peopleand bureaucrats against were disintegration, whileall thepolitical parties wereat leastformally committed breaking to up thestate among surrounding the linguistic states. Mostofthedispute was concerned thequestion whether with of disintegration be immediate should or delayed.20 This was thesituation Hyderabad which States in to the Reorganization Commission addressed itself. Only Hyderabad, Mysore, Jammu and and Kashmir the among former princely states retained their separate identities, "theinternal although structure theseStatesas also their of relationship the with Centre werecastintoa newmouldso as to fit them intotheconstructure India."21 Commission facedwitha strong stitutional of The was and organized demand,partly fromAndhrabut echoedin powerful sections the Telanganacommunity, immediate of for absorption the of regioninto AndhraPradesh. rejected argument It the thatHyderabad should retained be undivided "a realcultural as synthesis an interminand of gling Indian which people" "should . . be preserved a model other . as for to The regions imitate." backwardness Telangana, of and theother parts
Von Fiirer-Haimendorf, cit.,p. 6o. op. op. Thotha,op. cit.,p. II; Mukerji and Ramaswamy, cit.,p. 85. 19Inhabitants Hyderabad of State. 20Mukerjiand Ramaswamy, cit.,pp. 82-8. op. 21Report of the StatesReorganization Commission (Delhi: Government India, 1955), of P. 5.
17 18 TI

a extentat least.17The Communists to faileddramatically establish strong

Pacific Affairs could ofHyderabad, only solved these be if areas were attached "more to units." theCommission impressed twofactors: advanced But was while by inTelangana sentiment to of appeared beinfavour splitting the up HyderabadState, was there as yetno consensus thequestion on whether Telangana should remain or into separate be incorporated Andhra Pradesh and,secondly, certain in there weredeepfears immediate that quarters integration notbe to theadvantage Telangana, would of it making virtually colony Andhra. Commission a of The concluded "the that unification of Telangana withAndhra, though should basedon a be desirable, and voluntary willing associationthe of people that is primarily and it for the people Telangana take decision their of to a about future." recomTheir mendation that Telangana should constituted a sepawas the area be into rate state "with provision itsunification Andhra the for with after general elections tobe held orabout likely in i96i, ifbya two-thirds the majority of legislaturetheresiduary Hyderabad expresses in favour State itself of such unification." period five sixyears This of or could utilized bring be to theadministration twostates tuneand to allowopinion of the into in Telangana crystallize.22 to These recommendations SRC were aside, ofthe set as of largely a result pressure thenational from Congress leadership, Mr. particularly Nehru, andfrom Andhra the districts. on Safeguards which merger tobe the was based were incorporated "Gentlemen's in the Agreement" in Delhi signed on February i956, by representatives 20, of Telangana Andhra.28 and Guarantees provided Telangana utilization were for for within areaof the the Telangana revenues, provision improved of educational facilities, recruitmentthestate to public services, position theUrdulanguage, the of andthesaleofagricultural to outsiders.wasalsodecided conland It to stitute regional a council with watching on theinterests Tela brief of angana. legal The status this of Agreement clear-probably no is not it is more thana statement goodintentions-but of it went to alleviate far Telangana's fears absorption, on thisbasistheunited of and Stateof Andhra Pradesh into came existence Novemberi956, thereby on I, uniting allthe Telugu inone areas linguistic state. The all-round backwardness ofTelangana compared theDelta as with districts been major had a element theSRC'scaution recommending in in a period which in Telangana would a separate The integration be state. of into Telangana Andhra aroused some immediate problems, gradually and public in opinion Telangana became convinced their that subregional in22
23

Ibid., pp.

101-9.

B. Gopala Reddi, N. Sanjeeva Reddi, G. Lathhanna,and Alluri Satyanarayana Raju signedforAndhra;B. Ramakrishaa Rao, K. V. Ranga Reddi,Dr. M. ChennaReddi and J. V. NarasingRao for Telangana. The textof the Agreement may be foundin Thotha,op. cit., Appendix I.
I2

Subregionalism India: The Case of Telangana in terests werenot beingadequately caredforin the new state. Immediate problems in connection theintegrationtheservices. general, of arose with In in administrators levels Andhra beenbetter had andlesswell at all qualified paid thantheir in The new arrangements equivalents Hyderabad. meant thatTelanganaadministrators put on lowersalary were scalesthanpreviously, their prospects promotion of wereimpaired, a largeproporand tionofthemoreimportant positions Telangana in werefilled outsiders by The of claimed thatthebackwardness edu.-."non-mulkis."24 government cationin Telanganamade the filling postswithwell-qualified of noninevitable, whensteps and weretakento expandeducation was it mulkis also inevitable a largenumber non-mulki that of had teachers to be imported thefirst in instance. discontent thesituation But became rife over so thatin 1959 the central government it necessary promulgate felt to the Andhra Pradesh PublicEmployment (Requirement to Residence) as Rules, providing fifteen that yearscontinuous residence would be required for appointment government The Rules,however, to jobs. provided loopholes, and false"mulki certificates" not hardto obtain. were Non-mulkis continued flood to intogovernment service Telangana, mulki in and teachers and non-gazetted officers particular in becameincreasingly restive.25 This discontent a major was factor sparking thei969 agitation. in off In July i968, theAndhra Pradesh government passedorders had that all non-mulkis postsreserved Telangana in for personnel should revert to theCircars Rayalaseema, necessary supernumeraries, three and if as within months, thiswas reaffirmed-revealingly-six later theAlland months in party Accord January i969.26The immediate of result that Public was the ig, Employment werechallenged thecourts, at theendofMarch Rules in and theSupreme Courtdeclared them discriminatory contrary theConand to stitution.27 judgement This spread consternation among Telangana government servants, theWanchoo and Commission, up in Aprilto find set some
24A list of grievances thisconnection to be foundin an anonymous in is pamphlet, Inside Telangana (Hyderabad:Telangana Mahasabha,I958). It is important note that since the to early 1930s the Nizam's government had required"mulki certificates" from applicantsfor government jobs. This was a concession popular feelingagainstthe policy of importing to Muslims fromother statesto fill government positionsin Hyderabad.See Sreedhar,"The of Story Telangana," Vol. Mainstream, VII, No. 44 (July 1969), pp. 8-9. 5, 25 "On the number non-mulkis of in employed Telangana thereare divergent views.Government circles estimate to be nearly it to 5,000. But according thefigures collected theTelanby gana N.G.O.'s Union the figure nearlyIo,ooo. .. . The TelanganaN.G.O.'s Union has alis readypublished list of I,ooo employees a who are alleged to possessbogus mulkicertificates." Thotha,Op. Cit., 47. p. 26 J. V. NarasingRao, SeparateTelangana: A Suicidal Slogan (Hyderabad:Department of Information Publicity, and of Government Andhra Pradesh, i969), p. 2. 27 In A. V. S. Narasimha Rao & Others The Stateof AndhraPradesh& Others. vs. Since thejudgement based on Article is i6(3) of the Constitution, thisis not open to amendment and in view of the SupremeCourt'sdecisionin the Golak Nath case, the only legal safeguards possiblefor mulkisin government employment would be withina separatestate or union territory. Hindu, July i969. 7,

I3

Pacific Afairs that solution could suggest local constitutional tothe governproblem, only should in ment appointments be made theheadofeachoffice thedis by and tricts.28 Non-gazetted officers, therefore, felt still insecure spearheaded much the of agitation. and must Theinvolvement ofstudents teachers theagitation be seen in and against backdrop the the of educational backwardness ofTelangana the exfeeling the that educational system theareahasnotbeen of adequately and since The panded encouraged 1956. legacy the of Nizam's government of and wasa lowlevel literacy, comparatively educational poor facilities, the of tradition Urduas themedium instruction.29 17.3percent of Today of the populationTelangana literate against percent the of of is as 30.8 in rest Primary education expanded, the has but enrolment improved has Andhra.!0
TABLE 2: PRIMARY EDUCATION

No.of % increase No.of pupils % schools ofstate% increase % i966-7 ofstate from I966-7 total over I956-7 (lakhs) total I956-7
Telangana

Rayalaseema and Delta 26,388
io,807

70.9
29.1

40.6

23.8

24.88
6.29

79.8
20.2

24.7
25.8

Patrika Press, n.d.) p.g.

SOURCE: Some Facts about Telangana and AndhraPradesh(Madras: Andhra

the of with as only marginallycompared therest Andhra. Furthermore, number ledto a large has of of rapid increase thenumber institutions in in. teachers brought being non-mulki there felt end At theother oftheeducational spectrum arealsodeeply in has in grievances. Osmania The UniversityHyderabad increased size has but andin thenumber itsaffiliated of colleges, thestate government taken and it stepsto control veryclosely has beenvindictively parin An simoniousitsfinancial assistancethe to university.amendment tothe to Osmania Act or University in i965 gavethesoleright nominate retightenedgovernment invarious ways. up control other Almost immediately theGovernor removed D. S. Reddi Dr. from vice-chancellorship. the Dr.
28 Rao, op. cit. See also "Improving the Crutches," EPW Nov. I, i969, pp. 1737-8; M. to Pattabhiram, "Recruitment Servicesin Telangana,"Hindu, Sept. Io, 1969. 29 The mother tonguewas introduced the mediumof education primary as in schoolsonly in 1944. 80Handbook of Statistics, Andhra Pradesh. i966-7. It should be noted that Telangana area of the twincitiesof Hyderabad literacy figures includethe highliteracy and Secunderabad. The ruralliteracy may therefore about 13 per cent. rate be

movea vice-chancellorthegovernor to and (who is ex officio chancellor)

14

in SubregionalismIndia: The CaseofTelangana in as vice-chancellor and Reddi a non-mulki, hisoriginal was appointment with But he years hadcome agitation. inten I957 hadbeen greeted student institution freedom outside from a demanding to symbolize Telangana his was Before appeal against removal upheld interference.3' Dr. Reddi's and of university risen had in Court, staff studentsthe the bythe Supreme was when governand strengthened the solidarity merely hissupport, their in crisis landed universitya financial in the vindictive ment's parsimony and full developcould be which teachers not paidtheir salaries important and in and were halted.32 Students teachers theuniversity colleges ments that government of united the in ofTelangana i969 were by conviction the and them. The to Pradesh determinedvictimize humiliate was Andhra to gave himself newVice-Chancellor (Dr. R. Satyanarayana) hisblessings the agitation. factor to was migrationfarmers of from A further leading discontent the land where bought cheaply, it, the developed and they DeltatoTelangana, is The of from prospered. flow population theDeltato Telangana quite cities Hyder' of around twin the The new significant23important vineyards owned nonare by abadandSecunderabad, instance, almost entirely for partly therelby farmers attractedTelangana were to Immigrant mulkis. are ative wage and fact agricultural rates cheapnessland, alsobythe that of that It markedly in Telangana. hasbeensuggested a contributory lower that of connection thefact many theimmiwas cause the of unrest this in were be within who grants Kammas, couldnoteasily accommodated a in migration change and But Reddi-dominated hierarchy. large-scale caste what landownership this involve tensions matter no sort major social of by complicatedthe was theimmigrant Andthesituation certainly group. for by fact theTelangana landlords, oppressed centuries theNizams, that Muslim andharassed Action fanatical by the of around time thePolice into they guerrillas, felt atlast hadcome had that Razakars Communist and government-only todiscover a Congress their under Reddi-dominated own that lands reaped profits being their being bought unexpected and were from bymore them ofthe enterprising outsiders. resentment Telangana The on own ground landed competitiontheir home gentry against non-mulki hasmade movement. them sympathetic separatist tothe very from trade Non-mulkis theDeltahavealsoentered andmoneylending andhave as life cities, become influential business ofthetwin very in the not rural areas. This has poseda challenge onlyto wellas in various businessmen alsotothe but and communities Marwari Gujarati Telangana
31 See Robert C. Shaw, "StudentPoliticsand Student in Leadership an Indian University: The Case of Osmania,"in PhilipG. Altbach(ed.), Turmoiland Transition: HigherEducation in Politics India (Bombay:Lalvani,I968), pp. 177-8o. and Student 32 Weekend Vol. II, No. i8 (April i6, I968), pp. i8-I9. Review, 88 See Censusof India, 1961, citednote8 above,pp. 432-8.

I5

Pacificflairs commerce business Hyderabad It is used and in State. which to dominate and leaders non-Telugus, there are notable several that prominent separatist financed with aremany reports theseparatist that was agitation liberally itis quite clear an that be Marwari While cannot substantiated, this money. agitation long so and must had drawn-out so well-organized have consider-

Atleast section the a of Telangana Muslims supported agitation, also the their numbers higher and status the Hyderin old because greater probably less would and abaddistricts ensure greater security, perhaps competition, for them a separate in Telangana. of has a It is true theleadershiptheagitation includednumber that of but to as unsuccessful political observers leaders, it is naive suggest, some have, theagitation be attributed to theactivitiesa small can of that solely clique disappointed frustrated Personal of and men. ambitions have may their and is played an abroad Telthat part, there certainly impression leaders notreceived dueshare political their angana have of and power influence theunited in Andhra Pradesh. against it must But this alsobe remembered mulki that leaders far experiencedemocratic have less of politics their than colleagues the ofthe from rest state. seem many They in cases tohave in defending interestsTelangana somebeen ineffective the of and times tried advance owncareers Andhra have to their in politics without sufficient attentionthegrievances thesubregion which paying to of from they come. an There then, imbalance political in as between is, development Telbut economic angana the ofthe and rest state, the imbalance the and feeling that little been has done set right, the to it too is primary background tothe agitation. Irrigation of course, keyto agricultural the is, prosperity and, as we haveseen, the goesfarto explain economic progress thecoastal of areas. number major A the of schemes, notably Pochampad Nagarjuna and have Sagar projects, been inhand, there a feeling put is but among educated that has people Telangana notderived fair a share thebenefits these of of schemes. 3 shows large proportion benefitsgovernment Table how a ofthe of has to other ofthe state. irrigation gone the parts hasproceeded Telangana, hasbeen in Industrialization but highly cons the cities hasscarcely and centrated around twin touched much therest of has ofthearea. advanced Telangana certainly since economically integra.' the is the has tion; question whether area advanced enough bring fast to it into competitive a with of position therest Andhra whether deand the and rest velopment between gap Telangana the ofthe state narrowing is or The of growing wider. advocates a separate Andhra argue thegapis that
interests Hyderabad, in contributed largeamounts the agitation. to
34 See Elkay, "Telangana Another Aspect,"Frontier (Calcutta) Vol. II, No. ii (June2I, i969) pp. io-ii. There have been rumours thatthe Birla family, whichhas extensive business

ablefinancial backing.84

i6

SubregionalismIndia: The CaseofTelangana in
TABLE

3:

AREA IRRIGATED BY SOURCES OF IRRIGATION (Lakh

hectares)

% ofA.P. Andhra and % ofA.P. Circars Rayalaseema total Telangana total Pradesh
canals Private Tanks Wells
Othersources Total canals Government
IO.7 0. I 3.0 o.8
2I.5

88.4
50 .0

I.4
.

6.9

I

ii.6
50.0 42.0

I2. I
0.2 II.9

58.o
72.7

66.7
72. I

5.0
I-5 0.3

33.3
27.3 27.9

4.5
I.I

8.3

29.8

Andhra Source: Handbook Statistics: of Pradesh, 1966-7. of and theysuggestthatthe development the otherareas is diwidening, at rectly the expenseof Telangana because it has revenuesurpluses which, they argue, are being utilized outside.The Gentlemen'sAgreementhad should be dividedbetween stipulated thatgeneralgovernment expenditure of Andhra and Telangana in a proportion two to one. The so-called"Telb rethe angana Surpluses"represent surplusof revenueover expenditure fromthe high yield sulting partly fromthe higherland revenueand partly These surpluses fromexcisein an area whichhas not enforced prohibition. of on wereto be spentexclusively the development theTelangana area. The betweenwhat ought to have calculationof thesesurpluses, difference the been spentand what actually was spenton Telangana,is verymuch in dispute. What is agreedis thatthe annual Telangana Surplusis a verylarge a sum, and that since integration considerable amount of this moneyhas been spentoutsideTelangana. Two commissions were set up in i969, one by thestategovernment the otherby the Centre, determine Teland to the angana Surpluses,and the government Andhra Pradesh and the Telof angana Regional Committee disagreeon how these should be calculated. We are not hereconcerned withthe detailsof thiscontroversy; is enough it to notethatall are agreedthatTelangana has been unfairly treated. Indeed, it would be trueto say thatTelangana has been cheatedof severalcrores of rupeeseach year.35 Such a positionadds forceto the separatists' contention that Telangana would have progressed fasterin isolationfrom Andhra Pradesh.Imbalancein economicdevelopment surelythe greatest is single cause for the i969 troubles. And the fact that development markedly has sloweddown in thelastthree yearsas a result theso-called of "plan holiday" adds fuelto theflames.36 The agitation proper began as a students' strike Hyderabadat theend in of December i968 but rapidlyspread to the otherTelangana towns and
35 On this complexquestionsee C. H. Hanumantha Rao, "Budgetary Surpluses Telanof gana," EPW, Oct. i8, i969, pp. i665-76; T. V. S. Chelapathi Rao, Are TelanganaSurpluses Correctly Computed? (Vijayawada,n.d.). A croreis tenmillionrupees. 36"Andhra:Will It Remain?"EPW, Feb. i5, i969, p. 345.

I7

Pacific Aflairs finally most thedistricts.87 districts, to of A few Khammam and notably Adilabad, remained a relatively unaffected. students The shared common belief Telangana not that had been getting deal, tobegin they a fair but with weredivided the between separatists moremoderate and elements. As happens often, agitation so the quickly spread theurban to mob, at and least certain incidents to havebeencalculated-with successseem some to terrify immigrant to Andhras returning theDelta.38 into Morethan 5000 some people, including 2000 students, arrested nearly and were 40 were killed police in in firings thefirst waveofagitation. army The was called the in; university, the colleges, schools closed and were indefinitely. Atthe ofFebruary a students' end convention inaugurated was in i969, Hyderabad Dr. R. Satyanarayana, to become by soon vice-chancellor of The Osmania that University. convention demonstratedvirtually the clearly whole academic community sympathetic agitation, that was tothe and the students powerful had and political financial The backing. initiative was nowclearly taken theseparatist whosetup a broader by group, organization, Telangana Samithi,press demands. the the Praja to their With appointof ment Chenna Reddi chairmanthe as of Samithi, agitation a new the took

Andhra cabinetresigned, althoughmost of them were integrationists and argued that it would be easier for them to combat separatist demands if theywere freefromthe responsibilities office.4' of Apart fromeconomic measuresand strict adherence the termsof the Gentlemen's to Agreement, the Telangana moderates demandedthe resignation the Chief Minister, of BrahmanandaReddi, and the imposition President's of Rule.42Reddi submittedhis resignation the CongressHigh Command but immediately to secureda vote of confidence fromthe legislature Congresspartyon July 6, I969.43 The resignation leftin suspense, was and thePrimeMinister, Mrs. Gandhi, flewto Hyderabad to investigate situation. the On her returnto
87 "Uncertainty Telangana," Citizen, in May 24, i969, p. 23. The spark that set offthe agitation appearedto have been a veryminorconflict betweena non-mulki landlordand his The landlordis said to have brought rowdiesfromthe Delta to intimidate in mulkilabourers. and was well publicized. his workers, the incident 38 See D. Sanjivayya's statement: am pained and distressed learnthatAndhraresidents "I to have started leaving the twin citiesout of fear and feelingthereis no security them." for Hindu,June25, i969. 39 Elkay, op cit. Dr. Clenna Reddi, formerly Union minister, a had been disqualified by Courtin i968 from theSupreme office six years. for holdinganyelective 40 "The TelanganaImbroglio," Citizen, April12, i969, pp. 26-7. 41Hindu, July i969. 3, 42Hindu, June23, i969. 43Hindu, July i969. 7,

Weekafter the week agitation on. dragged The extremists the gained of opensupport K. V. RangaReddi, former minister of deputy-chief Andhra and leaders.40 theTelangana All Pradesh, other ministers the in

turn.39 violent

i8

Subregionalism India: The Case of Telangana in New Delhi sheproduced eight-point an to the program dealwith problems of Telanganain the context a united of She recommended Andhra. the setting ofa committee determine Telangana up to the and Surpluses devise waysofmaking goodto Telangana that money had beenincorrectly spent outside subregion theestablishmenthigh-powered the and of development and plan implementation committees Telangana. for The ChiefMinister wouldconsider possibility further the of of delegation power Telangana to authorities possibilitiesreserving for and of jobs mulkis. Prime The Minister herself would keepa watch progress.44 on The Telanganaagitation gradually becameinvolved withthenational political crisis. The Centre was unwilling impose to President's in a Rule Congress state, Brahmananda and Reddi'sgradual as emergence a leading supporter the PrimeMinister of against party the bossesmade his continuance chief as minister inevitable. Prompt steps weretaken implement to at leastsomeof thePrimeMinister's proposals.45 Augusttheagitation In beganto weaken, partly because funds wererunning partly out, because students NGOs werelosingconfidence the separatist and in leadership, partly because gathering the storm theCentre at distracted attention the of many leaders from subregional issues.46 October had virtually By it petered out,leavingthe TelanganaSamithi leadership discredited no final and resolution theunderlying of problem. With the sole,and not verysignificant, exception Swatantra, of no political party was willing openly support separate to a Telangana. Most Congress leaders Telanganain 1956 had beenin favour a separate in of state, withintegration TelanganaCongress infected but the was withthe factionalismtheReddi-dominated of Andhra Congress developed and some further factions its own. The TelanganaCongress of leaders, therefore, couldgiveno united lead,and muchof their energy diverted mawas to noeuvring within larger the organization. separate The Hyderabad PradeshCongress Committee beenabolished I957, and as a result had in allocation party of tickets offices no longer and was domestic Telangana. to The present agitation toa split led within Congress thesetting ofa rebel and up Telangana Congress Committee Konda LaxmanBapuji as president with on June i969. The rebelCongress i, enjoyed considerable support, including that many of Telangana MLAs. As in many casesduring struggle the
44Implementation the PrimeMinister's of Plan for Telangana (Hyderabad:Government of AndhraPradesh, I969). 45 For example,in JulyI969 a Telangana man, Mr. J. V. NarasingaRao, was appointed deputy-chief minister, and anotherfour state ministers fromTelangana joined the cabinet. Hindu, July and 24, i969. i9 46 "The Tide Turns in Telangana," Citizen,Vol. i, no. io (July 26, i969), p. 22, "Time for Peace in Telangana," Citizen,Vol. i, no. I2 (Aug. 23, i969), "DecliningDemand for Reddy to Go," Citizen,Vol. i, no. 15 (Oct. ii, i969); "Separatists' New Hope," EPW, Nov. 22, i969, pp. i804-5, "Openingin Telangana",EPW, Sept. 23, 1969, "Is Telangana Over,EPW,Oct. 25, i969. p. i697.
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Affairs Pacific of in not found could holdtogether face it states, linguistic Congress for policy national with declared which loyalties conflicted the separatist strong beagainst separation came Congress outfirmly The party. national ofthe had and Minister theSyndicate come the between Prime the fore conflict and Congress Telangana both Thereafter therebel into clearly theopen. up were Congress caught bythe the within Andhra factions thevarious side the by their ofadvancing interestsbacking winning inthe possibilities central struggle. strong party of wings theCommunist arenotnowvery The twomain Telseats and CPI in Telangana-the (M) hasfour theCPI (R) five from The Assembly. Legislative Pradesh in the constituencies Andhra angana subto by hampered a lackof theory explain are Communists clearly with contrasts this in ineptness handling situation and regionalism, their had states for ofthe manipulation movements linguistic which theshrewd to states-and their of in strengthmany thelinguistic to their contributed in feeling TelThere in weakness theHindiheartland.47 was a general to regard thedistinctive scant had that Communists shown the angana rethinkthem do some to forced the of problems theareauntil agitation of bifurcation opposed have of Both ing.48 branches theparty consistently imbalance, one as the and thestate treat problem purely of subregional and of movementlandlords big as theagitation a reactionary interpreting party, toa distraction bifurcated both Indeed, businessmen.49 it is a serious when at a are Pradesh faction-ridden, time in of wings which Andhra peasant a revolutionary movement to re-establish are Naxalites attempting District.50 Nalgonda particularly in some of parts Telangana, in note that troubles Telangana one of Byway conclusion, may first the of parts in many of ofa to seem be symptomatic newforce subregionalism could that agitation wellspark are observers aware this India.Competent and Marathwada, vari. Vidharba, inRayalaseema, movements off separatist by was of localism obscured The ousother places."' growth subregional and obvious challengstates for thestruggle linguistic anddidnotbecome fixed. boundaries and settled their states the inguntil newlinguistic became conand the sort conflict this cancutacross caste factional of Subregional and state ofIndian politics, to which been found be characteristic flicts have claiming hopefully are Marxists always which conflicts Indian class alsothe of indicationthe be yet Subregionalism therefore, another todiscover. may,
47 Harrison, cit.,pp. I8I, 220-6, 243-4. op. 48 Thotha,op. cit.,p. 17.

Approach (New Delhi: CPI, 49Raj Bahadur Gour, Telangana Tangle: The Communist 1969), p. 7. 50 "SweetSmellof Revolution," EPW,Dec. 7, 1968,pp. I866-7. 51RomeshThapar, "Lessons fromTelangana," EPW, June2I, 1969, pp. 991-2; B. V. and Anon, "Averting New TelanMaharashtra" Borkar,"Danger of Telangana in Prosperous Citizen,Vol. i, No. iS (Nov. 22, 1969), pp. I6-I9, 26-17. gana in BackwardRayalaseema," 20

Subregionalism India: The Case of Telangana in declining political influence caste.Variousscholars of have detected the beginning thebreakdown castepolitical of of and solidarity have attribW utedit to thesuccessful of a caste, rise in creating situation whichina dividual mobility becomes possible voters politicians and and cease gradually to take their political cues fromcastefactors.52 conflict Subregional can breakdown castepolitical solidarity a different and force in way state politics concern to itself so muchwithbalancing claimsof signot the nificant castegroups withbalancing claims various as the of areaswithin the state equality treatment, to of particularly ineconomic development. It is,therefore, probably correct viewthiskindofsubregional to conflict as one aspect thegrowing of painsof modernization. there are Certainly reactionary traditional and forces work,and disgruntled at politicians mayattempt capitalize thesituation, neverthelessrepresents to on but it a distinctively modern style politics of both itsaimsand objectives in in and thealignments groups forces of and which arouses. it Thiskindofagitation maybe supported ledbythose or wholongfor restorationthepast, a of but itsessential drive in thedirection a balanced is of and equitable modernization. The agitation its course ran overa period ninemonths immense of at costin humanlivesand damageto property. can well be argued It that theunderlying problems shouldhave beenidentified dealtwithfar and earlier, it is a real failure thepartof Telanganaleaders and on and the Telangana Regional Committee they notdrawattention that did forcefully enough thegathering to storm. The direct immediate and involvement of thecentral government thearbitrator an essentially as in intrastate dispute is notable, is thedelayed as policy response thepart thecentral on of government. theother On hand,theeventual petering of theagitation out may be attributed, partat least, thefactthatthenew measures in to proposed bytheCentre begun "bite," that had to and separatists being were isolated as their followers became gradually reconciled thepossibility a future to of for Telanganawithin AndhraPradesh. The tragedy Telangana thatso of is little doneto identify dealwiththelegitimate was or grievances thearea of forso manyyears. The consequence, mayhope,maybe a new senwe sitivity similar to situations developing other in states. Madras Christian College, December 1969
52 Rudolphand Rudolph,op. cit.,pp. 88-103; R. L. Hardgrave, The Nadars of Tamilnad (Berkeley and Los Angeles:University California of Press,1969).

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