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Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G)

Cold and Hot Forging
Fundamentals and Applications

Edited by
Taylan Altan, ERC/NSM, Ohio State University
Gracious Ngaile, North Carolina State University
Gangshu Shen, Ladish Company, Inc.

Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.
Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G)

Copyright 䉷 2004
ASM International威
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First printing, February 2005

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Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Technical Books Committee (2004–2005),
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Cold and hot forging : fundamentals and applications / edited by Taylan Altan, Gracious
Ngaile, Gangshu Shen.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN: 0-87170-805-1
1. Forging. I. Altan, Taylan. II. Ngaile, Gracious. III. Shen, Gangshu.
TS225.C63 2004
671.3⬘32—dc22 2004055439

SAN: 204-7586

ASM International威
Materials Park, OH 44073-0002

Printed in the United States of America

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.
Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G)


Preface .............................................................................................. viii

Chapter 1 Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing ........................... 1
1.1 Classification of Manufacturing Processes ....................................... 1
1.2 Characteristics of Manufacturing Processes ...................................... 2
1.3 Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing ...................................... 4

Chapter 2 Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions ....................... 7
2.1 Introduction ............................................................................... 7
2.2 Forging Operation as a System ...................................................... 7
2.3 Types of Forging Processes ........................................................... 9

Chapter 3 Plastic Deformation: Strain and Strain Rate ........................ 17
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 17
3.2 Stress Tensor ............................................................................ 17
3.3 Properties of the Stress Tensor ..................................................... 18
3.4 Plane Stress or Biaxial Stress Condition ........................................ 19
3.5 Local Deformations and the Velocity Field .................................... 20
3.6 Strains ..................................................................................... 20
3.7 Velocities and Strain Rates .......................................................... 21
3.8 Homogeneous Deformation ......................................................... 21
3.9 Plastic (True) Strain and Engineering Strain ................................... 23

Chapter 4 Flow Stress and Forgeability .............................................. 25
4.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 25
4.2 Tensile Test .............................................................................. 27
4.3 Compression Test ...................................................................... 29
4.4 Ring Test ................................................................................. 35
4.5 Torsion Test ............................................................................. 36
4.6 Representation of Flow Stress Data .............................................. 36

Appendices (CD-ROM only)
4.1 Determination of Flow Stress by Compression Test at Room
4.2 Determination of Flow Stress at High Temperature
4.3 Forgeability and Damage Factor in Cold Forging

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.
Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G)

iv / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

Chapter 5 Plastic Deformation: Complex State of Stress and
Flow Rules ....................................................................... 51
5.1 State of Stress ........................................................................... 51
5.2 Yield Criteria ............................................................................ 52
5.3 Flow Rules .............................................................................. 55
5.4 Power and Energy of Deformation ............................................... 56
5.5 Effective Strain and Effective Strain Rate ...................................... 57

Chapter 6 Temperatures and Heat Transfer ........................................ 59
6.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 59
6.2 Heat Generation and Heat Transfer in Metal Forming Processes ........ 59
6.3 Temperatures in Forging Operations ............................................. 60
6.4 Measurement of Temperatures at the Die/Material Interface .............. 60
6.5 Measurement of Interface Heat Transfer Coefficient ........................ 62
6.6 Influence of Press Speed and Contact Time on Heat Transfer ............ 64

Appendices (CD-ROM only)
6.1 Upset Forging of Cylinders

Chapter 7 Friction and Lubrication ................................................... 67
7.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 67
7.2 Lubrication Mechanisms in Metal Forming .................................... 68
7.3 Friction Laws and Their Validity in Forging ................................... 69
7.4 Parameters Influencing Friction and Lubrication ............................. 69
7.5 Characteristics of Lubricants Used ............................................... 70
7.6 Lubrication Systems for Cold Forging .......................................... 70
7.7 Lubrication Systems for Warm and Hot Forging ............................. 73
7.8 Methods for Evaluation of Lubricants ........................................... 74

Appendices (CD-ROM only)
7.1 Ring Compression Test
7.2 Double Cup Extrusion Test

Chapter 8 Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of
Flow Stress and Friction .................................................... 83
8.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 83
8.2 Inverse Analysis in Metal Forming ............................................... 83
8.3 Flow Stress Determination in Forging by Inverse Analysis ............... 85
8.4 Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress
and Friction .............................................................................. 86
8.5 Example of Inverse Analysis ....................................................... 86

Chapter 9 Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations ........................ 91
9.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 91
9.2 Slab Method of Analysis ............................................................ 93
9.3 Upper Bound Method and Its Application to Axisymmetric
Upsetting ................................................................................. 97
9.4 Finite Element Method in Metal Forming ...................................... 98

Chapter 10 Principles of Forging Machines .......................................107
10.1 Introduction ...........................................................................107
10.2 Interaction between Process Requirements and Forming
Machines ..............................................................................107

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.
Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G)

Contents / v

10.3 Load and Energy Requirements in Forming .................................108
10.4 Classification and Characteristics of Forming Machines .................110
10.5 Characteristic Data for Load and Energy .....................................111
10.6 Time-Dependent Characteristic Data ..........................................112
10.7 Characteristic Data for Accuracy ...............................................112

Chapter 11 Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging ...............115
11.1 Introduction ...........................................................................115
11.2 Hydraulic Presses ...................................................................115
11.3 Screw Presses ........................................................................131
11.4 Hammers ..............................................................................135

Chapter 12 Special Machines for Forging ..........................................141
12.1 Introduction ...........................................................................141
12.2 Transverse or Cross-Rolling Machines .......................................142
12.3 Electric Upsetters ...................................................................142
12.4 Ring-Rolling Mills ..................................................................143
12.5 Horizontal Forging Machines or Upsetters ..................................144
12.6 Rotary or Orbital Forging Machines ...........................................145
12.7 Radial Forging Machines .........................................................145

Chapter 13 Billet Separation and Shearing ........................................151
13.1 Introduction ...........................................................................151
13.2 Billet and Sheared Surface Quality ............................................151
13.3 Shearing Force, Work, and Power ..............................................154
13.4 Shearing Equipment ................................................................154

Chapter 14 Process Design in Impression Die Forging .........................159
14.1 Introduction ...........................................................................159
14.2 Forging Process Variables ........................................................160
14.3 Shape Complexity in Forging ...................................................164
14.4 Design of Finisher Dies ...........................................................165
14.5 Prediction of Forging Stresses and Loads ....................................169
14.6 Design of Blocker (Preform) Dies .............................................171
Appendix A Example of Load for Forging of a Connecting Rod ...............177
A.1 Introduction ............................................................................177
A.2 Estimation of the Flow Stress ....................................................178
A.3 Estimation of the Friction Factor ................................................181
A.4 Estimation of the Forging Load ..................................................181
A.5 Comparison of Predictions with Data from Actual Forging Trials .....181

Appendices (CD-ROM only)
14.1 Preform Design in Closed Die Forging
14.2 Flash Design in Closed Die Forging

Chapter 15 A Simplified Method to Estimate Forging Load in
Impression-Die Forging ..................................................185
15.1 Introduction ...........................................................................185
15.2 Effect of Process Parameters on Forging Load .............................185
15.3 Methods for Load Estimation ...................................................186
15.4 Simplified Method for Load Estimation ......................................190
15.5 Example of Load Estimation ....................................................191

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.
Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G)

vi / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

Appendices (CD-ROM only)
15.1 ForgePAL: A Computer Program for Estimating Forces in
Hot Forging with Flash

Chapter 16 Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using
Finite-Element Analysis ..................................................193
16.1 Introduction ...........................................................................193
16.2 Information Flow in Process Modeling .......................................194
16.3 Process Modeling Input ...........................................................194
16.4 Characteristics of the Simulation Code .......................................196
16.5 Process Modeling Output .........................................................197
16.6 Examples of Modeling Applications ..........................................200

Chapter 17 Cold and Warm Forging .................................................211
17.1 Introduction ...........................................................................211
17.2 Cold Forging as a System ........................................................213
17.3 Materials for Cold Forging .......................................................213
17.4 Billet Preparation and Lubrication in Cold Forging of Steel
and Aluminum .......................................................................214
17.5 Upsetting ..............................................................................215
17.6 Load Estimation for Flashless Closed-Die Upsetting .....................216
17.7 Extrusion ..............................................................................218
17.8 Estimation of Friction and Flow Stress .......................................221
17.9 Prediction of Extrusion Loads from Selected Formulas ..................222
17.10 Prediction of Extrusion Loads from Model Test .........................224
17.11 Tooling for Cold Forging .......................................................225
17.12 Punch Design for Cold Forging ...............................................227
17.13 Die Design and Shrink Fit ......................................................228
17.14 Process Sequence Design .......................................................229
17.15 Parameters Affecting Tool Life ................................................230
17.16 Warm Forging ......................................................................233

Appendices (CD-ROM only)
17.1 Examples of Forging Sequences
17.2 Forward Rod Extrusion
17.3 Backward Rod Extrusion

Chapter 18 Process Modeling in Cold Forging Using Finite-Element
Analysis ........................................................................237
18.1 Introduction ...........................................................................237
18.2 Process Modeling Input ...........................................................237
18.3 Process Modeling Output .........................................................239
18.4 Process Modeling Examples .....................................................239

Chapter 19 Microstructure Modeling in Superalloy Forging ................247
19.1 Introduction ...........................................................................247
19.2 Experiments for Microstructure Model Development ....................247
19.3 Microstructure Model Formulation ............................................248
19.4 Prediction of Microstructure in Superalloy Forging .......................254
19.5 Nomenclature of Microstructure Model ......................................254

....5 High-Temperature Materials for Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging .......................319 23.............2 Classification of Die Failures ........................337 .........10 Summary .................................................4 Benefits of Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging ........................................3 Heat Treatment .....................................5 Analytical Wear Models .............................................259 20...........................................263 20..........................292 Chapter 22 Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging .........................................296 22.................8 Production of Isothermal/Hot-Die Forging ...................257 20.......257 20.....................................7 Postforging Heat Treatment ....277 21...................326 23....6 Equipment and Tooling ...............................3 Advances in Tool Design ...9 Economic Benefits of Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging ...................4 Die and Tool Materials for Cold Forging ..................296 22...................................................................................................................................................2 Tolerances in Precision Forging ..........311 Chapter 23 Near-Net Shape Forging and New Developments ......................295 22......5 Innovative Forging Processes ........................................................ www......5 Die Manufacture .......328 23......295 22............................................................................297 22.........257 20.................................258 20.2 Isothermal Forging .285 21..........................6 Parameters Influencing Die Failure ..............................8 Prediction of Die Wear and Enhancement of Die Life Using FEM ..............3 Hot-Die Forging .....................1 Introduction .319 23........295 22........................4 Advances in Forging Machines ......6 Future of Forging Technology in the Global Marketplace ..........................................................................................4 Wear Mechanisms .......323 23............© 2005 ASM International.......................319 23.....277 21....................................................1 Introduction .......272 20...........................................1 Introduction ........................................................................297 22...............269 20...............................................7 Prediction of Die Fatigue Fracture and Enhancement of Die Life in Cold Forging Using Finite-Element Modeling (FEM) ............................1 Introduction ................3 Fracture Mechanisms ........ All Rights Reserved..............................................271 20........6 Surface Treatments ...........277 21...307 22...........289 Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G) Contents / vii Chapter 20 Isothermal and Hot Die Forging .331 Index ...........258 20..2 Die and Tool Materials For Hot Forging ............285 21..273 Chapter 21 Die Materials and Die Manufacturing ..................................

These principles are reviewed briefly in this book. CAM. but major emphasis is on the latest developments in the design of forging operations and dies. The ever-increasing costs of material. CAE. Therefore. including the application of FEA simulation in these processes. Process and die design. flow stress of materials. this material is plastically deformed in one or more operations into a product of relatively complex configuration. and 5. and g) the effects of the process on the environment.. process modeling using FEA has been discussed in all appropriate chapters. Forging to net or to net shape dimensions drastically reduces metal re- moval requirements. energy. forging technology has a special place because it helps to produce parts of superior mechanical properties with minimum waste of material. methods for estimating forging loads. and temperatures. 15. is covered in Chapter 19. Forging usu- ally requires relatively expensive tooling.e. metal flow. Chapter 9 is devoted to approximate methods for analyzing simple forging operations. In forging. 4.e. www. testing methods to determine materials properties. Chapters 6 and 8 cover the significant variables of the forging process such as friction.. Thus. lubrication. and flow rules are discussed in Chapters 3. i. All Rights Reserved. strains and stresses. manpower require that forging processes and tooling be designed and developed with minimum amount of trial and error with shortest possible lead times. f ) the geometry. Thus. i. i. These variables include: a) the flow behavior of the forged material under processing Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G) Preface Among all manufacturing processes. The fundamentals of plastic deformation. surface finish and mechanical properties of the forging. finite element analysis (FEA)-based computer simulation is an absolute ne- cessity. using forging of high tempera- ture alloys as example. the starting material has a relatively simple geometry. while Chapter 20 is devoted to iso- . Chapters 10 through 13 discuss forging machines. There are many excellent handbooks and technical papers on the technology of the forging. b) die geometry and materials. e) the characteristics of the forging equipment. This chapter also includes an overall review of the forging operations. and. The subject is introduced in Chapter 1 with a discussion of the position of metal forming processes in manufacturing. CAD. Chapter 2 considers forging process as a system consisting of several variables that interact with one another.e. tolerances. Chapters 17 and 18 cover cold and warm forging. especially. d) the mechanics of deformation. Microstructure modeling. the cost-effective application of computer-aided techniques. to remain competitive. and 16. c) friction and lubrication. The practical use of these techniques requires a thorough knowledge of the principal variables of the forging process and their interactions. including machines for shearing and pre-forming or materials distribution.© 2005 ASM International. and the application of FEA-based process modeling in hot forging are discussed in Chapters 14. resulting in significant material and energy savings. and. the process is economically attractive when a large number of parts must be produced and/or when the mechanical properties required in the finished product can be obtained only by a forging process. especially.

6. Finally.© 2005 ASM International. I would like to thank my wife. Die materials. Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G) Preface / ix thermal and hot die forging of aerospace alloys. die manufacturing. The staff and the students of the Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing (ERC/NSM) of The Ohio State University contributed significantly to the preparation of the book. 14. the importance of information technology in the forge shop. 7. provided valuable assistance in preparing the text and the figures. They are given in a CD that is included with this book. The reader is encouraged to use the CD and these appendixes in order to understand better and easier some of the fundamental issues discussed in corresponding chapters. Taylan Altan December 2004 . and die wear in hot and cold forging are discussed in Chapters 21 and 22. Susan Altan. This chapter also discusses briefly the future of forging technology in the global economy. awarded to Dr. Finally. Mr. finally. Specifically. Chapter 23 reviews the near-net shape forging technology. Graduate Research Associate. multiple-action tooling. who has offered me enormous support and encouragement throughout the preparation of this book. The preparation of this book has been supported partially by the Jacob Wallenberg Foundation Prize. Pinak Barve. including enclosed die forging. and the most recent developments in forging presses. Considerable information has been supplied by a large number of companies that sup- port the forging research and development at the ERC/NSM. All Rights Reserved.asminternational. www. The animations represent the results of FEA simulations for various forging operations. 15 and 17) contain appendixes that consist of presentation slides and computer animations. Several chapters of the book (Chapters 4. the need to continuously acquire knowledge on new methods and techniques to remain competitive. Taylan Altan by the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences. I would like to thank all who made our work so much easier. On behalf of the authors and the editors.

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metal bonding. bring two or more parts together to build a is transformed into a useful part without change subassembly that can be disassembled con- in the mass or composition of the material. where metal is formed by nomically attractive only when a large number plastic deformation. the ma. and mechanical as. the starting material has a rela- into five general areas: tively simple geometry. (c) accuracy and CHAPTER 1 Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing Manas Shirgaokar 1. manufacturing processes producing industrial ing. bending. form a permanent and robust joint between The term metal forming refers to a group of components. and expensive tooling. Forming to near-net. This veniently. rolling. of parts must be produced and/or when the me- ● Metal cutting processes. forming technology has a special place because erances. These processes include (a) shape but undergoes change in properties or massive forming operations such as forging. metal powder. ex. chanical properties required in the finished prod- turning. ings. milling and broaching where remov. such as brake forming. Metal forming usually requires relatively trusion. Thus. well-defined geometry through the process. metal removal to achieve the desired shape of . and pressing of product of relatively complex configuration. uct can be obtained only by a forming process. ing metal generates a new shape. Mechanical joining processes. brazing. and (e) properties. such as welding and diffusion and stretch forming. and (b) mechanical joining.1 Classification of sembly. including (a) metallurgi.1361/chff2005p001 www. part usually has a complex geometry with well. p1-5 All rights reserved. terial.or to net-shape dimensions terial initially has no shape but obtains a drastically reduces metal removal requirements. (b) size. cal joining. Gracious Ngaile. editors. (d) appearance. Metallurgical joining processes. metal defined (a) shape. and drawing. The material is plasti- ● Primary shaping processes. appearance. cally deformed in one or more operations into a melt extrusion. the process is eco- deep drawing.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. such as forming processes do not involve extensive riveting. Unlike machining. Gangshu Shen. In blies can be classified. Manufacturing Processes such as welding. it helps to produce parts of superior mechanical The manufacture of metal parts and assem. such as heat treat. such as sawing. manufacturing methods by which the given ma. anodizing and surface hardening. DOI:10. where products as well as military components and the part remains essentially unchanged in consumer goods. and soldering. usually shapeless or of a simple geometry. In all these processes. resulting in significant material and energy sav- ● Metal forming processes such as rolling. and (b) sheet forming pro- ● Joining processes. cesses. such as riveting and mechanical assembly. in a simplified manner. die casting. Metal forming includes a large number of ● Metal treatment processes. shrink fitting.asminternational. Among all manufacturing processes. cold and hot forging. metal forming. such as casting. deep drawing. properties with minimum waste of material.

By use of a above the recrystallization temperature). For ex- carrying aircraft. it is possible to obtain much more complex parts with tighter tolerances than are The design. manufactured by a dif- increased the range of shapes. reliability.2. and resis. tol- assembly-ready part. possible with ordinary sand casting methods. within limits. grinding. These properties are affected by temperature and rate of deformation (strain rate). for ex- The development in forming technology has ample) with a new one. Therefore. and heat treating. The second role of dimensional toler- terial handling. Without equipment [Altan et al. and heat transfer drum must be round. forming. but below the ample. however. which can be produced room temperature). obtained is determined by several factors such .. that can be economically obtained. ing process. Manufacturing Processes cesses. they allow proper functioning of the manufac- ● Engineering knowledge regarding metal tured part: for example. sizes. For ex- heated above room temperature. that is. be considered as guidance values only. in general.2. the yield stress of a metal increases with forgings with undercuts and with more complex increasing strain (deformation) during cold shapes. First.2 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications the workpiece. the forging process allows production of recrystallization temperature of the workpiece parts. so that cess allows certain dimensional tolerances and tooling costs per unit product can be kept surface finishes to be obtained. analysis. geometry. Desirable material prop. die design. it is possible to manufacture ample. sional accuracy that is achievable by different ments. can be produced exactly as specified by the designer. The quality of low (e. such as machining. economy. the yield stress. ductility. each dimension is associ- ● The part geometry is of moderate complexity ated with a tolerance.1 Geometry is increased and yield strength is decreased.g. these variables can always be improved by use ● The part properties and metallurgical in. Forming processes are especially attractive in No variable. increases with strain (defor- 1.g. of more sophisticated variations of the process tegrity are extremely important (e. The accuracy hardness. Di- ing processes require: mensional tolerances serve a dual purpose.. to avoid vi- ● Technological information related to lubri. In hot forming. high ductility. and human and envi- erties for forming include low yield strength and ronmental factors. heating and cooling techniques.2 Characteristics of used together with other manufacturing pro. warm forming (workpiece only with extraordinary cost and effort. The Each manufacturing process is capable of pro- effect of temperature gives rise to distinctions ducing a family of geometries. upper and lower die. and by means of new developments. The values given in the figure must when strength.1 shows the dimen- have various design and performance require. automotive applications). production rates. jet engine. and forming ances is to provide interchangeability.2 Tolerances mation) rate. and optimization of form. ferent supplier—modern mass production would erties of the formed products enabling them to be unthinkable. erances. load. and prop. For ex. and turbine ample. brations and to ensure proper functioning of the cation. through use of the lost-wax vacuum cast- components). Each manufacturing pro- and the production volumes are large. which can be easily removed from a die material). tance to shock and fatigue are essential. stresses. “split die” design. and hot forming (workpiece heated set. and machinability [ASM Handbook]. When the work temperature is raised. 1983] interchangeability—the ability to replace a de- fective part or component (a bearing. in order to complete the transformation There are four main characteristics of any from the raw material to the finished and manufacturing process—namely.. especially no dimensional vari- cases where: able. ma. The Forming tolerances represent a compromise products can be determined from materials with between the accuracy desired and the accuracy the required temperature performance. ductility 1. Within this fam- among cold forming (workpiece initially at ily there are geometries. brakes. an automotive brake flow. Forming processes are frequently 1. Formed parts are required specifically processes. Figure 1.

In many appli. trade in manufactured goods. surface finish and tolerance range is given in Fig. turing industries represent 25 to 30% of gross cations the texture (lay) of the surface is also national product. This is true only if a process sequence country’s competitive position in international involving processes and machine tools of lim. In a production situation it is best bly the most significant feature of that operation. achievable productivity with that manufacturing nies. The rate of production that can be attained sions. if possible. Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing / 3 as the initial accuracy of the forming dies and chine tools of inherently greater accuracy and tooling.e. 1.2 is given in operation. manufac- terms of Ra (arithmetic average). be within the process is capable of producing a part to a cer. Thus. processes and ma. 2000]. is the It used to be believed that cost tends to rise single most important factor that influences the exponentially with tighter tolerances and surface standard of living in a country as well as that finish. still accomplish the intended function. and the type of forming ucts can be obtained with little extra cost and. Still. a fundamental rule of the ing produced. if equipment that is used... higher-quality prod- material being formed. because it indicates the economics of and the ous industry associations or individual compa. Surface roughness in Fig. the type of better surface finish. manufacturing important. ductivity can be increased by improving existing Fig.1 Approximate values of dimensional accuracies achievable in various processes. 1. 1985] .2. The spec- Under typical conditions.3 Production Rate (1 in. and products per unit time.. Some general guidance on ishing operations [Schey et al. production of discrete parts. Another factor determin. and for a given Ra value. cost-conscious designer is to specify the loosest Manufacturing costs are directly proportional possible tolerances and coarsest surfaces that to tolerances and surface finish specifications. [Lange et al. 1. i. each manufacturing ified tolerances should. In industrialized countries. certainly with greater ing the forming accuracy is the type of part be. the complexity of the part. Consequently. competitiveness. assemblies. to take the recommendations published by vari.2. The rate of production or manufacturing pro- ances. range obtainable by the intended manufacturing tain surface finish and tolerance range without process (Fig. processes may result in quite different finishes. they do not necessarily increase or de. There are. 1. with a given manufacturing operation is proba- crease linearly. the application justifies it. different productivity. ited capability is used to achieve these toler.) dimension. however.2) so as to avoid additional fin- extra expenditure. For larger or smaller dimen. The tolerances given apply to a 25 mm 1.

. but also on the level of drawing and (b) sheet forming processes such as training and availability of manufacturing engi.4 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications manufacturing processes and by introducing ing scarcity of energy and materials. turing process must also be preceded by a portant ingredient for improving productivity consideration of these environmental factors.2. and in what) are made by people 1. and stretch form- neers and specialists in that plant. because good decisions regarding investments (when. or ing. i. 2000] . brake forming.4 Environmental Factors producing industrial and military components and consumer goods. extrusion. the introduction and use of a manufac- require new investments. metal forming repre- sents a highly significant group of processes for 1. deep drawing. Every manufacturing process must be exam- The following list outlines some of the im- ined in view of (a) its effects on the environ- portant areas of application of workpieces pro- ment. As a Processes in Manufacturing result.. and plants and machinery. the most im. physiological ef- fects. and (c) its use ● Components for automobiles and machine of energy and material resources. water. or a nation de. nical significance [Lange et al. 1985]: i. [Schey et al. lies in human and managerial resources.2 Surface finish and tolerance range for various manufacturing processes. equipment Fig. in terms of human safety. Conse- new machines and new processes. particularly in tools as well as for industrial plants and view of the changing world conditions concern.3 Metal Forming who are well trained and well motivated. rolling. Metal forming includes (a) massive forming pends not only on the level of investment in new processes such as forging. an industry. and psychological effects. 1. industry. cesses discussed earlier. However.e. and noise pol- duced by metal forming. underlining their tech- lution. all of which quently.e.. how much.. in terms of air. the present and future manufacturing pro- ductivity in a plant. Among the group of manufacturing pro- nation. (b) its interfacing with human resources.

2002. machinery.. and heat mining. REFERENCES the yield stress of a metal increases with increas- ing strain (or deformation) during cold forming [Altan et al. Vol various temperatures are basically the same. improvement of these processes. et al. “Short Course on Near sheet forming processes. and forming equipment. Graw-Hill. 1989]: Tool and Manufac- plexity and the production volumes are large.A. p 6. Metal Forming Fundamentals and Ap- rate) during hot forming. S.. 2000]: Schey.. p 67–69. A consider- able amount of information on the general A common way of classifying metal forming aspects of metal forming is available in the lit- processes is to consider cold (room temperature) erature. machine loads are. Society of Manufacturing En- low—for example. Complex geometries. Desk Edition that tooling costs per unit product can be kept (1989). 1983]: Altan. in automotive applications. Intro- lubrication concepts can be best considered by duction to Manufacturing Processes. nuts. and surgical instruments tegrity are extremely important. etc. therefore. ASM Handbook. 1985.19.. and such as load-carrying aircraft and jet engine and rivets turbine components. and [Schey et al.. Most materials behave differently un- der different temperature conditions. ● Containers.. McGraw-Hill. in a relative sense... die design and man- as for doors and windows ufacture. 1985]: Lange. screw. 2000. such niques. and The design. However. in examples ● Fasteners. T.-I. Hand- contribute a great deal to the understanding and book of Metal Forming. part handling. 2002]: Altan. and (b) the part properties and metallurgical in- drivers. due to Without Flash. based on initial material temperature does not [Lange et al. 2001]: Kalpakjian. [SME Handbook. 1983. and optimization of canisters forming processes require (a) analytical knowl- ● Construction elements used in tunneling.. can be obtained equally Net Shape Cold. tool de. sign. so turers Engineering Handbook. automation. ASM International. In fact... Manufacturing Engineering and Forming is especially attractive in cases Technology. material handling. 4th ed.) related to lubrication.. edge regarding metal flow. ture. Usually. 14. pliers. et al. Prentice Hall. tool stresses and University.. p 2. K. bolts. ASM International. Mc- means of a classification based not on tempera. Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing / 5 ● Hand tools. and hot (above recrystallization temperature) forming. stresses. in both massive and [Altan.L. The Ohio State terial at elevated temperatures. lower in [Kalpakjian et al. hot forming than in cold forming. S. 9. principles governing the forming of metals at [ASM Handbook]: Forming and Forging.3. Schmid.. gineers. classification of forming processes 1988. and quarrying (roofing and walling transfer as well as (b) technological information elements. such as screws. and cooling tech- ● Fittings used in the building industry. the general plications. such as metal boxes. pit props. Oh. but rather on specific input and output ge- ometries and material and production rate con. cans. Gegel. J.. SELECTED REFERENCES ditions. heating. for Net Shape Manufacturing. 1989. Of course.” Engineering Research Center the lower yield strength of the deforming ma. T. such as hammers. . where (a) the part geometry is of moderate com. Warm and Hot Forging well by hot or cold forming. analysis. S. and with increasing strain rate (or deformation H. 2001. p 15-8.

editors. Thus. transform the initial “simple” geometry into a for example—is plastically deformed between “complex” geometry. i. several forging operations (preforming) are required to In forging. an initially simple part—a billet. p7-15 All rights reserved. such design essentially consists ally produce little or no scrap and generate the of (a) establishing the kinematic relationships final part geometry in a very short time. Often in producing discrete parts.1 Introduction process conditions are difficult to predict and an- alyze. way [Altan et al. DOI:10. ing operation so that tooling and equipment can liability than do those manufactured by casting be designed or selected. ertheless.1361/chff2005p007 www. As the deformed and undeformed part. the conditions at the tool/material interface. the equipment . Gangshu Shen. usually (shape. Forging processes usu. the forging industry has been capable of supplying products that are sophisticated and manufactured to very rigid standards from newly developed.. 2. and transfer during plastic flow. A forging system comprises all the input vari- tive relationships. especially in medium and formability or producibility. In addition. Gracious Ngaile. and optimization of forging operations it is use- Throughout the years. ing metal flow.asminternational. For a given operation (preforming or tool/material interface.2 Forging Operation as a System The physical phenomena describing a forging operation are difficult to express with quantita.. Con- configuration. predict- a result. 1983]. largely by trial-and-error methods. difficult-to-form alloys. the heat generation material). a simple part geometry is sequently. strain rates. velocities. The metal flow. whereby the method of analysis is to assist the forging engi- tools “store” the desired geometry and impart neer in the design of forging and/or preforming pressure on the deforming material through the sequences. where tool costs can whether it is possible to form the part without be easily amortized. For the understanding and quantitative design Forging is an experience-oriented technology. parts produced by forging exhibit better forces and stresses necessary to execute the forg- mechanical and metallurgical properties and re. without causing material two tools (or dies) to obtain the desired final failure or degrading material properties. determining large production quantities. the most significant objective of any transformed into a complex one. finish forging).org CHAPTER 2 Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions Manas Shirgaokar 2.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. the tionships between microstructure/properties and mechanics of plastic deformation. for a given surface or internal failure. and (c) predicting the weight. the friction at ables such as the billet or blank (geometry and the tool/material interface. (b) establishing the limits of ergy and material.e. and the rela. or machining.e. the tooling (geometry and material). i. forging offers potential savings in en.. Nev. a great deal of know-how ful to (a) consider forging processes as a system and experience has been accumulated in this and (b) classify these processes in a systematic field. strains) between in one or a few strokes of a press or hammer.

● Air. and mi- crostructure 2. Figure 2. deformation rate mation/heat treatment history (microstructure). (6) product. ● Initial conditions (composition. ¯ is expressed as a function of strain. specific heat. ability) in various directions (anisotropy) are the ing point. (4) deformation zone. grain size. r. ● Rigidity and accuracy nents. For a given material composition and defor- perature. (7) tion and removal plant environment . resistance to corrosion and of a metal forging process. oxidation) For a given microstructure. The key to a successful forging operation. ● Surface texture the flow stress and the workability (or forge- ● Thermal/physical properties (density. The ● Speed/production rate direction of metal flow. temperature.. strain.1 Material Characterization ● Forgeability as a function of strain rate. ● Binder design and capabilities mation. ● Surface finish marized below: ● Microstructure.1 shows the ● Temperatures (heat generation and transfer) different components of the forging system. Product ical properties related to local deformation and the formation of defects such as cracks and folds ● Geometry at or below the surface. The local metal flow is ● Dimensional accuracy/tolerances in turn influenced by the process variables sum. thermal conductivity most important material variables in the analysis and expansion. the magnitude of defor. strain rate (kin- study of the input/output relationships and the effect of the process variables on product quality ematics) ● Stresses (variation during deformation) and process economics. e¯ . temperature ● Plant and production facilities and control of deformation. noise. e˙¯ . velocities.1 One-blow impression-die forging considered as a system: (1) billet. (2) tooling. the flow stress. i. to ob. (3) tool/material inter- ● Characteristics related to lubricant applica. face. T: ● Plastic anisotropy ● Billet size and thickness Tooling/Dies ● Tool geometry ● Surface conditions. is the understanding and control of the metal flow. lubrication ● Material/heat treatment/hardness ● Temperature Conditions at the Die/Billet Interface ● Lubricant type and temperature ● Insulation and cooling characteristics of the interface layer ● Lubricity and frictional shear stress Fig. The “systems approach” in forging allows for analysis ● Metal flow. 2. Metal flow determines both the mechan. model used is being conducted. metallurgical structure. prior strain history. metallurgical and mechani- cal properties Billet Environment ● Flow stress as a function of chemical com- ● Available manpower position. and Deformation Zone finally the plant environment where the process ● The mechanics of deformation. (5) forging equipment.2.e. and the temperatures involved greatly ● Force/energy capabilities influence the properties of the formed compo. tem. melt.8 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications used. degree of deformation or strain. and temperature. rate of deformation or strain. the characteristics of the final product. and wastewater pollution segregation. Equipment taining the desired shape and properties. strain history/prestrain) rate.

m. (b) surface finish. The pro- maintenance requirements. quirements of the process. i. geometry. (c) stiffness. (c) characteristics of the rate of deformation.e.2 Tooling and Equipment slab. spike test. and strain history) stock material. plane-strain most commonly used tests are the ring com- compression. the it is necessary to conduct torsion. strain quirements of the specific part and process under rate) determine the microstructural variations consideration. The mechanics of interface friction are very complex.2. s. erties and microstructure of the formed material and (b) the quantitative influences of process 2. Workability. Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions / 9 r¯ ⳱ f(¯e. are ditions at the plant. environmental effects. as well as the re. i. cessing conditions (temperature.3 Friction and Lubrication at the conditions and heat treatment schedules on mi- Die/Workpiece Interface crostructural variations. and (d) a realistic systems approach must include con- mechanical and thermal properties under con. One way of expressing friction quan- titatively is through a friction coefficient. sideration of (a) the relationships between prop- ditions of use. e˙¯ . T) (Eq 2. or 2. ing in the deformation zone. Zone/Mechanics of Deformation ing the test results. To formulate the constitutive equation (Eq 2. During any of these tests. the metal flow. generate the shape of the desired product. including lot size. In forging. 2.4 Deformation which must be considered in evaluating and us. There are various methods of evaluating friction. can be investigated by using one of the approximate methods of analysis (e. is: There are a large number of forging processes that can be summarized as follows: s ⳱ lrn (Eq 2.3) 冪3 ● Radial forging ● Hobbing where rn is the normal stress at the interface. and cold extrusion test. 2. inclusions. and uniform axisymmetric com.e. and load/ 2. stresses. pression test. and (d) thermal conditions exist- and (b) material variables (such as composition. uct. The selection of a machine for a given process is influenced by the time. strains. Thus. The details of metal voids.1). finite difference. due to lo. forgeability. and initial microstructure). strain failure phenomena. upper bound. (b) friction conditions.. material is deformed plastically to capability of the material to deform without fail. taking place during deformation and often influ- The tooling variables include (a) design and ence the final product properties.3 Types of Forging Processes a friction shear factor. l. accuracy.g. In flow influence the quality and the properties of hot forging processes. its dimensions and surface finish.. i.2. con.. deformation processing (such as temperature.). finite-element analysis. ● Isothermal forging r¯ is the flow stress of the deforming material ● Open-die forging . pression tests.5 Product Geometry and Properties energy characteristics of that machine. temperature gradients in the formed product and the force and energy re- the deforming material (for example. and influenced by the process variables.e. Optimal equipment selection requires consideration of The macro. plastic work creates a certain increase in temperature. estimating the value of l or m. strain.. rates. Consequently. the frictional shear stress. and stresses. or formability is the In forging.2) ● Closed/impression die forging with flash ● Closed/impression die forging without flash or ● Electro-upsetting ● Forward extrusion m ● Backward extrusion s ⳱ f r¯ ⳱ r¯ (Eq 2. Metal ure. The mechanics of de- cal die chilling) also influence metal flow and formation. etc.2.2.and microgeometry of the prod- the entire forging system.1) and f is the friction factor (f ⳱ m/冪3). it depends on (a) conditions existing during flow is influenced mainly by (a) tool geometry.

terial at one end of a round bar by heating the Materials. (b) Forging sequence in closed-die forging of connecting rods . the flow of metal from the die cavity is re- stricted. In this process. Process Variations. die in the same direction as the punch. and tantalum alloys. ● Nosing Equipment. tita- 2. tubular parts with multiple diameter Fig. stainless steels. 2.3 Electro-Upsetting (Fig.2 Closed-Die nium alloys. Materials. mechanical.4) a restrictive narrow gap and appears as flash around the forging at the die parting line. titanium alloys. a billet with care. Materials. Production of forgings for au. aluminum 2. Definition.2a and 2. Preforms for finished forgings. Closed-die forging with lateral flash. Carbon and alloy steels.3) out flash. a billet is formed Application. niobium and niobium alloys. Equipment. Hydraulic presses. and energy-related presses. aluminum bar end electrically and pushing it against a flat alloys. elbows. Definition. Precision forgings. P/M forging. etc. magnesium alloys. tractors. 2. ing process of gathering a large amount of ma- mers. Materials.4 Forward Extrusion (Fig. closed-die forging without flash.5) Process Variations. copper alloys. copper alloys. Carbon and alloy steels. Closed-die forging with- Forging without Flash (Fig. 2. cold and warm forging.2 Closed-die forging with flash. Hydraulic and mechanical general mechanical industry. beryl. presses a billet (hot or cold) confined in a con- Application. In this process. Stepped or tapered-diameter fully controlled volume is deformed (hot or solid shafts. hydraulic.10 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications ● Orbital forging cold) by a punch in order to fill a die cavity ● Powder metal (P/M) forging without any loss of material. titanium and Equipment. Carbon and alloy steels. aircraft. closed-die forging with longitudinal Definition. lium. tainer so that the billet material flows through a tomobiles. fittings. titanium. trucks. The punch and the ● Upsetting die may be made of one or several pieces. 2. In this process. magnesium alloys. 2. railroad and mining equipment. aluminum alloys.3. tantalum Application. a punch com- flash. molybdenum and molyb- denum alloys. Anvil and counterblow ham. 2. ment.1 Closed-Die Forging with Flash alloys. engineering production. (a) Schematic diagram with flash terminology. The excess material is extruded through 2. tungsten alloys. nickel alloys.3. Application. Electric upsetters. hollow forg- (hot) in dies (usually with two halves) such that ings.3.3. anvil or shaped die cavity. precision forging. peralloys. and screw presses. iron and nickel and cobalt su. off-highway equip. tees. P/M forging. Carbon and alloy steels. Core forging. copper alloys. multiram me- ● Coining chanical presses.2b) Process Variations. Electro-upsetting is the hot forg- Equipment. (Fig. Definition.

2. die typing. dies for producing solid or tubular components rection of punch travel (Fig. 2. Materials.3. tungsten. alloys.5). 2. upset end of workpiece . 2. forging of gun and rifle barrels. Closed-die forging with. Materials. forging of stepped shafts and axles. Hobbing is the process of in- denting or coining an impression into a cold or hot die block by pressing with a punch. 2. Hydraulic presses. Hollow parts having a closed round shapes. Application.8 Isothermal Forging (Fig. 2. Carbon and alloy steels.7 Hobbing (Fig. end. magnesium alloys. Process Variations. conical. hammers. Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions / 11 holes that are cylindrical.6 Radial Forging (Fig. production of tubular components with and without internal profiles. anvil electrode. In this process. Manufacture of dies and molds with relatively shallow impressions. Application.3. Equipment. gripping Fig. workpiece. Process Variations. This is a technique that is used to manufacture axisymmetrical parts. and high-tempera- nium alloys. aluminum Materials. or other non.4 Electro-upsetting. Radial forging machines. conical. Equipment. Hydraulic and mechanical their length.5 Backward Extrusion (Fig. cupped parts with holes that are cylindrical. Carbon and alloy steels. 2. Equipment.7) Definition. out flash. 2. Die hobbing. copper alloys. Rotary swaging. ture superalloys. presses.3 Closed-die forging without flash electrode. Carbon and alloy steels. 2. titanium alloys. beryllium. P/M forging. A. Reducing the diameters of ingots and bars. C. 2.6) Definition. B. tita. Fig. a moving punch applies a steady pressure to a slug (hot or cold) Definition. or of other shapes. This hot or cold forging process confined in a die and forces the metal to flow utilizes two or more radially moving anvils or around the punch in a direction opposite the di. D. Application.5) 2. Process Variations.8) Definition. with constant or varying cross sections along Equipment. Hydraulic presses.3.3. Isothermal forging is a forging process where the dies and the forging stock are at approximately the same high temperature.

large and bulky Definition.3.10 Orbital Forging (Fig. upsetting be- 2. 2. (b) Example of a component produced using forward rod and backward extrusion.7 Hobbing.9 Open-Die Forging (Fig. C. copper alloys. 1968] Materials. W.6 Radial forging of a shaft Fig.and near-net shape forg. container. drawing out. workpiece. Carbon and alloy steels. E. Open-die forging is a hot forging forgings. punch. 2. Orbital forging is the process of forging shaped parts by incrementally forging Fig. (b) Without restriction . [Sagemuller. preforms for finished forgings. aluminum alloys. 2. alloys. ings for the aircraft industry. hammers. P/M forging. Forging ingots. Closed-die forging with Materials. titanium alloys. ring forging. Process Variations. all forge- Application. forward extrusion. Hydraulic presses.12 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. 1977]. Application.10) Definition. shaft forg- ing. 2. (a) Common cold extrusion processes (P. (a) In container. Process Variations. Net. Titanium alloys.9) tween flat or curved dies. backward cup extrusion. 2. simultaneous upsetting of flange and coining of shoulder. 2.5 Forward and backward extrusion processes.3. simultaneous forward rod and backward cup extrusion. Equipment. Left to right: sheared blank. ejector). [Feldman. aluminum or without flash. process in which metal is shaped by hammering or pressing between flat or simple contoured dies. mandrel forging. Slab forging. able materials.

stainless steels. fixed axially but whose axis makes orbital. Electro-upsetting. alu- minum alloys and brasses. In some cases. Process Variations.3. 2. 2. P/M forging is the process of forgeable materials. all forgeable materials. also rotate. Forgings and finished parts for automobiles. swing forging. spi- ral. mechanical presses.11) Materials. 2. stainless steels. closed-die forging (hot or cold) of sintered pow- Process Variations.8 Isothermal forging with dies and workpiece at ap. 2. of the stock is increased. the lower die may presses. Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions / 13 (hot or cold) a slug between an orbiting upper Application. nickel-base alloys. upset forging. aluminum alloys. Carbon and alloy steels. closed-die forging with flash. This process is also der metal preforms. claw clutch parts.3. Fig. trucks.2. Orbital forging presses. proximately the same temperature Equipment. Materials. or all. (P/M) Forging (Fig. Carbon and low-alloy steels.12) Definition. bearing rings. Upsetting is the process of forg- ing metal (hot or cold) so that the cross-sectional Fig. all Definition.12 Upset forging . bearing-end covers. called rotary forging. ti- tanium alloys. area of a portion. stainless steels. Materials. upsetting machines. which is various contours. hammers. open-die forging. rings of is raised axially toward the upper die. Process Variations. or rocking Equipment. screw presses. die and a nonrotating lower die. Hydraulic and mechanical die forging. Hydraulic. Closed-die forging with- out flash. and off-highway equip- ment. planetary.12 Upsetting or Heading (Fig.10 Stages in orbital forging Fig. 2. Application. cobalt-base alloys.9 Open-die forging Fig. or straight-line motions. Bevel gears.11 Powder metal (P/M) forging Fig. 2. 2. Carbon and alloy steels. 2.11 Powder Metal Equipment. The lower die wheel disks with hubs.

Materials. Applications. [Sagemuller. such as patterned tableware.13) 2. is used to form indentations and raised sections bular component is closed by axial pressing with in the part. H. 95. tube ex. Gegel. coining process where bottoming pressure Process Variations.15) Definition.3. tionally thinned or thickened to achieve the re- Equipment.3. aluminum and aluminum alloys. Mechanical and hydraulic quired indentations or raised sections. 1983]: Altan.” Wire. Carbon and alloy steels. metal is inten- a shaped die. coining with flash.-I. 2.14 Coining (Fig. medallions and metal buttons. REFERENCES Fig. It is presses. aluminum ponents such as coins. 2. sizing of automobile and air- craft engine components. Ironing is the process of smooth- ing and thinning the wall of a shell or cup (cold or hot) by forcing the shell through a die with a Fig. Cold Extru- sion of Steel. 1968]: Sagemuller. p 2. During the process. Applications.L. titanium alloys. June 1968.3. Bottoming is a type of alloys. Equipment. coining in closed die. SELECTED REFERENCES [Altan. widely used for lettering on sheet metal or com- Materials.13 Nosing of a shell punch. hammers. Fr. 2. decorative items. copper alloys. Equipment..D.14 Coining operation [Altan et al.14) Definition. area. Nosing is a hot or cold forging Definition. ASM International. Forging of open ends of am- nuts. Merkblatt 201. Finished forgings. S.. Du¨sseldorf. Carbon and alloy steels. 1977]: Feldman.15 Ironing operation lition Modules. causes reduction in thickness at the bending panding. Shells and cups for various uses. forging of gas pressure contain- forgings. 1983. Process Variations.. ers.15 Ironing (Fig..” Engineering Research Cen- . [Feldman. 2. sizing. “The Greenfield Coa- Fig. “Cold Im- pact Extrusion of Large Formed Parts. Oh. titanium alloys. silver and gold alloys. including Applications. Presses and hammers. 2002]: Altan.13 Nosing (Fig. Coining without flash. T.. flanged shafts. 2. stainless steels.14 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Application. Materials. 2. Mechanical presses and hydrau- lic presses. Tube sinking. Metallic coins. Carbon and alloy steels. preforms for finished munition shells. bolts. coining process in which the open end of a shell or tu. heat-resistant alloys. 2. 1977 (in German).. In sheet metal working. aluminum alloys. 2. No. Metal Forming Fundamentals and Ap- plications. H. T..

terials of Manufacture. p 589–601. 1985]: Lange. R. American Society for Metals [Niebel et al. [SME Handbook. McGraw-Hill.W. Hand. Allyn and Ba- [ASM. 1984]: Kalpakjian.. Germany. 1989]: Production to Near Net Shape con. 1989]: Niebel. B.. Processes and Ma- State University. 9.B. 1990]: Lindberg. ASM International.. Forging Handbook. Society of Manufacturing En- p 2. Springer. The Ohio [Lindberg. 1989]: Tool and Manufac- [Lange et al. . 1989. gineers. Draper.A.. 1985. Wysk. [Schuler Handbook.. p 15-8. turers Engineering Handbook.. 1998.. p 381–409. 1989. (1989). 425.. Goppingen. 1989. 1984. 2002. 1998]: Schuler. Manufac. p 33–80. et al.. p 403– 14. Source Book. S. Metal [Kalpakjian. p 6. 1988.. A. K. Addison-Wesley. 4th ed. 1990.3. 4th ed.19. Desk Edition book of Metal Forming. Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions / 15 ter for Net Shape Manufacturing. Modern Manu- [ASM Handbook]: Forming and Forging. Vol facturing Process Engineering. turing Processes for Engineering Materials. ASM Handbook.

rxx. Thus one will have rxx ⬅ rx and rxy ⬅ sxy. rxz ryz rzz ● The deforming material is considered to be in continuum (metallurgical aspects such as A normal stress is indicated by two identical grains. cesses. and solved into the three components along the three what are the expected mechanical properties of coordinate axes. which define the total state of stress on are made: this cuboidal element.2 Stress Tensor strength or flow stress. This is discussed later.1361/chff2005p017 www. ● Volume remains constant. Each of these forces can be re- ometry can be obtained by plastic forming. they act. In order to determine the the part produced by forming. pressure. 3. elastic recovery (for expressed as: example. 3.. and (d) stresses. and dislocations are subscripts. How.1) designated as rji and is ever. This collection of stresses is referred to as the ● Elastic deformations are neglected. while a differing pair indi- not considered). Gangshu Shen. forming load. (c) local variation in material 3. Gracious Ngaile. grain boundaries. formation conditions. gle subscript and shear stresses by the symbol s.1). the force components In order to arrive at a manageable mathemat. editors. Such investigation allows the analysis and prediction of (a) metal flow (velocities. . in the case of springback in bend- 冷 冷 ing) and elastic deflection of the tooling (in rxx ryx rzx the case of precision forming to very close rij ⳱ rxy ryy rzy tolerances) must be considered. cube is subjected to the three forces F1. e. sev.g.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. how the desired ge. cates a shear stress. stresses along these axes. and strains). DOI:10. shear stress. are divided by the area of the face upon which ical description of the metal deformation.1 Introduction ● Anisotropy and Bauschinger effects are ne- glected. and ing how the metal flows. This notation can be sim- ● Uniaxial tensile or compression test data are plified by denoting the normal stresses by a sin- correlated with flow stress in multiaxial de.asminternational. The purpose of applying the plasticity theory ● Friction is expressed by a simplified expres- in metal forming is to investigate the mechanics sion such as Coulomb’s law or by a constant of plastic deformation in metal forming pro. where each face of a of deformation provide the means for determin. when necessary. stress tensor (Fig. and energy. the mechanics Consider a general case. F3 ( CHAPTER 3 Plastic Deformation: Strain and Strain Rate Manas Shirgaokar Gracious Ngaile 3. p17-23 All rights reserved. (b) temperatures and heat transfer. strain rates. F2. thus giving a total of nine stress com- eral simplifying (but reasonable) assumptions ponents. Thus.

r2. The shear stresses acting along The magnitudes of the principal stresses are the directions shown in Fig.1a) I2 ⳱ ⳮ(r1r2 Ⳮ r2r3 Ⳮ r3r1) (Eq 3.2). ● A positive component is defined by a com. I1 ⳱ rxx Ⳮ ryy Ⳮ rzz ponent force acts. 2. I1 ⳱ r1 Ⳮ r2 Ⳮ r3 (Eq 3.1 are considered determined from the following cubic equation to be positive. to the triangular plane of section be a principal sidered to be positive. rxy ⳱ ryx. let the plane of section be a principal tive normal stresses are tensile and negative ones plane.1) ● Suffix i denotes the normal to the plane on where which a component acts. i. stress.18 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications In case of equilibrium.1b) 3. 3. Consider a small uniformly stressed duce to six independent components. ⳮ ryyr2zx ⳮ rzxrxy 2 bination of suffixes where either both i and j are positive or both are negative. whereas the suffix j denotes the direction along which the com. 3. The stresses shown in Fig. I2. stresses. and r3. 1983] . are compressive. A sign block on which the full stress tensor is acting in convention is required to maintain consistency equilibrium and assume that a small corner is throughout the use of these symbols and prin. and I3 are independent ordinate axes (1. 3..e. viz. If it acted in the negative y direction then this force would be compressive instead I3 ⳱ rxxryyrzz Ⳮ 2rxyryzrzx ⳮ rxxryz 2 of tensile. Let the stress acting normal ciples. cut away (Fig. r1. 1983]: r3i ⳮ I1r2i ⳮ I2ri ⳮ I3 ⳱ 0 (Eq 3. The nine stress components then re. The normal stresses along these plying the absence of rotational effects around axes.3 Properties of the Stress Tensor I3 ⳱ r1r2r3 (Eq 3. tions become: bination of suffixes in which either one of i or j is negative. developed from a series of force balances: ing physical meaning [Hosford & Caddell. The coefficients I1. and 3) along which the shear of the coordinate system chosen and are hence Fig. The double suffix has the follow. are called the principal any axis. there is a set of co. In terms of principal stresses the above equa- ● A negative component is defined by a com. Thus ryy arises from a force acting in the positive y direction on a I2 ⳱ ⳮrxxryy ⳮ ryyrzz ⳮ rzzrxx Ⳮ rxy 2 plane whose normal is in the positive y di- Ⳮ r2yz Ⳮ r2zx rection.1 are con. [Hosford & Caddell. thus im. stresses vanish.1c) For a general stress state.1 Forces and the stress components as a result of the forces. 3. thus implying that posi.

As- suming that the z plane vanishes. 1972] sh ⳱ ⳮ 冢r ⳮ2 r 冣 sin 2h Ⳮ s x y xy cos 2h (Eq 3. reference planes (x. y. (b) Steady-state extrusion. 3. 3. rx Ⳮ ry r ⳮ ry rh ⳱ Ⳮ x cos 2h 2 2 Ⳮ sxy sin 2h (Eq 3. Plastic Deformation: Strain and Strain Rate / 19 called invariants. The Biaxial Stress Condition three principal stresses can only be determined by finding the three roots of the cubic equation. To study the variation of the normal and shear stress components in the x-y plane. 3. under this condition.3 Stresses in the x-y plane. 1972] . the principal 3.2 Equilibrium in a three-dimensional stress state. 2sxy tan 2h ⳱ (Eq 3. one has rz ⳱ szy ⳱ szx and a biaxial state of stress exists. 3.4 Cut at an arbitrary angle h in the x-y plane. [Hosford & Caddell. (a) Non- Fig.2) Fig. [Backofen. 3.3).3) The two principal stresses in the x-y plane are the values of rh on planes where the shear stress sh ⳱ 0. 1983] Fig. and the stresses on this plane are denoted by rh and sh.1 with the nine stress com- The invariants are necessary in determining the ponents and assume that any one of the three onset of yielding. 3. Thus.4) rx ⳮ ry Fig.4.5 Metal flow in certain forming processes. z) vanishes (Fig. a cut is made at some arbitrary angle h as shown in Fig. 1983] [Lange. Consequently. 3. [Hosford steady-state upset forging. & Caddell. Consider Fig.4 Plane Stress or stresses for a given stress state are unique.

is now: 1 r1. ve. into a par- allelogram. Therefore.. By neglecting the higher- order components. To simplify analysis.6 are infinitesi- The local displacement of the volume ele. smax ⳱ [(rx ⳮ ry)2 Ⳮ 4s2xy]1/2 (Eq 3. and strains (Fig. differentiate Eq 3.9 leads to: finitesimal rectangular block. in the y and z directions.10. 1983] . The coordinates of a point are initially x and y (and z in three dimensions).20 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Thus. The expression for ubx is given in Eq 3. e ⳱ z (Eq 3.10) In order to investigate metal flow quantita. strain rates.7. a⬘b⬘c⬘d⬘.6) 2 ⳵uy ⳵u ey ⳱ . one can determine the mag- nitude of the displacement of point b. tan ␣xy ⳱ ␣xy and tan ments is described by the velocity field. with the values of sin 2h and cos 2h the The relative elongation of length ab (which is equation becomes originally equal to dx). strain rates (deformation rates).6 Strains ⳵uy uby ⳱ uy Ⳮ dy (Eq 3. ex.g. 3. Fig. 冢 ex ⳱ ux Ⳮ ⳵u dx ⳮ ux 冣冫dx ⳱ ⳵u⳵x x (Eq 3. ⳵ux ubx ⳱ ux Ⳮ dx (Eq 3. and that for uby can be obtained similarly as: 3.6 illustrates the deformation of an in. ubx.5). 3.9) velocity field is independent of the material properties. 3. Although this illustration is ⳵x in two dimensions. This value. mally small. Thus.8a) 1 Similarly.e.8b) ⳵y z ⳵z 3.5 Local Deformations and the Velocity Field The angular variations due to the small de- formation considered in Fig. as a function of the displacement of point a.7) ⳵x Note that ux also depends on y and z. After a small de- formation. Using Eq 3.11a) plastic deformation. Eq Figure 3. ubx. ex ⳱ ⳵ux/⳵x is considerably smaller than 1.6 Displacement in the x-y plane. i.. the principles apply also to three-dimensional cases. is different from the displacement of point a. the same point has the coordinates x⬘ and y⬘ (and z⬘ in 3-D). ⳵y tively.3 with respect to h and equate to zero. [Altan et al. e. Thus: locities. ␣yx ⳱ ␣yx. 3.7 and 3. it is often assumed that the ␣xy ⳱ (uby ⳮ uy)/(ubx Ⳮ dx ⳮ ux) (Eq 3. it is necessary to define the strains (or deformations). after a small amount of ⳵uy ␣xy ⳱ (Eq 3. and considering that and velocities (displacements per unit time). this is not correct.5) 2 or To find the planes where the shear stress sh is ⳵ux maximum. abcd.. or the strain in the x di- rection. r2 ⳱ (r Ⳮ ry) 2 x (ubx ⳮ ux) ex ⳱ 1 dx Ⳳ [(rx ⳮ ry)2 Ⳮ 4sxy 2 1/2 ] (Eq 3. ux. about the variation of the function ux over the length dx. Obviously.

as follows: The distribution of velocity components (vx.15) vy. and Rowe. 1972. the total angular deformation in the xy tem.. y⬘.17) ⳵z ⳵y 2h 2h h ⳵vx ⳵v In order to demonstrate that the velocity field c˙ xz ⳱ Ⳮ z (Eq 3. plane. In this case. y. vz ⳱ ⳮ D (Eq 3. Plastic Deformation: Strain and Strain Rate / 21 and similarly. and z directions [Backofen. in every small element within the plastically deforming body. velocities.11b) ⳵y e˙ (in an x. provided that the angle of rotation from x. u. the Similarly: strains cxy. y. cyz. The velocity is the and variation of the displacement in time or in the x. vz ⳱ z (Eq 3. v ⳱ y. z⬘ sys- Thus. The instantaneous height of the block ⳵vx ⳵v ⳵v during deformation is h. are designated by the subscripts 0 and 1. are: ing of a rectangular block.12a) that the element is not subjected to shear but ⳵x ⳵y only to compression or tension. can be ⳵vx ⳵v expressed as the linear function of the coordi- c˙ xy ⳱ Ⳮ y (Eq 3.14d) ⳵z ⳵x described by Eq 3. z⬘ is known.14a) ⳵x y ⳵y ⳵z nents vx.17 is acceptable. the variations in strain Figure 3.12b) In uniaxial tension and compression tests (no ⳵z ⳵y necking. It is possible to express the same values in an x⬘.16) 1977].7 Velocities and Strain Rates along the principal axes. ⳵uy ⳵ux it is possible to orient the coordinate system such cxy ⳱ ␣xy Ⳮ ␣yx ⳱ Ⳮ (Eq 3. is: y. y. at the center of the lower rectangular sur- face.e.14c) vx ⳱ . strains. vy. This assump- tion can also be expressed. and strain rates. and the ele- ment deforms along the principal axes of defor- ⳵uy ⳵u mation. respec- tively. describing the motion of each particle within the deforming block. The state of deformation in a plastically de- forming metal is fully described by the displace- ⳵ux ments. z coordinate system). The upper die is mov- ing downward at velocity VD. e˙ z ⳱ z (Eq 3. it is neces- . e˙ ⳱ y . and The assumption of volume constancy made earlier neglects the elastic strains. cyz ⳱ Ⳮ z (Eq 3. cxz all equal zero. Thus.13) 3. y⬘. for the deformation 3.8 Homogeneous Deformation ⳵t y ⳵t ⳵t The strain rates. e˙ x Ⳮ e˙ y Ⳮ e˙ z ⳱ 0 (Eq 3. The velocity compo- e˙ x ⳱ . ex Ⳮ ey Ⳮ ez ⳱ 0 (Eq 3. no bulging). and z as follows: ⳵vy ⳵v VDx V y V z c˙ yz ⳱ Ⳮ z (Eq 3. ␣yx ⳱ (Eq 3. The initial and final dimensions of the block Similarly. This assump- ⳵uz ⳵u cxz ⳱ Ⳮ x (Eq 3.14b) ⳵y ⳵x nates x. and z have their origins on the lower ⳵ex ⳵ ⳵(ux) ⳵ ⳵ux ⳵v e˙ x ⳱ ⳵t ⳱ ⳵t ⳵x ⳱ 冢 冣 ⳵x ⳵t ⳱ x ⳵x platen. i. e. vz) within a deforming material describes the metal flow in that material. deformation is also in the directions of the principal axes. z to x⬘. The coordinate axes x. or the shear strain. cxy. ⳵ux ⳵u ⳵u vx ⳱ .7 considers “frictionless” upset forg- with time.12c) tion is reasonable in most forming processes ⳵x ⳵z where the amount of plastic strain is much larger than the amount of elastic strain. v. and vz. vy ⳱ D . y.

22 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications sary to prove that these velocities satisfy (a) the Similarly: volume constancy and (b) the boundary condi- tions [Johnson et al. the upper volume rate or the volume per lo b wo unit time displaced by the motion of the upper Volume constancy in terms of strains can be die is: verified from: Volume rate ⳱ VDwo h o (Eq 3. velocity in the x direction: tained by integration with respect to time. i. ⳵vx V e˙ x ⳱ ⳱ D (Eq 3.e. VD VD e˙ y ⳱ .21a) or Volume rate ⳱ VDwo h o (Eq 3. vyo ⳱ VDwo /4ho (Eq 3. Eq 3. dh ⳱ ⳮVDdt. e ⳱ ey ⳱ ln 1 (Eq 3. At the boundaries: rates are equal to zero. c˙ xy ⳱ c˙ xz ⳱ c˙ yz ⳱ 0 at the origin.7). e˙ ⳱ ⳮ (Eq 3. from In homogeneous deformation.24b) tion.19 and 3.24a) ho h ho vzo ⳱ ⳮVD (Eq 3. velocity in the z direction: h1 冮 dh h eh ⳱ ez ⳱ ⳱ ln 1 (Eq 3.20) Using the values of vxo and vyo given by the Eq 3. At the ori. This condition is satisfied because.23 gives: At z ⳱ h o.18(b).18c) Other strains can be obtained similarly: It can be shown easily that the volume con- l1 w stancy is also satisfied.19) The volumes per unit time moved toward the sides of the rectangular block are: 2vxo howo Ⳮ 2vyo l o h o (Eq 3.18b) Eq 3. all the velocities must be equal to zero.23) At y ⳱ wo /2. one has..22a) Fig. the shear strain Eq 3. 3. Thus. vx ⳱ vy ⳱ vz ⳱ 0. In the height direction: vxo ⳱ VD l o /4ho (Eq 3. 3. e1 ⳱ ex ⳱ ln .22b) Satisfaction of the boundary conditions can be 2h z h shown by considering the initial shape on the block before deformation (Fig. 1975]..18a) t1 t1 冮 冮 VD ez ⳱ e˙ zdt ⳱ ⳮ dt (Eq 3. t.7 Homogeneous deformation in frictionless upset ⳵x 2h forging .17. for x ⳱ y ⳱ z ⳱ 0. At the start of deforma.21 are equal. The strain rates can now be obtained from the velocity components given by Eq 3. velocity in the y direction: to to h For small displacements.21b) The quantities given by Eq 3. the volume constancy condition is satisfied.18(a) and 3. It can be easily seen that: gin of the coordinates.17.20 gives: Volume rate ⳱ 2h o(woVD l o Ⳮ loVDwo)/4h o (Eq 3. The strains can be ob- At x ⳱ lo/2.

Fundamentals.28) Engineering Strain (Fig. Engineering Plasticity. Metal Forming Fundamentals and Ap- plications. [Hosford & Caddell. In the theory of by considering the following example uniform strength of materials—during uniform elonga. Ed. 1972. T. Prentice-Hall. K. Vol 1. Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy. G. deformations.693 冮 dl dl l1 de ⳱ re⳱ ⳱ 1 (Eq 3.8 Comparison of engineering and true stress-strain dustrial Metalworking Processes.24 can also be obtained The relations between e and e can be illustrated through a different approach.25) Equations 3. 1983. 3. taking the natural logarithm be related to instantaneous length. 1977]: Rowe. 1972]: Lange. (in German).. 1983]: Hosford. [Rowe. 1972]: Backofen. [Backofen. or: Compression for l1 ⴔ l o/2 Tension for l1 ⴔ 2lo l1 l ⳮ lo ⳮ0. Mellor.. ASM International.F. W. [Hosford & Caddell.9 Plastic (True) Strain and l1 e ⳱ ln ⳱ ln (e Ⳮ 1) (Eq 3. de. Oh. therefore.693 Ⳮ0. 1975. or: l1 冮 ho b l dl dl l1 ln Ⳮ ln o Ⳮ ln o ⳱ eh Ⳮ eb Ⳮ e1 ⳱ 0 de ⳱ re⳱ ⳱ ln (Eq 3.26) e ⳱ ln lo lo lo lo lo l1 ⳮ lo ⳮ0. London. for example—the infinitesimal mogeneously) compressed to half its original engineering strain. the change in the length must or. where a bar is uniformly (or ho- tion in tension. Principles of In- Fig. London. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.. Addison-Wesley. S. [Lange... l0.8) lo The results of Eq 3. the ini- V ⳱ h owo lo ⳱ h1w1l1 r ⳱1 h1w1l1 tial condition cannot be used as a frame of ref- erence. Study Book of Forming Technology. 1972. 1983]: Altan. Springer-Verlag. 1975.5 Ⳮ1 e⳱ lo REFERENCES [Altan et al.L. W. 1983. Edward Ar- curve.B. Gegel.. H. P.26 and 3..W.. . 1983] nold Publishers. R. 3. W.27 give: 3. 1975]: Johnson.27) h1 b1 l1 l lo l lo (Eq 3... is considered with respect length or is elongated to twice its original length: to the original length...-I. Deformation Processing. Plastic Deformation: Strain and Strain Rate / 23 howo l o In the theory of metal forming plasticity. [Johnson et al. Caddell..M..

(b) friction. influenced by: Fig.” In order to understand the forces and stresses The metal starts flowing or deforming plastically involved in metal forming processes it is nec. editors.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. p25-49 All rights reserved.1 Introduction as a function of strain. [Thomsen et al. can also be considered as the “flow stress.1361/chff2005p025 www. (a) Engineering stress-strain curve. and tempera- ture. and (c) the flow stress of the de- geneous or uniform deformation conditions. 1965] . Gracious Ngaile. bulging) reaches the value of the yield stress or tic deformation under conditions where a simple flow stress. The flow stress of a metal is yield stress of a metal under uniaxial conditions. The flow stress is very important be- state of stress CHAPTER 4 Flow Stress and Forgeability Manas Shirgaokar 4. Gangshu Shen. cause in metal forming processes the loads and For studying the plastic deformation behavior stresses are dependent on (a) the part geometry. 4.asminternational. strain rate. of a metal it is appropriate to consider homo. DOI:10.. The forming material. when the applied stress (in uniaxial tension with- essary to (a) become familiar with the concept out necking and in uniaxial compression without of flow stress and (b) start with the study of plas. (c) Schematic of di- mensional change of the specimen during the test.1 Representation of data in tensile test. (b) True stress-strain curve.

The increase in the flow function of the temperature. 1965] Fig. e˙¯ . showing lubricated shallow grooves on the ends. i. heat treatment and prior deformation history: r¯ ⳱ f(h.e. Conversely. ¯ can be expressed as a different materials. e¯ .. such as temperature of deformation. S. grain size. For a given microstructure. r. e.2 Schematic representation of condition of necking in Fig. temperature variations dur- deformation or strain rate ing the forming process can have different ef- fects on load requirements and metal flow for Thus.. Therefore. perature varies considerably among different degree of deformation or strain.. (a) View of specimen. strain. 1965] tensile specimen. [Thomsen et al.3 Axial stress distribution in the necked portion of a simple tension. [Thomsen et al.e. the flow stress. ● Factors explicitly related to the deformation The degree of dependency of flow stress on tem- process. 4. 4. influence of strain rate (i. and rate of materials. rate of deformation) such as chemical composition. e˙¯ ) (Eq 4. the stress for titanium alloy Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V that strain rate. metallurgical becomes increasingly important.. and the microstructure. 4.26 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications ● Factors unrelated to the deformation process.1) In hot forming of metals at temperatures above the recrystallization temperature the effect of strain on flow stress is insignificant and the Fig. segregation.4 Compression test specimen. phases..e. (b) Shape of the specimen before and after the test . and room temperature (i. in cold forming) the ef- prior strain history fect of strain rate on flow stress is negligible. h. at structure.

¯ The criterion for necking can be for- ⬚F.4) d¯e flow stresses of metals should be determined ex- perimentally for the strain. or 925 to 870 ⬚C) is about 40%. From Eq 4. 1965].3: form compression and torsion tests. strain rate.3 are valid [Thomsen et al.. for determining flow stress are the tensile. dr¯ ⳱ r¯ (Eq 4. Eq 4.. A ⳱ Ao(e)ⳮ¯e 4.4 and 4.2 and 4.. The most commonly used methods i. 1965].1a). e ⳱ (l ⳮ lo)/lo. the specimen elongates initially in a uniform fash- ion.2) and e¯ ⳱ true strain ⳱ ln 冢ll 冣 ⳱ ln 冢AA 冣 o o (Eq 4. In the classical engineering stress-strain diagram (Fig. Flow dL d¯e ⳱ 0 ⳱ Ao d¯e 冢 (e)ⳮ¯e ⳮ r(e) ¯ ⳮ¯e 冣 (Eq 4. When the load reaches its maximum value.7) Two methods of representing flow stress data d¯e are illustrated in Fig.1(b) illustrates the true stress-strain representation of the same tensile test data.3) Fig.6) stress data should be valid for a large range of plastic strains encountered in metal forming pro. dL To be useful in metal forming analyses. the ⳱0 (Eq 4. uni. the properties determined from this test are useful for designing components and not Combining Eq 4. L. 4. and tem. The same mulated as the condition that L be maximum or temperature drop in the hot working range of that: AISI type 4340 steel would result in a 15% in- crease in the flow stress [Altan et al. However. Ao. Flow Stress and Forgeability / 27 would result from a drop of 100 ⬚F (55 ⬚C) in The instantaneous load in tension is given by the hot forging temperature (from 1700 to 1600 L ⳱ Ar. In this case. processes. the stress is obtained by dividing the instantaneous tensile load. 4. Deformation is then concentrated only in the neck region while the rest of the specimen remains rigid. 2002] . 1973]. or cesses so that this data is useful in metal forming analysis. the following relationships are valid: r¯ ⳱ true stress (flow stress) ⳱ instantaneous load/instantaneous area ⳱ L/A (Eq 4.5 Compression test tooling.1 [Thomsen et al. Figure 4. the uniform deformation conditions. [Dixit et al.. Near but slightly before the attainment of max- perature conditions that exist during the forming imum load.5) mining the mechanical properties of metals.e.2 Tensile Test or The tensile test is commonly used for deter- ¯ ⳮ¯e L ⳱ Ar¯ ⳱ Aor(e) (Eq 4. by the original cross-sectional area of the specimen. During deformation.. dr¯ The reason for this is that the tensile test data is valid for relatively small plastic strains.5 results in: for producing parts by metal forming processes. before necking occurs. necking starts and the uniform uniaxial stress condition ceases to exist. 4. The stress is then plotted against the engineering strain.

1999] .8) or where K and n are constants. e¯ ⳱ n (Eq 4.10) Fig.9) d¯e r¯ ⳱ K(¯e)n (Eq 4. very often the flow stress Combining Eq 4. (a) Specimen with spiral groove.6 Dimensions of the specimens used for flow stress determination using the compression test at the ERC/NSM.28 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications As is discussed later.8 results in: curve obtained at room temperature can be ex- pressed in the form of an exponential equation dr¯ or power law: ⳱ Kn(¯e)nⳮ1 ⳱ r¯ ⳱ K(¯e)n (Eq 4. (b) Rastegaev specimen. [Dahl et al. 4.7 and 4..

or sample height. To be appli- the flow stress cannot be expressed by Eq 4. derived by Bridgman. sample must be maintained as shown in Fig. the values of r and R must be measured stage of deformation. continuously during the test. graphite in oil for aluminum alloys. e. Teflon or machine oil at room rs ⳱ r¯ ⳱ L pr2 冤冢 1Ⳮ 2R r 冣 冢 ln 1 Ⳮ r 2R 冣冥 temperature and at hot working temperatures. has greater formability. rection. is prevented.. is given by: 4. the state of uniform stress in the a triaxial state of stress is induced. It are measured during the test. This is quite cum..8. Barreling is prevented by using adequate ⳮ1 lubrication.. 4.g. or for increasing strain. a material with a large n or strain flow stress data (true-stress/true-strain relation- hardening exponent.11.8 is valid. From this infor- can be clearly seen that. 1972] .4. i. other sion tests conducted at the Engineering Re- tests.2. cylindrical sample are maintained at the same It should be noted. 4.5 shows the tooling used for compres- bersome and prone to error.. ships) for metals at various temperatures and it sustains a large amount of uniform deforma. strain rates. In this test. Figure 4. that this statement temperature so that die chilling.1b) requires a correction because barreling. Therefore.e. with its influ- is not correct for materials and conditions where ence on metal flow. which provide the true stress-strain data at search Center for Net Shape Manufacturing larger strains relative to the tensile test.3. Flow Stress and Forgeability / 29 This condition is shown schematically in Fig. it is evi- dent that at low forming temperatures. The quantities r and R are defined in Fig.10. are used (ERC/NSM) of the Ohio State University [Dixit for metal forming applications. the cylin- The calculation of true stress after the necking drical sample must be upset without any strain (Fig. Such a cor. et al.. Fig. for evaluation of Eq mation the flow stress is calculated at each 4. cable without corrections or errors. The load and displacement. the flat platens and the tion in tension than a material with a smaller n. [Lee et al. From this figure and from Eq 4. 2002].e. 4. where Eq The compression test is used to determine the 4. 4.7 Load-displacement curve obtained in uniform upsetting of annealed 1100 aluminum cylinders.11) for steel.3 Compression Test 4. titanium. and high-temperature alloys. and glass (Eq 4. i. however.

above the As discussed earlier the flow stress values de. ho and h are initial and instantaneous heights. shown in Fig.. the flow stresses of most metals (except that of lead) are only ho A slightly strain-rate dependent.13) accomplished by (a) using lubricants such as Tef- A lon. [Lee et al.15) dt hdt h curve obtained in the uniform compression test of aluminum alloy (Al 1100. Therefore. the dependent. whenever possible.14) or specimens with spiral grooves machined on both the flat surfaces of the specimen to hold the d¯e dh V lubricant (Fig. i. 4. 4. any e¯ ⳱ ln ⳱ ln (Eq 4.. stantaneous surface areas. or high-viscosity oil and (b) by using Rastegaev specimens (Fig. 4. 4. regardless of its ram speed. annealed) at room where V is instantaneous deformation velocity. L Adequate lubrication of the platens is usually r¯ ⳱ (Eq 4. Therefore.8. hot compression test.693 or more). Therefore.6). recrystallization temperature.8 Flow stress-strain curve for annealed 1100 aluminum obtained from uniform cylinder and ring upset tests. temperature in a testing machine is shown in Fig.7. is widely used to such that the condition e˙¯ ⳱ velocity/sample Fig. valid for the uniform compression test: At room temperature. A typical load-displacement e˙¯ ⳱ ⳱ ⳱ (Eq 4. molybdenum disulfide. which can be conducted with. 1972] . the following relationships are cations.e.12) testing machine or press can be used for the h Ao compression test. At hot working temperatures. compression tests are conducted on a machine out barreling up to about 50% reduction in that provides a velocity-displacement profile height (¯e ⳱ 0. 4.30 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Similar to the uniform elongation portion of obtain flow stress data for metal forming appli- the tensile test. and Ao and A are initial and in. respectively. The r-¯ ¯ e data obtained from this curve are respectively.6) A ⳱ Ao(e)e¯ (Eq 4. the flow stresses termined at high strains in the tensile test require of nearly all metals are very much strain-rate a correction because of necking.

. ● Spiral grooves machined at the flat ends of the specimen with approximately 0.008Ⳳ0.001 in. It has been deter- with appropriate lubricants—for example.0005 in. specifications for the specimens and the test con- Examples of hot-formed compression samples ditions are [Dahl et al. viz. at the end faces have a sig- nificant effect on the lubrication conditions.3. 1999]: are shown in Fig. 4. for example) are used for this pur.6a) Mechanical cam-activated presses called plas. 4. 4. the spiral specimen (Fig. serve the purpose of retaining the lubricant at ducted in a furnace or a fixture such as that the tool/workpiece interface during compression shown in Fig. Specimen with spiral grooves (Fig. 4. pression test. Ti-6Al-4V) . 4. used for the compression test.).9 Press setup and fixture used in heating and com- pression of cylinders and rings value at which the specimen retains cylin- Fig. The specimens are lubricated thus preventing barreling.6b).005 in. The the test temperature and then the test is initiated.9. the test is con. 4. The spiral grooves pose. specimens shown are of standard dimensions chines (MTS. There are two machining techniques that can ● Ends should be flat and parallel within be used for preparing the specimens for the com. ● Dimensions t0 ⳱ 0. so that the specimen remains cylindrical (due to radial pressure that the lubricant exerts on the ring). oil mined through tests conducted at the ERC/NSM graphite for temperatures up to 800 ⬚F (425 ⬚C) that Rastegaev specimens provide better lubri- and glass for temperatures up to 2300 ⬚F (1260 cation and hold their form better during testing ⬚C). Examples of high-tem- perature r-¯ ¯ e data are given in Fig. 4.0005 in.5Ⳳ0.01 in. The tometer or hydraulic programmable testing ma.0005 in.10 Uniform compression samples before and after deformation (left to right: AISI 1018 steel. Flow Stress and Forgeability / 31 height can be maintained throughout the test. depth. 4.4 (Fig. and uo ⳱ 0. The fixture and the specimens are heated to compared to the spiral grooved specimens.12. ● Rastegaev specimen ensures good lubrica- tion up to high strains of about 0. and the Rastegaev specimen (Fig.11 and 4. Rastegaev specimen (Fig. INCO 718.6a): ● Solid cylinder (diameter ⳱ 0.6b): ● Flat recesses at the ends should be filled with lubricant. nicks and burrs./in. ● to/uo ⳱ 0. ● Surface should be free of grooves. 4. 4.8 to 1. 4. In order to maintain nearly isothermal and and the recesses of the Rastegaev specimen uniform compression conditions.02Ⳳ0.75Ⳳ0.6b) for steels (optimum Fig.. 0.10.1 Specimen Preparation length ⳱ 0.

14). the difference in final height it is soft and deforms easily at room temperature. In order to ensure that a sured.32 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications drical shape up to maximum strain before 1.3. 1950.. 2. 4. 2002]: the data summarized in Table 4. They are tabulated in Table 4. The final heights of the lead to the axis of the cylindrical specimen.11 Flow stress versus strain and strain rate versus strain.386 mm. The samples were compressed in the tooling ment. and 1120 ⬚C) (tests were conducted in a mechanical press where strain rate was not constant). for type 403 stainless steel at 1800.2 Parallelism of the Press was calculated (Table 4. the load applied should be perpendicular (Fig. [Douglas et al. load is applied on the 4.1).2 mm) gave allelism for recent tests conducted at the ERC/ the ratio 0. The difference in tions. The specimen were numbered and positioned (or Testing Machine) Slides on the compression test die (Fig. diameter was cut into ap- bulging occurs). 1065. From NSM is described below [Dixit et al.. 4.2). From the difference in the height of two spec- parallelism measurement involves compressing imens and the distance between their loca- lead billets of the same height. 3. Lead is used since mens 1 and 2. of the press. uniaxial state of stress exists during the experi. 1975] .14). tance between their locations (60. A commonly used technique for 4. The height of each specimen was noted and an average value 4. For example. 4. Lead bar of 1 in. length. for speci- the parallelism of the platens. proximately 1 in.13 and In a compression test. and 2050 ⬚F (980.0064 mm/mm (Table 4. This calls blocks were determined using a digital cali- for measurement of the parallelism of the platens per. This value divided by the dis- The procedure followed for determining the par.1. the parallelism was determined as the heights of the lead billets is an indication of shown in Table 4. was 0. The distance between them was mea- billet using flat dies.2.2 and the ex- Fig.

and 2100 ⬚F (1065. for Waspaloy at 1950. 1975] . 1120. Figure 4.16(a) shows the ef- fect of friction on the end face of the billet. In order to categories [Dahl et al. 4.12 Flow stress versus strain and strain rate versus strain.01 was acceptable for conducting and the tools. of shear friction factors (m) and from experi- ever. 4. and 1150 ⬚C) (tests were conducted in a mechanical press where strain rate was not constant). The first and second type errors may be reduced Figure 4. The amount of barreling result in errors in the calculated strain ● Errors in the load readings. How.3. ment for one specimen. which result in (Fig.15 and 4. 1999]: correct the flow stress curve and to determine ● the percentage error in flow stress. reliable compression tests.16) of different specimens ex- errors in the calculated stress pressed by (H2 ⳮ H1) for the given height re- ● Errors in the processing of the data due to ductions during a particular compression test is barreling of the test specimens given in Table 4..3. [Douglas et al. tained from FE simulations for different values ducers and data acquisition equipment. it was concluded that a parallelism there is always friction between the specimen less than 0. When the load stroke pression cannot be entirely eliminated because curves are compared it can be seen that simu- Fig.3. which (FE) analysis is used. finite element Errors in the displacement readings.17 shows the load stroke curves ob- or eliminated by careful calibration of the trans.3 Errors in the Compression Test Flow Stress Due to Barreling Errors in the determination of flow stress by The maximum error in determining flow the compression test can be classified in three stress may be the result of friction. 4.4 Determination of Error in 4. Flow Stress and Forgeability / 33 periments.. barreling of the test specimens during com. 2050.

It should be culated for a given value of shear friction factor noted that the difference in the load remains the m. 4.. At several re- same throughout the stroke. An “apparent flow stress” curve can be cal. Appar.34 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications lations slightly overpredict the load. as follows [Dixit et al. greater ● The value of load and the associated diam- than zero is called apparent flow stress. [Dixit et al. 4.13 Distance between the billets that were placed inside the press.15) are noted. the mean diameter. A ent flow stress curves can be used to determine mean diameter is calculated as: (H1 Ⳮ H2)/ the error in flow stress obtained in experiments 2. 4. [Dixit et al. due to barreling at higher strains (e.g.0).. m. 2002] Fig. eters (H1 and H2 in Fig.14 Lead samples on the compression test die. 2002] ... 2002]. strain ⳱ ● The cross-sectional area is calculated using 1. Fig. ductions in height: The stress obtained from finite element sim- ulations with shear friction factor.

834) 1.0. with each element flowing radially friction factor m can be drawn as shown in outward at a rate proportional to its distance Fig.5594 (14. 4. by using this mathematical model of 3.0213 (25.0157 (25. For this pur- pose it is necessary to perform an analysis or a 1.9933 (25.0071 (25. the error in flow stress obtained from an experiment can be calculated with respect Table 4.59) 1. a later chapter. A graph of stress versus zero.5591 (14. 2 Specimen No. 4.0217 (25.85) 1. “apparent flow stress” increases.983) 0.. This strain of 1.0064 Parallelism between points 2 and 4 (mm/mm) 0.942) Final height.9937 (25.5596 (14.634) 0.5597 (14. With increasing deformation.0080 Parallelism between points 3 and 4 (mm/mm) 0. The changes in the external and internal ● A particular value of shear friction factor.9894 (25.18) as a percentage value at a strain of 1.4324 (10.8) 1.19) 0.95) Average 0. Thus. As the value of m increases.57) 1.5610 (14..83) 1. if the r-¯ ¯ e and the friction are unknown.4623 (11.4 Ring Test load at that height reduction and cross-sec- tional area (⳱ Load/Area).742) Source: [Dixit et al.217) 0. the from the center.0 as follows: r-¯ ¯ e data for practical applications.58) 1.21) 0.5591 (14. 2002] ● The “apparent stress” is calculated using the 4.0. If the friction were equal to with zero friction.22) 0.1 Height of the lead specimens used in tests conducted at the ERC/NSM Specimen No. the internal diameter of the ring is reduced if ● The barreling of the specimen at a strain of friction is large and is increased if friction is low.0075 (25.2 Parallelism between different points to the stress in the curve with m ⳱ 0 (Fig. in.21) Average 0. specimen at a strain of 1. By comparing the barreling of the actual the ring test. This method of estimating the friction above can be used to calculate the error in flow factor using the ring test is discussed in detail in stress obtained due to nonhomogenous defor.2) 0.83) 1.992 (25.18) 1. Thus.22) 1.0075 (25. Inversely.5587 (14.5587 (14.18.2) 0.5591 (14. Conduct cylinder compression tests until a mathematical simulation of the ring test.58) 1.0181 (25. the value of stress are known.0177 (25.0171 (25.4580 (11.23) 1.0232 (25. 4.5594 (14.86) 1.5591 (14. the “apparent flow stress” curves can Parallelism between points 3 and 1 (mm/mm) 0.0071 (25.2) 1. (mm) 0.5594 (14.2) 0.59) 1. 1 Specimen No. mation (barreling) during the tests at a strain of The ring test can also be used for determining 1.0 is noted down. 4.87) 0.0. 4 Initial height.0145 be generated for higher strains and the procedure Parallelism between points 1 and 4 (mm/mm) 0. in.19) 0.5610 (14.5610 (14.0035 can be repeated for estimating stress at that par- ticular higher strain.9913 (25. 4. 2002] .22) 0.21) 0.22) 0. 1972].0169 (25.21) 0.9) 0.0072 (25. 3 Specimen No. in the experiments can be noted..582) 1. that are shown in Fig. Parallelism between points 1 and 2 (mm/mm) 0.5594 (14.0236 (26) 0. Determine the amount of barreling in the curve.0185 (25. (original height/instantaneous height).13 4.369) 0.0019 If needed. the change in the internal diameter rep- resents a simple method for evaluating interface The “apparent flow stress” curves obtained friction. m.24) 1. The ring test consists of compressing a flat ● The value of strain is calculated as loge ring shaped specimen to a known reduction (Fig.2) Difference in height 0.13) 1.19). it is possible to calculate the r-¯ ¯ e specimen with the “apparent flow stress” curve if the load-stroke curve and the friction curves given in Fig.9929 (25.0169 (25.0096 Parallelism between points 2 and 3 (mm/mm) 0. diameters of the ring are very much dependent results in an “apparent flow stress” that is on the friction at the tool/specimen interface higher in magnitude than the value obtained [Lee et al. the ring would deform in the same way as strain plotted for different values of shear a solid disk. Source: [Dixit et al.99) 0.21) 0.0067 (25.5594 (14.4476 (11.0197 (25. simulation allows the prediction of a load-stroke 2. Flow Stress and Forgeability / 35 Table 4. (mm) 0. 1.213) 0.18.

In the torsion test.16 Compression test specimen showing the effects of s⳱ (Eq 4. The av.. Flow Stress Data tional speed.6 Representation of and gage length ⳱ l) is twisted at a given rota. (b) Front view. (a) Top view. Therefore. radial forging.. in the gage section is given below the recrystallization temperature. 2002] 4. are measured.e. where large strains are present. [Dixit et al. 4. is: rh c⳱ (Eq 4.36 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. 4. A typical r-¯ ¯ e curve.18) barreling.5 Torsion Test and c ⳱ 兰dy ⳱ 冪3兰d¯e ⳱ 冪3e (Eq 4.18 and 4.15 Finite element model.16) 2pr2t The shear strain. i. (b) Barreling at 50% reduction. is similar to that shown in Fig. h (in radians). in by: the cold forming range. or pilger rolling. 4. (a) Before compression. 4. obtained at temperatures erage shear stress. [Dixit et al. c. a notched tube (internal radius ⳱ r. wall thickness at the notched portion ⳱ t.19 are obtained from the it is used when r¯ must be known for forming von Mises flow rule.. 冪3 2002] . Equation 4.19) The torsion test can be used to obtain the r¯ data at higher strains up to e¯ ⳱ 2 to 4. operations such as extrusion.7.17) l Torsion test results can be correlated with the uniform tensile or compression results as fol- lows: r¯ Fig. the torque T and the number of rotations. which is discussed later. s. Here the strain hardening is pro- T nounced and the r¯ for most materials is not ap- s⳱ (Eq 4.

4. when tested at room tempera. 4.4008 10.18 0.. forms of stress-strain curves for room-tempera- pacity and q is density.33 0.19 0.4846 12. mm in..11 and 4. values limited region of strain can often be given by of r¯ are higher for stronger materials.0110 0. peratures.20 [Thomsen et al. r¯ versus e¯ increases first. 4. decreasing temperature. Obviously.12 1. In that case. Some of these are: ture in the work hardening range. are not af- fected by moderate strain rates.88 0. c is the heat ca. matic diagram of Fig. 2002] . i. ture forming.785 Source: [Dixit et al.91 0. cold forming have been sug- Most materials.28 0.4083 10. [Dixit et al. most r-¯ ¯ e curves are similar to those Approximate stress-strain relationships for a given in Fig.0047 0.0.0051 0.3890 9.1 0. h.12 0.3508 8.17 Load stroke curves obtained from experiment and finite element simulations. mm Strain 1 0. In all tests..0276 0. At hot working tem.3311 8.14. the speed Ludwik: r¯ ⳱ a Ⳮ b(¯e)c (Eq 4. then decreases be.21 is illustrated graphically in Fig.13 0..11 0. a temperature increase.3929 9. At cold exponential equation of the form: forming temperatures. hence.4 to 4. the test temperature is not r¯ when e¯ ⳱ 1. It should be noted that other where A is a conversion factor. Dh.22) Table 4.4799 12.25 0. and K ⳱ softening. 4.20 that at small strains.4067 10.6 for various metals.27 0.3 Barreling of the compression test specimen Diameter at the top surface H1 Diameter at center H2 Barreling H2 ⴑ H1 Specimen No.3980 10. other values on n and K may be specified for A¯er¯ different ranges of effective strain.24 0. of loading need not be controlled too closely.710 3 0. e˙¯ .0047 0.550 2 0. It may be noted from the sche- constant in a strict sense.41 0. in. At hot working tem- peratures.37 0.4114 10.785 7 0. Flow Stress and Forgeability / 37 preciably affected by e˙¯ . Typical val- Dh ⳱ (Eq 4. gested. The slope of the cause of internal heat generation and thermal curve on the log-log coordinates is n.31 0.21) e¯ larger than 0.3618 9. formation. takes an experimentally determined curve may depart place.3984 10.45 0.790 8 0.8 or 1.e.4035 10. This can be estimated as: from the curve given by Eq 4.736 6 0. 1965]. Because of plastic de. r¯ increases with increas- ing e¯ and reaches a saturation stress at values of r¯ ⳱ K(¯e)n (Eq 4.0039 0. r¯ increases with increasing e¯˙ and with where K and n are constants.0083 0.98 0.370 4 0.4031 10.3283 8.34 0.20) cq ues of n and K are given in Tables 4. At constant Equation 4.19 0. mm in.12 0.21 0.12.07 0.120 5 0.0106 0. 2002] Fig.

b. c 艑 1. This the stress where strains are small (⬍0. [Dixit et al. 2002] Fig. (a) Schematic of metal flow. 4. Fig. 4. annealed materials..18 Apparent flow stress for curves for tested specimens. (b) Example rings upset to various reductions in height .19 The ring test. and c are arbitrary constants.2) and to form approximates the stress-strain curves for overestimate the actual stress for larger strains.38 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications where a. but tends to underestimate For heavily prestrained materials.

179 special 302 SS 0.25 A 68 20 1.019 0.1 0.057 0.67 0.2–1.10 1015(d) 0.05 0.16 1060 A 68 20 1.14 0.2–0.25 iron 1006 0.004 A 68 20 (c) 0.51 0.019 0. but is not suitable for use that C and m would have different values at a in analysis because of its complexity.37 HR.4 Summary of K and n values describing the flow stress-strain relation.11 1020 0.6 113.55 0. the most use of a constant average value for r¯ is justified.2–1. (e) Approximate composition.025 0.006 0.5 157.7 91.032 0.7 210.2 17.0 111.A 390 200 30 0.1–0. so This gives a good fit.26 0.49 12.21.030 1.1 0.6 115.22 0.06 0.7 103.46 11.6 0.27 A 68 20 (c) 0.7 120.25 A 572 300 1.016 Tr F.1–0.45 0.023 0.2 0. for various steels Tempera.6 73.7 92.7 95.3 0.1–0.40 0.40 0.7 0.008 0.38 0.21 0.7 130.03 A 68 20 (c) 0.19 0.2 0.31 0.278 HR.27 0.7 108.14 A 572 300 1.15 0.1–0.25 A 68 20 1.045 0.6 0.6 0.1–0.69 0.24 0.17 1010 0.6 0.37 0.5 0.2 0.60 0.8 0.27 0.25–0.42 1.6 116.02 0.027 0. Flow Stress and Forgeability / 39 Voce: r¯ ⳱ a Ⳮ [b ⳮ a]*[1 ⳮ exp(ⳮc¯e)] r¯ ⳱ C(¯e˙ )m (Eq 4.47 A 68 20 (c) 0.7 0. commonly used expression is: If e¯ and e˙¯ are not accurately known.28 0.041 0.A 32 0 30 0.11 A 68 20 1.007 A 68 20 (c) 0.7 through 4.17 A 68 20 1.16 5140 0.7 126.25–0.49 9.6 123. Strain K.1 2.56 0.08 1.06 0.06 0.4 0.28 0.16 1045(d) 0.1–0.116 1015 0.6 137.09 A 572 300 1.093 0.36 0.004 A 68 20 (c) 0.6 126.6 18.8 0.3 0. maximum forming load.7 125. As ex- amples.128 steel W1-1.15 5120(e) 0.1–0.36 0.71 A 68 20 (c) 0.053 1.5 137.15 A 68 20 1. Steel C Mn P S Si N Al V Ni Cr Mo W history(b) F C 1/s range 103 psi n Armco 0.8 A 68 20 (c) 0.9 18.0 0.295 HR.25) (Eq 4. given temperature for various strains. % ture Material rate.7 95.6 122.6 112.4 0.6 304 SS(e) 0.31 0.8 0.8 0.23) The coefficients C and m of this curve would be obtained at various temperatures and strains.21 0.23 0.030 0.7 210. In such practical cases.2 0. Strain Composition(a).9 0.12 2317(e) 0. cient to specify an average or maximum value However. For predicting forces and stresses in prac- tical forming operations. .75 0.016 0. (c) Low-speed testing machine.40 0.2–1.1–0..22 1015 0.09 A 572 300 1.07 A 68 20 (c) 0.170 5115 0.0 0. r¯ ⴔ K(¯e)n. (d) Composition given is nominal (analysis not given in original reference). (b) A ⳱ annealed.7 89.7 0.7 88.08 0.16 18.33 13.140 1015(d) 0.045 0.24) given in Tables 4.028 0.A 32 0 10 0.7 A 68 20 (c) 0.8 A 68 20 (c) 0. F ⳱ forged.41 0.02 0.023 0.7 0.279 302 SS 0.6 133.010 Tr A 68 20 (c) 0.11 A 572 300 1.12 D2 tool 1.6 139.13 0.045 0.40 0.016 Tr F.08 0.2 A 68 20 1. 1973].042 Tr 0.04 0.012 0. C and m values for some metals are Swift: r¯ ⳱ c(a Ⳮ e¯ )n (Eq 4.0C 1.026 0.7 186.13 0.03 0.020 0.86 A 68 20 (c) 0.53 0.1–0.2–0.31 1008 0.6 163.157 steel(e) L6 tool 0.18 A 68 20 1.1–0.022 0.037 0.005 0.6 0.20 1035 0.45 0.1–0.1–0.01 0.35 1.3 0.045 0.59 A 68 20 (c) 0.29 0.A 390 200 30 0. For strain-rate-sensitive materials.055 0.0 135.043 Tr 0.2–1.47 10.59 410 SS 0.9 0.09 A 68 20 1.014 0.60 1. very often it is suffi- This is a more realistic equation than Eq 4.55 0.9 0.6 102.8 0.15 0.045 0.05 0.7 140.5 0.021 0.045 0.09 431 SS 0.017 0.70 0.24 0.11 [Altan et al.016 A 68 20 (c) 0.72 16.1–0.2 0.A 750 400 30 0.07 0. algebraic manipulations resulting of r¯ to be used in equations for predicting the from such an expression may be difficult.1 0.09 A 572 300 1.1–0.1–0.015 0.15 0.92 0.5 0.27 10.010 0.23 0.4 0.01 0.15 1050(e) 0.6 316 SS 0.0 191.3 0.11 (a) Tr ⳱ trace.7 182.031 0.1 0.005 A 68 20 (c) 0.027 0.18 A 68 20 1. HR ⳱ hot rolled.8 0.65 0.7 119.7 189.16 A 68 20 (c) 0.4 0.44 0. no specific rate given.1–0.0 170.6 98.023 0.004 A 68 20 (c) 0.023 0.7 0. then the Table 4.6 147.05 A 68 20 (c) 0.7 115.25–0.15 0.18 1.32 A 68 20 (c) 0.0062 0.14 1.

(b) Low-speed testing machine.6 Tr 39. The men temperature varies during the test and is data given in Table 4.0012 0.25–0.8 49.373 CDA260 70.01 A(c) 68 20 4 0. in Table 4.8 22.13 A 68 20 4 0.8 29.2–1. % ture Material rate.1 0.20 Effective stress versus effective strain curve in log- log scale Table 4.0 103.0 0.412 CDA260 70.0 45.2–1.23 0.01 0. In these tests the ring dimensions are temperatures are given for a few materials in also important.01 0. Strain K.2–1.63 0.9 0.A 0. (b) Tr ⳱ trace.63 0.336 (a) CDA ⳱ Copper Development Association.2–1.23 2.5 2. (d) Approximate composition.50 0.0025 0.01 0.01 0.5 0.7 65.13 [Douglas et al.0 29.74 0.0 9.2–1.05 A 68 20 (b) 0.8 29.297 EC 99. .08 68 20 (b) 0.3 36.10 were obtained from uni.68 0.036 0.14 A(e) 68 20 4 0. whereas that the ring.2–0.40 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications value of C in Eq 4.6 Tr 17.01 0.0 76. (d) Low-speed testing machine.50 0.3 0.2–1.06 A 68 20 (b) 0.2–1.2 0.7 Tr 20.01 0.486 CDA647 97.15 0. 1975].7 71.8 0.9 0..12 0.7 0. A ⳱ annealed.5 Summary of K and n values describing the flow stress-strain relation. because the average ring speci- Tables 4.154 5052 Rem 0.1 0.6 Summary of K and n values describing the flow stress-strain relation.2–0.4 0. % ture Material rate.7 68 20 A (d) 0.0 115.4 0.2–1.0012 0.275 CDA230 84.0 0.2–1.01 0.2–0.2–1.056 A 68 20 (b) 0. Alloy Al Cu Si Fe Mn Mg Zn Ti Cr Pb history(a) F C 1/s range 103 psi n 1100 99.7 0.77 4.122 (a) CD ⳱ cold drawn.25 may be used as an ap.8 0.15 0.180 2024(d) Rem 4.137 6062 Rem 0.131 5454 Rem 0. no specific rate given.6 0.2 0.05 Tr Tr Rem 390 200 HR.01 0. A ⳱ annealed. r¯ ⴔ K(¯e)n.2–1. (e) Approximate composition.0 67.A 32 0 10 0.60 0. (c) HR ⳱ hot rolled. for various copper alloys Tempera- Strain Composition(b).092 0.7 68 20 A (d) 0.01 CD.0 68 20 F (d) 0.04 0.3 15.4 68 20 A (d) 0.12 and 4.0 17.394 CDA377 58.94 0. r¯ ⴔ K(¯e)n.6 1.10 0.5 0. F ⳱ forged. Alloy(a) Cu Si Fe Sb Sn Zn S Pb Ni F C history(c) 1/s range 103 psi n CDA110 99.22 0.3 0.03 A 68 20 (b) 0.2 68 20 A (d) 0.2–1.7 68 20 A (d) 0.5 0.1 22.25–0.7 57. no specific rate given.19 0.130 5083 Rem 0.0003 0.16 0.328 CDA110 68 20 F (d) 0.0 107.22 0.068 0.0 101.134 5052(d) Rem 0.41 0.401 CDA794 61.45 0.0 0.04 2.5 68 20 A (d) 0. Strain K.10 0.0 68 20 F (d) 0.09 0.002 A(e) 68 20 4 0.03 0.003 A(e) 68 20 4 0.18 0.55 0.20 0.01 0.13 0.204 2017 Rem 4.033 0. (e) Annealed for 4 h at 788 F (420 C) Table 4.001 64 18 HR.189 5056 Rem 0.414 CDA272 63.065 0.334 CDA521(e) 91.0 55.16 0.8 65.2–1.0 54.45 ⬍0.026 0.0 0.70 0.04 4.76 0.12 0.01 0.2 0.2–1. (c) Annealed for 4 h at 752 F (400 C).10 0.0 0.25–0.16 0.002 0.2 0.05 12. Fig.065 0.0 98.13 were obtained from nonisothermal proximation for r.7 25. ¯ Such values for hot working ring tests.83 0. influenced by the heat transfer and thickness of form isothermal compression tests.4 ⬍0.282 CDA757 65.87 1. for various aluminum alloys Tempera- Strain Composition.81 2.A 2.46 0. 4.304 1100 Rem 0.7 0.10 0.20 0.0 56.48 0.0 130.2–0.2–0.

119 9.7 0.24 Si.5 0.032 17.07 15.9 0.054 S.50 41.7 0.1 0.26 Si.153 Si. for steels at various temperatures (C is in 103 psi) Material Strain rate Steel history range.9 0. 0.191 0.7 0.128 12.21 as received Test temperature. F (C): 1110 (600) 1470 (800) 1830 (1000) 2190 (1200) 1055 Forged.8 0.8 0.56 C. 0.5 0.023 0.181 7.6 0.4 0. 0.1 0. F (C): 1110 (600) 1470 (800) 1830 (1000) 2190 (1200) 1015 Forged.191 7.6 0.0 0.8 0.9 0. 0. 0.6 0.092 13. 0.077 0.075 9.6 0. F (C): 1705 (930) 1830 (1000) 1940 (1060) 2075 (1135) 2190 (1200) 1115 Hot rolled.8 0.171 0.0 0.179 9. 0.100 8.7 0. 0.184 100 C.082 16.097 16.3 0.196 (continued) (a) Approximate composition.013 0.114 17. 0.164 0.68 annealed 0.50 21.124 9.0 0.3 0.1 0.089 11.3/0.4 40. 0.50 23.1 0.8 0.112 16.0 0. 0.0 0.151 8.4 0.6 0.068 5. 0.4 0.123 12.9 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.105 16.099 16.4 0.3 0.6 0.099 9.141 8.0 0.4 0.149 7.133 16.30 23.7 0.5 0. F (C): 1650 (900) 1830 (1000) 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) 1060(a) Hot rolled.20 1025 Forged.8 0.7 Summary of C (ksi) and m values describing the flow stress-strain rate relation.7 0.088 13.9 0.2 0.9 0.70 41.5 0.082 8.188 Test temperature.013 P.30 21.148 0.5–30 0.20 21.1 0.099 18.025 P 0.158 8.7 10.04 Ni 0.121 0. 0.145 10.119 16.1 0.032 17.7 0.159 7.1 0. F (C): 1650 (900) 1830 (1000) 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) 1045(a) 0.8 0.3 0.181 Test temperature.8 0.124 7.146 13.143 8.012 P. 1/s Strain C m C m C m C m C m Test temperature.17 annealed 0.147 11.4 ⳮ0. 0. 0.9 0.127 11. trace Si. 0.3 0.2 36.8 0.127 12.5 0.2 0.122 13. 0.110 16.73 annealed 32.058 6.110 15.3 0.198 7.2 0.127 12.5 23.088 13.6 0.098 12.55 C.25 C.1–100 0.156 7.165 Mn.1 0.60 22.083 24.08 Si.196 Test temperature.8 0.143 10.5 0.1 0.146 8.080 9.0 0.4 0.189 0.4 0.25 19.090 14.25 33.05 11.112 9.114 21.084 15.100 12.143 9.237 6.7 0. 0.9 0.5–100 0.107 10.6 ⳮ0.159 8.169 0.016 S 32. 4.125 12.6 0. 0.168 Mn.085 18.146 8.192 9. 0.108 15.56 C.164 0.122 Mn.128 13.161 6.178 Mn.6 23.0 0.157 P.100 9.2 0.5 0.9 0.045 7.68 annealed 0.2 0.08 Cr.193 7.094 17. 0. 3.695 20.1 16.8 0.127 11.205 0.132 11.5 0.7 39. 0.167 0.1 0.10 18.17 C.9 0.4 0.112 0.3 0.8 0.191 6.141 0. 0.4 0.7 0.28 0.3 0.218 1016 Hot rolled. 0.8 0.4 0.021 S.6 0.8 0.3 0.138 10.10 18.115 9.135 8. 0. Flow Stress and Forgeability / 41 Table 4.080 15.40 35. 0. 0.114 16. 0.8 0.1 0.204 1095(a) Hot rolled.150 9. 0.130 15.150 0. 0.9 0.134 15.143 0.3 22.2 0.09 Ni 0.8 0.157 Mn.176 0.0 0.2 0.085 13.26 Si.190 0.5 0.6 0.133 10.50 23.004 16.6 0.1 0. 0.7 0.180 0.027 S.30 35.8 0.0 0.40 annealed 0.131 0.12 Si.183 Mn.2 0.4 23.6 0.0 0.20 33.8 0. 0.7 0. 0.138 8. 1.125 12.9 0.3 0.5 0.180 0.5 0.28 annealed 0.4 0.168 8.5 0.15 C.2 0.5 0.7 0.229 Test temperature.5 0.082 18.15 C.62 as 0.145 0.45 annealed 0.105 12.7 22. 0.3 0. 1.73 0.109 9.209 P.158 Mn.087 14.6 0.1 0. 0.082 18.103 13.30 22.3 0.70 21.1 0.2–30 0.086 22. .130 7. 0.153 Mn. 1.9 0.05 25.034 S.123 7.032 P received 0.7 0.162 10.7 0.018 P.5–100 0.8 0.088 18.4 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.9 0.10 18.10 28.4 0.129 8.2 0.09 Ni 0.29 Si.014 S.093 14.9 0.126 8.232 Test temperature.9 0.01 Mo.70 21.126 9.40 23.4 0.8 0.19 Si.8 0.176 7.46 C.1 0.151 10.2 0.10 16.5 21.104 18.126 7. 0. 0.076 13.147 7.140 0.8 0.5/0.090 12.127 13. 3. r¯ ⴔ C(¯e˙ )m. 0. F (C): 1650 (900) 1830 (1000) 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) 1016 Hot rolled. 0.5–30 29. 0.1 0.128 10.016 S 0.01 P.8 0.4 0. 0.8 0.8 0.161 10.105 17.1 0.169 8.223 19.109 12.025 S 0.5 0. 0.137 Mn.6 0.094 Mn.125 9.2 20.3 0.118 16.2 0.1 0.10 Cr.7 0.15 C.3 0.8 0. 0.12 Si.034 S.5 0.6 0.512 20.108 10. 0.09 Ni 0.5 0.139 12.084 18.147 8.12 Cr.014 S.105 1043 Hot rolled.127 13.0 0.12 Cr.099 13.5 0.2 0.9 0.4 0.9 0.172 0.70 21. 0.338 20.173 0.105 24.7 0. 0. 0.116 0.0 0.7 0.175 0. 0.128 10.117 6.132 8.3 0.066 11.9 0. 0.173 10.129 17.5 0.7 0.05 16.132 14.166 7.4 0.4 0.025 P 0.014 P.4–23. 0.50 23.5–100 0.117 11.1 0.104 17.6 40.129 16.1 0.087 18.109 18.2 0.105 16.5 0.8 0.2 0. F (C): 1600 (870) 1800 (980) 2000 (1090) 2200 (1205) 2150 (1180) 1018 25.8 0.133 12.6 0.3 0.70 23.5 0.4 0.30 23.189 0.1 0.152 11.207 1060(a) 0.

178 0.193 P.094 13.145 14.140 10.2 0.041 S.20 19.27 Si. 4.1 19. F (C): 1290 (700) 1510 (820) 1650 (900) 1830 (1000) H-13 290–906 0. 0.374 0.6 0.9 0.181 0.038 S.8 0.3 0. 0.150 11.104 20.5 0.1 0.135 0.06 Mo 50100(a) 0. 0.39 C.0 0.40 19.184 7. 0.158 7.4 25.0 0.3 0.4 0.70 28.5 0.5–100 0.106 11.1 0. 1.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.232 10.087 29.8 0.1 0.115 8.118 23.33 0.6 0.7 0.5–100 0.00 C. 0.6 0.35 C.184 0.6 0.61 C.1 0.74 Si.7 0.3 31.125 0.30 49.269 1.100 9.137 12.155 8. 1. 0.112 17.3 0.3 0.8 0.153 11.50 25.295 Mn. 0.02 Si.1 0.9 0.6 0.094 19. 1/s Strain C m C m C m C m C m Test temperature.5 0.6 0.3 0.59 Mo 926(a) Hot rolled.61 C.148 12.1 0.30 25.206 0.19 Si.0 0. 0. 0.9 0.134 12.1 0.20 23.60 0. 0.5 0.098 15.0 0.166 Mn.46 annealed 0.58 Si.35 C.8 0.159 0.305 6. 0.127 12.1 0. 0.0 0.5 0.4 0.150 28.178 P.151 Ni.6 0.139 P.7 0.9 0.287 11.179 0.4 0.9 0.038 S. 0.150 7.9 0.4 0.1 0.5 0. 0.108 21.120 13.7 0.8 0.50 44.111 11.102 23.05 19.54 V (continued) (a) Approximate composition.6 0.8 0. F (C): 1650 (900) 1830 (1000) 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) H-26(a) Hot rolled.162 W.135 16.1 0.373 4.192 Test temperature.7 0.191 Mn.9 0.05 16.27 Ni.8 0.5 0. 0.4 0.30 19.7 0.7 0.179 13. 0.143 27.40 22. 0.0 0.8 0.096 33.9 0. 0.148 7.3 0. 0.7 0.8 0.10 22.102 15.7 0.9 0.2 0.1 0.50 25.104 15.94 0.2 30.1 0.143 8.2 0.142 8.1 0. 0.8 0.142 17.2 0. 0.023 S.42 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 4.131 11.088 19.55 Mo.50 27.119 9.0 0.2 0.155 12.144 28.2 0.105 10.4 0.2 0.131 22.2 0.0 0.7 0.125 9.134 11.109 17. 0.209 0.5 0.134 16.30 28.1 0.2 0.188 0.5–100 0.5 0.45 Ni.121 2.155 11.7 0.30 24. 0.40 26.40 0.189 Mn.101 27.130 0.66 annealed 0.134 11.60 26.072 26.5 0.122 9.6 0.138 Mn.9 0.8 0.2 0.27 Si.3 0.035 0.131 16.158 16.8 0.016 P.100 14.70 20.144 9.5 0.10 46. .112 10.126 9.341 9.8 0.7 0.295 12.4 0.1 0.162 11.182 0.108 Test temperature.70 24.18 0.161 0.109 12. 0.5 0. 0.1 0.121 8.123 14.32 annealed 0.179 7.2 0.35 Mo.199 0.080 21.147 0.132 14.130 17.09 Ni 0.7 0.168 10.8 0.7 0.5 0.094 17. 0.10 Cr. 0.179 15. 1.40 27.41 Cr.04 Ni.171 Mn.80 C.0 0.05 19.7 0.143 8.5 0.5 0.6 0.077 20.117 14.131 15. 1.8 0.164 0.0 0. 0.50 29. 5.124 20.102 12.228 Cr-Si steel 0.8 0.037 0.149 Mn.023 0.47 C.2 0. 8.160 P.20 25.10 39.029 0.4 0.203 1.106 18.60 25.267 S.4 0.8 0. 0.141 9.1 0.43 Si.101 20.8 0.2 0.30 27.119 19. 18.095 14.11 Ni. 3.0 0. 0.23 C.146 11.035 0.155 26.091 19.5 0.17 Ni 0.125 18.3 0.132 18.59 Cr.4 0.178 7.125 18.30 Cr.70 23.70 39.29 Cr.58 0.115 27.5 0.10 18.0 0.1 0.1 0. 0.0 0. 0.114 14. 2.141 8.4 0.70 25.2 0.8 0.199 1. 0.9 0.169 6. F(C): 1650 (900) 1830 (1000) 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) Mn-Si steel 0.075 38.111 10.7 0. 0. 1.150 12.7 0.107 17.27 Ni.20 20.0 0.70 25.12 Cr.212 0. 0.1 0.139 0. 1.6 0.3 0.9 0.28 Mo 0. 0.027 S.155 12.6 0.9 0.1 0. 1.106 14.0 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.123 14.108 19.107 13.165 0.162 Mn.0 0.160 25. 1.174 0.6 0.121 18.121 18.165 4337(a) Hot rolled.145 15.5 0.125 14.60 21.17 0.220 52100 Hot rolled.06 C.1 0.151 8.101 13.113 19.03 Cr.3 0.83 V Test temperature.182 0.142 9. 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.6 0.120 16.099 19.9 0.031 0.182 0.30 21.275 8.109 14.37 annealed 0.9 0.28 Si.8 0.105 14.162 8.6 0. 0.60 17.49 0.160 11. 0.126 10.50 27.0 0.5 0.30 28.027 N.087 26.146 9.108 11.4 0.8 0.1 0.9 0.8 0.30 43.124 Ni 0. 0. 1.70 16. 1.080 16.096 15.108 20.5–100 0.164 6.139 13.235 0.122 11.107 17.1 0.10 22.3 0.019 S. 0.163 10.199 D3(a) Hot rolled.5–100 0.50 18.135 15.087 30.05 16.140 Mn.168 0.10 19. F (C): 1650 (900) 1830 (1000) 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) Alloy steel 0.5 0.092 19.1 0.0 0.4 0.075 21.020 0.154 9. 0.5 0.7 0.1 0.2 0.131 16.149 13.5 0.4 0.58 Si.0 0.204 12.183 6.163 23.9 0. 1.6 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.161 0.152 8.155 8.112 10.3 0.10 Cr.7 0.114 21.121 18.6 0.20 Cr 20 Ni 0.10 22. 0.2 0.94 annealed 0. 0.10 19.8 0. 0.5 0. 13.136 25.9 0.175 6.10 20.162 10.058 37.4 0.22 Si.172 7. 0.114 20.091 14.0 0. 0.7 (continued) Material Strain rate Steel history range.6 0.5 0.50 39.70 33.152 11.7 0.093 14. 0.06 Mo 0.139 9.3 0.112 18.3 0.50 21.133 P.265 10.130 Mn.305 11.7 0. 0.167 10.9 0.12 Cr.5 0.129 12.1 0.176 9.167 P.8 0.1 0. 0.131 13.1 0.9 0.2 0.8 0.7 0.112 11.1 0.5 0.3 0.9 0.9 0.

284 4.12 C.7 0.71 Si.095 30.3 0. 0. 310–460 0.161 0. 0.4 0.2 0. 12. 0.7 0.4 0.161 4. 1.6 0.5 0. 12.008 0.014 0.105 Mn.165 Test temperature.40 35.079 8.102 18.026 21.082 11. F (C): 1600 (870) 1700 (925) 1800 (980) 2000 (1095) 2100 (1150) Maraging 300 43.212 9.080 32.3 0.5 0.70 28. 1/s Strain C m C m C m C m C m Test temperature. 0.068 26.6 0.067 11.1 0.076 9.177 Mn.022 40.206 4.25 50.117 7.082 0.2 0.25 40.06 annealed 0.005 0.145 18.053 13. 1.25 26.115 0.2 0.30 Cr.08 C. 0.45 Mo SS Hot rolled.43 Si.02 N.093 20.29 annealed 0.089 12.082 17.024 P.114 0.03 P.25 52.069 17.113 21.099 8.7 0.07 C.08 C.40 45.5 0.99 Cr.1 0.042 26.162 26. 1.188 4.9 0.128 28.023 42.6 0.016 0. 0.6 0. 12.99 Ni 310 SS Hot drawn. 0. 0. 0.4 0.93 Al.007 0.158 7.25 28.12 Si.097 9. 0.052 13.60 17.4 0. 0. 0.080 32.074 9. 0.009 P. .60 63.9 0.2 0.023 P.1 0.7 0.8 0.284 Mn.254 S.8 0. 0.037 P.178 Mn.2 0.5 0.5 0.096 22.1 0. 0.16 C.157 0.11 Cr.096 Ni Test temperature.8–100 0.5 0.0 0.050 13.149 6.2 0.089 13.2 0.068 15. 0.074 19.70 24.107 S.70 37.5 0.50 29.13 C.031 P. 2.7 0.154 0.05 24.155 S. F (C): 1110 (600) 1470 (800) 1830 (1000) 2190 (1200) 301 SS(a) Hot rolled. 310–460 0.1 0.8 0.005 0.0 0.16 0.01 P.5 0.129 11.204 0.1 0.50 Ni.5–100 0.115 0.035 P.5 0.7 0.118 0.227 Mn. 18.073 11. 16.142 7.2 0. 0.079 0.005 0.6 0.3 0.121 13.101 12.9 0.0 0. 200–525 0.5 0.96 Ni.326 S.56 Ni 302 SS Hot rolled.127 Mn. 0.40 28.10 annealed 0.032 24.5 0. 0.6 0.6 0.091 11.092 19.138 3.8 0. F (C): 2200 (1205) Maraging 300 12.117 Mn. 9.60 Cr.4 0.062 17.40 56.094 14.3 0.7 0.52 Si. 0.50 26. 17.9 0.1 0. 0.2 0.23 Ni. 3.1 0.020 41.25 39. 0.5 0.9 0.60 34.143 10.139 0.9 0.49 Si.5 0.142 22.25 13.6 0.3 0.3 0.147 25.25 26.5 0.110 0.5 0.3 0. 0.084 19. 1.108 13.8 0.31 Ni Test temperature.34 Cr.5 0.30 annealed 0.50 39.44 annealed 0.281 0. 1.9 0.7 0.4 0.090 15.079 13.317 8.031 25.8–100 0.184 0.3 0.023 16. 12.031 36.6 0. 0.37 Cr.072 25.9 0. 0.37 Si.8–100 0. 7.50 22.3 0.042 23.10 28.70 33.56 annealed 0.8 0.3 0. Flow Stress and Forgeability / 43 Table 4.8 0.040 12. 0.60 48.31 Mo.051 16.70 23.063 16.7 0.0 0.9 0.42 Si.127 27. 0.131 S. 0. 0.128 30. 6.62 Cr SS Hot rolled.076 16.0 0.145 34.60 61.263 22.1 0. 0.4 0. 9.079 15.192 S.2 0. 22.25 19. 0. 0.310 S.6 0.091 S.4 0.1 0.6 0.005 0.6 0. 1.093 19. 18.077 36. 0.060 27.152 Mn.3 0.20 33.158 37.185 (a) Approximate composition.067 21.185 S. 0.40 58.009 0.7 (continued) Material Strain rate Steel history range.60 39.7 0.3 0.40 annealed 0.12 C.7 0.17 Mo 403 SS Hot rolled. 0.153 30.014 P. 21.270 45. 0.9 0.120 Ni 0. F (C): 1110 (600) 1470 (800) 1830 (1000) 2190 (1200) 1650 (900) 309 SS Hot drawn.5–30 0.45 Si. 0.2–30 0.0 0.6 0.102 6.8 0.07 C.8 0. F (C): 1650 (900) 1830 (1000) 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) 302 SS 1.8 0.5 0.120 Test temperature. 25.1 0.0 0. 18.175 Mn.40 31.2 0.07 annealed 0.70 64.8 0.6 0.4 0.0 0.063 Se 302 SS Hot rolled.093 9.8 0.38 Cr. 0.3 0.9 0. 0.4 0.7 0.08 C.43 annealed 0.3 0. 0.108 7.8 0.098 9.5 0.6 0.4 0.50 35.098 14.93 Si.48 0.5 0.2 0. 310–460 0.0 0.365 6.083 Mn.28 Ni 316 SS Hot drawn.25 Cr.9 0. 1.70 0.435 7.6 0.49 Cr.102 13. 0.125 7.067 18.133 6.30 35.031 24.4 0.6 0.26 Si.1 0. 0.055 26.030 24.06 C. 17.

0.01 Cu. 0.2 0. F (C): 750 (400) 840 (450) 930 (500) 1020 (550) 7075(a) Solution treated 0.12 Si.7 0.098 2.3 0.068 5.25–40 99.8 0.40 44. 4. water 2.7 0.2 0.100 9.01 Zn.01 Zn.7 0.6 ⳮ0.090 4.3 0.25–63 0.132 2.182 2.01 Zn.155 Mn.20 43. 0.3 0. 0.168 0.5 0. 0.1 0.80 17.032 20.80 13.5 0.128 5.6 0.50 11. 0.9 0. 4–40 0.014 14.5 Al 0.035 9. F (C): 465 (240) 645 (360) 825 (480) 5052 Annealed 3 h at 0.7 0.70 45.080 6.055 3.2 0.2 0.9 0.050 4.01 Zn. 0.3 0.002 Ti.1 0.83 Mg.8 0.0 0.6 ⳮ0.003 18.035 7.20 33.60 16.01 quenched Pb.20 Si.40 43. 92.201 0.66 9.8 Summary of C (ksi) and m values describing the flow stress-strain rate relation.0 ⳮ0.7 0. 0.038 9.8 0. 0.105 9.9 ⳮ0.60 13.0 0.13 Cr. 0.7 0.4 0.5 ⳮ0.3 0. 0. 0.250 34.6 0.0 0.067 6.100 7.134 0.04 Mn.695 9.3 0. quenched.115 2.169 0. 0.4 0.2–30 94.191 0.2 0.5 0.8 0.155 Test temperature.2 0.110 4.31 Cu.161 Test temperature. 0.6 ⳮ0.9 0.138 11.1 0.1 0.156 0.110 6.223 13.45 Mg 0.60 41. 0.44 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 4. Rem Al 0.4–311 89.0026 Si. 0.660 10. 0.038 12.5 0.8 0.005 16.7 0.2 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.115 6.3 0.3 0.6 0. 0.110 5.1 0.80 water 2.8 0. 0.5 0. 0.75 Zn.14 Cr.183 Test temperature.092 Si.150 2. 0.071 4.60 44. 0.5 0.147 3.4 0.1 0. 0.01 Zn. 790 F 0. 5.8 0.9 0.98 Al.230 0. .144 10.130 Mn.068 Cu.9 0.17 Cu.021 11.15 Si.115 10. 1 h at 950 F.034 20. at 1110 F 2.338 15.6 0.8 0.2 0.100 2.0033 Fe.9 0.25–63 0.130 0.3 0.41 Fe. at 750 F 0.3 0.61 Si. 0.2 0.0 Al (min).20 42.500 32.288 5.031 19.224 Test temperature. 0.6 0.9 ⳮ0.50 Fe.01 Zn.095 9.215 0.009 16.7 0. 0. 0.25–63 0.188 0.175 0.1 0.2 0.026 12.066 5.21 Si.203 5083 Annealed 3 h at 0.0 ⳮ0.125 1.022 9.2 0.10 Si.41 Mg.093 10.01 Mn.25 9.5 0. Rem Al 0.70 12. 0.4–311 0. F (C): 300 (150) 480 (250) 660 (350) 840 (450) 1020 (550) 1100(a) Extruded.5 0.115 0. 0.4 0. 750 F 0.25–63 0.066 4.700 29. 0. F (C): 390 (200) 570 (300) 750 (400) 930 (500) 1110 (600) Super-pure Cold rolled.02 annealed 1 h 0.095 2. F (C): 465 (240) 645 (360) 825 (480) EC Annealed 3h at 0.024 11.1 0.81 Mn.4 0.40 12.3 0. Rem Al 0.227 0.075 4. annealed 0.155 0. 0.102 10.088 4.77 Mn.80 40.1 0.0 0.2 0.182 4.3 0.5 0.0 ⳮ0.10 Si.084 4. 0.01 Pb aged at 285 F for 16 h (a) Approximate composition. 1 h at 870 F.200 4.46 Fe. 0.8 0.40 15.211 Cu. 0.061 4.119 Test temperature.067 5.4–311 99.20 14.30 Fe.120 2. 0.1 0.1 0.208 0.9 Al annealed 4 h at 750 F Test temperature. 0. 0.036 Cu. 790 F 0.135 3.031 6.038 8. r¯ ⴔ C(¯e˙ )m. 0.6 0.130 Rem Al 0.9 0.145 5.097 10.035 9.143 10.3 0.073 4.001 19.22 Fe.60 36. 0. 0.115 2. 1/s Strain C m C m C m C m C m Test temperature.8 0.6 0.205 0.100 2.3 0.01 Cu.141 2.032 20.126 0.15 Si.009 16.121 5. 0.138 10. annealed 1/2 h 0.5 0. F (C): 570 (300) 660 (350) 750 (400) 840 (450) 930 (500) 2017(a) Solution treated 0.090 6.135 3.161 Rem Al 5454 Annealed 3 h at 0.50 Fe.4 0. 0.104 10.4 0.5 0.009 16.025 13.8 0.125 5056 Annealed 3 h at 0.34 Mn. 0.121 Mn.19 Fe.2 0.80 37.9 0.50 0.8 0.9 0.0 0.0017 Cu.10 Si.120 4.003 Ti.4 0.89 Mg.88 8.21 Mg.111 8. F (C): 390 (200) 750 (400) 930 (500) 1100 Cold drawn.10 annealed 0.4 0.155 0. 0.9 0.071 5.04 Mn.002 19.9 0.9 0.01 Mg 0.202 0.50 Cu.695 17.4 0.6 Al.026 6.3 0. 790 F 0.4 0. 0.041 7.115 10. 0.130 2.068 5.002 Ti.141 3.052 Zn.116 2. 3.146 3.45 Mg.105 11.25–63 0.74 Mg.141 0. for aluminum alloys at various temperatures Strain rate Alloy Material history range.5 0.0 0.006 Mn Test temperature.0 0.95 Al.170 2.23 Fe.6 0.140 1.9 0.022 10.7 0.033 Mg.16 Fe.8 0. 1. F (C): 390 (200) 750 (400) 930 (500) 2017 Cold drawn.006 20.6 ⳮ0. 0.512 16.125 2.20 10.064 6.40 36.065 Cu.18 Fe.069 6. 0.100 7. 0. 790 F 0.4 0.6 ⳮ0.10 Cu.0 0.041 7. 0.2 ⳮ0. ⬍0. 0. 0.173 99.108 8.7 0.026 Mn.

F (C): 800 (427) OFHC Copper 26.3 0.8 0.097 6.137 2. Rem Zn 0. 0.024 24.3 0.4 0.0003 Sn. F (C): 570 (300) 840 (450) 1110 (600) 1380 (750) 1650 (900) Copper Cold drawn. 90 min CDA 260 Hot rolled.291 2. 0.0003 Sb. 0.8 0.0 0.06 Cu.5–30 0. annealed 650 0.1 0.7 0.045 14.018 22. 1/s Strain C m C m C m C m C m Test temperature.25 49.0014 S.136 6. 4–40 0.160 99.106 2.0 0.8 0.065 9.6 0.003 Sn.1 0.036 16.043 9.190 Mg.083 7.9 0. trace Sn.168 0.1 0.90 Pb. annealed 0.004 16.8 0.4 0.186 5.061 11.1 0.50 27.0025 Fe.0 0.70 42.084 11.165 6.3 0.6 0.144 70.031 19.025 26.25 34.110 0.94 Cu.50 58.016 17. cold 0.018 P.4 0.5 0. 0.166 59.7 0.5 0.9 0.008 18. trace Fe Ⳮ annealed 0.0 0. trace Sn.0005 As.154 0. annealed 0.024 26.78 Cu.7 0.2 0.4 0.0010 Ni. annealed 0.027 28.189 3.6 0.018 22.7 0.4 0. 0. 0.8 0.046 12.195 0.3 0. annealed 2 h 0.237 7.0 0. 3.6 0.2 0.281 2.0005 Pb 0.9 0.113 1.156 0. 3. 0.0012 S.194 7.9 0.134 90.50 42.2 0.2 0.9 0.150 6.003 O2.029 39.0002 Sb.148 Sn.032 28.041 10. 0.028 26.695 34.2 0. drawn 30%.44 Cu.038 28.7 0.6 0.081 4. F (C): 750 (400) 930 (500) 1110 (600) CDA 110 Hot rolled.6 0.25 41.25 23.4 0.1 0. 0.128 6.5 0.50 57.7 0.228 60.228 6.7 0.0010 Fe. ⬍0.086 11.1 0.6 0.222 Rem Zn .027 26.033 Fe. 0.6 0.7 0. Se Ⳮ Te not detected Test temperature.004 Pb.25–40 0.338 30.9 Summary of C (ksi) and m values describing the flow stress-strain rate relation.0413 Test temperature.50 46.034 40.25 45.151 CDA 280 Hot rolled.140 Rem Zn C.70 28.057 13.7 0.9 0.6 0.085 8.2 0.031 14. 0.4 0.6 0.078 8. less than 0. 0.70 59.8 0.0 0.017 25.0001 Bi.014 19.5–30 0.8 0.4 0.3 0.5 0. r¯ ⴔ C(¯e˙ )m.176 0.0005 0.0 0.197 0.0020 Mn ⬍0.049 13.105 20. 3.223 26. 0.1–10 0.134 0.7 0.8 0.078 8.01 Pb.5 0.1 0.035 26.220 Rem Zn CDA 365 Hot rolled.512 32.02 Fe.02 Fe.0 0.096 4.075 5.001 Ni Test temperature.050 7.1 0.010 12.0 0.4 0. Flow Stress and Forgeability / 45 Table 4.239 0.05 Cu.0012 Pb 0.3 0.032 24.8 0. at 1110 F 0. F (C): 390 (200) 750 (400) 1110 (600) 1470 (800) CDA 220 Extruded.056 8.017 34. for copper alloys at various temperatures Strain rate Alloy Material history range. ⬍0.9 0.5–30 0. 0.70 60.182 5.2 0. 0.70 48.

46 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

Table 4.10 Summary of C (ksi) and m values describing the flow stress-strain rate relation, r¯ ⴔ
C(¯e˙ )m, for titanium alloys at various temperatures
Material Strain rate
Alloy history range, 1/s Strain C m C m C m C m C m C m C m
Test temperature, F (C): 68 (20) 392 (200) 752 (400) 1112 (600) 1472 (800) 1652 (900) 1832 (1000)
Type 1 Annealed 0.25–16.0 0.2 92.8 0.029 60.9 0.046 39.8 0.074 25.3 0.097 12.8 0.167 5.4 0.230 3.0 0.387
0.04 Fe, 0.02 15 min at 0.4 113.7 0.029 73.3 0.056 48.8 0.061 29.6 0.115 14.6 0.181 5.5 0.248 3.6 0.289
C, 0.005 H2, 1200 F in 0.6 129.6 0.028 82.2 0.056 53.9 0.049 32.1 0.105 14.9 0.195 5.5 0.248 3.5 0.289
0.01 N2, 0.04 high 0.8 142.5 0.027 87.7 0.058 56.3 0.042 32.7 0.099 15.4 0.180 5.9 0.186 3.2 0.264
O2, Rem Ti vacuum 1.0 150.6 0.027 90.7 0.054 56.6 0.044 32.5 0.099 15.9 0.173 5.9 0.167 3.0 0.264
Type 2 Annealed 0.25–16.0 0.2 143.3 0.021 92.7 0.043 54.5 0.051 33.6 0.092 17.5 0.167 6.9 0.135 4.2 0.220
0.15 Fe, 0.02 15 min at 0.4 173.2 0.021 112.1 0.042 63.1 0.047 36.3 0.101 18.4 0.190 7.2 0.151 4.9 0.167
C, 0.005 H2, 1200 F in 0.6 193.8 0.024 125.3 0.045 65.6 0.047 36.9 0.104 18.4 0.190 7.8 0.138 4.5 0.167
0.02 N2, 0.12 high 0.8 208.0 0.023 131.9 0.051 66.0 0.045 37.0 0.089 18.4 0.190 7.6 0.106 3.9 0.195
O2, Rem Ti vacuum 1.0 216.8 0.023 134.8 0.056 65.3 0.045 36.9 0.092 18.6 0.190 6.8 0.097 3.7 0.167
Test temperature, F (C): 1110 (600) 1290 (700) 1470 (800) 1650 (900)
Unalloyed Hot rolled, 0.1–10 0.25 23.4 0.062 14.3 0.115 8.2 0.236 1.8 0.324
0.03 Fe, annealed 0.50 27.9 0.066 17.8 0.111 10.0 0.242 2.1 0.326
0.0084 N, 800 C, 0.70 30.1 0.065 20.0 0.098 12.2 0.185 2.5 0.316
0.0025 H, 90 min
Rem Ti
Test temperature, F (C): 68 (20) 392 (200) 752 (400) 1112 (600) 1472 (800) 1652 (900) 1832 (1000)
Ti-5Al-2.5 Sn Annealed 0.25–16.0 0.1 173.6 0.046 125.6 0.028 97.6 0.028
5.1 Al, 2.5 Sn, 30 min at 0.2 197.9 0.048 138.8 0.022 107.4 0.026 86.1 0.025 58.5 0.034 44.2 0.069 5.4 0.308
0.06 Fe, 0.03 1470 F in 0.3 215.6 0.046 147.4 0.021 112.5 0.027 92.8 0.020
C, 0.01 H2, high 0.4 230.6 0.039 151.4 0.022 116.0 0.022 95.6 0.019 58.7 0.040 44.8 0.082 5.1 0.294
0.03 N2, 0.1 vacuum 0.5 96.7 0.021
O2, Rem Ti 0.6 96.6 0.024 55.6 0.042 43.0 0.078 5.2 0.264
0.8 50.2 0.033 39.1 0.073 5.2 0.264
0.9 46.8 0.025
1.0 35.2 0.056 5.3 0.280
Ti-6Al-4V Annealed 0.25–16.0 0.1 203.3 0.017 143.8 0.026 119.4 0.025
6.4 Al, 4.0 V, 120 min 0.2 209.7 0.015 151.0 0.021 127.6 0.022 94.6 0.064 51.3 0.146 23.3 0.143 9.5 0.131
0.14 Fe, 0.05 at 1200 F 0.3 206.0 0.015 152.0 0.017 126.2 0.017 91.2 0.073
C, 0.01 H2, in high 0.4 118.7 0.014 84.6 0.079 39.8 0.175 21.4 0.147 9.4 0.118
0.015 N2, 0.1 vacuum 0.5 77.9 0.080
O2, Rem Ti 0.6 30.4 0.205 20.0 0.161 9.6 0.118
0.8 26.6 0.199 19.5 0.172 9.3 0.154
0.9 24.9 0.201
1.0 20.3 0.146 8.9 0.192
Test temperature, F (C): 1550 (843) 1750 (954) 1800 (982)
Ti-6Al-4V 38.0 0.064 12.3 0.24 9.4 0.29
Test temperature, F (C): 68 (20) 392 (200) 752 (400) 1112 (600) 1472 (800) 1652 (900) 1832 (1000)
Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al Annealed 0.25–16.0 0.1 173.1 0.041
3.6 Al, 14.1 V, 30 min at 0.2 188.2 0.037 150.5 0.030 136.5 0.035 118.4 0.040 65.4 0.097 44.6 0.147 32.4 0.153
10.6 Cr, 0.27 1290 F in 0.3 202.3 0.034
Fe, 0.02 C, high 0.4 215.2 0.029 174.2 0.024 153.9 0.030 107.5 0.039 59.5 0.096 42.1 0.139 30.9 0.142
0.014 H2, 0.03 vacuum 0.5 226.3 0.026 181.1 0.023
N2, 0.11 O2, 0.6 183.5 0.026 147.9 0.046 92.8 0.045 56.7 0.088 40.9 0.127 29.2 0.155
Rem Ti 0.7 181.4 0.029
0.8 136.3 0.045 84.7 0.036 53.9 0.081 39.3 0.125 27.8 0.167
0.9 52.9 0.080
1.0 38.8 0.127 28.0 0.159

Flow Stress and Forgeability / 47

Table 4.11 Summary of C (ksi) and m values describing the flow stress-strain rate relation, r¯ ⴔ
C(¯e˙ )m, for various materials
Material Strain rate
Alloy history range, 1/s Strain C m C m C m C m C m C m C m
Test temperature, F (C): 72 (22) 230 (110) 335 (170) 415 (215) 500 (260) 570 (300)
Lead 0.115 2.0 0.040 1.56 0.065 1.21 0.085 0.70 0.130 0.47 0.160 0.40 0.180
99.98 Pb, 2.66 4.0 0.055 1.47 0.100 1.04 0.125 0.55 0.135 0.36 0.180 0.28 0.225
0.003 Cu,
0.003 Fe,
0.002 Zn,
0.002 Ag
Test temperature, F (C): 390 (200) 570 (300) 750 (400) 930 (400)
Magnesium Extruded, (13) (14) (13) (14)
0.010 Al, cold 0.1–10 0.25 19.1 0.069 9.8 0.215 4.1 0.263 1.7 0.337
0.003 Zn, drawn 0.50 17.2 0.093 8.4 0.211 4.0 0.234 1.7 0.302
0.008 Mn, 15%, 0.70 15.5 0.094 8.3 0.152 4.3 0.215 2.1 0.210
0.004 Si, annealed
0.003 Cu, 550 C 90
0.0008 Ni, min
Rem Mg
Test temperature, F (C): 1975 (1080) 2030 (1166)
U-700 26.6 0.21 22.1 0.21
Test temperature, F (C): 68 (20) 392 (200) 752 (400) 1112 (600) 1472 (800) 1652 (900) 1832 (1000)
Zirconium Annealed 0.25–16.0 0.2 117.4 0.031 74.0 0.052 40.2 0.050 23.8 0.069 16.8 0.069 6.8 0.227 4.6 0.301
99.8 Zr, 0.009 15 min at 0.3 143.7 0.022 92.2 0.058
Hf, 0.008 Al, 1380 F in 0.4 159.5 0.017 105.1 0.046 54.4 0.085 29.4 0.09 18.2 0.116 7.1 0.252 4.0 0.387
0.038 Fe, high 0.5 169.3 0.017 112.8 0.041 58.2 0.093
0.0006 H2, vacuum 0.6 118.5 0.042 60.2 0.095 31.3 0.089 18.8 0.118 7.2 0.264 4.0 0.387
0.0025 N2, 0.7 61.9 0.095
0.0825 O2, 0.0 0.8 32.0 0.081 19.4 0.101 6.9 0.252 4.1 0.403
Ni 1.0 32.1 0.085 19.7 0.108 6.9 0.252 4.1 0.403
Zircaloy 2 Annealed 0.25–16.0 0.1 96.8 0.031 65.9 0.046
98.35 Zr, 15 min at 0.2 136.9 0.025 105.8 0.035 58.3 0.065 30.4 0.049 16.6 0.147 7.5 0.325 3.9 0.362
0.015 Hf, 1.4 1380 F in 0.3 178.5 0.034 131.4 0.035 67.9 0.056
Zn, 0.01 Al, high 0.4 202.7 0.027 145.4 0.036 73.5 0.056 37.8 0.053 18.7 0.172 7.8 0.342 4.0 0.387
0.06 Fe, 0.045 vacuum 0.5 154.2 0.034 77.3 0.057
Ni, 0.0006 H2, 0.6 79.9 0.055 39.2 0.059 18.8 0.178 7.2 0.387 4.0 0.387
0.0023 N2, 0.8 40.4 0.057 18.8 0.178 7.9 0.342 4.8 0.333
0.0765 O2 1.0 40.7 0.053 18.8 0.178 8.5 0.310 4.8 0.333
Test temperature, F (C): 68 (20) 212 (100) 392 (200) 572 (300) 932 (500) 1292 (900) 1652 (900)
Uranium Annealed 2 0.25–16.0 0.2 151.0 0.043 113.0 0.042 77.4 0.034 45.9 0.044 31.9 0.051 16.0 0.081 4.5 0.069
99.8 U, hr at 0.4 173.9 0.033 132.7 0.049 91.0 0.031 53.3 0.047 33.1 0.059 16.1 0.089 4.5 0.069
0.0012 Mn, 1110 F in 0.6 184.9 0.023 143.1 0.047 98.1 0.032 56.0 0.056 33.4 0.054 16.1 0.089 4.5 0.069
0.0012 Ni, high 0.8 189.8 0.018 149.5 0.048 102.0 0.036 58.3 0.057 33.3 0.049 16.2 0.097 4.5 0.069
0.00074 Cu, vacuum 1.0 59.0 0.056 32.5 0.055 16.4 0.097 4.5 0.069
0.00072 Cr,
0.0001 Co,
0.0047 H2,
0.0041 N2,
0.1760 O2
(free of
cadmium and

48 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

Table 4.12 Average flow stress values determined in the uniform compression test that might be
used in practical load-predicting applications
Material Flow stress, 103 psi Temperature, F Strain range (ln), h0/h1 Strain rate range, 1/s
403 stainless steel 33.0 1800 0.3–0.7 10.0–14.0
25.0 1950 0.3–0.7 10.0–14.0
21.0 2050 0.3–0.7 10.0–14.0
Waspaloy 62.0 1950 0.2–0.4 13.0–15.0
56.0 1950 0.4–0.6 10.0–13.0
52.0 2050 0.1–0.3 12.0–15.0
48.0 2050 0.3–0.6 10.0–13.0
46.0 2100 0.1–0.3 13.0–15.0
42.0 2100 0.3–0.6 10.0–13.0
Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo 56.0 1600 0.1–0.4 13.0–15.0
52.0 1600 0.4–0.6 10.0–13.0
52.0 1675 0.1–0.4 13.0–15.0
46.0 1675 0.4–0.6 10.0–13.0
38.0 1750 0.1–0.4 13.0–15.0
34.0 1750 0.4–0.6 10.0–13.0
Inconel 718 54.0 2000 0.1–0.4 13.0–15.0
48.0 2000 0.4–0.6 10.0–13.0
46.0 2100 0.1–0.4 13.0–15.0
40.0 2100 0.4–0.6 10.0–13.0
Ti-8Mo-8V-2Fe-3Al 40.0 1650 0.1–0.6 10.0–15.0
28.0 1850 0.1–0.6 10.0–15.0
24.0 2000 0.1–0.6 10.0–15.0
AISI 4340 25.0 1900 0.2–0.7 10.0–14.0
21.0 2000 0.3–0.8 12.0–17.0

Table 4.13 Average flow stress values obtained from ring compression tests suggested for use in
practical applications
Material Flow stress(a), 103 psi Temperature, F Strain rate range, 1/s Frictional shear factor, m Contact time, s Ring dimensions(b)
6061 Al 9 800 18–22 0.4 0.038 A
9 800 15–17 0.31 0.047 B
7 800 10–13 0.53 0.079 C
Ti-7Al-4Mo 48 1750 13 0.42 0.033 D
30 1750 18–23 0.42 0.044 E
30 1750 15–18 0.7 0.056 F
403 SS 37 1800 25–28 0.23 0.029 D
33 1800 25–27 0.24 0.037 E
33 1800 16–18 0.34 0.047 F
403 SS 32 1950 20 0.28 0.06 F
28 1950 16 0.29 0.07 F
25 2050 20 0.35 0.06 F
19 2050 16 0.43 0.07 F
Waspaloy 55 2100 20 0.18 0.06 F
50 2100 13–16 0.21–0.24 0.07–0.09 F
17-7PH SS 34 1950 13–20 0.22–0.28 0.06–0.09 F
22 2100 16–20 0.35 0.06–0.07 F
18 2100 13 0.31 0.09 F
Ti-6Al-4V 43 1700 20 0.30 0.06 F
35 1700 13–16 0.29–0.34 0.07–0.09 F
27 1750 16–20 0.32–0.46 0.06–0.07 F
20 1750 13 0.38 0.09 F
Inconel 718 65 2000 16–20 0.17–0.18 0.06–0.07 F
58 2000 13 0.18 0.09 F
50 2100 20 0.33 0.06 F
48 2100 13–16 0.29–0.30 0.07–0.09 F
Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V 50 1750 13–16 0.22–0.26 0.07–0.09 F
47 1750 20 0.27 0.06 F
40 1800 13–16 0.27–0.32 0.07–0.09 F
27 1800 20 0.27 0.06 F
7075 Al 19 700 13–20 0.36–0.42 0.06–0.09 G
16 800 13–20 0.31–0.49 0.06–0.09 G
Udimet 65 2050 14–17 0.4 (c) F
(a) At 10 to 30% reduction. (b) Dimensions, OD:ID:thickness, in inches: A ⳱ 6:3:0.5, B ⳱ 6:3:1.0, C⳱ 6:3:2.0, D ⳱ 3:1.5:0.25, E ⳱ 3:1.5:0.5, F ⳱ 3:1.5:1.0, G
⳱ 5:3:1. (c) Not measured.

Flow Stress and Forgeability / 49

REFERENCES Flow in Upset Forging of Rings and Cylin-
ders,” Trans. ASME, J. Eng. Ind., Aug 1972,
[Altan et al., 1973]: Altan, T., Boulger, F.W., p 775.
“Flow Stress of Metals and Its Application in [Thomsen et al., 1965]: Thomsen, E.G., Yang,
Metal Forming Analyses,” Trans. ASME, J. C.T., Kobayashi, S., Mechanics of Plastic De-
Eng. Ind., Nov 1973, p 1009. formation in Metal Processing, The Macmil-
[Dahl et al., 1999]: Dahl, C., Vazquez, V., Al- lan Company, 1965.
tan, T., “Determination of Flow Stress of 1524
Steel at Room Temperature using the Com-
pression Test,” Engineering Research Center
for Net Shape Manufacturing, ERC/NSM-99- SELECTED REFERENCES
R-22, 1999.
[Dixit et al., 2002]: Dixit, R., Ngaile, G., Altan, [Altan et al., 1981]: Altan, T., Semiatin, S.L.,
T., “Measurement of Flow Stress for Cold Lahoti, G.D., “Determination of Flow Stress
Forging,” Engineering Research Center for Data for Practical Metal Forming Analysis,”
Net Shape Manufacturing, ERC/NSM-01-R- Ann. CIRP, Vol 30 (No. 1), 1981, p 129.
05, 2002. [Altan et al., 1983]: Altan, T., Oh, S.-I., Gegel,
[Douglas et al., 1975]: Douglas, J.R., Altan, T., H.L., Metal Forming Fundamentals and Ap-
“Flow Stress Determination of Metals at plications, ASM International, 1983.
Forging Rates and Temperatures,” Trans. [Lahoti et al., 1975]: Lahoti, G.D., Altan, T.,
ASME, J. Eng. Ind., Feb 1975, p 66. “Prediction of Temperature Distributions in
[Lee et al., 1972]: Lee, C.H., Altan, T., “Influ- Axisymmetric Compression and Torsion,” J.
ence of Flow Stress and Friction upon Metal Eng. Mater. Technol., April 1975, p 113.

Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International®
Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, editors, p51-57 All rights reserved.


Plastic Deformation: Complex
State of Stress and Flow Rules
Gracious Ngaile

5.1 State of Stress be simplified by denoting the normal stresses by
a single subscript and shear stresses by the sym-
In a deforming object, different states of stress bol s. Thus one will have rxx ⬅ rx and rxy ⬅ sxy.
would exist depending on the loading conditions In the case of rotational equilibrium, rxy ⳱ ryx,
and boundary constraints. Figure 5.1 shows a thus implying the absence of rotational effects
cylinder upsetting process. The local state of around any axis. The nine stress components then
stress in the deforming cylinder can be visual- reduce to six independent components.
ized by discretizing the object into small ele- For a general stress state, there is a set of co-
ments as shown in Fig. 5.1(a) and (b). The state ordinate axes (1, 2, and 3) along which the shear
of stress can also be presented in a matrix form, stresses vanish. The normal stresses along these
commonly known as stress tensor, as shown in axes, r1, r2, and r3, are called the principal
Fig. 5.1(c) and 5.2. stresses. The magnitudes of the principal
A normal stress is indicated by two identical stresses are determined from the following cubic
subscripts, e.g., rxx, while a shear stress is indi- equation derived from a series of force equilib-
cated by a differing pair, rxy. This notation can rium equations [Backofen, 1972].

Fig. 5.1 Stress acting on an element. (a) Cylinder upsetting process. (b) Forces acting on an element. (c) Stress components acting
on an element

52 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

r3i ⳮ I1ri2 ⳮ I2ri ⳮ I3 ⳱ 0 (Eq 5.1a) der any possible combination of stresses. It can
be expressed by f(rij) ⳱ C (constant). For iso-
where tropic materials, plastic yielding can depend
only on the magnitude of the principal stresses;
I1 ⳱ rxx Ⳮ ryy Ⳮ rzz i.e., the yield criteria is expressed in function of
invariants I1, I2, and I3 or f (I1, I2, I3) ⳱ C.
I2 ⳱ ⳮrxx ryy ⳮ ryy rzz ⳮ rzz rxx In simple homogeneous (uniaxial) compres-
sion or tension, the metal flows plastically when
Ⳮ rxy
Ⳮ ryz
Ⳮ rzx
the stress, r, reaches the value of the flow stress,
I3 ⳱ rxx ryy rzz Ⳮ 2rxy ryz rzx ⳮ rxx ryz
2 r,
¯ in other words the flow rule in uniaxial de-
formation is:
ⳮ ryyrzx
ⳮ rzzrxy
|r| ⳱ ⳱ r¯ (Eq 5.2)
The coefficients I1, I2, and I3 are independent A
of the coordinate system chosen and are hence
called invariants. Consequently, the principal where F and A are the instantaneous force and
stresses for a given stress state are unique. The cross-sectional area on which the force acts. In
three principal stresses can only be determined a multiaxial state of stress, plastic flow (yield-
by finding the three roots of the cubic equation. ing) depends on a combination of all stresses
The first (linear) and second (quadratic) invari- [Thomsen et al., 1965]. Consider a metal plate
ants have particular physical significance for the subjected to tensile and compressive loading in
theory of plasticity [Kobayashi et al., 1989]. The the y-axis until the material yields. If the process
invariants can also be expressed in terms of prin- is repeated using different specimens and by
cipal stresses. gradually varying the loading in the x and y di-
rections (Fig. 5.3), and the stresses at the onset
I1 ⳱ r1 Ⳮ r2 Ⳮ r3 (Eq 5.1b) of yielding are plotted on the r1-r3 plane, then
a yield locus of the schematic form shown in
I2 ⳱ ⳮ(r1r2 Ⳮ r2r3 Ⳮ r3r1) (Eq 5.1c) Fig. 5.4 will be obtained.
There are various yield criteria that have been
I3 ⳱ r1 r2 r3 (Eq 5.1d) proposed to date. However, this chapter dis-
cusses two major yield criteria that have been
used extensively in the analysis of metal forming
5.2 Yield Criteria and forging.
● Tresca or shear stress criterion of yield or
A yield criterion is a law defining the limit of plastic flow
elasticity or the start of plastic deformation un- ● von Mises or distortion energy criterion of
yield or plastic flow

5.2.1 Tresca Yield Criterion
The Tresca yield criterion states that plastic
flow starts when the maximum shear stress, smax,

Fig. 5.2 Stress tensor

Fig. 5.4 Possible yield locus (schematic) showing enclosed
Fig. 5.3 Metal plate subjected to various loading conditions elastic region

The mean principal stress is r1 Ⳮ r2 Ⳮ r3 rm ⳱ (Eq 5. P ⳱ ⳮrm (Eq 5. r.5 Representation of state of stress through the Mohr 3 circle . 5.2. smax. i. The start of plastic flow r2 ⱕ r1. Plastic Deformation: Complex State of Stress and Flow Rules / 53 reaches a certain critical value. normal stress r (abscissa). k.e. Figure 5. 5. The states of stress.5 shows a Mohr circle that represents ures. and in the direction of “principal” resented in two dimensions (Fig.5a). where k is the shear flow stress that is characteristic of a given material and its micro. r1. 1972] and [Johnson cause plastic deformation.4 shows that.6) structure and depends on shear strain rate. as can be agonal diagram encloses the elastic region.6(a) and 5. which does not change given by one radius of the Mohr circle. Details on Mohr circles and stress trans- the stresses in a plane whose coordinate axes are formation can be found in solid mechanics text- chosen to be the shear stress s (ordinate) and the books. 5. 5. 5. and r¯ is the flow stress (or instantaneous yield stress). in the 5. Figures 5. This yield crite.7 shows Mohr circles for biaxial and rion can easily be described by the aid of Mohr triaxial states of stress. r3. Thus: its value when transformed from one coordinate smax ⳱ (r1 ⳮ r3)/2. plastic flow or yielding starts if the differ- ence of maximum (r1) and minimum (r3) prin- cipal stresses is equal to the flow stress. according to Tresca’s rule.1(b). which system into another [Lange.¯ Fig- ure 5. With r2 ⳱ r3 ⳱ 0 (uniaxial deformation). In the Mohr circle representation. i. strain. acting on the s-r plane is mal and shear stresses. and the minimum principal stress.4) Equation 5.. The hex- stresses the shear stresses are zero. the “principal” stresses are perpendicular Tresca’s yield criterion can be graphically rep- to each other.8).6 shows that the position of the Mohr circle. As can be seen in Fig.5. is not impor- tant for the start of plastic flow. define the size The von Mises yield criterion considers all the of the Mohr circle (Fig. seen in Fig. or when |smax| and the hydrostatic pressure is ⳱ k. plastic flow starts when F r¯ r1 ⳱ ⳱ r¯ ⳱ 2k or k ⳱ (Eq 5. and deformation temperature. only principal stresses are shown in these fig- Figure 5. The subscripts 1 stresses acting on the deforming body and can and 3 are arbitrary and indicate only that r3 ⱕ be expressed as follows.3) A 2 where F is the tensile or compressive force. In the physical x-y For plane stress condition (r2 ⳱ 0).e. the maximum principal stress.5) Fig. A is the instantaneous cross-sectional area of the sample. the hydrostatic stress. the plane. the largest (yielding) must depend on a combination of nor- shear stress.2 von Mises Yield Criterion s-r plane. then the Tresca yield criterion can be expressed as: r1 ⳮ r3 ⳱ r¯ (Eq 5. are illustrated with the Mohr circle of radius k. If the principal stresses are arranged such that r1 ⬎ r2 ⬎ r3.. Note that circles for stresses.6(b) show Mohr circles for uniaxial tension (no necking) and compres- sion (no bulging). respectively.

D. Ⳮ 3(s2xy Ⳮ s2yz Ⳮ s2zx)] 冧 ⳱ r¯ (Eq 5. 1997] . 1975]. That is why the von Mises rule is also called the “distortion energy criterion.6 Mohr circles. and E shown in Fig.9. C. B. Fig.54 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications et al. The flow rule then states that plastic flow starts when this elastic energy reaches a In a general way: critical value.” For the plane stress condition (r2 ⳱ 0). ● Points A. (a) Uniaxial tension. 5.. 5. (b) Triaxial state of stress. In terms of principal stresses.10 r Ⳮ r2 Ⳮ r3 are used to describe the similarities and dif- rm ⳱ 1 3 ferences of the two yield criteria.6b) 5.6 is proportional to the energy that is stored in the 1/2 冦1 2 [(r1 ⳮ r2)2 Ⳮ (r2 ⳮ r3)2 Ⳮ (r1 ⳮ r3)2] 冧 elastically deformed material prior to yielding.2. the 冦2 [(r 1 x ⳮ ry)2 Ⳮ (ry ⳮ rz)2 Ⳮ (rz ⳮ rx)2 von Mises yield locus takes the form of an el- 1/2 liptical curve as shown in Fig. 5. The shaded regions show the difference where rm is the mean principal stress given by: between the two yield criteria.6a) change. [Kalpakjian.10.3 Comparison of Tresca and von Mises Criteria or. it can be given by: The comparison of Tresca and von Mises cri- 1/2 冦 冧 3 teria can be expressed by superimposing the el- [(r1 ⳮ rm)2 Ⳮ (r2 ⳮ rm)2 Ⳮ (r3 ⳮ rm)2] liptical yield locus (von Mises) and hexagonal 2 yield locus (Tresca) together as shown in Fig. ⳱ r¯ (Eq 5. the A physical interpretation of the von Mises von Mises rule is given by: yield criterion shows that the left side of Eq 5. (a) Biaxial state of stress.7 Mohr circles. (b) Uniaxial compression Fig.6c) 5. 5. This is the energy necessary for elastic volume ⳱ r¯ (Eq 5.

5r¯ 2 e˙ 2 ⳱ k(r2 ⳮ rm) (Eq 5.577 r¯ (Eq 5. 冪冢2 2r 冣 ⳱ r.6(a) gives: ever. σ3 σ σ1 σ1 σ σ3 Fig.7) Experiments (with combined shear and ten- sion) indicate that the von Mises rule is a better which is the same as that obtained from Eq criterion (closer to reality) than Tresca’s flow 5. 5.10) Thus. ● In pure shear (point D in Fig. How- ⳱ F/A and r2 ⳱ r3 ⳱ 0.. in pure shear. e and e˙ fields). and (c) are called “plasticity equations” [Thomsen et al. 5.11(a). 1. 5. analysis of plastic deformation requires a certain relation between r¯ the applied stresses and the velocity field (kin- smax ⳱ r1 ⳱ ⳱ 0.8 Tresca’s yield locus for plane stress condition Fig.9) ematics as described by velocity. r2 ⳱ 0. (b).. Plastic Deformation: Complex State of Stress and Flow Rules / 55 ● In uniaxial tension or compression (points A ● For a plane strain condition (point E in Fig. For this condition.3. as specified by a flow rule (Tresca or von Mises). 冪冢2 (r 冣 1 plastic deformation. according to von Mises.10). 5. 1965].11b) (Eq 5. Eq 5. i. re- and von Mises yield criteria exhibit the same spectively (Fig. Thus. results.¯ or r 1 2 1 1 ⳱ r¯ (Eq 5. the yield surfaces mode of deformation corresponds to point C for von Mises and Tresca can be represented by in Fig. which gives the relationship be- tween the stress and the corresponding defor- ⳱ 冪3 r1 艑 1.e. the stress re- quired is higher.73r1 (Eq 5.15 ry.10.11a) r¯ r¯ ⳱ 2r1 and smax ⳱ r1 ⳱ ⳱ 0. there is a 15% difference e˙ 3 ⳱ k(r3 ⳮ rm) (Eq 5. the Tresca inclined cylindrical and octagonal prisms.e.11). Equations 5.3 Flow Rules Pure shear occurs when r3 ⳱ ⳮr1.9 von Mises yield locus for plane stress condition . i. when r1 der Tresca’s yield criterion in still ry. 冪3 Such a relation exists between the stresses (in Using Eq 5. starts.3. the two yield criteria exhibit different yield stresses. and B).8) mation in the elastic range. the stress required for deformation un- teria exhibit the same values. Similar to the r¯ ⳱ 1 2 Ⳮ r12 Ⳮ 4r12) Hooke’s law. the von Mises and Tresca yield cri. then plastic flow. from Eq 5. ● The state of stress for a balanced biaxial In three-dimensional space. 5.10).6(a) the von Mises yield When the stresses at a given point in the metal criterion gives: reach a certain level. 5. principal axes) and strain rates: terion gives: e˙ 1 ⳱ k(r1 ⳮ rm) (Eq 5.11c) between values of smax obtained from the Tresca and von Mises yield criteria rules.. rule. 5. one finds that the Tresca cri.

the instantaneous power D A C Tresca of deformation (force times velocity) is given E by: A σ1 σ1 B P ⳱ r1wlvh Ⳮ r2hlvw Ⳮ r3whv1 σ Tension E ⳱ r1wlh˙e1 Ⳮ r2wlh˙e2 Ⳮ r3wlh˙e3 D von Mises C B ⳱ (r1e˙ 1 Ⳮ r2e˙ 2 Ⳮ r3e˙ 3) V (Eq 5.4 Power and Energy of Deformation k depends on direction of plastic flow. The plas. h v Equation 5.56 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications [Lange.14) E σ3 where V is the volume of the deforming block. e˙ ⳱ 2 r¯ 1 wo 2 w l v e3 ⳱ ln .13) e2 ⳱ ln . is: Plane Strain t1 冮 deformation E⳱ V (r1e˙ 1 Ⳮ r2e˙ 2 Ⳮ r3e˙ 3) dt (5. The variable 5. and strain rate. Fig. 1972]. E. The plastic deformation processes are irre- ticity equations—for example. material. is transformed largely into heat. [Backofen. hold 2 r¯ here also [Lange. 5. consumed dur- also be expressed in the form: ing deformation. It is useful to consider again the homoge- 3 d¯e neous deformation of a block (Fig.12 Homogeneous deformation of a block . tempera- ture.12) following relations.11 can also be expressed as: eh ⳱ e1 ⳱ ln .11 Physical representation of von Mises and Tresca criterion in three dimensions Fig. 1972]. The de1 ⳱ (r1 ⳮ rm) (Eq 5.12. 5. derived in Chapter 3. e˙ ⳱ h ho 1 h 3 e˙¯ w vw e˙ 1 ⳱ (r ⳮ rm) (Eq 5. 5. ¯ showing several loading paths. e˙ ⳱ l Compression σ3 Balanced-biaxial lo 3 l stretching E σ Following Fig.12). 5. strain.15) t0 Fig. The mechanical energy. where e¯ and r¯ denote effective stress and strain. Note: r2 ⳱ 0.11(a)—can versible. Eq 5. 5.10 Tresca and von Mises yield loci for the same value of r. Pure shear It follows that the energy of deformation. 1972].

Oxford University Press. Eq 5. S. Vol 1. which give r1 ⳮ rm ⳱ formation energy. indicated with overbar). [Johnson et al... Eq 5.21) [Kobayashi et al. ¯ is determined from a uni- axial test (compression or homogeneous ten. e˙¯ (both in principal directions.5 Effective Strain and e˙¯ ⳱ Effective Strain Rate e˙ 1 (r1 ⳮ rm) Ⳮ e˙ 2 (r2 ⳮ rm) Ⳮ e˙ 3 (r3 ⳮ rm) 1/2 The flow stress. is: t1 e¯ ⳱ 冮t0 e˙¯ dt (Eq 5..11(a). Macmillan.6(c). S. Eq 5.24) it is necessary to relate uniaxial material behav- ior to multiaxial material behavior. or C.24 can be reduced to: element Dt. 1965]: Thomsen. 1975]: Johnson. P. Deforma- or tion Processing. 1989]: Kobayashi. S.B. 1997. 1972. Plastic Deformation: Complex State of Stress and Flow Rules / 57 with e˙ dt ⳱ de.20 and 5. Springer-Verlag. r. r¯ e˙¯ ⳱ r1e˙ 1 Ⳮ r2e˙ 2 Ⳮ r3e˙ 3 (Eq 5. etc. T... the de. Addison-Wesley. an element and the principal directions. Manufac- Equations 5.. K..20 give: turing Processes for Engineering Materials. Addison-Wesley.. London. (in German).19) [Backofen. Engineering Plasticity. to: or divided by dt.23 gives: 5.. the deformation power. and Kobayashi. W. Mellor. and strain rate. expended during a time e˙ 1/k.20) Reinhold.15 can also be written as: Equations 5.22b) 1965. P.22a) Fundamentals. [Kalpakjian. [Thomsen et al. rm(˙e1 Ⳮ e˙ 2 Ⳮ e˙ 3) ⳱ 0 (Eq 5. Altan. Ed. Van Nostrand P ⳱ r¯ e˙¯ V (Eq 5. (Eq 5. . and 5.. E.G. 1972]: Backofen. W. 5.11(c)..25) dW ⳱ (r1de1 Ⳮ r2de2 Ⳮ r3de3)V (Eq 5. Mechanics of Plastic Deformation in Metal Processing. S.26) dW P⳱ ⳱ (r1e˙ 1 Ⳮ r2e˙ 2 Ⳮ r3e˙ 3)V (Eq 5. Metal Forming and the Finite Ele- From volume constancy. 1972]: Lange.17) or by integration. 冦3 2 [(r1 ⳮ rm)2 Ⳮ (r2 ⳮ rm)2 Ⳮ (r3 ⳮ rm)2] 冧 sion). Yang.23) (Eq 5.T... it can be shown that: ment Method. 1997]: Kalpakjian. dW.26 show how to calculate the effective strain rate and the effective strain The effective strain. Eq 5. [Lange. Under multiaxial deformation conditions. Oh..A.. is: 冪冢3 (˙e 冣 2 e˙¯ ⳱ 2 1 Ⳮ e˙ 22 Ⳮ e˙ 23) (Eq 5. Study Book of Forming Technology. Considering Using the plasticity equations.22 give: e1 e2 e3 r¯ ¯ e˙ ⳱ e˙ 1 (r1 ⳮ rm) Ⳮ e˙ 2 (r2 ⳮ rm) E⳱V 冢冮0 r1de1 Ⳮ 冮 0 r2de2 Ⳮ 冮 0 r3de3冣 Ⳮ e˙ 3 (r3 ⳮ rm) (Eq 5.18 and 5. 1972.18) dt Equations 5. e¯ .. Eq 5. 1989.16) Using the one form of the von Mises rule.19 and 5. are defined as: REFERENCES dW ⳱ rd ¯ e¯ V (Eq 5. 1975. e˙ 1 Ⳮ e˙ 2 Ⳮ e˙ 3 ⳱ 0 (Eq 5.11(b).

1978]. Gracious Ngaile. b ⳱ 0. Using accurate process model- where r¯ is the flow stress of the workpiece.2) cq Jcq piece and die interface heat transfer coefficient must be known. as well as and hC is the temperature drop due to convection microstructure and properties of the forged part. CHAPTER 6 Temperature and Heat Transfer Gangshu Shen 6. A is a conversion factor uated. another part flows into the undeformed/ hD is the temperature increase due to plastic de- less-deformed portion of the material where formation. where hW is the initial workpiece temperature. The temperature increase due to the defor- the heat generation during deformation and heat mation. DOI:10. Gangshu Shen. hF is the temperature increase due to temperature is lower. and hammer. etc. to the environment. screw press.. hA ⳱ hW Ⳮ hD Ⳮ hF ⳮ hT ⳮ hR ⳮ hC (Eq 6.asminternational. A part of generated heat remains in the deformed ma. correct work.. D¯e is the effective strain and heat transfer in metal forming can be eval- generated during Dt. both plastic de- and friction at the workpiece/die interface formation and friction contribute to heat gener. drawing and extrusion. 1925]. In some continuous forming operations such as In processes such as forging and extrusion. hD ⳱ b⳱ b (Eq 6.. and b is the frac- Heat Transfer in tion of deformation energy transformed into heat Metal Forming Processes (0  b  1).2 Heat Generation and the specific heat of the workpiece. terial.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. c is 6.1 Introduction ● The initial workpiece and die temperatures ● Heat generation due to plastic deformation In metal forming processes. the magnitudes and distri. hR is the tempera- developed during the forging operation influ. p59-66 All rights reserved. bution of temperatures depend mainly on: is given by: .1) chanical press. tan et al. 1970]: Heat generation is also significant in forgings produced in high-speed equipment such as me. The temperature increase due to friction. while still an additional interface friction. in a time interval Dt. contact time. ture drop due to radiation to the environment.) transformed into heat [Farren et al. In metal forming. performed at high the average instantaneous temperature in the de- speeds.95. the influence of press speed. e¯˙ is ing. q is the spe- cific weight of the workpiece. and after deformation can all be calculated in a computer.1361/chff2005p059 www. ence lubrication conditions. temperature increases of several hundred forming workpiece. hT is the temperature drop due part may flow into the tooling. is given by: transfer before. usually. between mechanical and thermal energies. can be estimated by [Al- degrees may be involved [Lahoti et al. during. hA. With the finite element based process modeling. The temperatures to heat transfer into the dies. ● Heat transfer between the workpiece and ation. the effective strain rate. tool life. To ensure Ar¯ ¯ e˙ Dt rD¯ ¯ e accurate heat transfer calculation. hF. Approximately 90 to 95% of the mechan- dies and between the workpiece and the en- ical energy involved in the process is vironment (air or lubricant and coolant.

1). These curves illustrate that. The starting temperature of the Ti-64 workpiece was 1750 F (955 C). The temperature range of the pancake at significantly. 6. a grid the end of upsetting was 298 to 723 F (145 to system is established for calculation of tempera.5. tures (Fig. where the load-displacement curves are given for hot forging of a steel part using dif- ferent types of forging equipment [Altan et al. A simple example of an operation the end of upsetting was 1044 to 1819 F (560 involving non-steady-state metal flow is the cold to 990 C).1 Grid system for calculating velocity and temperature fields in cold upsetting of a cylinder.1. Surface tearing and cracking or develop- hF ⳱ (Eq 6. for the same forg- ing process.. At the end of the cylinder upsetting. A thermocouple for measuring in- In hot forging operations. For the ham- mer. the forging load is initially higher due to strain-rate effects. due to strain rate and temperature effects. forming load and energy required for the pro. The reason for this is that in the presses the flash cools rapidly. in addition to the symbols already de. and In forging. P1. the metal flow is non steady state. surface layers of the formed part near the die/ scribed.3 Temperatures in transfer modeling of a Ti-64 cylinder upset test Forging Operations in a hydraulic press. The temperature range of the dies at upsetting of a cylinder.1 are compared with ex- Often it is desirable to measure the tempera- perimental data in Fig. 6. indicated in Fig..1.8 in Fig. 1973]. The length of contact time there was quite a temperature gradient inside and the nature of the heat transfer at the die/ both the upset cylinder (or pancake) and the material interface influence temperatures very dies. Figure 6. In this process. 6. tool interface. As expected. heat interface. dies is intermittent. the starting tool steel die temperature was 300 Contact between the deforming metal and the F (150 C). f is the friction factor at the workpiece/ material interface. different forging loads and energies are required by different machines. [Lahoti et al. Thus. dition can be simulated accurately in a very short time.4 shows the temperature distribution at the end of a coupled deformation and heat 6. 6. 1975] . the contact time un- der pressure between the deforming material and the dies is the most significant factor influencing temperature conditions. 385 C). This is illustrated in Fig. For various points. whereas in the hammer the flash temperature remains nearly the same as the ini- tial stock temperature. ¯ v is the velocity at the workpiece/tool eling and the increase in computer speed. such that frictional shear stress With the advancement of finite element mod- s ⳱ f r. and P1. operations..3) cqqa ment of shear bands in the formed material often can be explained by excessive chilling of the where. not only the material and the formed shape but also the type of equipment used (rate of deformation and die chilling ef- fects) determine the metal flow behavior and the Fig.3. 6. temperatures were calculated for cold upsetting of a steel cylinder initially at room 6.2. tem- tures at the die/material interface in hot forging peratures increase with increasing deformation. 1975]. in hot forging. 6. the Die/Material Interface The calculated results for the grid points P1. but the maximum load is lower than for either hydraulic or screw presses. and Va is the volume of the workpiece transfer in any forging and heat treatment con- which is subject to temperature increase.4 Measurement of Temperatures at temperature [Lahoti et al.60 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications AfrvFDF ¯ cess.

decreases significantly once the set tooling as shown in Fig. 20 mm diam by 30 mm high. 6. the forging. AISI type 1015 steel. 6. thermocouple. the interface thermocouple indi- et al.. 1975] . and perature. 6. minimum interference with heat flow. increases after the sample is removed from the set the specimens and the movements of the die.5. Evidently. The output of upper ram and the pressure are removed.. 1961]. but only under load. thermocouple measures the billet surface tem- racy. a high the ability to sustain high normal and shear contact pressure is necessary to ensure good stresses under high temperatures. accu. die surface tem- four thermocouples—two in the die and two in peratures can reach approximately 1200 F the 1020 steel billet forged at 2250 F (1230 C). the thermocouple junction. cated a decrease in temperature. (650 C) in a fraction of a second while the billet Fig.2 Comparison of predicted temperature in axisymmetric compression with experimental data (refer to Fig. 293 K).7 indicate that.1 for locations of grid points Pi. thermal contact between the billet surface and couples are available and were used for measur. specimen dimensions. The results are given in Fig. [Lahoti et al. Such thermo. press ram as determined by the potentiometric The results shown in Fig. 1970]. during forging of steel at 2250 F (1230 C) with Figure 6. as indicated by the interface were embedded in the bottom flat die of the up. mocouple placed in the sample actually showed ture gradient is very large at the vicinity of the an increase in the temperature at the bottom of die/material interface. initial temperatures.6. displacement transducers [Altan et al. the rate of temperature drop further oscillograph along with the load required to up.j) (material. After the load had ing die temperatures in forging of steel [Vigor been removed.6 shows the temperature-time traces for dies initially at 400 F (205 C). Temperature and Heat Transfer / 61 terface temperatures in hot forging must exhibit These data show that the interface (or insulated) very fast response (a few milliseconds). As can the thermocouples was recorded on a light beam be expected. It is interesting that the rate of the In another study. 6. fast response thermocouples temperature drop. 6.. while the ther- These results clearly indicate that the tempera.

5 in.3 Load-versus-displacement curves obtained in workpiece that had a same or higher tem- closed-die forging of an axisymmetric steel part (di.. in which two flat H13 tool steel dies were heated to different initial tem- peratures and brought together under varying pressure levels (h determined under nonde- forming conditions) ● Upset tests. 6. Thus.. 1989]: ● Two die tests.5. Vp. 75%. 1987] [Burte et al. in height. These data agree with the measure.5 Measurement of Interface ture variations with time. in which two dies were heated to the same temperature and used to upset a Fig. temperature range of the dies at the end of up. The dimen- sion of the cylinder.125 in. (25 mm) diam by 1. reduction F (560–990 C). sample temperature. (38 mm) height. total reduction in height. 6. such as finite element method. for hot forging application. With the billet at Heat Transfer Coefficient 800 F (430 C) and the dies at 400 F (205 C). tem. Advances in the analysis of compli- cated forming processes such as nonisothermal forging have required that the interface heat transfer between objects be characterized. 298–723 F (145–385 C). 2050 F. which represented isothermal and mensions in inches) at 2012 F (1100 C) in three different ma- chines with different initial velocities. the coupling determination of heat transfer and fric- tion in one test is desired. 1961] . [Altan et al. 6. starting temperature of cylinder. or 1120 C. temperature.62 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications temperature at the interface drops to 1450 F temperatures change in hot forging. ring tests were Fig. 1044–1819 without a lubricant (sample 1. the numerical analysis. especially (790 C). 1750 F (955 C). die setting. 1 in.. perature.. or 29 mm. h.5 Temperatures at the surface and at various depths in temperature. or 230 C). 1973] nonisothermal forging conditions (h deter- mined under deformation conditions) Since interface friction also plays an impor- tant role in metal flow in the second test. [Vigor et al. 450 F.4 The temperature distribution (in degree Fahrenheit) at the end of a Ti-64 cylinder upset test. 6. can carry out quantitative calculations at the interface between the objects that are in contact. These data demonstrate how rapidly mines the amount of heat transferred across an interface. high. Similar measurement made during forging of aluminum alloy 6061 showed essentially the same trend of tempera. 6. 50%. 300 F (150 C).. Thus.i. The interface heat transfer coefficient. is measured ex- perimentally in a couple of different ways: [Semiatin et al. the forging die obtained in forging of 1040 steel perature range of the pancake at the end of upsetting. starting die Fig. h. under pressure contact. the interface temperature reached 700 F Interface heat transfer coefficient. ments shown in Fig. deter- (370 C).

determined.8.2/F (20 kW/m2 • K) was obtained.0136 btu/s/in. From the calibration curves and experimental data displayed in Fig. (25 mm) thickness at interface heat transfer coefficient. 6.8 Setup used in the ring test for the measurement of or 76 mm diam by 76 mm high) to 1 in..9 illustrates the method for the mea- surement of interface heat transfer coefficient. On the same chart. 6. diam by 3 in. Temperature and Heat Transfer / 63 selected in Burte’s experiments [Burte et al. Using ring tests.2/F. ment model (FEM) package ALPID (a parent mined at the same time. The ele- pressure. The effects of forging version of DEFORM娂) [SFTC.9. 6. deformation rate. The interface heat transfer coefficient was de- termined by calibration curves. or 20 kW/m2 • K. or 40 kW/m2 • K) were also plotted. Figure 6. an interface heat transfer coefficient of 0. 6. and lubrication on ments were generated such that there were two the heat transfer coefficient and the friction shear nodes having the exact locations as the two pairs factor were evaluated simultaneously. depths of the bottom die. This kind of arrangement is for the measurement of interface heat transfer no longer necessary at present time because the coefficient is shown in Fig. The detailed ring com- 1989]. 6.1. [Burte et al. 2002].. The process conditions used for the ring tests are shown in Table 6. 1989] . the FEM generated calibration curves (h ⳱ 0. 2250 F (1230 F) between dies at 400 F (205 C). high. and h ⳱ 0.8 were showing location of fast response thermocouple in bottom forging die obtained from nonisothermal ring tests with 304 stainless steel. Fig.2/F.0068 btu/s/in.6 Sketch of cross section through upset forging setup. of the thermocouples in real die for tracking the A schematic of ring compression tests used temperature history.7 Variations in temperatures at various locations in forging of 1020 steel billets (3 in.0068 btu/s/in. Fig. the interface friction and pression process was simulated using finite ele- interface heat transfer coefficients were deter. The data shown in Fig. 6. The increase in the temperature of the bottom die (the instanta- neous die temperature T1 minus the initial die temperature T10) versus time obtained from ex- periments was plotted as experimental data. Two pairs of current DEFORM娂 allows users to define any thermocouples were embedded in different location of the workpiece or dies for tracking of the thermomechanical histories. From the relative location between the calibration curve and experimental data the interface heat transfer coefficient was Fig.

and h ⳱ 0. the heat lower speed and lower strain rate during defor- transfer coefficient is an order of magnitude mation. The hydraulic press used had a capacity of 700 metric tons./s (56 mm/s). which results in efficient is unchanged above a certain thresh.. initial ring temperature. This threshold value is approx.2/F (1 kW/m2 • K). Hydraulic press has workpiece is free resting on a die./s (mm/s) 2.. or 304 stainless steel ring tests 20 kW/m2 • K.1 Process conditions for nonisothermal FEM generated calibration curves (h ⳱ 0. time before the deformation. workpiece and the dies. F (C) 2000 (1093) ture. The starting speed of the mechanical press and screw press is shown in Table 6. a Weingarten PSS 255 with a nom- inal rating of 400 metric tons. longer free resting heat transfer between the old pressure. the ram speeds of the forging equipment. in. 2. 1971].2 in. The interface heat transfer coefficient used was based on the ex- perimental work [Semiatin et al... T10 ⳱ 600 F (316 C). T20 ⳱ 2000 Initial die temperature. ram speed. and about 0. [Im et al.0068 btu/s/in. titanium. Mechanical press and screw press have smaller than during forging. initial die tempera. rated at 500 metric tons at 0. when there is higher speed and higher strain rate during de- pressure at the die/workpiece interface. 1989]: The heat transfer and hence the temperature ● The interface heat transfer coefficient in.9 The increase of the bottom die temperature (the in- stantaneous die temperature T1 minus the initial die temperature T10) versus time obtained from experiments and Table 6. parison of press speed and contact time on heat efficient under free resting condition is about transfer in nonisothermal ring compression tests 0. Fig.6 Influence of Press Speed and these experiments conducted in references Contact Time on Heat Transfer [Semiatin et al. 1987].2/F.2 gives the conditions used in the finite ele- ment modeling.00034 btu/s/in. (250 mm) and a nominal speed of 90 strokes/min. Table 6. When the the forging equipment. Lubricant.2/F (20 kW/m2 • K) aluminum alloys [Douglas et al. formation. 1971]. It had a stroke of 10 in.0068 btu/s/in. Hydraulic press has a longer dwell ● The value of the interface heat transfer co.. 1987] and [Burte et al. The process conditions used in the computer simulation such as the dimensions of the rings. F (C) 600 (316) F (1093 C) Ram speed. Lubricant Deltaforge Deltaforge.25 in. 6. history of the workpiece is also influenced by creases with forging pressures. was used.. the experiments and perform quantitative com- ● The value of the interface heat transfer co. or 40 kW/m2 • K) for the nonisothermal ring tests of 304 stainless steel. Ti-6242 and Al6061 ring compression tests were simulated using FEM package ALPID (a parent version of DEFORM娂). 1988b]. acteristics of forging presses was carried out on efficient under deformation conditions is rings made from selected steel. Finite for all the combinations of workpiece/die element modeling was carried out to simulate material pairs used..64 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications The following conclusions were drawn from 6.2. Experimental work on imately 2 ksi (14 MPa) in this test.0136 btu/s/in. The ram velocity was assumed constant during deformation.2 (56) .4 mm) above the bottom dead cen- ter.2/F. As for the screw press. and the reduction in height of the rings were all identical in the ex- periments [Douglas et al. 2250 mkg (22 ⳯ 103 J) energy. the determination and comparison of the char- ● The value of the interface heat transfer co. (6. The shear fric- tion factor used was the factor measured from the experimental ring tests. Me- chanical press used was a high-speed Erie press with scotch yoke design. 1988a] and [Im et al. Initial ring temperature.

033 15 380 Screw 37.10 The temperature distribution at (a) the beginning and (b) the end of a Ti-6242 3:1.25 (76:38:6.5 in.78 19.2 that the contact time during de- modeling are: formation is an order of magnitude longer in hy- draulic press than in mechanical press and screw Ring dimensions 3:1. in (mm) 3:1.49 0.4) for Al6061 3:1.4 0.5:0.044 16 405 Screw 47 0. Fig.5) for Al6061 in hydraulic press is presented in Fig.5 mm) ring compression 6:3:0.83 1. a hydraulic press and (b) a mechanical press Table 6.53 1 25 Mechanical 49.10(a) where a heat Die temperature.2 0.2 Mechanical 51 0.33 0.5 (152:76:12.53 0.42 0.10. outside diameter.051 22 560 6:3:1 in. s in.28 0.5:0.25 in. It is seen Fig.5:0.5 in.5:0.047 19 480 Screw 47 0. (76:38:12.8 mm) Al6061 ring Hydraulic 51.2/F (20 kW/m2 • K).5 mm) Al6061 ring Mechanical 45. . The temperature distribution obtained (OD:ID:height).5 mm) ring test in a hydraulic press.5:0.8 Mechanical 50 0.5 in. (76:38:12. The Die material H-13 hot working tool steel temperature distribution at the start of the de- Billet temperature.9 0.42 0.4) for Ti-6242 from the finite element modeling for the Ti-6242 6:3:2 (152:76:50.5 in.038 16 405 Screw 45.5:0.6 0. 6.4 mm) Al6061 ring Hydraulic 51 0.5 (76:38:12. (76:38:12.5:0.023 22 560 The interface heat transfer (h) was 0.5) for Ti-6242 press. 6.7 0.42 0.5 in.44 0.23 31.11. 6.2 Process conditions used in ring compression of Ti and Al alloys Ram velocity Press Reduction.5 mm) ring test in (a) the rectangle is used in Fig. The temperature loss was due to OD. F (C) 1750 F (955 C) for Ti-6242 800 F (425 C) for Al6061 formation is shown in Fig.6 0.4 mm) Ti-6242 ring Mechanical 30.8 0. (152:76:12. (152:76:50. The section inside 6242 3:1.8) for Al6061 6:3:1 (152:76:25.65 0. % Shear friction (m) Contact time during loading. F (C) 300 F (150 C) for both Ti-6242 loss to the die on the bottom surface of the ring and Al6061 ring tests was observed.5 mm) Ti-6242 ring Hydraulic 50 0.0068 btu/s/in.031 22 560 6:3:0.019 22 560 6:3:2 in.11 The temperature distribution at the end of a Ti- (76:38:12.31 0.024 22 560 3:1./s mm/s 3:1.8 0. 6. (76:38:6.2 0. Temperature and Heat Transfer / 65 The other conditions used in the finite element from Table 6.079 26 660 Screw 34.2.34 0.35 0. 6. (152:76:25. inside diameter the dwell time before the deformation started for The contact time during deformation obtained from simulation is shown in Table 6. ID.

ture increase during forging is not critical and 1975. ...W. pronounced in this ring. Weiss. 1971]: Douglas. and Heat Transfer in Nonisothermal Upset However. “A Study 1850 F (1010 C). 1989]: Burte..” Proc. Corporation.. Reinhold. 1970]: Altan. Soc. Vol 37/1. 1988a]: Im. Vol 107. p 225–230.” MCIC 109A. p 625.W.. in Axisymmetric Deformation Process.. Columbus.” 16th North ring forged in the mechanical press and the de.E.. “Measurement and Analysis of Heat [Vigor et al. the temperature gradient is less in the Forging of Ti and Al Rings. Its Measurement and Control.11(a) and (b) show [Douglas et al. J. Plenum Publishing. OH. lumbus.. T. 1988.. 1988. The hydraulic press has more die chilling due to England.” cations. G. p 91–98. Coll- “Temperature Effects in Closed-Die Forging.. September.” in Shape Manufacturing. 1971. and hammer can all be “Prediction of Metal Flow and Temperatures used. J. T...T. longer contact time of the workpiece to the dies [Farren et al. the 13th M. [Altan et al. steel forg.. Technol. “A Thermocouple for Measurement of Report No..F.R. J.L.. For beta titanium forging. 1978]: Lahoti.. Mater. Therefore. the temperature distribution at the end of the Ti. Altan. T.. Semiatin. Gerds.. et al. T. W. OH. ERC for Net Temperature Transients in Forging Dies...5 in. 1987]: Semiatin.. use of the difference in press speed and contact G.” Trans. Shen. Burke REFERENCES and V. J. temperature increase to above beta transus is not [Lahoti et al. Figures 6. Eng. “Determi- ASM Technical Report No..T. DEFORM 7. Eng. 1978.L. heat building up during deformation. A. the Ann..R. V.. mal Forging Using Ring and Spike Tests...J. Altan. before and during deformation.66 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications hydraulic press..D. Altan.” J. O. 1961.. Axisymmetric Compression and Torsion.1. Temperature.2 User Manual. cient for Non-Isothermal Bulk-Forming [Altan et al. Ohio State University. 2002. Battelle.. desired. Oct nation of the Interface Heat Transfer Coeffi- 1970. T. T.. [SFTC. ASME. zones inside the ring having temperatures above [Im et al. Conference. R. “Investigation of Non-Isother- time on heat transfer for different forging appli. and selected superalloy forging.T. p 113–120.D. June 1989. Ed. p 422–451..” Proceedings of the hydraulic press and the mechanical press.” ings. Contact Time C) higher than the beta transus of Ti-6242... C70-30. screw press. Altan. hydraulic press forging is “Prediction of Temperature Distribution in beneficial. For alpha-beta titanium forging. G. Aug 1987. P. Handbook HB-03. Shen.” Ad- vances in Deformation Processing...5:0. 1988b]: Im..D. The ring com. Y. Vardan. Materials and Practices. Y. 1973]: Altan.. G. Altan. E.” ing. The forgers may make [Im et al.. Birmingham. high-speed forging machines such as mechani. (76:38:12.. Vol 97. There are 1925. tempera. Vol 3. “The Heat Developed During Plastic Extru- pressed in the mechanical press shows a lot of sion of Metals. 2002]: Scientific Forming Technologies 1973. America Manufacturing Research Conference formation is more uniform and the bulge is less Proceedings. Part 2. Ind. cal press. S. ASME. Co- [Burte et al.. Ser. T. CIRP.5 mm) ring test in mination and Comparison. Taylor. 1975]: Lahoti. which is around 25 F (14 of the Influence of Press Speed.S. Hornaday. A. Transfer and Friction During Hot Forging. Altan. “Forging Processes.. ERC/NSM-B-89-20. C. S.. “Characteristics of Forging Presses: Deter- 6242 3:1. Wood. p 49–57. [Lahoti et al. [Semiatin et al. Vol Equipment.W. T. 1925]: Farren.I. 1961]: Vigor. G.

rn.. Fig. As Fig. s. As a defects. tional stress. frictionless conditions. rn.1 Introduction piece. Fig. DOI:10. 7. barreling). Therefore.. der actual conditions.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. under frictionless conditions. Gracious Ngaile. 7. formation of surface and internal workpiece is not uniform (i.asminternational. (b) With friction . the diameter.e. editors. However.1(b) shows that un- ing workpiece. and load and result.1(a) shows.1361/chff2005p067 www. stresses acting on the dies. (a) Frictionless. 1983].1 illustrates this fundamental phenomenon as it the total upsetting force is greater than for the applies to the upsetting of a cylindrical work. the normal stress. the flow of metal is caused by the the resulting normal stress. the workpiece deforms uniformly and In forging. is constant across pressure transmitted from the dies to the deform. increases from the energy requirements [Altan et al. the deformation of the ence metal flow. Figure outer diameter to the center of the workpiece and 7.1 Upsetting of cylindrical workpiece. the frictional condi. where some level of fric- tions at the die/workpiece interface greatly influ. Gangshu Shen. is present. p67-81 All rights CHAPTER 7 Friction and Lubrication Mark Gariety Gracious Ngaile 7. 7.

in most practical Under dry conditions. 1983] . In this case. chemically adhered to the metal surface. friction is high. and such a situation is desirable in only relatively low [Altan. In this case. Hydrodynamic conditions exist when a There are four basic types of lubrication that thick layer of liquid lubricant is present between govern the frictional conditions in metal forming the dies and the workpiece. rolling of plates and slabs and nonlubricated ex.2 Stribeck curve showing onset of various lubrication mechanisms. with the liquid lubricant. These hydrodynamic conditions cannot be maintained.68 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 7. films provide a barrier under conditions of large In this case. the fric- [Altan.2 illustrates the onset of these the lubricant and by the relative velocity be- various types of lubrication as a function of the tween the die and the workpiece. p. to help provide a barrier against metal-to-metal Fig. chemically react with the metal surface in order tween the dies and the workpiece. such as hot curve indicates. As the Stribeck a few selected forming operations.2 Lubrication the friction conditions are governed by the shear Mechanisms in Metal Forming strength of the lubricant film. Mixed-layer lubrication is the most widely trusion of aluminum alloys. many liquid lu- Full-film lubrication exists when a thick bricants contain organics that will adsorb to or layer of solid lubricant/dry coating is present be. Consequently. 1970] [Schey. no lubricant is pres. Because Boundary lubrication is governed by thin of the high pressures and low sliding velocities films (typically organic) physically adsorbed or encountered in most metal forming operations. g. 7. ing temperature. 7. friction is relatively low. the peaks of the metal surface ex- metal-to-metal contact where the properties of perience boundary lubrication conditions and the bulk lubricant have no effect. of most lubricants decrease rapidly with increas- locity. Thus. In this case. The viscosities combination of lubricant viscosity. encountered situation in metal forming. sliding ve. friction locities. v. The Stribeck curve tion conditions are governed by the viscosity of shown in Fig. 1970]. As is the case the valleys of the metal surface become filled with dry conditions. where the interface temperatures are is high. 1983]. high-speed forming operations. [Schey. such as strip ent at the interface and only the oxide layers rolling and wiredrawing. and normal pressure. the hydrodynamic con- present on the die and workpiece materials may ditions exist only within a certain regime of ve- act as a “separating” layer.

using conven- In order to evaluate the performances (lubric. the friction and lubrication conditions present at tionship defined by Coulomb’s law is not valid the die/workpiece interface in a forging opera- at all normal stress (pressure) levels because the tion.. m. These parameters can be outlined as fol- shear stress. r. 7. the linear rela. and for a sticking friction condition. tional phosphate-soap lubricants or oils. cop- and process conditions and to be able to predict per.1 nonlubricated extrusion of aluminum alloys. cannot exceed the shear strength. a second law named the 1999] [Saiki et al.1) There are numerous parameters that influence As is illustrated in Fig. If there is enough lubricant present. s. The Coulomb ● m ⳱ 0. m.. 2001]. ity) of various lubricants under various material ● m ⳱ 0. flow stress) influence how the work- terface friction. 1983] [Bhushan. Fig. Courtesy of N. in hot rolling of plates or slabs and in quantify the interface friction. lows [Schey. 1983].. m s ⳱ fr¯ ⳱ r¯ ⳱ mk (Eq 7. There are two cants. shows that l is simply the ratio of the frictional shear stress. the chanics indicate that Eq 7. 7. bricants. m.2 shows that the fric- tional shear stress. m ⳱ 0. f. Both ● m ⳱ 0. aluminum alloys. Equation 7. 1983].. where act as a hydrostatic medium. Sticking friction is the case where sliding at the interface is preempted by shearing of the bulk material [Schey. stress and load calculations [Altan et al. s. used to express the strain-rate dependency of flow stress.7 to 1. laws that can be utilized for this purpose. k.4 Parameters Influencing Friction and Lubrication s ⳱ rnl (Eq 7. Friction and Lubrication / 69 contact. in the simple exponential law.. friction law uses a coefficient of friction. r¯ ⳱ C(˙e)m. ¯ and the fric- tion factor.2 adequately repre- lubricant in the valleys of the metal surface can sents the frictional shear stress in forging.g. 1983] Thus. for a frictionless condition.3.3 Friction Laws and 1983]: Their Validity in Forging ● m ⳱ 0. of the material. to e. or the shear factor. Tool/Workpiece Parameters The interface shear friction law uses a friction ● The properties of the workpiece material factor. rn. and aluminum alloys with graphite- forming pressures. and high-temperature alloys with glass lu- ing all of the interface phenomena into one non. and offers advan- the contacting peaks of the metal surface and the tages in evaluating friction and in performing hydrostatic pockets support the normal pressure. both the normal stresses are high. l.. 2000]: interface shear friction law has been developed [Schey. s. 7. Thus. m ⳱ 1.15 in cold forming of steels.3 Friction at high normal pressures.1 to 0. to quantify the in. f. Equation 7. 7. or a shear factor. the shear fac- tor values.05 to 0.4 in hot forming of steels.3 in hot forming of titanium of these laws quantify interface friction by lump. Bay .2 to 0. it is necessary to express the based (graphite-water or graphite-oil) lubri- interface friction quantitatively. 1983] [Bay. and copper. (i. in Eq 7.e. Thus. m. is dependent on the flow stress of the deforming material. 1999] [Lenard. 1995] [Ngaile et al. and the normal stress (pressure). For various forming conditions. m. In this case. discussed in Chapter 4. dimensional coefficient or factor.2) 冪3 The shear factor.2 is not to be confused with the exponent. Recent studies in forming me.0 when no lubricant is used. friction is moderate. vary as follows [Altan et al. [Schey.

stress) of both the die and the workpiece and ary lubrication).e. the bound. so as to reduce heat bricant composition also influences how the losses from the workpiece to the dies lubricant reacts with both the die and the ● Possess inertness to prevent or minimize re- workpiece (i. the following significant functions [Schey..e.e. the viscosity of the lubricant.e. Systems for Cold Forging ● The sliding velocity at which the die moves relative to the workpiece influences the heat The choice of which lubricant to use for a cold generation at the die/workpiece interface. 1994].e. it may cause an abrasive wear mechanism. The properties of both the die and process and the machine operation influ- workpiece material influence how the lubri. It forging process depends on the severity of the also influences the onset of hydrodynamic operation (i.e. 7. ● Reduce the sliding friction between the dies and the workpiece. cially in hot forming. In metal forming. actions that will degrade the dies and the ● The viscosity of the lubricant influences how workpiece materials at the forming tempera- it flows as the workpiece is deformed (i. face pressure and surface expansion) and the pa- ● The sliding length at which the die moves rameters associated with the billet itself (i. it may 1983]: act as a lubricant.e. The lu. of aluminum alloys [Bay. hydrodynamic lubrication) and the de- formation of the surface asperities.. lubricant performance (lubricity) as backward and the extent to which the lubricant will extrusion processes.. flow cant reacts with the surfaces (i. the lubrication break down. mixed-layer lubrication). friction is controlled by use cant pockets (i.e. which af. In addition. ameter-to-height ratios does not require the same tent to which the lubricant must spread out. ● Be nonabrasive so as to reduce erosion of the ● The amount of lubricant influences how the die surface and die wear lubricant spreads as the workpiece is de. if not most. If the scale is soft and ductile. over the workpiece influences the heat gen.e. systems used for steel may be very different ● The amount of surface expansion generated from those used for aluminum or titanium during the deformation process influences [Schey. mixed-layer lubrication) of appropriate lubricants for given applications. the ex. tures used hydrodynamic lubrication). nents and not produce unpleasant or danger- ets (i.. ous gases ● Be easily applicable to and removable from Process Parameters dies and workpiece ● The pressure exerted by the die on the work. hydrodynamic lubrication) and galling of the workpiece to the dies and how the viscosity changes when sub.. If it is hard and brittle. Figure 7.70 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications piece deforms and thus how the lubricant ● The heat generated due to the deformation must flow. espe- jected to extreme heat and pressure.. mixed-layer lubrication) are formed. boundary lubrication).5 Characteristics of Lubricants Used ● The surface finish of both the tool and the workpiece influence how hydrostatic lubri. For example..e. . 1983].. are formed. hardness). ● Be commercially available at reasonable cost piece influences the viscosity of the lubricant (i.. upsetting to small di- eration at the die/workpiece interface. ● The geometry of the die influences how the workpiece deforms and thus how the lubri- cant must flow. the scale present on the work- acteristics and to perform some.4 shows an example of the extent to which the lubricant must spread this lubricant selection process for cold forging out. of piece surface influences the interface condi. tions.6 Lubrication fects the formation of hydrostatic lubricant pockets (i. ● Be free of polluting and poisonous compo- formed and how hydrostatic lubricant pock. process parameters such as inter- lubrication. The lubricant is expected to have certain char- ● In hot forging.e.. this is achieved by using Lubricant Parameters a lubricant of high lubricity ● The composition of the lubricant influences ● Act as a parting agent and prevent sticking the viscosity (i. ● Possess good insulating properties.. ences the material properties (i. 7.

1 Ferrous Materials cal procedure for applying this lubrication sys- tem to a billet is described in Table 7. the basic workpiece material is first cleaned to remove grease and scales and then dipped in a zinc phos- phate solution. Friction and Lubrication / 71 Fig. The typi.4 Lubricant selection based on deformation severity.5 Zinc phosphate coating and soaping lubrication sys- crystals with very low shear strength. resulting in firmly adhered and adsorbed layers of alkaline soap. and phosphate Fig. brication. [Bay. However. In the zinc coating or soaping layers are obtained by allow- phosphate coating lubrication system. 1994] [Manji. Because of the severe defor- et al. [Bay. 1994] . process time for phosphating and lu- phosphate coating and soaping system (Fig. 1983] [Bay. simple forging processes such as properties of the zinc phosphate coating and light upsetting may be completed without lubri- soaping lubrication system. operations. 7.6. 7. zinc soap. tem.. 1994] 7. thicker cation or with a simple mineral oil. 1994] [ICFG.1 [Altan Carbon Steels. In general. the most widely used lubrication sys- Process parameters such as bath age and tem- tem in the cold forging of carbon steels is a zinc perature. The coated billets are then dipped in an alkaline solution (usually sodium or calcium soap). a zinc phosphate layer on the order of 5 to 20 lm is formed. and type of activators influence the 7. mation conditions typical of many cold forging 1996]. Through chemical reaction.5).

mineral oil. However. 1996] ing the billets to remain in the zinc phosphate Waste Removal solution or the sodium soap solution for longer ● The baths contain acids. and phos- because excessive amounts of lubricant could phates. After factory surface finish [Bay. SP. 1994] . Most of this waste cannot be re- ufacturers are attempting to design replacements used and thus becomes hazardous waste. which lead to unhealthy working Mi. Energy Usage Table 7. 1994] [ICFG. conditions. FA. Ph. 1999]. usually by pickling but occasionally by shot blasting 104–160 40–70 1–5 Rinsing in cold water and neutralizing (if pickling used) N/A N/A N/A Dipping in warm water with activators N/A N/A N/A Phosphating Dipping in zinc phosphate solution 130–205 55–95 5–10 Rinsing in cold water and neutralizng N/A N/A N/A Lubrication Lubricating with sodium soap 160–175 70–80 0. the baths become polluted with al. extrusion Severe Ph Ⳮ SP largement during forging. Hence. This dust is a Extrusion Light Ph Ⳮ Mi Ⳮ EP Ⳮ FA Severe Ph Ⳮ SP health risk to the workers in the facility. the zinc phosphate coating has sev. surface embrittlement. today. as well as the mainte. the alloying constituents. The Despite its success as a cold forging lubrica.. cold ficult and thus expensive.. phosphate coating.1.2 Lubrication systems for cold forging ● It is necessary to heat multiple baths to tem. Ph Ⳮ MoS2 ● The baths are a source of toxic chemicals and Ph Ⳮ MoS2 Ⳮ SP fumes. Source: [Bay. pollutants. wastewater treatment and the baths result in tion system.5–5 Drying N/A N/A N/A Source: [Altan et al. care should be taken metal. solids. of steel peratures between 105 and 205 ⬚F (40 and Process Deformation Lubricant 95 ⬚C). Treatment sequence for zinc phosphate coating of steel billets for cold forging Bath temperature Operation ⬚F ⬚C Process time. cess is time consuming. 1994] [Manji. brication systems are the most widely used. extreme pressure additive. for this lubrication system [Ngaile et al. lubricant man. 1983] [Bay. and other eral disadvantages. The disadvantages are summarized as follows Mechanical Properties of the Billets [Schmoeckel et al. heavy metals like lead and cadmium. These processes and lubrication ● The zinc phosphate coating and soaping pro.. EP. fatty additives. soap. of the zinc phosphate coating and soaping line is expensive. min Cleaning Degreasing in alkaline solution 140–205 60–95 5–15 Rinsing in cold water N/A N/A N/A Removing scale. 1994] [Lazzarotto et phosphating.72 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 7. 2002].. Upsetting Light None Mi Ⳮ EP Ⳮ FA Worker Environment Severe Ph Ⳮ SP Ironing and open-die Light Ph Ⳮ Mi Ⳮ EP Ⳮ FA ● Dust accumulates as a result of surface en. This is a common cause of ● The initial purchase. forging of carbon steels involves a wide variety of processes and thus a wide variety of lubrica- Productivity tion systems. Even though zinc phosphate coating based lu- ● Removal of the zinc phosphate layer is dif. ion of the basic periods of time.2. 1997]: ● Zinc phosphate can increase corrosion and Profitability diffuse into the workpiece material during heat treatment. The wastewater contains organic cause dimensional tolerance errors or unsatis- compounds and emulsifying agents. oils. which contain metals. systems are summarized in Table 7. nance.

Friction and Lubrication / 73

Extreme-pressure additives include chlorine, additives stain the copper [Schey, 1983] [Gariety
sulfur, and phosphorus. These additives react et al., 2002].
with carbon steel surfaces to produce excellent Titanium. Cold forging of titanium has very
barriers (boundary lubrication) against metal-to- limited application. However, in those limited
metal contact. In severe extrusion operations, applications, the lubrication systems can be
the bulk surface temperature may exceed the summarized as shown in Table 7.4 [Schey,
melting point of the soap. In these cases, mo- 1983].
lybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is used in place of
the soap. In the most severe operations, the en-
tire phosphate coating is replaced by a thin cop-
per coating [Schey, 1983]. 7.7 Lubrication Systems for
Stainless Steels. For cold forging of stainless Warm and Hot Forging
steels and other steels containing more than 5%
Cr, an oxalate coating is used in place of the The main difference in lubrication conditions
phosphate coating. This is done because it is dif- between cold and hot or warm forging is the
ficult to phosphate these materials [Schey, temperature range in which the lubricant must
1983]. function. Excessive die temperatures combined
with high die stresses as the result of heat trans-
7.6.2 Nonferrous Materials fer from the billet to the dies and deformation
stresses cause increased wear, plastic deforma-
Aluminum. Lubrication in the cold forging of tion, and heat checking in the dies [Saiki, 1997].
aluminum is especially important because of the Thus, in order to increase tool life and part qual-
high adhesion between the aluminum and the die ity, a good lubrication system should be capable
material. The lubrication systems used for the of minimizing both the heat transfer to the dies
cold forging of aluminum are given in Fig. 7.4. and the shear stresses at the tool/workpiece in-
In general, one of three conversion coatings are terface.
used with aluminum; namely, zinc phosphate, Unlike cold forging, the application of the lu-
calcium aluminate, or aluminum fluoride. The bricant in hot forging is constrained by the total
lubricants used with these conversion coatings forging cycle time, which is on the order of a
include soaps and molybdenum disulfide. The few seconds. Figure 7.6 illustrates a typical die
general treatment sequence for these conversion lubrication process [Doege et al., 1996].
coatings is the same as described in Table 7.1; It is therefore essential to apply the appropri-
however, the type of conversion coating deter- ate lubrication within the shortest amount of
mines the bath temperature and process time as time. Thus, factors such as spray pressure, lu-
shown in Table 7.3 [Bay, 1994] [ICFG, 1996]. bricant flow rate, spray angle, spray distance,
Copper. Lubrication systems for cold forging and spray pattern are of great importance for a
of copper are summarized in Table 7.4. It should successful warm or hot forging operation.
be noted that many EP additives are useless
when used in a mineral oil for lubrication of a
copper alloy because they do not react with the Table 7.4 Lubrication systems for the cold
copper surface to create a barrier (boundary lu- forging of copper and titanium
brication) to withstand metal-to-metal contact as Process Deformation Lubricant
they do with carbon steels. In addition, sulfur Copper
Upsetting Light Emulsion
Severe Mineral oil
Table 7.3 Alternative conversion coatings for Extrusion Light Emulsion
Mineral oil
aluminum billets for cold forging Severe Soaps
Bath temperature Titanium
Process time,
Phosphating operation ⬚F ⬚C min Upsetting Light Emulsion or mineral oil
Dipping in zinc 130–150 55–65 5–10 Severe Copper coating Ⳮ soap
phosphate solution Fluoride-phosphate coating Ⳮ soap
Dipping in calcium 140–175 60–80 5–15 Extrusion Light Copper coating Ⳮ soap
aluminate solution Fluoride-phosphate coating Ⳮ soap
Dipping in aluminum 185–195 85–90 5–10 Severe Copper coating Ⳮ graphite
fluoride solution Fluoride-phosphate coating Ⳮ graphite
Source: [Bay, 1994] [ICFG, 1996] Source: [Schey, 1983]

74 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

The temperatures used in warm and hot forg- ing the heating of the workpiece. There are some
ing do not readily facilitate the use of organic- exceptions to this. In the hot forging of alumi-
based lubrication systems (i.e., mineral oils) or num and magnesium, lower forging tempera-
soaps. Organic-based lubricants will burn and tures permit the use of a graphite/mineral oil
soap-based lubricants will melt at these tem- combination applied directly to the workpiece.
peratures. Thus, the choices of lubrication sys- In steels, it is possible to use graphite-based
tems are very limited [Schey, 1983]. coatings that are applied very rapidly to the bil-
The four most common lubrication systems lets prior to induction heating. Glass can also be
are MoS2, graphite, synthetics, and glass; how- used as a lubricant and as a protective coating
ever, MoS2 is only useful at warm forging tem- in hot forging of titanium, nickel, and tungsten
peratures (up to 750 ⬚F, or 400 ⬚C). MoS2 and alloys for aerospace applications. When glass is
graphite are solid lubricants. Because of their used, it is applied to the workpiece from an
layered molecular structure, they demonstrate aqueous slurry or to the preheated workpiece
low frictional stresses. They are usually mixed from a powder. The glass subsequently melts
into an aqueous solution and sprayed onto the into a highly viscous liquid [Schey, 1983]
dies. This serves two purposes. First, the aque- [Manji, 1994]. Because the dies are at much
ous solution evaporates upon contact with the lower temperatures than the workpiece, a sharp
dies, thus acting to cool the dies and protect temperature gradient is created through the glass
them against increased wear due to thermal soft- film, which produces a sharp viscosity gradient
ening. Second, an MoS2 or graphite layer re- (molten glass near the workpiece and solid glass
mains on the dies following evaporation of the near the dies) vital for lubrication.
aqueous solution. This layer not only acts as a The lubrication systems used for the warm
lubricant, but also as insulation against exces- and hot forging of steels are summarized in Ta-
sive die heating [Schey, 1983] [Manji, 1994]. ble 7.5 [Schey, 1983]. The lubrication systems
Today, concerns over the environmental friend- used for the warm and hot forging of aluminum,
liness of graphite as well as the accumulation of magnesium, copper, titanium, nickel, and tung-
graphite within the dies have led to the devel- sten are summarized in Table 7.6 [Schey, 1983].
opment of water-based synthetic lubricants
[Manji, 1994].
If the lubricants were applied to the workpiece
instead of the dies, they would be destroyed dur- 7.8 Methods for
Evaluation of Lubricants
Table 7.5 Lubrication systems for the warm
and hot forging of steels The cost of lubricants is small compared to
the costs of items such as raw material, equip-
Material Process Deformation Lubricant
ment, and labor. As a result, the economic in-
Carbon steel Warm forging Severe MoS2 in aqueous
solution centive to evaluate or change lubricants is not
Graphite in aqueous always very significant. However, lubricant
solution breakdown resulting in excessive die wear or die
Hot forging Severe Graphite in aqueous
solution failure is one of the largest factors contributing
Stainless steel Hot forging Severe Glass in aqueous to reduced production as a result of press down-
slurry or powder
time and part rejection. Therefore, it is essential
Source: [Schey, 1983] to evaluate the lubricants in use and to compare

Fig. 7.6 Die lubrication process in warm and hot forging. [Doege et al., 1996]

Friction and Lubrication / 75

them to alternative types of lubricants. Such an There are many bench-type simulation tests
evaluation is necessary in order to utilize effec- designed to evaluate friction and lubrication in
tively the large investment required for installing forging operations [Schey, 1983]. Here, how-
a coating and lubrication line for cold forging ever, only two of the most common tests are
[Shen et al., 1992]. presented, i.e., the ring compression test and the

Table 7.6 Lubrication systems for the warm and hot forging of aluminum, magnesium, copper,
titanium, nickel, and tungsten
Material Process Deformation Lubricant
Aluminum Warm and hot forging Severe None
Graphite in mineral oil
Magnesium Warm and hot forging Severe Graphite in mineral oil
Copper Warm and hot forging Severe Graphite in aqueous solution
Titanium, nickel, and tungsten Warm forging Severe MoS2 compounds
Graphite compounds
Hot forging Severe Graphite compounds
Most severe Glass in aqueous slurry or powder
Source: [Schey, 1983]

Fig. 7.7 Metal flow in ring compression test. (a) Low friction. (b) High friction

Fig. 7.8 Finite element model of ring compression test. (a) Initial ring. (b) Compressed ring (50% height reduction) (shear factor m
⳱ 0.1). (Gariety et al., 2003)

76 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

double cup backward extrusion test. The ring ● The contact time between specimen and
compression test best simulates forging appli- tools under pressure must be approximately
cations with a moderate amount of deformation, the same as in the forming operation of in-
where the surface expansion induced is on the terest.
order of only 100%, while the double cup back- ● The ratio of the new generated deformed sur-
ward extrusion test best simulates more severe face area to the original surface area of the
forging applications, where the surface expan- undeformed specimen (i.e., surface expan-
sion and the interface pressure induced are over sion) must be approximately the same as in
500% and 290 ksi (2000 MPa), respectively. the process investigated.
In determining the friction factor, f, or the ● The relative velocity between deforming
shear factor, m, for hot forming, in addition to metal and dies should have approximately
lubrication effects, the effects of die chilling or the same magnitude and direction as in the
heat transfer from the hot material to colder dies forming process.
must be considered. Therefore, the lubrication
tests used for determining friction factors must 7.8.1 Ring Compression Test
include both lubrication and die-chilling effects.
Consequently, in hot forming, a good test must Lubricity, as defined by the friction factor, f,
satisfy the following requirements [Altan et al., or the shear factor, m, is commonly measured
1983]: by using the ring test [Male et al., 1970] [Doug-
las et al., 1975]. In the ring test, a flat ring-shape
● The specimen and die temperatures must be specimen is compressed to a known reduction
approximately the same as those encoun- (Fig. 7.7). The change in internal and external
tered in the actual hot forming operation. diameters of the forged ring is very much de-

Fig. 7.9 Theoretical calibration curves for ring compression test having indicated OD: ID:thickness ratios. (a) 6:3:2 ratio. (b) 6:3:1
ratio. (c) 6:3:0.5 ratio. [Altan et al., 1983]

Friction and Lubrication / 77

Table 7.7 Values of frictional shear factor, m, obtained from ring compression tests conducted in a
hydraulic press
temperatures Ring size OD:ID:h(a)
Frictional shear
Material ⬚F ⬚C in. mm factor (m) Lubrication system
AISI 1018 200/200 95/95 1.75:1.13:0.5 44.5:28.7:12.7 0.040 Zinc phosphate coating Ⳮ soap
0.045 Metallic compounds Ⳮ sulfur compounds(b)
0.060 Mineral oil Ⳮ EP additives
Copper 75/75 24/24 2:1:0.67 50.8:25.4:16.9 0.30 Emulsion
0.27 Water-based synthetic
(a) OD, ring outside diameter; ID, ring inside diameter; h, ring height. (b) Environmentally friendly lubrication system developed to replace zinc phosphate coating
based systems. Source: [Gariety et al., 2003] [Hannan et al., 2000]

pendent on the friction at the die/ring interface. Some results obtained from ring compression
If friction were equal to zero, the ring would tests conducted in a 160-ton hydraulic press with
deform in the same way as a solid disk, with a ram velocity of 15 mm/s and a ring height
each element flowing radially outward at a rate reduction of 50% are shown in Table 7.7.
proportional to its distance from the center. With Simulation of Hot Forging Conditions. In
increasing deformation, the internal diameter of contrast to the simulation of cold forging con-
the ring is reduced if friction is high and is in- ditions, the simulation of hot forging conditions
creased if friction is low. Thus, the change in the do not provide for a “universal” set of calibra-
internal diameter represents a simple method for tion curves. The friction calibration curves must
evaluating interface friction. be generated for the specific ring material under
Simulation of Cold Forging Conditions. the specified ring and die temperatures and the
The ring test has an advantage when applied to ram speed conditions. Hence, knowledge of the
the study of friction under cold forging condi- flow stress of the material is required [Lee et al.,
tions. In order to measure friction with this test, 1972].
the force necessary to deform the ring and the The results from some ring compression tests
flow stress of the specimen do not have to be conducted under hot forging conditions have
known. Thus, evaluation of test results is greatly been compiled. The results from ring compres-
simplified. To obtain the magnitude of the fric- sion tests conducted for various materials in a
tion factor, the internal diameter of the com- 500 ton mechanical press with a nominal speed
pressed ring must be compared with the values of 90 strokes/min and a total stroke of 10 in.
predicted by using various friction factors, f, or (255 mm) are shown in Table 7.8.
shear factors, m. Today, these values are most
often predicted by the finite element method
(FEM). Figure 7.8 shows an example of an FEM
model used for this purpose. The results are plot-
ted in the form of “theoretical calibration
curves,” as can be seen in Fig. 7.9, for rings
having OD:ID:thickness ratios of 6:3:2, 6:3:1,
and 6:3:0.5. The internal diameters used in this
figure are the diameters at the internal bulge. Un-
der cold forging conditions, these calibration
curves may be considered as “universal” be-
cause changes in material properties (i.e., strain
hardening) have little effect on the curves. In
determining the value of the shear factor, m, for
a given experimental condition, the measured di-
mensions (reduction in height and variation in
internal diameter) are plotted on the appropriate
calibration figure. From the position of that point
with respect to theoretical curves given for vari-
ous values of “m,” the value of the shear factor,
m, which existed in the experiment is obtained. Fig. 7.10 Metal flow in double cup backward extrusion test

78 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

7.8.2 Double Cup shown in Fig. 7.10, the test is a combination of
Backward Extrusion Test the single cup forward and single cup backward
extrusion processes. The ratio of the cup heights,
Lubricity, as defined by the friction factor, f, H1/H2, is very dependent on the friction at the
or the shear factor, m, is also measured by using billet/die and billet/punch interfaces [Buschhau-
the double cup backward extrusion test. As sen et al., 1992] [Forcellese et al., 1994]. In par-

Table 7.8 Values of frictional shear factor, m, obtained from ring compression tests conducted in a
mechanical press (die temperatures ⬇ 300 ⬚F, or 150 ⬚C)
temperature Ring ratio OD:ID:t
Frictional shear
Material ⬚F ⬚C in. mm factor (m) Contact time, s Lubrication system
6061 Al 800 425 6:3:0.5 150:75:13 0.40 0.038 (a)
6:3:1 150:75:25 0.31 0.047 (a)
6:3:2 150:75:51 0.53 0.079 (a)
Ti-7Al-4Mo 1750 955 3:1.5:0.25 75:38:6.5 0.42 0.033 (b)
3:1.5:0.5 75:38:13 0.42 0.044 (b)
3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.42 0.056 (b)
403 SS 1800 980 3:1.5:0.25 75:38:6.5 0.23 0.029 (b)
3:1.5:0.5 75:38:13 0.24 0.039 (b)
3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.34 0.047 (b)
1950 1065 3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.28 0.06 (b)
2050 1120 3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.35 0.06 (b)
Waspaloy 2100 1150 3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.18 0.06 (b)
17-7PH SS 1950 1065 3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.28 0.06 (b)
2100 1150 3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.35 0.06 (b)
Ti-6Al-4V 1700 925 3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.30 0.06 (b)
1750 955 3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.46 0.06 (b)
Inconel 718 2000 1095 3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.18 0.06 (b)
2100 1150 3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.33 0.06 (b)
Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V 1750 955 3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.27 0.06 (b)
1800 980 3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.27 0.06 (b)
Udimet 2050 1120 3:1.5:1 75:38:25 0.40 0.06 (b)
7075 Al 700 370 5:3:1 125:75:25 0.37 0.06 (a)
800 425 5:3:1 125:75:25 0.31 0.06 (a)
SS, stainless steel. (a) Caustic precoat Ⳮ graphite coating Dag 137 (Acheson) on the specimens and graphite spray Deltaforge 43 (Acheson) on the dies. (b) Glass-
based coating Deltaforge 347 (Acheson) on the specimens and graphite spray Deltaforge 43 (Acheson) on the dies. Source: [Douglas et al., 1975]

Fig. 7.11 Double cup backward extrusion test tooling at the ERC/NSM

Figure 7.14 illus.065).14 Measurement of cup height ratio and stroke. 7. f. and the Figure 7. f.. m. the billet diameter. 7. 2002) ticular.” as can be seen in Fig.12 FEM model of double cup backward extrusion test (shear factor m ⳱ 0. there is a relative velocity between the container and the upper punch. (b) Final. the upper punch is fixed on the ram of the press and moves down- ward. it has been found that the ratio of the cup trates how the cup height ratio and stroke are heights increases as the friction factor. or the measured. Dur- ing the test. will be m.1) (dimensions in millimeters). same and the cup height ratio. Figure 7.11 shows the actual tooling used for the double cup backward extrusion test.. The results are plotted in the form of “theoretical cal- ibration curves. In addition. [Ngaile et al. for a given experimental condition. This ex- plains why the height of the upper cup is larger Fig. on the billet material. equal to one. In determining the value of the shear factor. In other words.13. must be compared with the val- ues predicted by using various friction factors. the cup heights will be the ous values of “m. the container and lower punch are fixed on the bed of the press and held stationary with the lower punch located completely inside the container. these values are most often predicted by the finite element method (FEM). Fig. Stroke: S ⳱ initial ted on the calibration figure. friction. or the shear factor. [Ngaile et al. Thus. (a) Initial. There- fore. the material flow to the lower punch is more restricted in the presence of friction. Friction and Lubrication / 79 Fig. but not be- tween the container and the lower punch. height ⳮ (H ⳮ H1 ⳮ H2). the metal flow in this test is dependent face friction. m. Today. Cup height ratio: Rch ⳱ H1/H2. f. (Ngaile et al. Thus.. 7. m. H1/H2. It should be noted that the lower punch was raised out of the container for illustration purposes only. From the position of that point with shear factor.13 Theoretical calibration curves for double cup backward extrusion test with experimental data than the height of the lower cup. 2002] . H1/H2.12 shows an example of an FEM model used for this purpose. 7. increases. which existed in the experiment. the measured di- mensions (cup height ratio and stroke) are plot. if respect to the theoretical curves given for vari- there is no friction. the ratio of the cup heights It should be noted that in addition to interface represents a simple method for evaluating inter. is obtained. 2002] To obtain the magnitude of the friction factor. the ratio of the cup heights. m. point (shear factor m ⬇ 0. or shear factors.” the value of the shear factor.

diam ⳯ 1. The re. Padwad. Vol 46. p 1–24.H. AISI 8610 75 24 0. T. F. T. [Doege et al. J. J. there is no [Gariety et al. PF/ERC/NSM-02-R-32A.. 10/95.. Cold Forging Lubrication. Weinmann.. p 389. Feb 1975. Lubr.9 Values of frictional shear factor. 1970..” retical curves should be used to quantify the in.. N.. Group.. “Evalua. the flow stress of the ma. Ngaile.. p [Lee et al. T.” Report No. p 66.035 Metallic compounds ing Rates and Temperatures. 1996]: International Cold Forging Wire J. T.. T. 1983]: Altan.. Solihull. 1970]: Male...R.. American Society for Metals. “Development of Forming Pro- REFERENCES cesses for Copper Components for Stanford Linear Accelerator. 2002. J. 1996. Altan. J. Heading. Oh. “Influ- 135–146. Determining Friction from the Ring Com- cess. p 95–108... Seidel.075 Zinc-based dry film(b) AISI 1038 75 24 0. J.. DePierre. Ngaile. height (31. Vol 45. tion of Lubrication and Friction in Cold Forg. 1994]: Bay. M. Modern Tribol. 1975]: Douglas. “The Validity of Mathematical Solutions for ing Using Double Backward Extrusion Pro.. 1994. R. Coatings. Temperatures in Wire and Rod Drawing. ders. Vol 122. 2000. Altan. “universal” set of calibration curves for this test. Gegel. “Evalu- Ⳮ soap ation of Friction in Cold Metal Forming. 1972]: Lee. Cold Heading—Progress Report 1—Identifi- terial must be known and the appropriate theo. Dubar. Pro. In other words.. Ro- obtained from double cup backward extrusion manowski. cations.” J. pression Test. N. 1999. [Lenard. G. Ma- [Bay. March 1970. Thus. M.25 in. p 775... Mater. Oudin.” Surf. Source: [Ngaile et al. A. 1992]: Buschhausen. 2001]: Bhushan. C. Process. PF/ERC/NSM-02-R- sults of these tests are summarized in Table 7. 2002] 619–624... Metal Forming Fundamentals and Appli.. T.. phate Stearate Coatings.... ing Congress... 1999]: Lazzarotto.. Altan. A. Coat. C. 1995]: Bay.. L. C..050 Zinc phosphate coating brielli. 1996]: Doege.. V. 2003. T.. “Increasing Tool Life Quantity tests conducted in a hydraulic press (punch/die in Die Forging: Chances and Limits of Tri- temperatures ⬇ 75 ⬚F. 32B... and Industrial Applications.T. “Heat Generation and NSM-B-00-20.. 2000.. . Altan. Material ⬚F ⬚C (m) Lubrication system [Douglas et al. ASME.. Process.. Ind. “Tribology in Metal [Buschhausen et al. A. “Lubrication Aspects in Cold Forging [Altan et al.” Report No. compounds(a) [Forcellese et al. Tech- ceedings of the 9th International Cold Forg. UK.. A. p 54..” Trans.80 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 7. of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys.” Ann.75 Mater. May 1995. S.. Micari. CIRP. B. p mm height). p 89–94. Aug 1972. nol. 1970]: Altan. ence of Flow Stress and Friction Upon Metal [Bhushan.. Barcellona. Ⳮ sulfur Eng. 1983. Aspects of Lubrication in on the Quality and Performance of Zinc Phos- Cold Forging of Aluminum and Steel.” Doc- H. p 19–40.” Technical Papers of the Specimen Frictional North American Manufacturing Research In- shear temperatures factor stitution of SME... Altan.. Eng.. ASME. 2000]: Hannan. J. ument No.. m.” Trans.. S.. A. K. J. Trans.” J. Vol 92. 2003]: Gariety. “Identification of Lubricants and Enhancement of Lubricant Performance for punch diameter. Report No. ASME. “The Effects of Processing Bath Parameters Technol. or 24 ⬚C) bological Measures. The State of the Art in rechal.. Altan. T. G. Flow in Upset Forging of Rings and Cylin- ogy Handbook—Vol 2: Materials.. p 94–100. Ga- 0. [Male et al. 2000]: Lenard.9. E. L. Lee. 1994]: Forcellese. nol.. terface friction. Tech- 1992. Ind. Mater.. (b) Environmentally friendly lubrication system developed for re- placement of zinc phosphate coating based systems.. cation of Lubricants Used for Cold Heading. [Gariety et al. 2002]: Gariety. [Lazzarotto et al.25 in.75 mm diameter ⳯ 31. (a) Billet size ⳱ 1. CRC Press. Dubois. PF/ERC/ [Altan. 2000.” [ICFG. J. [Hannan et al. Technol. [Bay.Y. G. 1994. F. Process.. Technol. 1996. Vol 49. D. Rolling. Ngaile... “Identification of Lu- Several double cup backward extrusion tests bricants and Enhancement of Lubricant Per- have been conducted for various materials in a formance for Cold Heading—Progress Report 160 ton hydraulic press with a ram velocity of 2—Preliminary Lubrication Tests for Cold 15 mm/s and a punch stroke of 21 mm..065 Zinc phosphate coating Flow Stress Determination for Metals at Forg- Ⳮ soap 0. Vol 33.

.. for Improvement of Tool Life in Hot Forg.. Kropp. Plast. 2002]: Ngaile. p 183–200. Gariety....” Lubr. 1992. “Die Lubricants. working: Lubrication. Forging.. [Saiki.. J.. Schumacher.: Ann.: J.. R. Altan. 1999]: Saiki. Eng.. Eng. 1997. Marumo. Mater... of Deformation Patterns at the Tool-Work.. Vol 33.” Proceedings of the 1st International uation of Friction Using a Backward Extru- Conference on Tribology in Manufacturing sion Type Forging. H. and Wear. p 39–44.. Altan. G.. H. [Ngaile et al. Soc. “De. J. J. 1997]: Schmoeckel.” Symposium.. Lat- ing Processes.. ”More Environment Friendly Cold velopment of Replacements for Phoscoating Massive Forming—Production of Steel with- Used in Forging Extrusion and Metal Form. Process.. Friction and Lubrication / 81 [Manji. H. 1999]: Ngaile. PF/ERC/ est Developments in Massive Forming.” J. Saiki. Technol. Tech- Processes. Kolodziej. Vedhanayagam. Rupp. CIRP. Y.. Fell- NSM-02-R-85. 1997]: Saiki. Tribol. 1994]: Manji. Lubricants Under Realistic Forging Tempera- “Cold Forging Tribo-Test Based on Variation ture Conditions. G. p 22–31.. G.” 2002. [Schmoeckel et al. p 109–123. Vol 1. Ngaile. . p 377–382. [Schey.. Report No. E. Spring 1994. T. piece Interface.” Adv. “A Method for Eval- ing. “The Role of Tribology [Shen et al. bach near Stuttgart. Ruan. 1983]: Schey... Feb 1999. 1997. M. p 23–31.. L. Tribology in Metal- Lubr. out Zinc Phosphate Layer. 1983.. D. M. G. A. Gifu. T. 1992]: Shen. Friction.” [Saiki et al. Japan. nol. American Society for Metals.. “Evaluation of Cold Forging [Ngaile et al.

. Among those inputs. and at the tool/workpiece interface. the parameters rameters in the flow stress model and the friction in the flow stress equation. DOI:10. appropriate evaluation method. the input data uation of the test results should be able to over. Compared with well the true stress state of most forging pro. (i. However. In this chapter. The required input data for direct problem conditions that exist in practical applications. Thus. it is determination of the input data for FEM simu- necessary to assign input parameters for the lation is introduced to determine material pa- simulation. friction factor. The results of process simulation are extremely sensitive to 8.1(a) is regarded as direct prob- material properties should replicate processing lem. Gracious Ngaile. It is desirable to consider the unavoidable friction at the tool/ The finite element analysis (FEA) based workpiece interface in the test and to identify simulation of metal forming processes has been the friction together with flow stress using an widely used to predict metal flow and to opti.1 Introduction inhomogeneous deformation. interface friction. are identified or calibrated (if initial guess is come difficulties introduced by friction and given). Therefore. process con- A common method for the determination of ditions. the direct problem. In the the flow stress data for forging simulation is the direct problem FEA predicts the metal flow.asminternational.2 Inverse Analysis in Metal Forming the accuracy of flow stress and interface friction that are input to FEM programs. cylinder upset test as discussed in Chapter 4 be. anisotropy coefficients of a material are usually obtained from the appropriate tests. prediction. With experimental measurements curate flow stress determination. 8. provided to the inverse CHAPTER 8 Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Friction Hyunjoong Cho 8. p83-89 All rights reserved. This inverse problem can be applied to . it is 8.1361/chff2005p083 www.e. in the inverse problem the cesses and (b) the test can be done for a large authors determine one or more of input data of strain. the eval. which represents and friction values are known.1 Direct and Inverse Problems essential that these input values are determined using (a) reliable material tests and (b) accurate An FEA of metal forming process as illus- evaluation methods. mize the manufacturing operations. even in the simplest cylinder the direct problem. forming load.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. editors.2. and energy by simulating the cause (a) during the test the deformation is done forming operation assuming that the flow stress in a state of compressive stress. A test used to determine trated in Fig. flow stress. leading to the best fit be- upset test. interface friction leads to an inevitable tween experimental measurements and FEM bulging of the sample and thereby to an inac. etc. FE simulation) are geometry. Gangshu Shen. In using an inverse analysis technique for the accurate user-friendly commercial FEA software.

e. Therefore. experimental and numerical data.2. 3.2 Procedure for at ERC/NSM [Cho et al. Chenot et al. a finite element simulation of the se. The trial and error procedure is the simplest way to solve the above inverse problem.1(b). Derivation of inverse analysis based on rigid- plastic finite element formulation was developed 8. which represents material prop- erties. i. Obtain the amount of adjustments in material parameters by minimizing the difference be- tween the computed and measured loads. the constitutive equation. The in- of the flow stress equation is conducted and the verse problem was formulated as finding a set computed load-stroke curve is compared with of rheological parameters starting from a known the experimentally measured curve. For sensitivity perimental measurements and computed data disappears.. The accurate enough. Compare the computed forming load with experimentally measured one.. 8. Start FEM simulation of the selected material test with given flow stress data. FEM is used to analyze the behavior of the ma- verse problem is regarded as a parameter iden. Guess the material parameters in flow stress equation. Improve the material parameters until the dif- ference becomes within a desired tolerance. terial during the test. 2003]. This proce. Then. formulated an inverse problem tion. it is necessary to use a numerical optimization technique for robust determination of the param- eters in the flow stress equation. unknown parameters are determined by mini- cluding the cylinder upset and ring compression mizing a least-square functional consisting of tests. this method is time consuming and param- eters cannot be identified accurately. First. Parameter Identification 8. the least-square sense.2. an in. 4. The procedure used to identify the mate- rial parameters includes: 1.84 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications any material test in which FEA can be done in. whereas the optimization tification problem that can be formulated further technique allows for automatic adjustment of as an optimization problem where the difference parameters until the calculated response matches between measurement and FEM prediction is the measured one within a specified tolerance. Fig. provided experimental measurements are experimental data and FEM simulated data. This method may be used to get some prior information of the parameter values and get some rough idea what is the most important parameter for a given problem. Generally. How- ever.3 Past Studies on the Inverse Analysis The basic concept of an inverse analysis in Used for Flow Stress Determination flow stress determination consists of a set of un- known parameters defined in flow stress equa. minimized by adjusting the input parameters. in is reduced in the next comparison. pa- rameter identification. An optimization algo- assumed parameters of the flow stress equation rithm was coupled with the finite element simu- are adjusted in such a way that the difference in lation for computing the parameter vector that the calculated and measured load-stroke curves minimizes an objective function representing. the difference between dure is repeated until the difference between ex.1 Direct (a) and inverse (b) problems . in developing a methodology for automatic lected material test with the assumed parameters identification of rheological parameters. 5. 2. 8. The result of inverse analysis is a set of the identified material parameters of the flow stress equation. Therefore. the Fig.

flow stress equations and material parameters tion. This parameters (i. and the strain hardening exponent.. ⳵Pk the deformation behavior of the material can be assumed to be rigid-plastic by neglecting the where Pk are the P1 ⳱ K. the identi. N is the number of data Zhiliang et al. E.n Warm r¯ ⳱ K¯ene˙¯ m K. tiation of the FEM code in conducting sensitiv. The unknown material parameters are deter- He identified parameters in the conventional mined by minimizing an objective function. pression tests where inhomogeneous deforma- The objective function. K. Therefore. and temperature.e. n) and effort of analytical code differentiation. Therefore. Figure 8. For given material parameters Pk. is a nonlinear implicit tion is present due to interface friction. introduced a new method com- sampling points selected from a load-stroke to bining compression tests with FEM simulation construct the objective function.. Examples of the searching parameters during the optimiza. This used to define the stress-strain relationship dur- technique proved to be a good alternative to the ing plastic deformation.1. K and n are the two material problem in material forming domain. the power-law Table 8. the optimization problem. usu.2) ally encountered in most forging applications. P2 ⳱ n. flow stress is sensitive to Cold r¯ ⳱ K¯en K. used inverse analysis technique to evaluate the coefficients in the friction and 8. When the experimen- finite difference method or analytical differen. In this function of material parameters Pk. and then the two material fication software CART (Computer Aided parameters are to be identified. strain-rate. which leads to the best fit between liang et al.2 Objective Function flow stress model for metal forming processes. 2001]. of K and n values. Thus. At el- evated temperature..1 Flow stress models and parameters type flow stress equation is used to describe a Forging type Flow stress equation Parameters stress-strain relationship for plastic range.3.2 il- (C-FEM) to determine flow stress from the com- lustrates a definition of the objective function.1 Material Parameters Boyer and Massoni developed the semianal- ytical method for sensitivity analysis of inverse In cold forging. ⳱ 0 for k ⳱ 1. He sense: concluded that the determination of both rheo- logical and frictional parameters from one com. respect to the searching parameters [Chenot et al. the objec- 8. the Rheology and Tribology) was introduced [Boyer material parameters become design variables in & Massoni.3 Flow Stress Determination in tive function E ⳱ E(Pk) will be minimum at: Forging by Inverse Analysis ⳵E(Pk) In a large plastic deformation problem.3. the flow stress obtained from the com- the parameter identification problem is reduced pression test is improved by minimizing the tar- to compute a set of the unknown parameter Pk get function defined in load-stroke curves [Zhi- ⳱ {K.. Chenot differentiated the FEM code with are summarized in Table 8. elastic part. for warm and hot Hot r¯ ⳱ K¯e˙ m K. method. N FEXP ⳮ FCOM(Pk ) 2 兺冢 冣 1 bined test is ideal because the interpretation of E⳱ (Eq 8. 2 (Eq 8. 8.n.1) N i⳱1 FEXP tests to determine the flow stress depends on an assumed value of the friction factor [Pietrzyk et where FEXP is the experimental load and FCOM al. flow stress equation and in a dislocation density representing the difference between the experi- based internal variable model as well as friction mental and the simulated loads in a least-square factor from one set of ring compression test.n}. tally measured load-stroke curve is available. 2002]. E. Pietrzyk et al. As a result of research.m rate of deformation.m forgings. If the material shows strain hard- ening behavior in cold forging. experimental measurements and corresponding computed data. 1996]. is the computed load. flow stress is expressed in function of . 2001]. the material strength coeffi- method compromises between computation time cient. FEM simulations are made with initial guesses ity analysis. Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Friction / 85 analysis of the objective function with respect to strain.

is identified.3. k ⳱ 1.. The developed inverse analysis algorithm has ysis technique gives flexibility in selecting ma. For simultaneous identification of both the material parameters Pk and the friction factor mf. 1999]. the evaluated by taking the derivatives of the objec. Fig. namely the barreling.e. the difference in used to describe the deformation behavior of barreling shape disappears and the friction factor material during the test and the optimization al.86 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications The nonlinear Eq 8. However.5. and this causes an error in ⳵E N (FEXP ⳮ FCOM) ⳵FCOM flow stress calculation. 2 (Eq 8. Therefore. measured load-stroke curve has a force contri- tive function E ⳱ E(Pk) with respect to Pk: bution from inhomogeneous deformation caused by frictional force. the frictional force at large DPj ⳱ ⳮ for j. erative procedure. the computed barreling shape is compared 8. N ⳵2E 2 in addition to the measured load-stroke curve. is used. k ⳱ 1.. In order to overcome this problem. Any material test that simultaneously. FEM simulation is factor. 2 (Eq 8. inhomogeneous deformation) regardless of The first and second gradients of the objective the quality of the lubricant and (b) affects the function with respect to the parameters Pk are measured load-stroke curve. Therefore. for determining bulk material property for a large strain. Figure 8. friction perimental load . 8. Uniform strain- rate condition. 8. it allows the iden- ⳵ FCOM 冧 2 for j. inverse anal.3) compression ratio (a) starts to bulge the sample ⳵Pk⳵Pj ⳵Pk (i.4) stress. 2 (Eq 8.3 shows a methodology gorithm identifies material parameters using for determining flow stress and interface friction FEM simulation results. which requires a sophisticated control of test machine. is not needed in the test 8.3 Advantages with the measured barreling shape and then the difference is minimized by adjusting the friction In the inverse analysis.2 is solved with respect is minimized by using a lubricant together with to the parameters Pk using Newton-Raphson it.5) tification of friction by measuring the barreling ⳵Pk⳵Pj shape of the specimen. ⳱ⳮ 兺 one more measurable geometrical quantity in the ⳵Pk⳵Pj N i⳱1 test. geometry proposed by Rastegaev [Dahl et al. During the inverse anal- ysis. been tested by using the real experimental data terial tests. the main problem is the existing friction at the die/specimen inter. Barreling re- 1 ⳵FCOM ⳵FCOM (FEXP ⳮ FCOM) 冦ⳮ 2 FEXP ⳵Pk ⳵Pj Ⳮ F2EXP flects a degree of inhomogeneous deformation caused by friction.1 Flow Stress Model states can be handled. it is necessary 兺冦 冧 2 ⳱ⳮ to consider the inevitable interface friction in the ⳵Pk N i⳱1 F2EXP ⳵Pk test and then identify it together with the flow for j. For determining flow stress data for warm and hot forging.2 The difference between the computed and the ex- face.4 Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Friction In the upset test. can be simulated by FEM can be selected to de- termine the material property. k ⳱ 1.5 Example of Inverse Analysis because inverse analysis takes advantage of FEM simulation where complex stress and strain 8. This treatment will lead to a uniaxial stress state for a limited reduction in height dur- ⳵2E ⳵E ing the test. Therefore. In other words. After several iterations. only two different test velocities are required to identify strain-rate sen- sitivity (m-value) instead of conducting the tests at several different constant strain-rates.

2 Experiment Aluminum rings made from Aluminum 6061- Therefore. ysis.13 in.5. load versus stroke. used as experimental values in the inverse anal- ered. OD ⳯ 1. mf. 8. by Pk ⳱ {K.71 in. friction factor . Two experimental quantities: (1) the measured vestigated material was assumed to follow load-stroke curve and (2) the maximum diame- strain-hardening behavior and the following ter of the specimen at the end of stroke were power-law-type flow stress equation was consid. D-s. bulge diameter versus stroke. a set of material parameters defined T6 with 2. Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Friction / 87 obtained from the ring compression test.6) 8. height) were compressed to various reductions Fig. The in.06 in. L-s. ID ⳯ 0.3 Flow chart of simultaneous determination of flow stress and friction. r¯ ⳱ K¯e n (Eq 8.n} and friction factor mf are the height (54 mm OD ⳯ 27 mm ID ⳯ 18 mm unknown parameters that have to be identified.

MPa Friction (mf) of ring.175 shows the compressed ring samples.85 Table 8. It is seen that measurements match well the curve obtained with the friction factor of 0. the aluminum cylinders with a 30 mm diam ⳯ 30 mm height were upset to 38% reduction in height. and n-value) in the flow stress equation and fric- tion factor by the inverse analysis are summa.5 Comparison of computed and experimental load- stroke curves (ring test) .3 Predicted inverse analysis results (ring test) Decrease in ID K-value.4 for every case.2 ⳮ2.074 Fig.6. computed and The results of identifed parameters (K-value experimental loads are nearly identical.96 40. parison of the ring. % Decrease in ID of ring. When the friction factor 0. The rings were lubricated with Teflon rized in Table 8.4 Verification of the Determined Friction Factor To verify the accuracy of determined friction factor. 8.074 (MPa) gives the best minimum for the Flow Stress and Friction objective function.4 Compressed ring samples Table 8.1 were used reductions of 7.1% underestimation in ID com- ferent reductions.076 0.48 22.88 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications in height.5.5 65 446 0. % ksi MPa n-value 0. % 7. In order to observe the in. 22. Three inverse analyses were spray on all surfaces of the samples and on the conducted by varying the friction factor from top and bottom dies. 8. Using the measured load-stroke curve.3. which is very close to 0.5. a combination of fric- tion factor mf ⳱ 0.5. FEM simulations using the determined flow stress with friction factor of 0. 8. the inter- face was lubricated with Ecoform lubricant made by Fuchs. Thus.5 Verification of the Determined Flow Stress In order to verify the flow stress determined with friction factor by the inverse analysis. 0.2 Ⳮ0. Figure 8.2 Percent decrease in ID of ring Reduction in height.2. the ring calibration curves were generated as shown in Fig. To minimize interface friction. The difference between the flow stress Fig. after four optimization iterations.9 67 459 0.175 ⳮ1. As can be seen in Fig. 8. flow stress r¯ ⳱ 437¯e 0.7. produced only 8.175 and flow stress r¯ ⳱ 8.15 ⳮ5.7 66 452 0. the inverse analysis prediction 8.2 shows the decrease in ID of the ring at dif. K ⳱ 430 (MPa) and n ⳱ Determination of 452¯e 0.15 to 0. As initial guesses of material param- ternal diameter variation the test was stopped at eters.073 0. 8.067 (MPa) was ob- tained. the lu- brication nearly eliminated bulging in upsetting of cylinder.0 ⳮ1. 8. As shown in Fig. and Table was assumed.175 were conducted for various friction factors. and 40%. Thus.2 ⳮ1.

. Technol... L.” Simulation of Materials Processing: Theory. [Pietrzyk et al. Process.. V.074 (MPa) multaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Interface Friction by Finite Element Based In- verse Analysis Technique. Method and Applications. p 221–224. 2003. M.3% in K-value and 9.. 2001. “Identification of Param- eters in the Internal Variable Constitutive Model and Friction Model for Hot Forming of Steels. Vol 13 (No. Fubao.” Simulation of Materials Process- Fig. Ngaile.. tests is about 3. J. “Determination of Metal Material data obtained in ring and cylinder compression Flow Stress by the Method of C-FEM. B.” J. Mater. “Inverse Problems in Finite Element Simulation of Metal Forming Pro- cesses. E. p 190–225.5% in n. E. G. [Dahl et al. 2002]: Zhiliang. .. Mori. L.” Ann. “Si- 452¯e0.. Hodgson. D.. “Inverse Analysis for Identification of Pa- rameters During Thermo-Mechanical Tests. P... 2002.. H.. Ed. p 281–284. ERC/NSM-99- R-22. Szyndler. Ed.. Vol 120. Al- tan. K. “Determination of Flow Stress of 1524 Steel at Room Temperature Using the Com- pression Test.. 2001]: Pietrzyk... Method and Applications. Xinbo. respectively. 2003]: Cho. p 281–284. 2/3/4). Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Friction / 89 REFERENCES [Boyer & Massoni. 1999]: Dahl.-I. Z. Comput..D. 8. CIRP..” Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. [Chenot et al. Z. Vol 52/1. 1996. 8. T. Vazquez. 2001. p value... Mori. 2001]: Boyer. Fig. 1996]: Chenot.6 Ring calibration curves obtained with r¯ ⳱ [Cho et al... C. Massoni..” Eng..7 Compressed ring samples ing: Theory. [Zhiliang et al. 144–150. Fourment. Massoni.

DOI:10. p91-105 All rights reserved. simplifying assumptions are made tool design and for selecting the appropriate mainly with respect to stress distributions. the flow stress properties.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan.asminternational.e.1 Introduction oping the mathematical approach. the slip-line ● Establish the limits of formability or produ- method. ● A quantitative value to describe the friction. and the en. the friction factor. objectives of analyzing any forging operation These two quantities themselves (flow stress and are: friction) must be determined by experiment and are difficult to obtain accurately. and strain) between in the value of the friction factor are expected to the undeformed part (billet or preform) and influence the accuracy of the results of the anal- the deformed part (final forged product). solved with imposition of stress compatibility tion. methods including the slab method. both analytical and numerical. In addition. For operation. or the friction co- and (f) the environmental conditions. data piece interface conditions. rors in flow stress measurement or uncertainties velocities. The equipment. between slabs and boundary tractions.1361/chff2005p091 www. and the to perform the forming operation without finite element method. (c) tool/work. m. In the slab method..e.. proximate stress distribution [Kobayashi et al. the workpiece being de- ergy necessary to carry out the forming formed is decomposed into several slabs. the upper- cibility. with adequate force and energy resulting approximate equilibrium equations are capabilities. This information is necessary for each slab. ● A description of the material behavior under ing can be summarized as: (a) the billet material the process conditions. (d) forging equip. i. editors. Thus. ysis. i. i. ods. (b) the tooling/dies. strain for perfectly plastic materials (constant . Table 9. Gangshu Shen. for analyzing 1989]. determine whether it is possible bound method.. the forces. the visioplasticity method. forging processes.. The capabilities and char- causing any surface or internal failures acteristics of these methods are summarized in (cracks or folds) in the deforming material. Gracious Ngaile.e.1 [Altan et al. predict the metal flow during the forming Forging processes can be analyzed by several operation.. finite difference method. 1979]. every method of analysis requires as input: The major process variables involved in forg. ● Predict the stresses.e. ment. (e) mechanics of the deformation zone. l. any er- ● Establish the kinematic relationships (shape. to perform the forming opera. i.. The slip-line field method is used in plane fect because of the assumptions made in devel. None of these methods is per. strain rates. The final result is a reasonable load prediction with an ap- There are several different approximate CHAPTER 9 Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations Manas Shirgaokar 9. The major efficient.

although produc. 1979] . This method. After the ve. tures. sparsely populated solution matrix) [Becker. and (e) capabil- adequately.. 1989]. simulation: (a) the tool and workpiece tempera- ing hot forming operations. All these small elements distributions are obtained from plasticity equa. the deriv. the name “finite elements”). detailed information FEM can provide as com- All of the above highlighted methods of anal.. Commercial FE software packages have been Table 9. Provided the boundary perimental determination of the velocity vectors conditions of the actual problem are satisfied. ademia. satisfying the boundary conditions). method allows the user to incorporate in the which are present in the deforming material dur. (b) s ⳱ mr/ ¯ 冪3. atives in the governing partial differential equa. among 1992]. This results in In the finite difference method. trix). the behavior is described by the tual test. The method can be used to obtain reliable continuity and equilibrium are satisfied between solutions in detail for processes in which the ex. From the algebraic equations (with a banded solution ma- stress distributions.. strain rates are calculated and the stress differential equations. (b) the heat transfer during deformation. lution domain is divided into small finite seg- gator to construct a flow pattern.92 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications yield stress) and uses the hyperbolic properties tions are written in terms of difference equa- that the stress equations have in such cases. ities for microstructure analysis. This can be attributed to the rapid ad- with experience. the ef. interior point. can determine free boundaries Hill’s Distribution (a)(b) Yes No No Average Can treat 3-D problems Finite difference Distribution (a)(b) Yes Yes Yes Yes Requires considerable computer time Finite element Distribution (a)(b) Yes Yes Yes Yes Same as above Matrix Distribution (a)(b) Yes Yes Yes Yes Treats rigid/plastic material Weighted residuals Distribution (a)(b) Yes Yes Yes Yes Very general approach (a) s ⳱ lrn. The tions. Over locity vectors have been determined from an ac. the finite element method has potential energy. This results in a system of linear relations with experimental work. user- accurate prediction of loads and velocity distri. ments (hence. construction of slip-line fields. are satisfied.. velocity fields can be cal. and the requirements of tions. The FE ysis fail to consider temperature gradients. which yields a unique solution provided culated through plasticity equations [Kobayashi the boundary conditions of the actual problem et al. Therefore. before deformation starts. Information leading to a good gained wide acceptance in the industry and ac- selection of velocity fields comes from experi- mental evidence and experience. Source: [Altan et al. a more accurate analysis of the forging process. (d) flow during hot forming are often not considered strain hardening characteristics. Pictures taken at small In the finite element method. As a result. Though temperature gradients can The visioplasticity method [Thomsen et al. friendly commercial FE software and the butions [Kobayashi et al. a grid of cells is placed inside the domain and ing an “exact” stress distribution. each element.. which the best one is chosen by minimizing total In recent years. the entire so- intervals during processing enable the investi. is still quite the differencing approximation applied to each limited in predicting results that give good cor. this method is limited to 1954] combines experiment and analysis. are assembled together.e. can deliver fast and relatively vancement in the computing technology. is imprinted on the metal or modeling substance 1992]. 1989].1 Characteristics of various methods of analysis Output Input Velocity Stress Temperature Stresses Method Flow stress Friction field field field on tools Comments Slab Average (a)(b) No Yes No Yes Ignores redundant work Uniform energy Average (b) No No No Average Redundant work can be included approximately Slip line Average (a)(b) Yes Yes No Yes Valid for plane-strain problems Upper bound Distribution (b) Yes No No Average Gives upper bound on loads. fect of temperatures on flow stress and metal (c) strain-rate-dependent material properties. for a two-dimensional domain. A grid problems with simple boundaries [Becker. neighboring elements. unique solution can be obtained to the overall The upper-bound method requires the system of linear algebraic equations (with a “guessing” of admissible velocity fields (i. a was possible. pared to other methods of analysis. be taken into account.

9.2a) The basic approach for the practical use of the ⳵z h slab method is as follows: ⳵vx V 1. 3.2c) each distinct time zone of the velocity field. For this velocity field. y. is defined as: ● The frictional shear stress. ⳵vz V e˙ z ⳱ ⳱ ⳮ D (Eq 9. is constant at the die/material interface and is defined as s ⳱ fr¯ ⳱ mr/ ¯ 冪3. where VD is the velocity of the top die.2b) field. with the velocities glected.1) ● The material flows according to the von Mises rule. vy ⳱ 0 (Eq 9. upper. Knowing r¯ and friction. Thus. ⳵x h 2. ¯ within each distinct zone of de- forging operations.1 Changes in shape during upsetting. Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 93 used successfully in simulating complex two-di.2. formation. estimate the average strains. ⳵y Fig. In this case. estimate an average value of the flow mensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) stress.2 Slab Method of Analysis average forming pressure (in the upper- The following assumptions are made in using bound method). deformation material and the tool are neglected. vx ⳱ VDx/h. 4. necessary equations for predicting the stress distribution and the forming load (in the slab method) or the forming load and the 9. ● The flow stress and the temperature are con. and the finite element (FE) methods. Estimate or assume a velocity or metal flow e˙ x ⳱ ⳱ D ⳱ ⳮ˙ez (Eq 9. s. 9. and z directions. the slab method of analysis: ● The deforming material is isotropic and in. in the x. vz ⳱ ⳮVDz/h. Plane strain (initial width ᐉo and initial height ho) and axisymmetric (initial radius Ro) . and temperatures within ⳵vy e˙ y ⳱ ⳱ 0 (Eq 9. Method to Plane-Strain Upsetting ● The elastic deformations of the deforming The Velocity Field. This chapter briefly discusses the slab. r. derive or apply the bound. The velocity field. is homogeneous and takes place in the x-z plane ● The inertial forces are small and are ne- (Fig. The strain rates are: stant within the analyzed portion of the de- forming material. strain rates. 9.1 Application of Slab compressible.1).

with Eq 9.9) stresses in the metal flow direction and in the directions perpendicular to the metal flow direc. the flow rule is: 2 e¯ ⳱ |ez| (Eq 9.8) The effective strain is: After simplification.2).3) ho x or. r2 ⳱ rm.. for the plane strain case one obtains: e˙ 2 ⳱ e˙ y ⳱ k(r2 ⳮ rm) ⳱ 0 or Fig. Assuming a depth of “1” or unit length. 9. 1965] [Hoffman et al.e.5) 冪3 The slab method of analysis assumes that the r1 ⳮ r3 ⳱ rz ⳮ rx ⳱ 冷 2冪r3¯ 冷 (Eq 9.e.: ing slab analysis to plane strain upsetting. a force Plastic deformation/plastic flow starts when balance is made on this slab. In apply- tion are principal stresses.4) 3[(r1 ⳮ rm)2 Ⳮ (r3 ⳮ rm)2 ⳮ 0] ⳱ 2r¯ 2 (Eq 9. i. Analysis of plastic deformation requires a certain relationship between the applied stresses and the velocity field (kinematics as described by velocity.6) ular to the direction of metal flow (Fig.7: The effective strain rate is given by the equa- tion: r1 Ⳮ r3 rm ⳱ r2 ⳱ 2 冪3 (˙e Ⳮ e˙ Ⳮ e˙ ) 2 e˙¯ ⳱ 2 2 2 x y z For plane strain. ry ⳱ r2 (Eq 9. the von Mises rule gives: 冪 3 冣 ⳱ 冪3 |˙e | ⳱ 冪3 |˙e | e˙ Ⳮ e˙ e˙¯ ⳱ 2冢 2 2 x z2 2 x z (Eq 9. From these equations. The strains are: r1 Ⳮ r2 Ⳮ r3 rm ⳱ 3 h ez ⳱ ln . i. as specified by a flow rule such as [Thomsen et al.. 1953]. 9. strain (e) and strain rate (˙e) fields). Estimation of Stress Distribution. e ⳱ ⳮez. rx ⳱ r3. the Tresca or von Mises rule discussed in Chap- ter 5..94 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications It can be shown easily that the shear strain rates Per definition: are c˙ xz ⳱ c˙ yz ⳱ 0. ey ⳱ 0 (Eq 9. Such a relation between the stresses (in principal axes) and strain rates is given as follows: e˙ 1 ⳱ k(r1 ⳮ rm) e˙ 2 ⳱ k(r2 ⳮ rm) e˙ 3 ⳱ k(r3 ⳮ rm) where k is a constant and rm is the hydrostatic stress. These equations are called the plasticity equa- tions. a simple the stresses at a given point in the metal reach a equation of static equilibrium is obtained certain level.7) upsetting .2 Equilibrium of forces in plane strain homogeneous r2 ⳱ rm (Eq 9. Thus. a slab of infinitesimal thickness is selected perpendic- rz ⳱ r1.

integration of Eq 9. vz can be considered to vary 2s ᐉ rz ⳱ ⳮ 冢 h 2 ⳮ x ⳮ 冣 2 冪3 r¯ (Eq 9.2. In the tangential di- Fig. because z is considered to be positive acting upward and the upsetting or stress is acting downward. by integration one gets: over the entire width.10) Figure 9. The volume constancy holds.11) linearly while satisfying the boundary condi- tions at z ⳱ 0 and z ⳱ h. ᐉ. The 兺Fx ⳱ rxh ⳮ (rx Ⳮ drx)h ⳮ 2sdx ⳱ 0 value of rz is negative. and.11 gives the upsetting load. of the strip of unit depth gives the upsetting load per unit depth: 2s rx ⳱ ⳮ x Ⳮ C h L⳱ 2r¯ 冪3 冢1 Ⳮ mᐉ 4h 冣 ᐉ From the flow rule of plane strain. Integration of Eq 9.2 Application of the Slab Analysis Method to Axisymmetric Upsetting rz ⳱ ⳮ 2s h x ⳭC Ⳮ 2 冪3 r¯ 冷 冷 (Eq 9.3 Equilibrium of forces in axisymmetric homogeneous upsetting . i.e..11. or: pr 2 VD ⳱ 2prvrh. the frictional shear stress.11 illustrates that the vertical or: stress increases linearly from the edge (x ⳱ ᐉ/2) of Fig. The anal- The constant C is determined from the boundary ysis procedure is similar to that used in plane condition at x ⳱ ᐉ/2. drx ⳱ ⳮ2sdx/h In Eq 9. Eq 9. where rx ⳱ 0.11 Thus.9: Velocity Field. Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 95 Summation of forces in the X direction is zero Equation 9. or vr ⳱ VD r/2h Thus: In the z direction. 9. from strain upsetting. the volume of the material moved in the z direction is equal to that moved in the radial di- rz ⳱ 冷 冪23 r¯ 冷 rection. Thus. 9.2 toward the center (x ⳱ 0). it follows that: 9. s.3 illustrates the notations used in the homogeneous axisymmetric upsetting. is equal to mr/¯ 冪3.

vH ⳱ 0 (Eq 9.16a) ho h ho that at the free boundary.14c) hdr ⳮ 2srdhdr ⳱ 0 (Eq 9..14b) ⳵z h dh (r Ⳮ dr)hdh Ⳮ 2rhsin 2 ⳵vr V e˙ r ⳱ ⳱ D ⳱ e˙ H (Eq 9.: dr h t t Integration gives: 冮 冮 VDdt ez ⳱ e˙ zdt ⳱ ⳮ to to h 2s rr ⳱ ⳮ rⳭC or with ⳮdh ⳱ ⳮVD dt: h h 冮 dh h The constant C is determined from the condition ez ⳱ ⳮ ⳱ ⳮln (Eq 9.14d) ⳱ dh/2. 9.3) dt dt r r 2h gives [Thomsen et al. the von Mises flow rule for axisymmetric (r Ⳮ dr)dH ⳮ rdH dr deH ⳱ ⳱ (Eq 9.19) ⳵r 2h 1 ⳵vr ⳵v The angle dh is very small.. and the radial stress rr ⳱ 0. the increase in strain in the H direction.16b) rr ⳱ (r ⳮ R) (Eq 9.21 gives: 1 h e 2s eH ⳱ er ⳱ ln ⳱ ⳮ z (Eq 9.18) or the strain rate is Estimation of Stress Distribution.20) Thus. 冪 2 2 e˙¯ ⳱ (˙e Ⳮ e˙ 2r Ⳮ e˙ 2z ) ⳱ |˙ez| (Eq 9..3. the effective strain rate is: dr h Since in axisymmetric deformation. H. the length of the arc.e. the effective strain is: locities are: e¯ ⳱ |ez | (Eq 9. Eq 9. integration of Eq Similarly.13) The flow rule for axisymmetric deformation In order to obtain the strain rate in the tan. rr ⳱ rh or r2 ⳱ r3 i. Because actual metal flow since vH ⳱ 0 and cannot be e˙ r ⳱ e˙ h. is given by: Thus.17) vr ⳱ VD r/2h. vz ⳱ ⳮVD z/h. or Ⳮ ⳱0 (Eq 9.15. 9.19 reduces to: c˙ Hz ⳱ c˙ rH ⳱ 0 (Eq 9. 1953]: The other strain rates are: ⳵vz V 兺Fr ⳱ rr(dh)rh ⳮ (rr Ⳮ drr) e˙ z ⳱ ⳱ ⳮ D (Eq 9. In analogy with Eq 9.e. r ⳱ R in Fig.14a) librium of forces in the r direction (Fig. the other strains can be obtained as: 9. with sin dh/2 c˙ rz ⳱ 2 ⳵z Ⳮ 冢 ⳵r ⳱0 冣 (Eq 9. there is no metal flow. Thus. e˙ r ⳱ e˙ h. Following Fig. The equi- deH dr 1 v V e˙ H ⳱ ⳱ ⳱ r⳱ D (Eq 9. Thus. 9. the ve. it is necessary to consider the used in plane strain deformation.15) the plasticity equations give: 3 H The strains can be obtained by integrating the drr 2s rr ⳱ rh.14e) drr 2s ⳮrr ⳮ r Ⳮ rh ⳮ r⳱0 (Eq 9. 1965] [Hoffman et al. is obtained by using a derivation similar to that gential direction.14) upsetting is: rdH r r1 ⳮ r2 ⳱ | r| ¯ or rz ⳮ rr ⳱ | r| ¯ (Eq 9. i.21) strain rates with respect to time. and after canceling appropriate terms. Thus. the plasticity equations give: used for taking a partial derivative.22) 2 ho 2 h .3.96 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications rection.

Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 97 With the flow rule. respec- linearly from the edge toward the center. Consequently. the practical use of the upper-bound method. 1968]. formation load and the average forming pres. when the velocity face of the cylindrical upset: field has internal shear surfaces. or [Avitzur. integration gives: Based on limit theorems [Avitzur.3.25 is necessarily higher than the actual load and therefore repre- L ⳱ rpR ¯ 2 1 Ⳮ 冢 2mR 3h冪3 冣 (Eq 9. it is necessary to make the usual assumptions. stant flow stress. E˙S (internal shear energy rate) ⳱ 0. Often the velocity field considered includes one or more parameters that are determined by minimizing the total energy 9. given in Eq 9. with an in- creasing number of parameters in the velocity 9. discussed earlier in the slab 9. The tively. vi is R the die material interface velocity in the “i” por- L⳱ 冮0 rz 2prdr tion of the deforming material.2 Application to Axisymmetric method. V is the volume of upsetting load can now be obtained by integrat.24) sents an upper bound to the actual forming load. E˙ T ⳱ LVD ⳱ E˙ D Ⳮ E˙ S Ⳮ E˙ F and ds ⳱ 2prdr. is given by Eq 9. is given by E˙T ⳱ E˙ F ⳱ 2 冮 sivids load ⳯ die velocity. Calculate the total energy rate and minimize it with respect to unknown parameters of ve. E˙T. in This method can be used to estimate the de. internal shear.15.22 is transformed or into: E˙ T ⳱ 冮 V r¯ e˙¯ dV Ⳮ 冮 SS s|Dv|ds Ⳮ 冮 SF sivids 2s (Eq 9. and ¯ 冪3 ⳱ interface shear stress at the “i” portion of the deforming material. as well as perform the following steps: Homogeneous Upsetting 1. continuity. Eq 9.3.23) h where E˙D.26) v h 3. v is the relative velocity be- ing the stress distribution over the circular sur.¯ the deformation energy rate aries. Thus. In general. For describing metal flow with the upper. E˙S. Describe a family of admissible velocity The velocity field for homogeneous upsetting fields (use parameters to be determined later). there are no internal velocity discontinuities in The load is then obtained by dividing the energy the present homogeneous velocity field.1 Principles of the Method field. L is the forming load.13. and friction shear. ities and strain rates are known. the better the prediction. and velocity bound. Thus. s ⳱ r/ si ⳱ mir/ ¯ 冪3. The total energy rate.3 Upper Bound Method and rate with respect to those parameters.25) rz ⳱ (r ⳮ R) ⳮ r¯ (Eq 9. the lower this upper bound load is. and friction. admissible velocity field. Assuming a con- pressibility. in- 冮 r¯ e˙¯ dV ⳱ hpR r¯ VD ternal shear. E˙F includes the friction energies . a Its Application to somewhat better upper-bound velocity field and Axisymmetric Upsetting solution are obtained. because locity field formulation. r. 1968]: SF where vi is the radial velocity. Considering that s ⳱ mr/ ¯ 冪3. E˙ D ⳱ 2 (Eq 9. all the veloc- these must satisfy the conditions of: incom. and E˙F are the energy rates for Equation 9. is: 2. Calculate the energy rates of deformation.23 illustrates that the stress increases deformation. practical compromises are made in selecting an sure. deforming material. the solution improves while the computa- tions become more complex. rate by the relative velocity between the die and The friction energy rate is: the deforming material. S indicates sur- face (internal or at die/material interface). Thus.13 to 9. bound method. the load calculated with Eq 9. tween two zones of material.

or ⳵vr ⳵v c˙ rz ⳱ Ⳮ z ⳱ ⳮ2Abzr (Eq 9. 1989]: where b is a parameter representing the severity of the bulge. to be: the domain of the function and the values of .30a) 9. 1972]: vh ⳱ 0 (Eq 9.29 and 9. r 2 r¯ VD 3 vr E˙ F ⳱ pm R (Eq 9. E˙min.28) The effective strain rate is calculated from: 3 冪3 h 1/2 The load is: e˙¯ ⳱冤冢 2 2 1 冣冥 e˙ Ⳮ e˙ 2h Ⳮ e˙ 2z Ⳮ c˙ 2rz 3 r 2 E˙ T L⳱ VD ⳱ pR2r¯ 1 Ⳮ 2 3冪3 m冢R h 冣 (Eq 9. and A is determined from the ve.98 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications on both the top and bottom surfaces of the de. and the radial and axial velocities are func- tions of z as well as of r. The FE model is constructed in the following manner [Kobay- ashi et al.3 Application to Nonhomogeneous Upsetting ⳵E˙ T ⳱0 Homogeneous upsetting can only be achieved ⳵b at low strains and with nearly perfect lubrica- tion. then give the minimum value of the energy rate.32) Comparison of Eq 9. is used friction at the die/material interface prevents the to calculate the velocities and strain rates that metal from flowing radially in a uniform fash.. obtained from Eq 9. from: 9.3.27) e˙ h ⳱ ⳱ A(1 ⳮ bz2) (Eq 9. Thus. The exact value of b is determined from the minimization condition. given by Eq methods both give the same end result.30b) The basic approach of the finite element (FE) vr ⳱ A(1 ⳮ bz )r 2 (Eq 9..30c) method is one of discretization. bulging of the free surfaces oc. In this case.31a) or.31b) r 3 冪3 h vz The total energy rate is: e˙ z ⳱ ⳱ ⳮ2A(1 ⳮ bz2) (Eq 9. i.. ● A number of finite points are identified in locity boundary condition at z ⳱ h. with s ⳱ mr/ ¯ 冪3.e.33.4 Finite Element Method in Metal Forming vz ⳱ ⳮ2Az(1 ⳮ bz2/3) (Eq 9. 9. the The value of b. In all practical upsetting operations.24 indicates that 冪3 in axisymmetric homogeneous upsetting the loads calculated by the slab and upper-bound The total energy dissipation. As a result. VD A⳱ forming part. a velocity L ⳱ E˙ min /VD field may be given by [Lee et al. The upsetting load is then given by: curs. ion.29) or 2A e˙¯ ⳱ [3(1 ⳮ bz2)2 Ⳮ (brz)2]1/2 (Eq 9.25 can now be calculated analytically or nu- merically.31c) z E˙ T ⳱ E˙ D Ⳮ E˙ F c˙ rh ⳱ c˙ hz ⳱ 0.31d) ⳵z ⳵r 2 r¯ VD 3 E˙ T ⳱ pR2 rV ¯ D Ⳮ pm R (Eq 9. E˙T. 2h(1 ⳮ bh2/3) R R The strain rates are: 冮 冮 VD 4psiVD E˙ F ⳱ 2 si r2prdr ⳱ r2dr 0 2h 2h 0 vr e˙ r ⳱ ⳱ A(1 ⳮ bz2) (Eq 9.

(3) establishment of the element equa- tion. and (d) energy tion must take into account the large plastic de- balance approach. namely: The path to the solution of a finite element problem consists of five specific steps: (1) iden- tification of the problem. E(˙eij) is the work ● The function is approximated locally within function. strains.36) element. temperature cou- pling. (b) variational method. equilibrium equation. formulation. as well as the velocity boundary conditions. They are . velocities. using the “variational approach. where e˙ v ⳱ e˙ ii. Then: conditions of compatibility and incompressibil- ity. 1989]: Ⳮ 冮 e˙ dkdV ⳮ 冮 V SF Fi dui dS ⳱ 0 (Eq 9. and the constitutive relationship. The are uniquely described in terms of the nodal solution of the original boundary-value problem point values associated with the particular is then obtained from the solution of the dual- element. the formula- method of weighted residuals. the incompressibility con- namely.38) p⳱ 冮 V r¯ e˙¯ dV ⳮ 冮 SF Fi u i dS (Eq 9. (4) the assemblage of element equations. shapes. when appro. multiplier [Washizu.. workpiece-tool The main advantages of the FE method are: contact. applying the penalty method.35b) domains called finite elements. is accomplished from one of four directions: (a) For an accurate finite element prediction of direct approach. and. represents surface tractions. When temperatures. ● The domain of the function is represented approximately by a finite collection of sub- p⳱ 冮 V E(˙ei j )dV ⳮ 冮 SF Fiui dS (Eq 9. dition.. stresses. formation. The basic equations to be satisfied are the tions of the mechanics in a deforming body. 1973] lations. when necessary. respec- equations. e˙¯ is the effective strain rate. the velocity is the tions primary solution variable. where the first-order vari- ation of the functional vanishes. where r¯ ⳱ r(¯¯ e) and r¯ ⳱ r(¯ ¯ e. The variational approach is based on one and modifying the functional by adding the term of two variational principles. (for rigid-plastic materials) and: priate. ● The capability of obtaining detailed solu.. (2) definition of the dp ⳱ 冮 rd V ¯ e¯˙ dV ⳮ 冮 SF Fidu i dS ⳱ 0 (Eq 9. Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 99 the function and its derivatives. or contact pressure distribu. (c) material flow in a forging process.” is An alternative method of removing the in- to formulate the proper functional (function of compressibility constraint is to use a Lagrange functions) depending on specific constitutive re.1 Basis for the ⳮ 冮 SF Fidui dS ⳱ 0 (Eq 9. incompressibility. Fi their boundaries. It requires that 兰k˙evdV. and V and S the volume and surface each element by continuous functions that of the deforming workpiece. the actual solution gives the following func- dp ⳱ 冮 rd V ¯ e˙¯ dV Ⳮ 冮 kd˙e dV V v tional a stationary value [Kobayashi et al. a penalty constant.37) Finite Element Formulation where K. The formation of element equations tively. is a very large posi- The basis for the finite element metal forming tive constant. variational problem. The variational equa- ● The fact that a computer code. is the volumetric among admissible velocities ui that satisfy the strain rate. ● The domain is then an assemblage of ele. tion is in the form [Li et al. 1968] and [Lee et al.¯e˙ ) for the rigid- and (5) the numerical solution of the global plastic and rigid-viscoplastic materials.35a) In the mixed formulation.4. both the velocity and pressure are solution variables. 2001]: can be used for a large variety of problems by simply changing the input data dp(v) ⳱ 冮V ¯ e˙ dV Ⳮ K rd¯ 冮V e˙ v d˙ev dV 9. once written. respectively. (for rigid-viscoplastic materials) where r¯ is the ments connected together appropriately on effective stress. are specified at these points.

Mesh the workpiece using mesh density win- dows. cessor. ␣ a 4. establishes a set of algebraic equations that are The input to the preprocessor includes infor. and boundary conditions. 3.39) In the preprocessing stage. Also die and workpiece temperatures and interface 9. if necessary. The output from the preprocessor (in- analysis operation. 2001]: component to be analyzed. ⳮ 冮 F du dS ⳱ 0 SF i i (Eq 9. etc. In massive solved by a standard method. is required. rectan- where p is the pressure. discretization re. It takes in minimal infor. the forming processes such as forging. q the density. The governing . 2. After the nodal velocities are solved at a given step. the boundary value problem. and qn the heat flux normal to the boundary. Key points are then Equations 9.. material parameters. Specify the movement heat. Material data at elevated temperatures Finite Element Method would be required for the tools and the work- Computer implementation of the basic steps piece. areas. mation from the user (input) to generate all nec. element dp(v. the Note: If die stress analysis or thermal analysis deformed configuration can be obtained by up. Assign workpiece material properties in the 冮 V kTijdTij dV Ⳮ 冮 V ˙ qcTdTdV form of the flow stress curves. and boundary/loading con- essary problem parameters (output) required for ditions) serves as the input to this module. impression die forging. In practice. Using prevents penetration of the dies into the FEM discretization. and the postprocessor. material identification and parame- et al. viz. a continuum is di- vided into a finite number of subregions (or ele- ments) of simple geometry (triangles. the preprocessor.4. perature.).39 can be converted into selected on elements to serve as nodes where a set of algebraic equations by utilizing the stan- problem equations such as equilibrium and com- dard FEM discretization procedures. tetrahedral. Processor. Specify the inter- including heat loss to the environment and fric. Due to the patibility are satisfied. and boundary loading conditions on each node. whereas the output includes coordinates for nodes. element connectivity. force. the shear friction factor “m” is specified. solutions of mechanical and thermal problems etc. to be solved.. extrusion. This tion heat between two contacting objects...40) provided in the FE package. These may be user defined or selected from the database ⳮ 冮 V ␣r¯ e˙¯ dTdV ⳱ 冮 q dTdS S n (Eq 9.100 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications solved by the following variational equation [Li quirements. this solution is ing steps to run a successful simulation using a obtained iteratively. face boundary and friction conditions. commercial FE package: The temperature distribution of the workpiece and/or dies can be obtained readily by solving 1. preprocessing involves the follow- and frictional contact conditions. Eq 9. values of material parameters for each element. etc. The die stress analysis procedure is de- in a standard finite element analysis consists of scribed in Chapter 16 on process modeling in three distinct units.2 Computer Implementation of the heat transfer coefficients would need to be spec- ified. and direction for the dies. specify the material properties for them.p) ⳱ 冮V ¯ e˙¯ dV Ⳮ rd 冮 V pd e˙ v dV Ⳮ 冮 V e˙ v dp connectivity and element information. Define the boundary conditions (velocity. to refine mesh in critical where k is the thermal conductivity. gles. one would need to mesh the dies and dating the nodal coordinates [Li et al.37 to 9. 2001]. are coupled in a staggered manner. cluding nodal coordinates. ters. Select the appropriate geometry/section for the energy balance equation rewritten by using simulation based on the symmetry of the the weighted residual method as [Li et al. It a finite element analysis. This operation precedes the analysis. workpiece and also affects the metal flow de- verted to a system of algebraic equations and pending on the friction specified. from the governing equations of mation on the solid model. nonlinearity involved in the material properties In general. fraction of deformation energy that converts into pressure. This is the main operation in the Preprocessor.40 can also be con. c the specific heat. T the tem.). pro. 2001].

careful attention is required since the idealization of the physical problem to a mathematical one involves certain assumptions that lead to the differential equation governing the mathematical model.3 Analysis of Axisymmetric Upsetting by the FE Method The use of the FE method in analysis of forg- ing processes is discussed with the help of a sim- ple cylindrical compression simulation. Plane Strain Deformation 4. 9. alteration of the boundary conditions. 9. to restrict to movement of nodes along tion: the planes of symmetry as required ● Die movement and direction according to the 1. The be prescribed for this problem under isothermal FE engine/solver then solves the set of linear or conditions can be summarized as: nonlinear algebraic equations to obtain the state variables at the nodes. Kinematic and constitutive relations are sat. Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 101 equations include conservation principles.. A suitable interpolation function is assumed process being analyzed for each of the dependent variables in terms ● Interface friction conditions at the surfaces of the nodal values. as shown.7 shows the setup of an FE model for a plane strain condition. Since the cylinder is symmetric about the central axis.4 Analysis of tablished. and constitutive relations. which shows the sequence of finite element implementation in analysis of metal forming processes. refinement of the mesh size. Using work or energy principles. The boundary conditions necessary to nematic relations. Figure 9. 9. Figure 9.5.e.4. ki. As illus- trated in Fig.4 shows a flowchart. Reactions may be evalu- ated. In interpreting FE results. In this case the part Postprocessor. This model can be further simplified to yield a quarter model (Fig. i. Output may be in the form of data tables or as contour plots. a 2-D simulation is adequate to analyze the metal flow during deformation. axisymmetric.6c) with veloc- ity/displacement boundary conditions restricting the movement of the nodes along the Z-direction Fig.. piece. etc. 9. which is to be upset.4 Flowchart of finite element implementation . Equations are solved for nodal values of the dependent variables. 9. with the nodes along the axis of symmetry (centerline) restricted along the R- direction. of contact between the tools and the work- 2. 3. depending on the symmetry of the work- The following steps are pursued in this opera. piece isfied within each element.6(a) shows the cutaway of a cylinder. Figure 9. It also evaluates the flux ● Velocity/displacement boundary conditions quantities inside each element.6(b) shows the half model selected for simulation as a result of ro- tational symmetry. may be needed to increase the accuracy of the solu- tion. stiffness matrices and equivalent nodal loads are es. Figure 9. This operation prints and has a uniform cross section along the length and plots the values of state variables and fluxes in the meshed domain.4.

7(c) with velocity boundary the forging process is performed at elevated tem- conditions similar to those used for the axisym. 9. considered.102 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications the strain along the Z or length direction is neg. hence a 2-D simulation could not be used since the metal is free to flow in the X direction to analyze the metal flow.5 Three-Dimensional ligible. and hence a quarter model form. Figure 9. of an isothermal simulation in the following tained from the plane strain simulation have to ways: be multiplied by the length of the billet used for ● Tool and workpiece temperatures have to be the forging process to get the final results. ever. Nonisothermal FE Analysis dimensional cross section shown in Fig. Hence. [Bathe. ez is negligible. 1996] .4. how- (Fig. Since as shown in Fig.7b). the cross section is uni. If. 9. only the two. 9. However. symmetric. a nonisothermal simulation is con- metric case discussed in the previous section.7(b) is selected for process simulation. The simulation input differs from those should be noted.5 The process of finite element analysis. The starting preform geometry is not axisym- the velocity boundary conditions are different metric. 9. mentioned for the axisymmetric case. and thermal properties such as Fig. that the results ob.8 shows the FE model of the hot The procedure for simulation is the same as forging process of an automotive component. 9. The preform is. i. however. a quarter model can be used for simulation could be used for modeling the process. however..e. It ducted. peratures.

4. The boundary conditions in a 3-D simulation are 9.6 Mesh Generation in FE similar to those in a 2-D process: Simulation of Forging Processes ● Velocity/displacement boundary conditions Bulk forming processes are generally char- need to be specified depending on the work. the in- have to be meshed since heat transfer be. heat capacity. (b) Full model. 9. (c) Quarter model .6 Analysis of axisymmetric cylinder upsetting using the FE method. In addition to the friction. Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 103 thermal conductivity. (b) Half model. (c) Quarter model Fig. ● Die and workpiece material properties are ● Interface friction is specified depending on specified as a function of temperature and the type of lubrication at the tool/workpiece strain rate. interface piece geometry. (a) Part for plane strain upsetting. 9.8(b). acterized by large plastic deformation of the Fig. Dies (still considered as rigid) interface. 9. In Fig.7 Analysis of plane strain upsetting by the FE method. movement of heat transfer coefficients. cal input to the simulation. have to be the boundary nodes is restricted along the specified. terface heat transfer coefficient is also a criti- tween workpiece and tools is simulated. planes of symmetry. etc. (a) Cutaway of the cylinder.

The shape of the elements after the Introduction to the Theory of Plasticity for mesh generation procedure has to be Engineers. die gresses the mesh tends to get significantly dis. cient mesh. (a) FE model.. 1992. [Avitzur. as the simulation pro. T. stress analysis.. Once the mesh density was de- fined. Processes and Analysis.. ● Identification of critical points (like sharp 1968.” Ann. Some practical ap- the deformation history from the old mesh to the plications of FE simulation in hot and cold forg- new mesh.. The number of nodes be. Metal Forming: cation is accommodated in the geometry. Oxford University Press. the following factors [Altan et al. T.. 1979. Prentice Hall. corner points) for accurate representation of [Bathe. Element Method. S. 1992]: Becker. The starting mesh in the FE simu. Metal Forming and the Finite improved to obtain a computationally effi. cedures. [Becker. ● Density representation. 1996..J. ● Node generation. 1979]: “Limitations. McGraw-Hill. 1968]: Avitzur. Finite Element Pro- the geometry. CIRP.. Altan. mesh generation (AMG) subroutines. ometry of the workpiece and (b) interpolation of FORGE娂. Applicability and Usefulness of Different Methods in Analyzing Forming Problems.8 Three-dimensional non-isothermal FE simulation of a forging process.. McGraw-Hill. etc. viz. The Boundary tween critical points are generated and re. . prediction critical areas. of defects.I. of bulk forming processes. such ing processes are presented in Chapters 16 and as DEFORM娂 accomplish this using automatic 18. ● Geometry representation.. QFORM娂.D. (b) Final part with temperature contour. the mesh generation procedure considers [Altan et al. 2). DEFORM娂. 1989]: Kobayashi. G. p 473. Element Method in Engineering. lation is generally well defined with the help of FE simulation is widely used in the industry mesh density windows to refine the mesh in for the design of forging sequences. eling. Current commercial FE codes. etc. Sachs. 9.. The density specifi.. [Hoffman et al. Oh. 1996]: Bathe. 1953]: Hoffman.A. K. ● Shape improvement and bandwidth mini. However. A number of commercial FE torted. 1989.. G. O. McGraw- positioned based on the density distribution. optimization of flash dimensions.. 1953. Lahoti. mization.104 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. Hill International Editions. workpiece accompanied by significant relative The FE modeling inputs and outputs are dis- motion between the deforming material and the cussed in detail in Chapter 16 on process mod- tool surfaces. This calls for (a) the generation of a new codes are available in the market for simulation mesh taking into consideration the updated ge. B. bandwidth of the stiffness matrix has to be S. AMG ba- sically determines the optimal mesh density dis- tribution and generates the mesh based on the REFERENCES given density. 1979]: Altan. A. Vol 28 (No.. smoothed to yield a usable mesh. Also the [Kobayashi et al.

H.T. 1954.” ASME Trans. Ind. Eng.. S.. cations. Process. 1983. 1968. “Influ. Aug 1972. Bierbower.. mon Press. Vol 113.. [Thomsen et al.B.. Wu. K. C. Ma. Pub.I.T. H. [Thomsen et al... Perga- [Li et al. p 775.T.. Vol 5.G...T. 2001. T. C. Mechanics of Plastic De- [Lee et al. J. Jinn. of California Flow in Upset Forging of Rings and Cylin. Yang.” Trans. Problems using a Matrix Method. p 40– 45.. Gegel. J. S... ASM International.H. Eng. “New Solutions to Rigid-Plastic Deformation 1965.. Altan. Technol. Oxford. [Washizu. Ind. vestigation of the Mechanics of Plastic De- ence of Flow Stress and Friction upon Metal formation of Metals... 1972]: Lee.. Vol 95. .. 1983]: Altan. 1973]: Lee. E. 1965]: Thomsen. Macmillan. C.. T. S. SELECTED REFERENCE ter..” Univ. J. Eng. Variational ASME. Oh. ders.. Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 105 [Lee et al. formation in Metal Processing.I. 1968]: Washizu. Kobayashi.. E. 1954]: Thomsen..... 2001]: Li.G. Yang. Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity.. p 865. [Altan et al.. Oh. S. W. “An Experimental In. J. G. Kobayashi.. Metal Forming: Fundamentals and Appli- C. “Recent Development and Applica- tions of Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling in Bulk Forming Processes.” J.

given product geometry and material chine (or “equipment. e˙¯ . ture. each forming process is ● The load and energy requirements for a associated with at least one type of forming ma. cess are of paramount consideration. Vp. capabil. Gracious Ngaile. h. for a given initial stock tempera- quest improved performance from. and a new process invariably depends on the cost the forging geometry (dimensions. pacity As indicated by lines connected to the tem- ● Better communicate with. the temperature variations in the part are chine builder largely influenced by (a) the surface area of con- ● If necessary. especially in hot forming In a practical sense. energy. The forming machines vary in fac. shape) deter- effectiveness and production rate of the machine mine (a) the load. r. The magnitudes of these variations ing machines so that he/she can: depend on the specific forming material. the machine energy. Each type has distinct advantages chine and process variables is illustrated in Fig. of strokes per minute under no-load conditions. and with decreasing tem- engineer must have specific knowledge of form. depending on the number of 10. and the number of . 10. EM. ¯ the interface friction conditions. mechanical. perature block.1.1 for hot forming processes conducted in forgings to be produced. Gangshu Shen. editors.” as it is sometimes called ● The “as-formed” tolerances of the parts in practice).1361/chff2005p107 www. die CHAPTER 10 Principles of Forging Machines Manas Shirgaokar 10. tp. Forming Machines determines mainly the contact time under pres- sure. ing machine influence: no. Process Requirements and The velocity of the slide under pressure. DOI:10. Vp. (c) the die temperature. and at times re. and disadvantages.2 Interaction between sure. Ep. required by the process influence the forming material slide velocity under load. r. the flow and the alloy being forged. perature. p107-113 All rights reserved. stroke and (b) the energy. at each position of the associated with that process. The flow stress.1 Introduction ● The temperatures in the material and in the tools. The form. develop in-house proprietary tact between the dies and the part. (d) machine-tool market the amount of heat generated by deformation and friction. forming process. and (e) the contact time under pres- 10.asminternational. As can be seen in Fig. ¯ increases with increasing ing (industrial. and the deformation ● The flow stress and workability of the de. The ● Use existing machinery more efficiently frictional conditions deteriorate with increasing ● Define with accuracy the existing plant ca. required by the ities of the machine associated with the new pro. the ma. (b) the part machines and processes not available in the thickness or volume. e˙¯ . ● The production rate tors such as the rate at which energy is applied to the workpiece and the capability to control The interaction between the principal ma- the energy. The number The behavior and characteristics of the form. Therefore. The introduction of stress. and the deformation rate. dimensional precision. presses. EP.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. LP. or metallurgical) deformation rate.

[Altan et al. most quired by the process. in principle. upset forging. These curves illustrate that. 10. in hot forging forming processes such as hot extrusion and hot a steel part under different types of forging rolling. are shown in Fig.3. However. np. the forging Requirements in Forming load is initially higher. bending. due to strain rate and temperature effects. unloading of the machine can be carried out at For a given part geometry.1 apply material as well as with frictional conditions.. etc. 10. values will vary with the flow stress of the given The relationships illustrated in Fig. of the same relationships apply also in other hot The load-displacement curves. the equipment must sup- draulic. the flash temperature re- (such as closed-die forging with flash. but also the rate of deformation Fig. mains nearly the same as the initial stock tem- or backward extrusion.3 Load and Energy ferent machines. and screw presses. perature. In directly to hot forming of discrete parts in hy. in hot forging. mum number of parts formed per minute (i. but the maximum load is lower than for either It is useful to consider forming load and en. The reason is that ergy as related to forming equipment. This the forged shape. 10. np determines the maxi..2. mechanical.) requires a certain variation of the forming Thus. a specific forming operation while in the hammer. 10. due to strain-rate effects. For a the extruded flash cools rapidly in the presses. For the hammer. the absolute load that speed.108 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications strokes under load. which shows load versus displacement curves the production rate) provided that feeding and characteristic of various forming operations. 1973] . equipment. for the same forging process. hydraulic or screw presses. forward. the forming operation. which ply the maximum load as well as the energy re- are discussed later.1 Relationships between process and machine variables in hot forming process conducted in presses. different forging loads and energies are required by dif- 10.e. fact is illustrated qualitatively in Fig. not only the material and load over the slide displacement (or stroke). given material.

terial often can be explained by excessive chill- havior and the forging load and energy required ing of the surface layers of the forged part near for the process. determine the metal flow be.2 Load versus displacement curves for various forming operations (energy ⳱ load ⳯ displacement ⳯ M. therefore. Surface tearing and cracking or the die/material interface. the type development of shear bands in the forged ma- of equipment used. where M is a factor characteristic of the specific forming operation).. Fig. [Altan et al. 10. 1973] . Principles of Forging Machines / 109 and die-chilling effects and.

These include: the stroke in a press or hammer and the dimen- sions and features of the tool-mounting space ● Rolling mills for plate. ergy-restricted machines but they are similar to cess to be completed successfully. Mechanical (ec.3 Load versus displacement curves obtained in closed-die forging an axisymmetric steel part at rying out a forming operation is limited mainly 2012 ⬚F (1100 ⬚C) in three different machines with different initial by the maximum load capacity. 1953]: ● Load-restricted machines (hydraulic presses) ● Stroke-restricted machines (crank and eccen- tric presses) ● Energy-restricted machines (hammers and screw presses) Hydraulic presses are essentially load-re- stricted machines. velocities (Vpi). strip and shapes (shut height) are also important. 1973] . space re- ● Ring rolling machines quirements. which are pertinent to the machine’s ment economic use. since the generally fully or nearly fully formed by using deformation results from dissipating the kinetic two-piece tools.e. weight. and torque for the pro. frames are subject to loading during forging Based on the type of relative movement be. presses Among those listed above. “pressing”-type ma- chines are most widely used and applied for a variety of different purposes. ensuring the hydraulic and mechanical presses since their guidance of the two tool halves. as illus- two groups: trated in Table 10. The screw presses are also en- necessary forces. and the associated power re- ● Thread rolling and surface rolling machines quirements. 1965] [Kienzle. Fig. The significant characteristics of these ma- ● Machines with linear relative tool movement chines comprise all machine design and perfor- ● Machines with nonlinear relative tool move. stroke.e. The various forming processes. workpieces are mers are energy-restricted machines. The hammer frame is used to bring the two pieces together to form guides the ram. wire and rod drawing machines ● Machines for pressing-type operations. i.. The ● Characteristics for accuracy machines belonging to this category are those operated on working media and energy. but is essentially not stressed the workpiece. are associated with a large number of forming the geometric features of the machine such as machines. the metal form.. mance data. These characteristics include: Machines in which the relative tool move- ● Characteristics for load and energy ments cannot be classified into either of the two ● Time-related characteristics groups are called special-purpose machines.1.4 Classification and Characteristics centric or crank) presses are stroke-restricted of Forming Machines machines.110 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 10. their capability for car. Other important ● Machines for profile rolling from strip values are the general machine data. 2. Ham- In metal forming processes. i. The speed range and the speed stroke tween the tools or the tool parts. A metal forming machine tool energy of the hammer ram. The machine also provides the during forging. These machines can be classified into three types [Kienzle. [Altan et al. ● Magnetic and explosive forming machines ● Draw benches for tube and rod.. energy. discussed in Chapter In addition to these characteristic parameters. behavior of different forging machines vary con- ing machine tools can be classified mainly into siderably according to machine design. since the length of the press stroke and the available load at various stroke positions represent the capability of these machines. 10.

in the driving system.0 Counterblow hammer (total speed) 15–30 4. ET.30(a) Mechanical press 0. LM ⱖ LP (Eq 10.. to total elastic deflection of the machine. for an entire stroke. Ee.06–0. is the hydraulic press.5 Screw press 2–4 0. ET. The total energy. at any long and accurate guides. g. the press will stall without ac- energy supplied by the machine to carry out the complishing the required deformation. either the flywheel will slow down to ing system.0(a) 0.2–1. cured against overloading. and (c) the losses due ● The device for moving the tools must be se. time during the forming operation. ● Readily interchangeable gripping and head- ing tools. does not include either Ef. EM.1) ● Design of a crankshaft of special rigidity.. the en. which requires the stock Efficiency factor. Load and Energy If the condition expressed by the former in- equality above (Eq 10. Available chanical press. satisfied. Principles of Forging Machines / 111 Apart from the features mentioned previously. The following two conditions must be satis- ● The heading slide must be provided with fied to complete a forming operation: first. Table 10. also in- ception apart from filling up the impression. cludes in general: (a) the losses in the electric ● The gripping tools must not open during the motor. 1973] . LM (in tons). or Ed.6–1. unacceptable speeds in a mechanical press or the Available load. is the load avail.2–5 0.06–1. In a me- deformation during an entire stroke. the friction clutch would slip and energy.2 Gravity drop hammer 12–16 3. g ⳱ EM/ET.4–6.1) is not fulfilled in a Available energy. ● The whole machine must be elastically se- cured against overloading. i. part will not be formed completely in one blow able at the slide to carry out the deformation in a screw press or hammer. ● High tool pressure. is determined by divid- to be tightly gripped and upsetting forces ing the energy available for deformation.6–4.8 Power drop hammer 10–30 3.0–9.2) is not cause of elastic deflections in the frame and driv. Ef.0 HERF machines 20–80 6. (b) the friction losses in the gibs and upsetting process. connected through a security coupling. process. pressed by the latter inequality (Eq 10. by completely absorbed. supplied to the machine.e. but it may vary with the of a good forging machine can be listed as: slide position in respect to “bottom dead center” (BDC) as in mechanical presses. EM (in ft-lb or m-kg). This load can be essentially constant as some of the basic requirements that are expected in hydraulic presses.0 Source: [Altan et al. the total energy. ● Sufficient tool length to permit rigid bar re. where LM is the available machine load and LP ● The driving motor and the machine must be is the load required by the process. the press run would stop before reaching the bot- ergy necessary to overcome the friction in the tom dead center position. EM.0–24. If the condition ex- bearings and slides.2) where EM is the available machine energy and 10. ● The machine must have central lubrication.5 Characteristic Data for EP is the energy required by the process. Ed. EM ⱖ EP (Eq 10. the energy lost be.1 Speed-range and speed-stroke behavior of forging equipment Speed range Forging machine ft/s m/s Speed-stroke behavior Hydraulic press 0.5–9.0 Low-speed Petroforge 8–20 2. and second.

or a slight deviation of the slide motion from ideal perpendicularity. the var- Under unloaded conditions. stiffness is the ratio of the load. greater press stiffness is directly associated with truded products. is smaller hot forming. open-die hydraulic presses. and (e) con. hydraulic. flection energy. tp. is the time where the press frame and the drive mechanism during which the part remains in the die under are subject to loading..7 Characteristic Data for Accuracy ● The higher the stiffness. . to the total tween the hotter formed part and the cooler dies elastic deflection. (d) perpendicularity of slide curve under load.3) forming pressure than under free contact con- ditions. This fact contributes to the reduction For instance. the stationary iations in part thickness due to volume or surfaces and their relative positions are estab. and it should not be specified Under loaded conditions. punch and in nonuniform dimensions in ex. LM. particu. the point where the resultant total forming and screw presses). The heat transfer be. of the the deformation load. the lower the de- flection of the press. C. includes the deflection of the press frame quirements. between the upper and is most significant under pressure. in backward extrusion a slight non. When given part. Consequently.e. (⬃25 to 35% of the total) and the deflection of Velocity under pressure. In presses (mechanical. the center of loading of a part. Vp. is teristics influence the tolerances in formed parts. With increasing contact time under pres- sure. C. Therefore. cooling of In mechanical presses. of tool life in hot forming. takes more time to build up and remove pres- centricity of tool holders. n.6 Time-Dependent larly under off-center loading. in thickness devia- tions in the formed part and in excessive tool wear. might result in Characteristic Data excessive wear of the gibs. ism of upper and lower beds. the de- or the strain rate. The important in hot forming. the elastic energy quently affects the load and energy required in stored in the press during buildup. the number of strokes per load vector is applied. of the slide under load. i. on the form- able because it determines (a) the contact time ing process can be summarized as follows: under pressure and (b) the rate of deformation ● Under identical forming load. i. the contact time under pressure. ability to forge a part without reheating. for a stiffer press (larger C). d. increased costs. the tilting Number of strokes per minute. die wear increases. Since a less stiff machine motion with respect to lower bed.e. Extensive lower beds of the press. smaller in a stiffer press. The deflection energy is given by: Ed ⳱ dLM/2 ⳱ LM2/2C (Eq 10. tp. the feasibility or the economics of forging a because it determines the production rate. This value is especially press is also a significant characteristic. part tolerances or tool life. Ed. is the and deflections across the ram might determine most important characteristic of any machine. sure. is the velocity the drive mechanism (⬃65 to 75% of the total). (b) parallel.4) 10. the stiffness. parallelism of the beds. i. the tilting of the unless it can be justified by expected gains in ram and the ram and frame deflections. blows (in hammers.e. longer. The main influences of stiffness. The machine charac. temperature changes in the stock are also lished by (a) clearances in the gibs. This is an important vari.. ● Stiffness influences the velocity versus time per and lower beds. tion. The strain rate influences the flow stress of the formed material and conse.: studies conducted on workpiece and die tem- peratures in hot forming clearly showed that the heat transfer coefficient is much larger under C ⳱ LM/d (Eq 10. d. Using larger components in press design in- would result in excessive bending stresses on the creases the stiffness of a press. In addition.112 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 10. Contact time under pressure. the total elastic deflec- the workpiece results in higher forming load re. In multiple-operation processes. or screw). (c) flatness of up. should be placed under minute of the machine greatly influences the the center of loading of the forming machine. LM. In order to reduce off-center loading a part is forged with multiple and successive and ram tilting.

Metal Forming: Fundamentals and Appli- and Ceramics Information Center. Gegel. Ed. Fundamentals. Equipment. 1972]: Lange. K. A. et al. (in German). Forge Data in Machine Tools for Closed Die Forg... Equipment. Oh. cations. [Kienzle. English)... Budapest. 1983]: Altan. (in German). p 4–7. S.. O..... The Characteristic [Lange. et al.. 1965.. T.. . 1997. T. HB03. Rolling Mills and Accessories (in ing. [Kienzle. 1972.. Forging [Altan et al. Principles of Forging Machines / 113 REFERENCES SELECTED REFERENCES [Altan et al. O. Study Book of Data on Presses and Hammers (in German). Werkst. 1953]: Kienzle. Metal H. Akademiai Kiado. 1983. Materials and Practices. Werkstatttechnik. 1965]: Kienzle. Vol 55.. Forming Technology. [Geleji et al. Maschin. Springer-Verlag. ASM International. 1973. [FIA 1997]: Forging Industry Association.I. 1973]: Altan. 1967. Vol 1. p 509. Vol 43. 1967]: Geleji. Characteristics of Product Design Guide for Forging. p 168.. p 1. 1953.

and it determines the on forging equipment would also specifically rate of production. energy. quires a thorough understanding of the effect of nology requires a sound and fundamental un. DOI:10. time. [Mueller 1969]. chinery have become unavoidable necessities. jet engines. ing equipment There are basically three types of presses: hy. mechanical. i. The requirements of a given contribute to: forging process must be compatible with the load. and the ever-increasing for. and air- crafts components. presses and cific forging operation. These mum plant capacity machines are used for hot and cold forging. by reducing pre. ● More exact definition of the existing maxi- draulic. (c) reducing costs are offered by hydraulic presses: by minimizing scrap losses.. and coining. The operation of hydraulic presses is rela- eign technological competition require continu. ● In direct-driven hydraulic presses. tively simple and is based on the motion of a ous upgrading of today’s technology. The equipment. and by increasing tool life. presses are essentially load-restricted machines. cold ● Better communication between the equip- extrusion trimming. p115-139 All rights reserved. Thus. ment user and the equipment builder Developments in the forging industry are ● Development of more refined processes such greatly influenced by the worldwide require. the max- forming steps. load and energy requirements of the spe- acteristics. their capability for carrying out a forming Development in all areas of forging has the ob. and accuracy characteristics ● More efficient and economical use of exist- of a given forging machine. Hydraulic and the installation of more sophisticated ma. Gracious Ngaile. The present and future needs of the aerospace industry.2 Hydraulic Presses stationary power systems.1361/chff2005p115 www. Increased knowledge temperature conditions. influences the forging characteristics of the specific forging machine to process. The following important features improving forging tolerances. and imum press load is available at any point . the increase in demand for CHAPTER 11 Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging Manas Shirgaokar 11.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. since it affects the deformation rate and be used for that operation. tions. as precision forging of gears and of turbine ments for manufacturing ever-larger and more and compressor blades complex components for more difficult-to-forge materials.e. operation is limited mainly by the maximum jectives of (a) increasing the production rate. the hydraulic piston guided in a cylinder [Geleji more efficient use of existing forging equipment 1967].1 Introduction (d) expanding capacity to forge larger and more intricate parts. and screw presses.asminternational.e.. editors. (b) available load. Gangshu Shen. The purchase of new forging equipment re- The continuous development of forging tech. equipment characteristics on the forging opera- derstanding of equipment capabilities and char. [Peters 1969]. and the capabilities and hammers used in forging. i.

1 Drive Systems for oil pressure on the ram cylinder is released and Hydraulic Presses diverted to lift the ram. When the siderable advantage in optimizing forming pressure stroke is completed. dur- ing the downstroke in modern direct-driven speed can be varied continuously at will dur- presses a residual pressure is maintained in the ing an entire stroke cycle.. the ram deformation. relatively large energies are draulic oil or water emulsion as the working me- available for deformation. the upper ram spect to forming pressure or product tem. ● Since the maximum load is available during Direct-driven presses usually employ hy- the entire stroke. This mode of operation results in the fluid pressure acting on the ram. This is why the dium. As shown driven presses.1.116 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications during the entire ram stroke. relatively long dwell times prior to the start of ● Within the limits of the machine. the valve maximum load can be limited to protect the between the ram cylinder and the reservoir is tooling. the forming process.1(b). As illustrated in Fig. This control feature can offer a con. design of its hydraulic drive system. In accumulator. It is not possible to exceed the set closed and the pump builds up pressure in the load.1 Schematic illustration of drives for hydraulic presses. 11.. i. ● Within the capacity of a hydraulic press. Thus. 1959]. two types of hydraulic drive sys- slightly depending on the length of the stroke tems give different time-dependent characteris- and the load-displacement characteristics of tic data [Hutson 1968] [Riemenschneider et al. or when the pressure reaches a certain value. inherent in the free fall is eliminated. 11. the ram cylinder through the suction of this fall.e.. per ram reaches a predetermined position. because a pressure-release valve limits ram cylinder. 11. (b) Direct drive. In earlier vertical press designs. is forced down against pressure and the dwell perature. Adequate control return cylinders or in the return line by means systems can regulate the ram speed with re- of a pressure relief valve. the available load decreases in Fig. the When the ram contacts the workpiece. the 11. when the up- processes. The operational characteristics of a hydraulic Accumulator-driven presses usually em- press are essentially determined by the type and ploy a water-oil emulsion as the working me- Fig.2. (a) Accumulator drive. at the start hydraulic press is ideally suited for extru. of the downstroke the upper ram falls under sion-type forming operations requiring a gravity and oil is drawn from the reservoir into nearly constant load over a long stroke. [Riemenschneider et al. 1959] .

bility of the frame is achieved by using various In both direct and accumulator drives. in a new in- etration. as deformation progresses. the accumulators. The load-carrying capa- and the load available at the ram decrease. The sequence of operations is es. movable cylinder- frame assembly. Toward the end of the forming pacities (10. as the designs such as cast (or welded) structures pre- pressure builds up and the working medium is stressed by forged tie rods or laminated plates compressed. 2. 11. 11. press bed with return cylinders. and the resistance of the workpiece to accumulator system.1a). (a) Push-down drive: 1. 1968] . stationary press bed with return cylinders. and control and accuracy are in general means of the pressurized water-oil emulsion in about the same for both types of drives.. steam. 1968]. Consequently. a certain slowdown in penetration assembled through large transverse pins. Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 117 dium and use nitrogen.2. stroke. (b) Pull-down drive: 1. mainly because oil is more com. This sign is often selected for four-column presses of Fig. rate occurs. 2. or air-loaded ac. the choice between direct or accu- directly dependent on the pump characteristics mulator drive is decided by the economics of and can vary depending on the pressure in the operation. As can be seen in Fig. is not stallation. From a practical point of view. [Kirschbaum. the ram speed under load. the accumulator drive is accumulator. the two principal driven presses. or if very large press ca- deformation. the force required to form the full forming load exerted by the hydraulic cyl- material increases. moving piston-ram assembly. This slowdown is larger in direct oil. “pull-down” and “push-down” designs [Kirsch- The approach and initial deformation speeds baum.000 tons) are considered. The conventional push-down de- are higher in accumulator-driven presses. the compressibility of the pressure more economical if several presses can use one medium. and the speed of penetration inder on the press bed. 11.000 to 50. the rate of pen. Sealing sentially similar to that for the direct-driven problems are somewhat less severe in direct-oil press except that the pressure is built up by drives. improves the hot forming conditions by reduc- cumulators to keep the medium under pressure ing the contact times. 3. ments of the system also increases. Usually.e. i.2 Schematic illustration of two types of hydraulic press drives. the working The frame of a hydraulic press must carry the medium expands. 3. types of press construction are designated as pressible than a water emulsion. stationary cylinder cross head. moving cross-head. but wear in hydraulic ele- (Fig.

2500 ton hydraulic press equipped with either commodated beneath floor level. Considerable elas. With adequate dimensioning loading.3 ingly. causing it to tilt (Fig. sional accuracy. at approx. up the press load and simultaneously guide the hydraulic presses are ideally suited for extru- moving piston-ram assembly.5).2. However. accumulator or direct-drive systems. In the pull-down design. The penetration speeds and a short dwell time prior center of gravity of the press is low.. 1973) . initial dwell. 11. Most of the hy. the maxi. cross head. ram lift. The cylinder press load as the forming operation proceeds. where the load and displacement var- for installation in low buildings. to forging. the accu- connected to the press columns. If a higher offcenter loading capa- Fig. [Altan et al. press is able to absorb a maximum slide tilt of mum press load is established by the pressure 0. the dwell at the end of pro- imately floor level. dwell before pressure release. This type of press requires a relatively of the pressure system. 4. 11. The standard In direct-driven hydraulic presses.3 Load and displacement versus time curves obtained on a 2500 ton hydraulic press in upsetting with direct drive. This assembly mulator drive usually offers higher approach and is movable and is guided in the bed platen. iations are given for a forming process using a draulic and auxiliary equipment may then be ac. cumulator drives. 5. sion-type operations requiring very large tic deflections are exhibited under off-center amounts of energy. located below floor level. Pull-down presses are particularly suitable and 11.2 Characteristics of sulting die force is not exerted centrally on the Hydraulic Presses slide. the press exhibits only a slight reduction in available base platen rests on a foundation. ment is particularly favorable for direct-oil Parallelism of the Slide. 11.118 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications all sizes. an accumulator-driven tall shop building. 2.8 mm/m. The capacity of the drives since it minimizes fire hazard and reduces press frame to absorb eccentric loads plays a the length of piping between the pumping sys. Eccentric forces occur during the forming process when the load of the re- 11. Thus. major role in forming a part with good dimen- tem and the press cylinder. start of deformation. The cylinder cross head and base platen capability of the pumping system and is avail- are rigidly connected by four columns that take able throughout the entire press stroke. cessing and prior to unloading is larger in ac- namic stiffness of the press is increased accord.4. is rigidly In comparison with direct drive. This arrange. This is illustrated in Fig. end of deformations. 1. and the overall static and dy. 3.

and the slide will be higher. The parallelism Fig. [Schuler Handbook. 11. ram lift. 1973] Fig. for example. the slide gibs will have lelism control systems. 11. then the press design must be Often it is necessary to use hydraulic paral- more rigid. the press frame will be more technology (Fig.. 1. In this case. 3. using electronic control greater stability. initial dwell. 5.5 Control system for maintaining slide parallelism. 4. 2. start forming. 11. of hydraulic transfer presses. [Altan et al. in the case rigid. dwell before pressure release.4 Load and displacement versus time curves obtained on a 2500 ton hydraulic press in upsetting with accumulator drive. end of forming.5). Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 119 bility is desired. 1998] .

cranks are used to drive the same ram. Position measurement sensors tended crank drives. shaft Full-stroke parallelism control involves the ● Number of connecting rods: One-. cranks. The system is neutral in terms of force exerted on the slide. The tensile and compressive forces are bal- anced out by means of diagonal pipe connec- tions. Depending on the ● Location of drive: Top drive (connecting rod deformation speed.6). 11. The eccentric center of the press. ● Presses with cam drive [Schuler Handbook. Other methods of classification are: and at the same time reduced on the opposite side to the same degree. Two major groups of mechanical presses are: ● Presses with crank drive Fig.05 to subjected to compression) and bottom drive 0. with their pis. the designs are forming process against a centrally applied pres. The par. four-point drive tons permanently connected to the slide (Fig. Conventional crank presses monitor the position of the slide and activate the (the total stroke cannot be varied) and eccentric parallelism control system (Fig. or use of parallel control cylinders. 11. If either a knuckle or a lever of the slide plate.3 Mechanical Crank and Eccentric Presses All mechanical presses employ flywheel en- ergy. The valve increases the pressure on the underside of the piston acting on the leading side of the slide and thus also on the opposite upper side of the piston. Two cylinders with crank mechanism that translates rotary motion the same surface area. are subjected to a mean pres- sure. If an off-center load is ex- erted by the die on the slide. presses (the total stroke is variable) belong to allelism controlling cylinders act on the corners the simple drives. a tilt moment is generated. or levers (Fig. The ability of mechanical presses to deform the workpiece material is determined by the length of the press stroke and the available force at various stroke positions. the pressure on the lead. a slide parallelism of 0. 11. A central device adjusts (connecting rod subjected to tension) the system to different die heights by means of ● Position of drive shaft: Longitudinal or cross spindles at the slide. eccentrics. 11.6 Full-stroke parallelism control of the press slide.7). Mul- sure. The sum of exerted par.2. the pressure in the other connecting pipe is reduced.2 mm/m is achieved. 1998] . The op- posing supporting torques exerted on the two sides counteract the tilt moment.120 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications control systems act in the die mounting area to Crank presses may have either simple or ex- counter slide tilt. 11. ing side is increased by means of servo valves. ● Frame type: C or closed frame allelism control forces remains constant. and they are pushed during the is used to extend the crank drive. and the ● Number of useful motions: Single or more slide tilt balance is restored. At the same time. These act over the entire stroke of the The drive system used in most mechanical slide so that no setting spindles are required to presses (crank or eccentric) is based on a slider- adjust the working stroke. The slide position sensor detects a de- viation from parallel and triggers the servo valve. which is transferred to the workpiece by a network of gears. called knuckle joint or link drive presses. arranged well outside the into reciprocating linear motion.5). If the electronic parallelism monitor sensor tipoint presses are those in which two or more detects a position error. two-.

8. and the tangential force. 11. M. r 1 ergy to the slide through the pitman arm or con. the ratio. The constant clutch necting-rod length l is small.3) during deformation of the formed material. M ⳱ rT (Eq 11. sin ␣ 10 Figure 11.7 Principal components of a mechanical forging press. Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 121 shaft is connected through a clutch and brake and system directly to the flywheel (Fig.2) cated on the pinion shaft. stores energy that is used only during a small portion of the crank revolution. LM. k⳱ ⳱ l 10 necting rod. which is driven by an electric motor and or “V” belts. of crank radius r to con- centric shaft (Fig. which drives the ec. is available at the eccentric shaft. as illustrated in Fig. T: LM ⳱ P cos b ⳱ sin (␣ Ⳮ b) 2M cos b ⳱ (Eq 11. 1988] . The clutch at the flywheel transmits Using Eq 11.1 and considering that the total the constant torque. which transmits the torque and the flywheel en.1) S sin (␣ Ⳮ b) Fig. the force on the T cos b connecting rod. 11.10 shows the basic slider-crank mechanism. crank) shaft. Usually.4) T ⳱ P sin (␣ Ⳮ b) (Eq 11.9). the flywheel is lo. namely. P. the machine load. M. M. acting on the ram is: tions between the torque. 11. k. to the eccentric (or press stroke is S ⳱ 2r. sin b 1 ⳱ (Eq 11. In designs for larger capacities. 11. about: torque. [ASM Handbook.8). The force diagram gives the rela. The fly- wheel.

e. 1983] .8) 冢 冪1 ⳮ 冢l冣sin ␣冣 r h ⳱ r(1 ⳮ cos ␣) Ⳮ l 1 ⳮ 2 where. V. h.6 bottom dead center (BDC). toward For small values of ␣.122 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications When the angles ␣ and b approach 0. 11. Ne- Using the binomial expansion. i.e.e. the distance. near BDC.11. is approximated as: ity for constant torque.. i. ␣. for large ca- drive (clutch and brake on eccentric shaft).. S The stroke position. t: h ⳱ (r Ⳮ 1) ⳮ (r cos ␣ Ⳮ 冪l2 ⳮ r2 sin2 ␣) dh dh d␣ dh V⳱ ⳱ ⳱ x dt d␣ dt d␣ or 冢 ⳱ r sin ␣ Ⳮ r2 l sin ␣ cos ␣ x 冣 (Eq 11.5 can be transformed into: 60 r2 h ⳱ r(1 ⳮ cos ␣) Ⳮ sin2 ␣ (Eq 11. [Altan et al.7) 2 BDC. the angular ve- locity x ⳱ 2pn/60 and the stroke S ⳱ 2r. i. to be: by differentiation with respect to time.. 1973] energy). as a function of the crank angle. can be derived from the geometric relationships illus. Spn V⳱ sin ␣ (Eq 11.6 trated in Fig.5) crank in revolutions per minute..10. Eq 11.6) 2l Fig.8 Schematic of a mechanical press with eccentric (clutch and brake are on pinion shaft. Eq 11. the term under glecting the second small term in Eq 11. LM may go to infin.9 Schematic of a crank press with pinion-gear drive Fig.9) Thus. This is illustrated in Fig. M. from h ⳱ r(1 ⳮ cos ␣) ⳱ (1 ⳮ cos ␣) (Eq 11. The ram velocity. [Altan pacities this design is more stable and provides high flywheel et al. 11. is obtained from Eq 11. with n being the rotational speed of the (Eq 11. 11.. 11.8 gives: the square root sign can be approximated as 1 ⳮ (r/l)2 sin2 ␣/2.

11 illustrates 11. as the variation of these values with the crank angle angle ␣ approaches zero. BDC.) is h. brake. [Altan et al.10. etc. M.4 gives the ram or machine load. Considering ● Crank and eccentric presses are displace- that angle b is much smaller than angle ␣. S.e. machine load. may become infinitely large without exceeding the constant clutch torque. 11. 11. V. the fol- lowing conclusions may be drawn: With the symbols used in Fig. at the clutch has a constant value for which the drive mechanism (i. ␣.11 Variations of clutch torque and machine load with crank angle in an eccentric or crank press.e. the ram velocity can be expressed as: the variation of the slide load.6 and 11. S. Figure 11. for 冪h ⳮ 1 pn S given values of torque.2.e. ec- Thus with Eq 11. 11. the nominal load may be specified at different positions before BDC according to the stan- dards established by the American Joint In- dustry Conference..11. before bottom dead center. BDC. M. vary ac- cording to the position of the slide before 2M BDC. and stroke. bottom dead center. The torque. Eq 11.4 or 3. Thus. of the V⳱ h (Eq 11. LM. 11. the process can be carried out provided that the flywheel can supply the necessary energy per stroke. centric shaft. Fig. (6.10 the displacement. the available machine ␣ before BDC.10) 30 press. The slide velocity. clutch.. Eq 11.10..12 Displacement and velocity in a simple slider- [Altan et al. can be approximated as: V.11 it can be seen stroke can be calculated. Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 123 Using the geometric relationships of Fig. as the slide approaches the BDC. i. and the available slide load. can become larger than the Fig. As shown in Fig.11) S sin ␣ States rate their presses by specifying the nominal load at 1⁄4 or 1⁄8 in. with the crank angle. Mechanical Presses From the observations made so far.4 Load and Energy in without causing the friction clutch to slip. For different applications. from Eq 11. 11. 1973] Fig.. 11. LM ment-restricted machines. 1973] crank mechanism (stroke ⳱ 2r) . ␣. LM.. LM. M. within the OP portion of curve NOP in Fig. LM. if curve EFG in Fig. at each point of the ram designed. ● For small angles ␣ before BDC.e. 11. the slide load.2 mm) before BDC.10 The basic slider-crank mechanism used in crank presses.11. ● If the load required by the forming process is smaller than the load available at the press (i.. 11. load LM.12 illustrates that.11 remains be- low curve NOP). crank angle before bottom dead center (BDC). and the velocity. LM. stroke. i. pinion gear. Most manufacturers in the United LM ⳱ (Eq 11.

there is a unique relationship between I p 2 2 冢 冣 1 ES ⳱ I(x 20 ⳮ x 12) ⳱ (n0 ⳮ n12) strokes per minute. n1. and the drive mechanism. minute. termined experimentally by upsetting samples. the pitman arm. the fly- wheel stops. was dis- press. i. The total energy.13) 11. the strokes per minute available on the machine decreases with increasing energy re- where x0 is initial angular velocity.11) before point O is reached. n. and the entire flywheel energy n0 ⳮ n1 13 ⳱ or n1 ⳱ 0. The is illustrated in Fig. copper sample under 1600 ton mechanical press age—usually 10 to 20%—of its idle speed.13 to arrive tooling. before the next forming stroke starts. wheel speed in revolutions per minute. then: press. 25% by reversing the flywheel rotation if the slide of the flywheel energy will be used during one has stopped before BDC. Usually. ES. the press The percentage energy supplied by the flywheel can then be freed only by burning out the is obtained by using Eq 11. S. the press stalls. 11. to its idle speed. In this case. the variation of load. for wheel is given as a percentage of the nominal a given press. The energy needed for the forming operation As an example. As shown in Fig.24 s to re- and n is the rotational speed of the flywheel in cover its idling speed. i. and the 2 2 30 available energy per stroke. This relationship can be de- velocity after the work is done.. less time is available to bring the flywheel cussed as part of the energy considerations. For each mechani- cal press.13. tion begins. a given stroke. the press can be freed by The simple calculations given above illustrate increasing the air pressure on the clutch and that for a 13% slowdown of the flywheel. can be seen in Eq 11. (Eq 11.124 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications nominal press load if no overload safety (hy. 11.9. rectly proportional to the number of strokes per Very often the allowable slowdown of the fly. displace- during each stroke is supplied by the flywheel. speed.e. ES n20 ⳮ n21 then the friction clutch slides and the press ⳱ ⳱ 1 ⳮ (0. the only way . In a continuously operating mechanical The number of strokes per minute. displacement. This press was in- total energy stored in a flywheel is: strumented with strain bars attached to the frame for measuring load.12) dc tachometer for measuring flywheel speed. The time avail- 11. As to its idle speed.13 it can be seen that. or production rate. due to frictional and inertial losses in the press drive. and flywheel speed in upset forming of a which slows down to a permissible percent. in forming this part revolutions per minute. n. at: ● If the load curve EFG exceeds the press load NOP (Fig. ment. Thus. The energy con- Note that the total energy. ES.5 Time-Dependent Characteristics of able between two strokes depends on whether the mode of operation is continuous or intermit. The flywheel requires 3. slows down by about (5 rpm) before deforma- x is the angular velocity in radians per second.2. The the surface area under the load-displacement electric motor must bring the flywheel from its curve. For instance. 11. and a 冢 冣 Ix2 EFT ⳱ ⳱ (Eq 11.24) strokes/min.87 n0 is transformed into deflection energy by n0 100⬘ straining the press frame.. n0 is initial fly.25 EFT n02 slide stops. also includes sumed by each sample is obtained by calculating the friction and elastic deflection losses.12 and 11. Mechanical Presses tent. the flywheel where I is the moment of inertia of the flywheel. n0. In 2 2 30 Fig. an inductive transducer I pn 2 (LVDT) for measuring ram displacement. lowered speed. if a 13% slowdown is per- draulic or mechanical) is available on the missible. and by measuring load. and to the press stroke. In this case. but the flywheel continues to turn. the press can be operated at a maximum speed used during one stroke is: of 18 (60/3. stroke. also in energy.e.87)2 ⳱ 0. and consequently a higher.14. and n1 is which require various amounts of deformation flywheel speed after the work is done. x1 is angular quired per stroke. and flywheel recovery time. rpm. the ram velocity is di- horsepower motor is necessary.

11. ram displacement. [Altan et al..13 Flywheel slowdown. of the slide-crank mechanism and on the total For a given idle-flywheel speed. and forming load in upsetting of copper samples in a 1600-ton mechanical press. Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 125 to increase ram velocity during deformation is pressure. 11. Vp. tp. 1972] Fig. and the velocity under ness on contact time under pressure.. C. n. is illus- Fig. tp. depend mainly on the dimensions to increase the stroking rate.14 Variation of strokes per minute with the energy available for forming in a 500 ton mechanical press. [Altan et al. the contact stiffness. of the press. The effect of press stiff- time under pressure. 1972] .

pit- 11. [Kienzle.1 Total deflection under nominal load on one. 11.16 Principle of the scotch-yoke type drive for me- chanical presses.and two-point presses of contact time under pressure (tp ⳱ tp1 Ⳮ tp2) is the same capacity [Rau. tp2. and the total deflection under load or stiffness of 11. Unloaded machine con- point presses because the tilting of the ram and the reduction forces into the gibways are mini- Fig.2. for pressure release as 11.. 11. i.17). and bearings. 1967] Fig. the mized.6 Accuracy of Mechanical Presses man arm. 1967] . slide. Assuming the total deflection under load press deflects elastically. 1967]. Both these press drives have large bear- the press.16) and (b) the wedge-type design (Fig. 1959] Table 11.or Determination of the Dynamic Stiffness of four-point presses perform better than single. to note that a large percentage of the total de- flection is in the drive mechanism. 1967].and two-point presses of the same capacity Relative deflection One-point Two-point eccentric press eccentric press Slide Ⳮ pitman arm 30 21 Frame 33 31 Drive shaft Ⳮ bearings 37 33 Total deflection 100 85 [Rau.126 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications trated in Fig. drive shaft.e. 11.1 were obtained from measurements under shown in Fig. Consequently.17 Principle of the wedge-type mechanical press. two. 1973] Fig. Under off-center loading conditions. It is interesting less for a stiffer press. tp1. larger off-center loads than the conventional ec- fluences the thickness tolerance [Rau. a Mechanical Press. (a) Stiffer press. tilting angle of the ram under off-center loading 11. for pressure buildup distributions of total deflection shown in Table and also less time. [Rau. centric drive forging presses.15.. Tilting of the ram produces skewed ing surfaces above the slide and can maintain surfaces and an offset on the part. 11.15 Effect of press stiffness on contact time under pressure (Sth ⳱ theoretical displacement-time curve under load). 11. the C) requires less time.15(a). the total nominal load on one. (b) Less stiff press. A stiffer press (larger for a one-point eccentric press to be 100%. As the load builds up. stiffness in. Drive mechanisms that have considerable The working accuracy of an eccentric press is stiffness and off-center loading capability are substantially characterized by two features: the provided by (a) the scotch-yoke design (Fig. [Altan et al.

(125 mm) to gave a good indication of the nonparallelity of the side. the nonparallelity under unloaded elastic deflection of the press components. each test.2 Copper samples forged under on-center conditions in the 500 ton mechanical press Sample size. right.995 352 350 176 175 (a) Based on an estimate of 50 ksi flowstress for copper at 50% reduction in height.102 48 45 24 29 2 2. 1972]. the forging increased as well. or back. in. was placed lytic copper were annealed for 1 h at 900 F (480 an equal distance on the opposite side of the cen- C). (0. is illustrated in Fig. On repeating the test for the remaining three the tests... which requires not more than 5 ton. (125 mm) from center conditions. copper samples of various diameters. the ram and bolster surfaces over a 10 in.715 289 290 144 163 6 2. In conducting this comparison. As indicated in Table 11. 1972] . mechanical press forging. energy ⳱ 0. Ram Tilting in Off-Center Loading. for the clearance in the press gibs was set to 0. much more signifi. ducting the experiments described above. The nonpar- Table 11. measurement of load in forging annealed copper tion. (255 creasing sample diameter the load required for mm) span. Before con- slope of the linear curve is the dynamic stiffness.) is measured under static loading con. press deflection versus forging load. Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 127 ditions such as parallelism and flatness of upper The method described above requires the and lower beds. was placed 5 in./ft was measured in both curve. The stiffness of a be used for estimating the load and energy for a press C (the ratio of the load to the total elastic given height reduction. the play in the press driving system is directions.254 mm) [Douglas et al.2 (645 cm2) directions. the which was determined as 5800 ton/in. During ical press. 500 ton Erie forging press.. of off-center forging is particularly significant in ditions. A lead specimen. Consequently. The conditions was about 0.00 2. placement would be impractical for forgeshop cant are the quantities obtained under load and measurements. etc. front-to-back and left-to-right. Very often the stiffness of a press side of the press. A 500 ton Erie scotch-yoke the press center in one of the four directions viz.5 load ⳯ displacement. The samples of wrought pure electro. Off- fluences the energy lost in press deflection. deflection between the upper and lower dies) in. Lead samples of about 1 in.241 197 210 98 120 4 2. Especially in in forging thickness due to volume or tempera. the flow stress of the copper can under dynamic conditions.00 2. the comparison of the final height of and 1. the finish blow ture changes in the stock are also smaller in a (which requires the highest load) occurs on one stiffer press. ton to forge.00 2. the center loading conditions occur often in me- velocity versus time curve under load and the chanical press forging when several operations contact time. However. Source: [Douglas et al. tons Measured load.038 in.00 1. automated mechanical presses. the final lead samples forged with and without the copper thickness of the copper samples was corrected at the same press setting. The linear portion represents the actual comparison. obtained In off-center loading with 220 ton (or 44% or from these experiments. lowing procedure [Douglas et al. 1972]. the nominal capacity). perpendicularity of slide mo. front. Sample Height Diameter Predicted load(a). that is. The off-center loading characteristics of the termined under dynamic loading conditions.2. the investigation (ton/in. The press setup was not changed throughout ter.5 in. an average ram-bed non- 11. are important and affect the tolerances samples. 500 ton Erie press were evaluated using the fol- To obtain the dynamic stiffness of a mechan. variations are performed in the same press. a copper specimen. Therefore. The variation of total to counteract this local die deflection. which requires 220 but of the same height were forged under on. If instrumentation for load and dis- of the forged part.00 1. 1972]. tons Predicted energy(b).510 247 253 124 140 5 2. al. with in. type press was used for this study [Douglas et left.. The press deflection local elastic deflection of the dies in forging cop- is measured by the difference in heights of the per must be considered. but such measurements are misleading. During the initial nonlinear portion of the parallelity of 0.010 in.18.00 2.002 in. about 5 in. tons Measured energy./ft. tons 1 2. For practical purposes the stiffness has to be de. (b) Estimated by assuming that the load-displacement curve has a triangular shape. (38 mm) height were placed near the the copper and lead forged during the same blow forged copper sample.560 96 106 48 60 3 2. In taken up. In mechanical presses.

2. The using different press drives. [Schuler Handbook.20). A well-known vari- sinusoidal slide displacement of an eccentric ation of the crank press is the knuckle-joint de- press is compared with those of a knuckle-joint sign (Fig. This design is capable of gen- and a linkage-driven press (Fig. in coining applications. This ma- use of eccentric or crank driven press for cold chine is successfully used for cold forming and forging at high stroking rates. eccentric or crank to increase with increasing gib clearance. 1998]. eccentric or crank drive sys. presses with capacities up to a nominal force of The knuckle-joint drive system consists of an 560 tonf (5000 kN). The erating high forces with a relatively small crank relatively high impact speed on die closure and drive. 11. versus stroke and the load versus stroke char- cusses some modified drives such as the acteristics of crank presses can be modified by knuckle-joint drive and the linkage drive. The velocity used in mechanical presses. such as universal or blank. eccentric or crank mechanism driving a knuckle Fig.. drive is still the most effective drive system. the ram veloc- the reduction of slide speed during the forming ity slows down much more rapidly toward the processes are drawbacks that often preclude the BDC than in the regular crank drive. This section dis.18 Total press deflection versus press loading obtained under dynamic loading conditions for a 500 ton Erie scotch yoke type press. 1972] . In the knuckle-joint drive.128 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications allelity in off-center forging would be expected ing presses used for trimming. This is especially true when using automated 11. 11. 11. [Douglas et al. However.19).7 Crank Presses with systems where the eccentric drive offers a good compromise between time necessary for pro- Modified Drives cessing and that required for part transport For a long time. tems were the only type of drive mechanisms Knuckle-Joint Drive Systems.

The fixed point of the modified knuckle joint is mounted in the press crown. Thus. 11. the lower joint describes a curve-shaped ical press path. 1998] joint. It acts as a slide and moves the attached top die 1998].22 illustrates the princi- ple of a press configured according to this spec- ification. par- ticularly. the kinematic characteristics and the speed versus stroke of the slide can be modified.19 Displacement-time diagram: comparison of the slide motion performed by an eccentric. While the upper joint pivots around this fixed Fig. Figure 11. generates a considerably larger pressing force. Knuckle-joint and modi- fied knuckle-joint drive systems can be either top or bottom mounted. it is possible to reach around three to four times higher press- ing forces as compared to eccentric presses. with a relatively small connecting rod force. point. This results in a change of the stroke versus . The lower joint moves the press frame. up and down. The knuckle joint. 11. a highly rigid design with very low deflection characteristics is achieved. Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 129 Fig. For cold forging. The fixed joint and bed plate form a com.21 shows this concept used in a pact unit. and a link- driven press. Figure 11. Due to the optimum force flow and the favorable configuration possibilities of- fered by the force-transmitting elements. the modified top drive system is in popular use. with the same drive moment. the slide speed in the region 30 to 40 above the bottom dead center is appreciably lower. By inserting an additional joint. a knuckle-joint. Fur- thermore.20 Schematic of a toggle (or knuckle) joint mechan. press with bottom drive [Schuler Handbook. [Schuler Handbook.

11. The mechanical press drive be altered by modifying the arrangement of the shown in Fig. compared to the joints (or possibly by integrating an additional largely symmetrical stroke-time curve of the ec.19). joint). 1998] time characteristic of the slide. by adjusting the length of one of the four links or by varying the Fig. In this mechanism.23 uses a four-bar linkage mechanism. [Schuler Fig. 11. centric drive system (Fig. at the design stage. This curve can Linkage Drive. 11.22 Modified knuckle-joint drive system. the load-stroke and velocity-stroke behavior of the slide can be established.21 Knuckle-joint press with bottom drive. 11. 11.23 Four-bar linkage mechanism for mechanical Handbook.130 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. 1998] press drives . [Schuler Handbook.

24. or hydraulic drive to accelerate the flywheel and the screw assembly. lationship holds: which was originally developed for sheet metal forming and cold extrusion.1 Load and Energy in Screw Presses a 1700 ton-in. It can be seen that a slider-crank press equipped with 11. a wheel. Using a conventional slider-crank-type on the frame. is well suited for ET ⳱ EP Ⳮ EF Ⳮ Ed (Eq 11. is larger than necessary for overcoming machine losses and The screw press uses a friction. conventional slider-crank press are shown. wheel rotation. 1966]. Thus. Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 131 connection point of the slider link with the drag in the reverse direction and the slide is lifted to link. Figure 11. At the end of a stroke. The screw is press. EP is the en- stroke. before BDC. over a relatively long deformation electric motor is built directly to the screw and stroke. gear. a reversible capacity.3. At this moment. before BDC. The flywheel. the flywheel and 750 ton. where the load. the screw. 11. with this press it is possible to main. For a downstroke. electric. The In a screw press the load is transmitted four-bar press equipped with a 600 ton-in. ergy consumed by the forming process. ET. The available load at a given stroke po- location. drive through the slide. The flywheel energy and the ram speed continue to increase until the ram hits the workpiece. torque drive can generate a force of about 1500 tons at 1⁄32 in.. and the slide stop. which is connected to the screw either positively or by a friction slip clutch. In the friction-drive press. tain the maximum load. requiring 200 tons over 6 in. screw. the flywheel and the screw are accelerated press and a 1500 ton slider-crank press . in both machines a 200 ton sition is supplied by the energy stored in the fly- force is available at 6 in. move vertically.14) extrusion-type forming operations. four-bar press could perform the same the screw come to a standstill before reversing forming operation. the screw. A compari. the following re- as a 1500 ton eccentric press. However. When the entire energy in the flywheel is used in deforming the workpiece and elastically de- flecting the press. above the flywheel. Thus. the servomotor activates the horizontal shaft and presses the up- stroke driving disk wheel against the flywheel. where a nearly constant load is required over a long where ET is total flywheel energy. the load necessary for forming is built up and transmitted through the slide. the driving disks are mounted on a horizontal shaft and are rotated continuously. The four-bar press. is accelerated by this driving disk through friction. the electric motor is reversed af- stroke curves for a four-bar linkage press and a ter each downstroke and upstroke. 11. and Ed is the energy required for deflection of the press (bed Ⳮ columns Ⳮ screw). EF is the energy required for overcoming machine fric- tion. Fig. Thus. 11. and it converts the angular kinetic energy into the linear energy of the slide or ram..24 Load-stroke curves for a 750 ton four-bar linkage Thus.25 shows two basic designs of screw presses [Bohringer et al. this capability can be achieved only by threaded into the ram or the slide and does not using a much larger-capacity press. its top position. the direction of rotation. as specified by press In the direct-electric-drive press. Thus.3 Screw Presses If the total flywheel energy. the flywheel. To reverse the direction of fly- son is illustrated in Fig. and the bed to the press frame. and bed to the press generates a force of about 750 tons at the same frame. one of the driv- ing disks is pressed against the flywheel by a servomotor.

11.. Ep. maximum machine load. and high deformation energy. wheel energy). up to 160 to 200% of its nominal load. (b) Without energy or load metering . the excess a given press (i. energy is transformed into additional deflection elastic deflection properties. LM. temperature.e. the nominal load of a screw press Fig. These relations are illustrated grammed so that the machine supplies different in the load-energy diagram of a screw press. the stroke depends mainly on the deformation lustrated in Fig. This is il. low an energy-metering device that controls the fly. and material of the work- noise. as amounts of energy during successive blows.26 Load-energy relationships in forming in a press.. energy required by process. In a screw press. for constant flywheel energy. the modern screw press is equipped with piece). for the same friction losses. For In this sense. 11. The energy metering can also be pro.26. and available fly- energy and both the die and the press are sub. wheel velocity and regulates the total flywheel LM. (a) With energy or load metering. energy are in direct relation with each other. which results in increased die wear and shape.. Thus. results in high end load. d. which is essentially an en. Ep. press deflection. on the energy. (b) Direct electric drive. the load available at the end of jected to unnecessarily high loading. 11. [Bohringer et al.27. load and Lmax.e. LM. shown in Fig. 1966] Fig. results in energy. The screw press can sustain maximum loads.25 Two widely used screw press drives. low end load. ergy-bound machine (like a hammer). Ed. 11. Ep. elastic deflection energy. LM. To annihilate the excess energy required by the process (i.132 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications for carrying out the forming process. deformation energy. (a) Friction drive.

Screw presses used for same significance in the operation of all coining are designed for hard blows (i. 11.27)..3 Accuracy in screw. etc. the maximum press components under unloaded conditions. matics and is not influenced significantly by the tion. where large energies. which af- eral. die-to. When the ram load reaches the nominal Screw Press Operation load.. from L to Lmax and the press is protected from clearances in the gibs. however.28.2 Time-Dependent of long gibs and by finish forming at the center. Here. During a downstroke. The off-center loading ca- In a screw press. 11. As illustrated in Fig. Fig.e. formed part. load at the end of the downstroke is reduced such as parallelism of slide and bed surfaces. i. EM. the dimensional accuracies of Ec. can load and energy requirements of the process.. the production rate of a screw fects the load and energy characteristics. presses—hydraulic. increases until the slide hits the work- load-energy diagram (see Fig. a screw press behaves like energy curve has a parabolic shape because the a hammer. also be used for operations where smaller ener- gies are required. this clutch starts slipping and uses up a part of the flywheel energy as frictional heat energy. at the clutch. np.27). piece. however. not influence the thickness tolerances in the especially in automated high-volume operations. this is quite different from the con- where LM is machine load and C is total press ditions found in mechanical presses. ram velocity is established by the press kine- A screw press designed for a forming opera. deflection energy. where the stiffness. Characteristics of Screw Presses whenever possible. The off-center loading capacity of the press influences the parallelism of upset surfaces. In this respect. Vp. does press is lower than that of a mechanical press. Thus. The load. largely depends on the chanical press or a hammer. In gen. Consequently. the velocity. a velocity under pres- mation about the press load is obtained from its sure. accelerate the screw and the flywheel.15) ometry of the stock and of the part. is given by a second-order the velocity of the slide decreases depending on equation: the energy requirements of the process. Therefore. The significant infor.e. the stiffness of the press.27 Schematic of load-energy relationship in a screw press. have basically the overloading (Fig. are needed. a friction clutch is installed between the flywheel and the 11. and screw die blows without any workpiece) and do not presses. is greatly influenced by the ge- Ed ⳱ LM2/2C (Eq 11. mechanical.3. This capacity is increased in modern presses by use 11. have a friction slip clutch on the flywheel. [Klaprodt. Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 133 is set rather arbitrarily.3. 11. energy required by the specific forming process A screw press is operated like a hammer. After the actual deformation starts. In general. Ed. the number of strokes per pacity of a screw press is less than that of a me- minute under load. Vp. and on the capacity of the drive mechanism to the top and bottom dies “kiss” at each blow. 11. 1968] .

of mechanical. is driven by one mation process. Vb. the energy necessary to or several electric motors and rotates at a con- overcome friction in the press drive. energy 800 kg-m). A flywheel (1).4 Determination of Dynamic In a forging test.134 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 11. it is necessary that in both ciency of screw presses. EF. the screw is rapidly accelerated and LM2 reaches the speed of the flywheel. [Altan et al. are commonly used in screw presses. Eq 11. errors in calculat- nominal load). and the stant speed. However. operated clutch (2) engages the rotating flywheel ED (Eq 11. 1973] .5 Variations in Screw Press Drives 0. Ve ⳱ velocity at the beginning and end of forming. Based on experiments conducted ing EP do not impair the accuracy of the stiffness in a Weingarten press (Model P160. electric. 1963]. 1968].3. rived from Eq 11.14 can be written as: similar to what is used to initiate the stroke of an eccentric forging press. Expressing ED in terms of the against the stationary screw (3). Thus. ET. reasonable accuracy. and hydraulic drives that During the downstroke the total energy sup.16) 2C the ram (4). given by the manufacturer does not include the By considering two tests simultaneously. respectively. the energy used for the pro- Stiffness of a Screw Press cess EP (surface area under the load-displace- ment curve) and the maximum forging load LP The static stiffness of the screw press.25). which acts like a giant nut. 11. in order to obtain who conducted an extensive study of the effi. supported on the press frame. moves Fig. total of the machine energy used for the defor. as can be obtained from oscillograph recordings. there are several other types 0. 11. Assuming that this ratio is approximately valid In addition to direct friction and electric for the 400 ton press. load 180 metric ton. the dynamic stiffness is drives (Fig. of the screw may contribute up to 30% of the that is.16. EP. As a result. A different plied by the screw press. This feature is press stiffness. dynamic conditions [Bohringer et al. nominal calculations. C. On engagement of the clutch. is equal to the sum design is shown in Fig.7 ⳯ 8400  5900 ton/in.7 times the static stiffness [Watermann. and by torsional stiffness of the screw that occurs under assuming that EF remains constant during tests. an oil- energy necessary elastically to deflect the press.28 Representation of slide velocities for mechanical and screw presses in forming a thick and a thin part. As one equation with one unknown C can be de- pointed out by Watermann [Watermann. When the stroke is initiated. ET ⳮ EF ⳱ EP Ⳮ (Eq 11..29. Water- man concluded that the dynamic stiffness was 11.. high loads LP and low deformation en- total losses at maximum load (about 2. the torsional deflection tests considerable press deflection is obtained. 1963].3.5 times ergies EP are measured.14). 11.

including high-performance materials such as Waspaloy. This stroke. the ram is stopped 11. it can be used for multiple The ram is then lifted by the lift-up cylinders.4 Hammers and held in position by a hydraulic brake. lift-up cylin. This press provides several distinct benefits: The hammer is the least expensive and most a high and nearly constant ram speed throughout versatile type of equipment for generating load the stroke. Hammers are workpiece and the tools. 5. similar in principle to compressed in the hydraulic lift-up cylinders (5). At the end of the downstroke. the wedge mechanical press seen in Fig. [Altan.30. is shown in Fig. full press load at any position of the and energy to carry out a forming process. ram. the nickel-base superalloy used for many turbine disk applications. fly- wheel. overload pro. the oil is A wedge-screw press. to a limited extent. technology is characterized by multiple impact tection. The hammer is an energy-restricted machine. 2. it offers considerable flexibility and can ample. 1978] hot forging .29 A screw press drive that combines the charac- teristics of mechanical and screw presses. for sheet metal forming of ferent flywheel and ram speeds are available.30 Schematic of the wedge-screw press drive for ders. Fig. and short contact time between the blows between contoured dies. high deformation energy. by means of a position drives a wedge that provides a large bearing sur- switch.17. As a result. the screw. for coining. 11. 11. Hammer be used for hot as well as cold forming opera. oil-operated clutch. screw presses. Thus. During this downstroke. 11. forging has a reputation as an excellent way to tions. The press can also be primarily used for hot forging. the deformation proceeds until the total kinetic energy is dissipated by plastic deformation of the material and by elastic de- formation of the ram and the anvil when the die Fig. Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 135 downward. The downstroke is terminated by controlling ei. enhance the metallurgical properties of many materials. 3. and the lift-up cylinders. 11. by face on the top of the slide. During a working stroke. 4. 1. or the maximum load on the ram. screw. this press disengaging the clutch and the flywheel from the can take larger off-center loads than regular screw when the preset forming load is reached. releasing the elastic energy stored in the press frame. station forging operations. The screw of this press ther the ram position. and equipped with variable-speed motors so that dif. parts manufactured in small quantities—for ex- Thus. in the aircraft/airframe industry.

hydraulic coupling system (for larger capaci- mer is similar to that of an air-drop hammer (Fig.31. The energy per hammer blow can be me- (board-drop hammer). (a) Board drop.e. (d) Air drop . the ram is accelerated by steam. the upper ram is accelerated downward by upstroke takes place immediately after the blow. steam. the lower ram hot air pressure. it is neces. The ram is lifted to a certain height and ited to a relatively small number of companies.31 Principles of various types of gravity-drop hammers. At the the force necessary to ensure quick lift-up of the same time. Therefore. ties).5 m/s). i. Therefore. In electrohydraulic gravity-drop accelerates downward and pulls the upper ram hammers. a chain (chain-drop hammer). rope while their use in the United States is lim- 11. cold air. a belt (belt-drop ham. cold air. see Fig. meter-kilo. or ram. terms of energy. In a simple gravity-drop hammer. In the downstroke. or a piston Counterblow hammers are widely used in Eu- (oil-. 11. Today. the acceleration user. by a steel band (for smaller capacities) or by a The operation principle of a power-drop ham. most drop hammers are power or pres- mers: gravity-drop hammers and power-drop sure drive. Thus.33. after the blow. 1963]. a hammer by its ram weight is not useful for the In the power-drop hammer. The air pressure and the ram height hammers. or meter-tons. electrohydraulic hammer also has a minor power grams. the are measured and electronically controlled as a upper ram is positively connected to a board result. The signs.32). Ram weight can be regarded only as a of the ram is enhanced with air pressure applied model or specification number. (c) Chain drop. 11. The lower ram. on the top side of the ram cylinder (Fig. 11. the ram is lifted with oil pressure back up to its starting position. then dropped on the stock placed on the anvil. The compressed air slows speed of the rams is about 25 ft/s (7. 11. or hot air [Kuhn. The practice of specifying hammer action. down the upstroke of the ram and contributes to sary to rate the capacities of these machines in its acceleration during the downstroke. The principles of two types of counterblow ham- During the downstroke. (b) Belt drop. both Fig. the lower ram is accelerated upward ram can be three to five times the ram weight. tered automatically. The combined against an air cushion.. or steam-lift drop hammer). the ram is accelerated mers are illustrated in Fig. There are basically two types of anvil ham.31d).136 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications faces contact each other. In both de- by gravity and builds up the blow energy. mer). in addition to grav. foot-pounds. is approximately 10% heavier than the upper ity. including the die assembly. air-.

or: 1 ET ⳱ m V 2 ⳱ (G1 Ⳮ pA)H (Eq 11.1 Important Characteristics of Hammers In a gravity-drop hammer. and H is the height of the ram drop. Therefore.17) 2 1 1 2 g where m1 is the mass of the dropping ram. which weighs approxi- 11. 11. at the dation and environment. V1 is the velocity of the ram at the start of the defor- mation. forging in the hammer. for compa.32 Schematic of a power-drop hammer Fig. Fig. The upper ram. instant of blow. the forging blow takes place at a smaller foundation than an anvil hammer. [Altan et al. 11. The ram speeds are inversely little energy is lost through vibration in the foun. proportional to the ram weights so that.. Due to the counterblow effect.34. the total blow en- ergy is generated by the free fall of the ram and by the pressure acting on the ram cylinder. This facilitates the handling of the driven counterblow hammer is seen in Fig. Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 137 rams move with exactly half of the total closure mately 1⁄4 to 1⁄5 as much as the lower ram. the total blow en- ergy is equal to the kinetic energy of the ram and is generated solely through free-fall velocity. 1973] hammer. [Altan et al. relatively guided in the latter.4. a counterblow hammer requires mentum. Thus. g is the acceleration of gravity. a lower plane than in conventional counterblow The schematic of an electrohydraulically hammers.18) 2 1 1 Fig. or: 1 1 G1 2 ET ⳱ m V2 ⳱ V 1 ⳱ G1H (Eq 11. is speed. In a power-drop hammer. 11. 1973] .34 Schematic of electrohydraulic counterblow blow hammers. G1 is the weight of the ram. 11.33 Principles of operation of two types of counter. they both have the same mo- rable capacities..

consider processing schemes to be developed for opti- a deformation blow where the load. g ⳱ EA /ET. sequence of a computerized hammer. blow . 11. the load. in addition to the symbols given above. Computerized hammer controls allow unique velop considerable forces. impacters have benefited from sophisticated In counterblow hammers. Vt is the actual velocity of the cost containment for customers. strain rate. these advan- vibration to the environment. Fig. of 0. is the surface area interblow dwell time. ET. steam. EA ⳱ ETg ⳱ 14.5 for hard blows (high the door to process refinements that give engi- load and small displacement).000 lb ⳱ 630 tons 4h If the same energy were dissipated over a stroke.2 to 0.) under the curve in Fig.4. These enhance- than one.2 in. the total nominal undertaking. reduce cost. Up to now. of technology. gineering. operational uniformity and consistency. Eq 11. quantity of blows. of 0. opening ment) and from 0. die chilling. h.260. Because energy per blow is given by: of the many benefits possible on large hammers. for a working stroke. 冢m 2V 冣 ⳱ m 4V 2 2 G1 V 2t Adding computerized controls to a forging ET ⳱ 2 1 1 1 t ⳱ (Eq 11. tages are enhanced tremendously by the addition ficiency.. EA. 11. or oil pressure acting on the ram cylinder in the downstroke and A is the sur. Some small amount of energy is lost While hammer forging processes have always in overcoming friction of the guides.. would reach approxi- mately double the calculated value. which is equal to 2V1. It requires extensive equipment en- energy.35 Example of a load-stroke curve in a hammer mers in exerting high forming loads. recrys- P/3 Ⳮ P 4Ph tallization.9 for soft blows (small load and large displace. P. h. etc. Therefore: can be engineered for best control of adiabatic heating. and ferring small-hammer control technology to G1 is the weight of one ram. For instance.35. V1 is the ve. of 0. the blow ef. computerized controls are now being adapted to large forging hammers. Thus. and many issues arise in the transfer formed into useful energy available for defor. structural and mechanical properties. With this value. neers much greater control over the final micro- The transformation of kinetic energy into de. only small forging hammers and face area of the ram cylinder.000 ft • lbf (47. here. and locity of one ram. EA ⳱ h ⳱ (Eq 11. However.5 kJ) and a blow efficiency. increases mum results through computer process model- from P/3 at the start to P at the end of the stroke. of a hammer is not entirely trans. The available energy. Processing step combinations (blow energy.2 Computer-Controlled Hammers p is the air. The blow efficiency varies from 0. 11. trans- blow of two rams. formation energy during a working blow can de. and a sig.8 to ments grow out of the ability to tailor the forging 0. of hammers is always less of microprocessor controls. of 35.1 in. h. ET.000 ft • lbf (19 kJ).138 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications where. The simple hypothetical calculations given above illustrate the capabilities of relatively inexpensive ham. ing. ity. strain.19) 4g hammer significantly improves the hammer pro- cess in three critical areas: microstructural qual- where m1 is the mass of one ram. large industrial forging hammers is not a trivial During a working stroke.20 gives: 6EA P⳱ ⳱ 1. P. the total speed.4. when both rams control systems that increase manufacturing have approximately the same weight.20) 2 6 Consider a hammer with a total nominal en- ergy. and increase quality. and grain growth. g. offered thermal-control-related advantages com- nificant portion is lost in the form of noise and pared to press forging processes. mation. EA.

T. Blow Efficiency in Hammers and Screw tional. Eng. Altan. 198. Vol 79. Presses. p 857. March 94. ASM Interna. 1959]: Kienzle. p 46. [Mueller. T. E. G. H..” SME Paper MF70-216. p 132. Presses” (in German). Metal Form. Berlin. F..” SME Paper Akademaii Kiado. 1959. nomic Limitations of Conventional Four Col- Rolling Mills and Accessories” (in English)... 1998. Springer.. 1967]: Geleji. 1968]: Kirschbaum. “Drives for Forging 2. July 1967. A Die Forging Press with Equipment. “Technical and Eco- [Geleji. No. Vol 49. p 335. p 194– Metal and Ceramics Information Center.” ASM Handbook. [Brauer..” of Electrohydraulic Drop Hammers”(in Ger- Sheet Metal Ind. E.. “Design Features Determining Load and Energy in Forging of the Hydraulic Press and its Field of Appli- Equipment.R. 1983. Indust...” Sheet Metal Ind. p 4–7. 1967]: Rau. Indust. umn Top Drive Forging Presses.. [Douglas et al. p 494.. of Some Characteristics of Mechanical and nomically. a New Drive. 1978]: Altan. “Metalforming at der.” Sheet Metal Ind..J.D. “Development of the Direct-Drive Per- cussion Press. [Hutson.. p 221–226. “Use of a Four Bar into Press Driving Systems. Screw Presses for Die Forging” (in German). 24 Sept 1963... “Development controlled by the computerized forging hammer Trends in Forming Equipment” (in German). “The Vol 14.. [ASM Handbook. [Hamilton. K. Werkstattstechnik. Presses” (in German). 1969. Nichols.” ASME Trans. “Use of Standardized Copper Cylinders for [Peters. and show why.. 1973]: Altan. 1983]: Altan. 1960]: Hamilton. Pulldown definitions and outstanding simulation accuracy. D. C. 1969.. [Riemenschneider et al. H. K. Nov 1966.-Anzeig. “Hammer Germany. . 1966]: Bohringer.. Materials and Practices.. J. A. Gegel..EMO. et al. 1969]: Peters. Feb 1968. Linkage as a Slide Drive for Mechanical Vol 35... S.H.. K. Kilp. standing of process and equipment parameters.. T... Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 139 The engineered processing steps are precisely [Kienzle.. Sept 1972. Presses. man).” Proceedings of Sheet Metal Ind.. “The Significant Characteristics of Per. Their Design and Characteristics. Springer Verlag... Aug 1972. S. T. metallurgically and eco.H. 1959]: Riemenschnei- [Altan.-I. [Altan et al. Metal Forming: Fundamentals and Appli.. [Schuler Handbook.H.” Am. p 105. Nickrawietz.. 1969]: Mueller. K. Birmingham.” Metal Forming. Presses. [Kirschbaum. implications for users of highly engineered forg.R. No.D. p. “Power “Characteristics of Forging Presses: Deter. 11. SELECTED REFERENCES [Bohringer et al. ASM International. Budapest. Metal cations. Vol 90. Vol 37. 513. [Watermann. Vol 46. 1961]: Brauer.. p 1423. H.E. hammers are a tremendously valu. [Kuhn.” HB03. [Altan et al. p 25–35. 1963]: Watermann. 1968]: Hutson. Werkstattstechnik.. May 1968. England. p 53. 1998]: Schuler. Conference. 1961. 1988): Altan. “The Development cussion Presses and Their Measurements. 1972]: Altan.. T. Mach. 1972]: Douglas. 536. “An Investigation [Spachner]: Spachner. Oh. Kleipzig Fach- REFERENCES berichte. which also allow for greater under. Dusseldorf. Th.. 77. 1967.” Iron Steel.. March 1968. [Pahnke]: Pahnke. J. O...A. 1963. 1988. July 1960. Forming and Forging. controls.-Anzeig. Stahl Eisen. 1959.. 1963]: “Counterblow Hammers for Heavy Forgings” (in German). able piece of equipment. MF70-589. [Klaprodt. Z. Jan 1978. “Forging [Rau. “Forge Equipment. Vol 43. Goppingen. Forging Handbook. H. [Bohringer et al.T.. Vol cation. and Presses for Forging. Ind. W... p 769. “A This leads to greater computer process modeling Comparative Study of the Stability and Eco- capability through precise boundary condition nomic Construction of Pushdown.. 1968]: Klaprodt. Hydraulic Forging [Altan et al. T. “Comparison ings. H. 1968.. 1973. p 479. Kilp. p 46. and Horizontal Double Opposed Forging The capabilities of this process have dramatic Presses.. p 501– the 13th M. 1968]: Bohringer.” mination and Comparison.

and starts the workpiece is still hot and can be finish forged machine with a foot pedal or automatic signal. 12. is shown in Fig. Gangshu Shen. fore. The stock is gripped.1 Introduction between the rolls against a stock gage and in line with the first roll groove. the contact time between the as those of Fig.3.asminternational. and released on a conveyor using a dedicated robot. such In roll forging. illus- chine is generally used for volume distribution trating preforming for a truck axle forging. Gracious Ngaile. forging with flash. seen in Fig. fed into the rolls. billet forging begins and the deformed stock is forced stock must be often preformed to achieve ade.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. An example illustrating the application The principle of forging rolls. Some of these machines may also be used the forging rolls determines the rolled configu- for finish forging. 12. A typical operation on reducer rolls. the reducer roll- rolls are in open position. There- stock on a table in the front of the machine. During the portion of the roll rotation. even after the final rolling operation. editors. This ma. Prior to forging in an impression die.1. ing. the stock is placed ing operation is automated. under a hammer or press without CHAPTER 12 Special Machines for Forging Pinak Barve 12. 12. especially in hot 1973]. quate material distribution. toward the front of the machine [Altan et al. the grasps the stock with the tongs. In producing long parts. p141-150 All rights reserved. 12. DOI:10. Thus. 12. transferred from one die seg- ment to the other.. workpiece and the roll segments is extremely The operator or a robot places the heated short due to the high speed of the rolls. is illustrated schematically in Fig.4. of preforming by roll forging. 12. is in long and thin parts. the shape of the die segments on stock. Another example.1 Schematic of forging rolls for reducer rolling Fig. or reducer rolling. As the rolls rotate. is as follows. prior to closed-die forg.2 Schematic of the reducer rolling operation .1361/chff2005p141 www. ration. when the For high-volume production. Several special machines are These sequences are repeated for the next used for the purpose of preforming the incoming grooves. Fig. or reducer rolls.2.

8.9) grooves. The principle of operation is illustrated in Fig. The trans- FEM codes have been used to (a) simulate the verse rolling machines are suitable for automatic reducer rolling operation and (b) design and op. 2003]. After the first pass. [Altan et al. 12.. simulated by the commercial software machines: DEFORM 3-D [SFTC. using bar stock automatically fed to timize the configuration of the die segments. metrical shafts with complex geometry in one The design of the roll segments needs consid. a round billet is inserted trans. 1973] .5. operation.3 Electric Upsetters Electric upsetters are used mostly in preform 12. which hold replaceable on the current. production. tween the electrodes heats rapidly and the for- make one revolution while the workpiece rotates mation of the head begins. 12. the rolls through an induction heating unit. it is possible several times in the opposite direction. the rod section contained be- die segments with appropriate impressions. The rolls. 12..or-three-roll machine. The desired shape ● The two.3 Example of preforming by reducer rolling in forging of connecting rods. which rotate setting head against the anvil plate (f) on which in the same direction and drive the billet [Altan the other electrode (e) is secured. transverse rolling method can form axially sym- 12.142 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications such as crankshafts and front axles.7.6 shows. On switching et al. 12. As tools (b) of the electrode (c) and is pushed by seen in Fig 12. the billet is fed into the roll segments of the second pass after 90⬚ rotation. 1973]. three-dimensional by this method is shown in Fig. (b) Finish forging before and after trimming. as seen in Fig. A bar of Transverse rolling is used for producing pre. Thus.2 Transverse or preparation for gathering a large amount of ma- Cross-Rolling Machines terial at one end of a round bar. the hydraulically or pneumatically operated up- versely between two or three rolls. a forging produced erable experience. Recently. Figure 12. the to use vertical reducer rollers. two roll There are two main types of transverse rolling passes. 12. As an example. as an example.7) is produced by rolling the heated billet between ● A transverse rolling machine that uses two two rotating dies having appropriately profiled straight wedge-shaped tools (Fig.10. 12. The cold bar is con- Fig. (a) Preforms prepared in reducer rolls. circular cross section (d) is gripped between the forms or finish forgings from round billets. (Fig.

1982] transfer conveyor. Nor. The axial rolls The flat anvil electrode can be replaced by a provide support to the deforming ring and con- water-cooled copper mold into which material is trol its width and its squareness. ing laterally toward the main roll. section of the blank is reduced.4 Deformation stages in reducer rolling of a forging to produce a truck axle. The doughnut-shaped blank is placed over the product can be removed by its cold end. holder on manipulator. 1982] .5 to 125 mm) diameter bars. Such an upsetting a head of average size is 2 to 5 min. The anvil electrode is gradually re. part rial needed in the final forging. 1969]. 1973]. As time for ring-rolling installations are available. Special Machines for Forging / 143 tinuously fed between the gripping electrodes 12. As seen in Fig. (12. The of the head. rolls. one end. completely automated in. (a) Starting billet. 12. by modifying the configurations of the sions. and a ring-rolling ume production. ing furnace. slide. a heat- several units are required for achieving high vol. Material can be gathered at any point on mandrel and the main roll. it is possible to roll the length of the bar by placing a sheath around rings with internal and external profiles [Beseler. As soon as sufficient quantity of vertical mills operate essentially in the same metal is gathered. applies pres- Thus.5 to 5 such as bearing races. The principle of operation of a horizontal tracted to give enough space for the formation ring-rolling mill is illustrated in Fig. gathered and formed to close shape and dimen.5 Schematic of a vertical reducer roller. 5. in mov- chanical or screw-type press in the same heat. ability of electric current. [Haller. roll stand.. a forging press. able equipment is capable of upsetting 0. 12. mill. installation may consist of a billet shear.12.11. (1)–(3) Locations where more mate. side diameter of the blank. Commercially avail. 4. For components required in large quantities. thus the metal accumulates continuously in the head. which is driven. The only limitation on size is the avail. The main roll. [Haller. (b)–(e) Fig. 12. 1. the process is suitable for manufacturing sure on the blank. The principles of an automatic horizontal ring-rolling mill for manufacturing bearing races Fig. a mandrel with a diameter smaller than the in- mally. components such as automotive exhaust valves. 2. 3. the machine switches off and way. rotates the blank and the mandrel as the cross or steam turbine blades [Altan et al. Several reducer roll passes. the head is formed to final shape in a me. The mandrel. 12.4 Ring-Rolling Mills (b).

. is driven independently by a variable-speed drive. these machines employ two gripper mandrel and main roll decreases. (b) Second pass after rotating 90⬚. 2003] [Neuberger et al. and the fin- ished ring is discharged from the machine. The passed the rolling zone. 12. 12.. 12.14. Four mandrels are 12. As seen in rolled out into a ring as the clearance between Fig. 1968] .8 Forging produced in a transverse rolling machine. [SFTC. and the main roll. Machines or Upsetters eccentrically located within the table.13. The The horizontal forging machines are essen- blank placed over the mandrel. the hinged table seg.7 Principle of operation of transverse rolling ma- chines. 12. is tially horizontal mechanical presses. dies are closed side-to-side by a toggle mecha- ment is lifted by a cam operation. [Neuberger et al. in position 1. (c) At the end of Fig.5 Horizontal Forging mounted in a rotating table. After having dies. 1968] Fig. the second pass. 12. Fig. one stationary and the other movable.6 Computer simulation of reducer rolling operation using DEFORM—3D (only two passes are shown).144 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications are illustrated in Fig. (a) First pass.

i.9 Principles of and tooling for transverse rolling ma- chine with straight dies. Special Machines for Forging / 145 nism operated by a cam or eccentric located on movable gripping die moves horizontally the eccentric shaft. as final product or as a preforming step. two flat platens.. the workpiece is subjected to a The upsetters are used for upset forging. [Altan et al. it is necessary to forge. and (d) completes the Instead of the direct pressing action between upsetting at the end of its stroke. The operational sequence of 12. 12. and reducing of bars and tubes. begins to deform the bar.7 Radial Forging Machines In many applications. (b) the moving gripper die illustrated in Fig.17.10 Principle of operation of the electric upsetter..16 for a simple upsetting closes and the stop retracts. the platens ented vertically. [Altan et al. 1973] See text for details. the parts are transported by a conical working face. during closing action.15 for the upsetting process: (a) the hot end of the bar is placed into the stationary gripper The principles of rotary forging machines are die against a stop. 12. 1958]. 12. Most horizontal forging machines cone rotates about the cone apex. (b) Assem. solid Fig. are placed in the gripper dies. As the to the next.e. In au- flat bottom platen and a swiveling upper die with tomatic operation. (a) Operation. 1973] . 12. combined rolling and pressing action between a piercing.. Several matching die inserts [Lange. while the slide carrying the punches is moved by an eccentric- pitman mechanism. Press loading is appreciably less than that of conventional upsetting because of relatively small area of instantaneous contact. Orbital Forging Machines 12. (c) the heading tool operation. Fig. the are pressed toward each other so that the work- piece is progressively compressed by the rolling action. The cone axis is inclined finger-type cam-operated devices or walking- so that the narrow sector in contact with the beam-type transfer devices from one die cavity workpiece is parallel to the lower platen.6 Rotary or a horizontal forging machine is illustrated in Fig. At the same time. The appli- cation of a rotary forging machine to a closed- die forging operation is illustrated in Fig. bly of simple die. 12. the contact are designed such that the gripper dies are ori- zone also rotates.

Figure 12.18 indicates that the the length and tubes with internal or external best solution for high-production symmetrical varying diameter. 1969] .146 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications shafts with varying or constant diameter along production costs. 12. three. For some that squeezes the material from all sizes simul- of these applications. large reductions be. open-die forging presses taneously. the speed of feed and manipulation of the stock 1971]. each V-die set can square. or the billet.11 Operational principles of a horizontal ring-rolling mill. There are several machine types de- cannot be used economically because they are signed specifically for this purpose of radial or limited in number of strokes per minute and in draw-forging of axisymmetric parts [Haller. [Beseler. during forging. In addition. Although these latter problems may four dies to produce solid or hollow. reduction of cross sections is a forging system metrical reduction of cross sections. 1969] Fig. be reduced by using V-dies. Some be used only for a certain dimension range and of the principal applications are production of frequent die changes during forging increase the stepped shafts or tubes. or profiled sections. All these parts require sym. rectangular.12 Horizontal ring-rolling mill for producing rings with internal and external profiles. round. [Beseler. sizing of solid bars such Fig. with two. Automated and computer-numerical-con- tween two flat dies may cause excessive chilling trolled (CNC) radial forging machines can be at the billet corners and cracking at the center of used for hot or cold forging. 12.

eccentric shaft. ations depending on the application. Special Machines for Forging / 147 as pilger mandrels. 2. zontal machines consist of a forging box with (Ⳳ0.15 Operating sequence in upsetting on a horizontal forging machine . nents (Fig. 12.13 Principle of semiautomatic ring-rolling machine stationary gripping die. The core of the machine is a 1965].1 mm) and essary hydraulic and electronic control compo- Ⳳ0. robust cast steel forging box that absorbs all There are two types of radial precision forging machines: vertical and horizontal. end-die cavities. 7.14 Schematic of a horizontal forging machine. 6. and sizing of the bores of The horizontal models are built in several vari- tubes to exact round or profiled shapes. respectively [Walter. The tol. (0. and nec- erances are about Ⳳ0. for manufacturing of bearing races.004 in. The hori- erances in hot forged tubes are about Ⳳ0. Fig. 12.19).004 (Ⳳ0.025 mm). Fig. 3 and 4. Both models use essentially the same design principles.1 mm) on the inside diameter (ID). late the workpiece. 1. In cold gear drive. [Lange. movable gripping die.001 in. upsetting and piercing punch. [Beseler. 12. 12. 1958] Fig. centering devices. The vertical models are suitable only for relatively short components and are difficult to automate. 5. slide carrying the 1969] punches. one or two chuck heads to manipu- forging the outside diameter (OD) and ID tol.

It is mounted with system. rotating upper platen. (b) Be- workpiece. adjustment nut. 12. 1973]. 1971] Fig. lower die. forging. on an oil cushion of a hydraulic cylinder. 12. tion frame. The stroke position of the connecting rods (or able adjustment housings in which the eccentric dies) is adjusted in pairs independently (for rec- shafts are mounted. one or two hydraulically driven chuck heads are provided Fig. The pressure in this oil cushion is continuously monitored. [Walter. which tangles or special shapes) or in unison (for are driven by an electric motor through a gear rounds and squares) by rotating each adjustment housing through a link. and if it exceeds a certain limit the adjustment housings are immediately rotated to bring the dies to open position while the move- ment of the chuck heads is stopped simulta- neously. [Haller. 1973] Fig. (a) Between flat anvils.19 Schematic of a GFM radial precision forging machine with two chuck heads.148 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications forging forces (Fig. 1965] . Depending on the machine type. 12. ing dies at a rate of 250 to 1800 strokes/min. This system protects the machine from overloading [Altan et al.18 Deformation of a round cross section in stretch forging machine. 3. 12. 4.20). Each adjustment nut rests. and worm gear drive powered by one or two hydraulic motors. The forging box contains four rotat. ejector tween four curves of a radial forging machine.16 Principle of rotary or orbital forging machines. actuate the connecting rods and the forg- the gear box in a support bolted to the founda.. 2. through a piston. [Altan et al. the forging pressure generates in this oil cushion a pressure propor- tional (about 20%) to the forging pressure. The eccentric shafts.. P. 1. screw. During operation. 12. load.17 Illustration of closed-die forging with a rotary Fig.

. 1982]: Haller.. REFERENCES [Altan et al.20 Forging box of a radial precision forging machine illustrating the tool function and adjustment. Battelle Columbus Laboratories. the chuck heads are provided with stationary or movable mandrels. T. Materials. 12. Handbook of Forg- ing (in German).. H. (h) Adjustment input. Vol 36. Hanser Verlag. N. square. For the forging of tubular parts. Form. . J. The movement of the workpiece must be forged over its entire length.. Two chuck heads are used when the forged at fixed positions.W. “Modern Ring- Rolling Practice. in one heat.. (c) Guides. Practice of Im- Fig. 1982. 1971. Hanser precision radial forging machines. Akgermon. [Beseler. H. 1973]: Altan.. 1973.” Metals and Ceramics Information Cen- ter.. The radial precision forging machines are capable of producing parts similar to those shown in Fig. and profiled sections are ing forging. and Prac- tices. p 1. (g) Worm gear drive.. which are cooled internally in hot forging applications. [Altan et al.” Met. [Altan et al. 12. 1969]: Beseler.J. (a) Dies. rectangular.. 1973] Verlag. Becker. Henning. H. 1973] for holding and manipulating the workpiece dur.21. (e) Adjustment housing. F.W. During stroke in forging stepped components can be forging. (i) Adjustable cam.. Feb 1969.R. Special Machines for Forging / 149 Fig. K.. Central water cooling and lubrication of critical machine components are carried out automati- cally during the operation of the machine.21 Typical examples of stepped shafts produced in pression Die Forging (in German).W.. chuck heads and the variation of the forging including the chucked ends. (d) Eccentric shaft. (f) Adjustment screw. “Forging Equipment. 1971]: Haller.H. [Haller. (k) Forging box. 12. (b) Pitman arm. Boulger. round components are rotated while controlled by numerical control. [Haller.

p 1968... p 1.. 1965]: Walter. Corp..” Met. Co- 1958.150 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications [Lange. Oct Forging Machines.. OH. Aug 1965. F. . et al. Form. L.” Met.. Treat.. lumbus. K. Berlin. 296. [Neuberger et al. DEFORM 2D and 3D Software. Vol 35. 2003]: Scientific Forming Technologies of Steel (in German). [Walter. 2003. 1968]: Neuberger. “Use of Precision “Transverse Rolling. Closed-Die Forging [SFTC. Springer-Verlag.. 1958]: Lange.

Aluminum. There are also shears. Billets and bar sections are sheared between the lower and upper blades of a machine in which only the upper blade is movable. umes prior to forging. In visual examination of a sheared edge. 13. such as impact cutoff machines. are available diate area. for billet separation. Fig. editors. and fracture occurs. The shear blade plastically de- forms the material until its deformation limit in the shearing zone has been exhausted. Figure 13. the cut edge of some steels becomes hardened during gas cutting. However.1. usually rolled round or round-cornered 400 C) prior to shearing in order to eliminate square bars. In general. Gas cutting produces an edge that re. while the fractured portion is relatively rough. CHAPTER 13 Billet Separation and Shearing Serdar Isbir Pinak Barve 13. quired for subsequent operations. the danger of cracking. Nickel-base alloys. magnesium. The burnished area. but in this case. 2003] . as seen in Fig.asminternational. high-strength steels having tensile strength above 60. The method of cutting off and copper alloys require sawing or cutting with bars is determined by the edge condition re. p151-157 All rights reserved. ous types. and titanium alloys also require sawing or abra- ally produces a uniform cut edge with little or sive wheel cutting. a considerable cutting..Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. Gangshu Shen. abrasive cutting. Metal-cutting saws of vari- no damage to the microstructure in the imme. DOI:10. thus mak. Gracious Ngaile. a friction wheel. usually carbide tipped. is usually one-fifth to one-fourth the diameter of the bar. Many materials cannot be cut by simple shearing into billets with exact lengths and vol. the burnished portion appears smooth. Separation Sheared Surface Quality of billets by shearing is a process without ma- terial loss and with considerably higher output Straight blades can be used to shear bars and with respect to sawing. or flame bar sections. superalloys. that utilize a horizontal knife movement to shear the bar sections.2 Billet and ing subsequent processing difficult. Sawing usu. 13.000 psi (414 MPa) are Forging stock must be cut from the initial mill heated to between 600 and 750 F (315 and products.1 Sheared surface of a billet [Duvari et al. sembles a sawed edge in smoothness and square- ness. or depth of shear action by the blade.1 Introduction umes.1 shows the appearance of a hot sheared round bar. into billets of exact lengths and vol. amount of distortion occurs. shearing cracks appear.1361/chff2005p151 www.

(3) Once the pressure at the cutting the sheared surface may have different zones edges increases sufficiently.. the load increases continu. spite the strain hardening of the material. 13. (2) The plas. The load-stroke curve of the process can shearing force decreases rapidly during this be divided into the following steps (Fig. particularly when the cutting edges in the direction of the blade shearing round bars. 2003] In addition. each other. Distortions such as ears. This means that experimentally obtained load- stroke curves may be slightly different. 13. and tool and machine inaccuracies into account..2. 13. the incipient cracks will run toward blade into the bar. (1) The bar is deformed elastically. 1997] 1997] . 13. the cutting force decreases de- reduce the quality of the billet. the material stops and defects (Fig. inconsistent material properties. Preferred practice is to use penetration and into the gap between the two blades that conform to the shape of the work blades. terial is exceeded.3 Different zones of the sheared surface [Breitling et Fig. Depending on the process pa- scribed previously. cross section is not reduced and shearing has not Depending on the initial geometry of the bar. appeared. (4) As with every process.3). 13. which results in an increase of the shearing sheared edges usually increases as thickness or force up to the maximum load. The material flows along shearing with straight blades.4): phase. there is a load-stroke Fracture starts after the shear strength of the ma- curve correlating to the different phases de. With the penetration of the rameters. The ously.2 Schematic display of a typical billet shearing system [Duvari et al. al. Due to a decreas- burrs. It should be mentioned that this is an ideal (theoretical) load-stroke curve that does not take friction forces. and scars are undesirable. the diameter of the billet decreases. 13. the shock on the blades is high when tic deformation starts. The material flow causes strain harden- metal. deforming and shearing starts.152 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. At this time. because they ing cross section. The quality of ing. as seen in Fig. separating the bar and the billet.4 Theoretical load-stroke curve [Breitling et al.. Fig.

13. the smaller is the shearing clearance. The plastic deformation.5 Important parameters in shearing [Duvari et al. the hardness distribution be- Ⳳ3⁄16 in. the deforma- breakaway of the metal can cause a variation of tion zone reduces. and seams in- setup. The greater the strength of the possible straightness.. (Ⳳ4. knife and blade edge radii. billets can ordinarily be cut to lengths ac. cutting while compressive stress increases during the speed. plastic flow lateral to the operation. can be obtained by careful adjustment of the i. The ap. 1998]. 13. eters affecting sheared billet quality [Duvari et tolerance) of the sheared surface. billets are produced using the shearing principle Clearance. For cold a major influence in the surface quality of forging. (Ⳮ3. (102 mm) in tongues indicate an insufficient tool clearance.. When larger shears are used. Billet Separation and Shearing / 153 There are four ways a billet can be sheared: gage setting.” Fig. 2003... Both tendencies exercise a draft angle. volume control.5). diameter. sheared billets should have the greatest sheared billets. In all the afore. and billet temperature are the param- positive influence over the geometry (ovality. 3–5% the shear blades by a roller conveyor table and ● Brittle steel types.2. the material becomes more “brittle. 1984].e. ● Soft steel types.8 mm) [Wick et al. end of the material on a spring-supported table sure application [Schuler. ⳮ0 in. and friction. percentage of the starting material diameter in pearance of the sheared surfaces is the result of millimeters: interactions between workpiece characteristics. and the hardness increase consistent accuracy in the shearing of the slugs in the sheared surface becomes less pronounced. thus providing better control over the shearing direction is increasingly prevented. Fairly comes more uniform. tears. 1998]. machine. Supporting the free with bar and cutoff holder. length of the cut. tool. 1–3% placed squarely against a gage stop securely bolted to the exit side of the machine. In such a Rough fractured surfaces. especially if the slugs are produced without bar and cutoff holder. on a weight-per-piece basis. dicate an excessively large shearing tool clear- curate to Ⳮ1⁄8. 2003] . Camille et al. Shearing clearance. with bar holder. the With increasing shearing velocity. and with axial pres. 5–10% Billets are usually supported on both sides of ● Hard steel types. will minimize bending during the shearing mentioned methods. gap clearance. Cross-fractured surfaces and material shears that can cut bars up to 4 in. The shearing clearance exercises with bar and cutoff holder (Fig. the given values are moderate amount of strain hardening. The sheared surfaces should following values may be taken as guidelines for be free of shearing defects and exhibit only a shearing clearance of steel. ⳮ0 mm) on ance. shearing operation. Most accurate al. and little steel.

of the bar diameter. re- which is another indication of billet quality. compromise should be made between the tool..1) whereby A s is the sectional surface to be sheared. The second option is more desirable.e. Fs. the the blade without the far end whipping. deflection under load ● Adjustable hydraulic billet support and bar lowing formula when separating round material with the diameter d: holder in order to minimize billet bending Fs ⳱ A s • k s Ws ⳱ x • Fs • s (Eq 13. k s. a regular hydraulic billet shear. chipping of the blade may occur. espe. amounts to approximately 70 to 80% of tensile strength of the material. fracture tooling and shear-related parameters. shear designs incorporate the following features: Work. because it pro- vides more accuracy and productivity. The speed at which material where A is the cross-sectional area of the work- is sheared without adverse effect can range from piece (in square inches). or. such as a weak quality. Draft angle and load on the tool- ing are inversely proportional.4 Shearing Equipment ing reduces as the draft angle is increased. k s is the shearing resistance of the billet material. tile materials. ductile material). For low-carbon steels. 33. problems are en. and Power ● Rugged frame construction and precise guid- The shearing force. i. The fac- tor s varies between 20% (hard. In.7. reduce the sheared billet and tooling-related parameters. even if this increases tool forces. There are two ways to shear billets: A shear- ing force and billet quality.000 1997] .746 to obtain kilowatts.2) Fig. When bars harder than 30 HRC are cut at to increase the calculated value as much as 25% speeds of 40 to 50 ft (12 to 15 m) per minute or to compensate for machine efficiency. 13. However. Draft Angle. Therefore a [Breitling et al. duce the shearing quality and should be avoided creases with increasing draft angle. The correction factor x indicates the extent to which the in- crease in force deviates from a rectangular force- stroke curve. higher. V is the speed of the almost zero to 70 or 80 ft (21 or 24 m) per min. and shearing work. frame design or inconsistent blade alignment. How- ever. x is taken to be between 0.. The 33. The latest 13. as speed increases above 20 to 25 shear strength of the work metal (in pounds per ft (6.. in.000 is foot-pounds per countered in holding the workpiece securely at minute per horsepower. draft angle should be kept at min. Ws. Load on the tool. and S is the ute. 13. In general.. imum. may be used.4 and 0. ance of all moving parts in order to eliminate can be calculated approximately using the fol. It may be necessary more.e.4 mm) thick or by 0. shear blade (in feet per minute). The shearing resistance. power in English units (hp) should be multiplied cially with material 1⁄4 in.3 Shearing Force. sheared billet can be divided into workpiece- crease in both of these parameters. square inch). (6. solely designed for shearing. Especially with duc.1 to 7. and s is an approximate portion of the shearing stroke. fracture length and burr length also The parameters influencing the quality of the increase with the increase in draft angle.154 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Cutting Speed.6 Stock volume monitoring system [Breitling et al. brittle material) to 40% (soft.6 m) per minute. For metric use. ing tool may be mounted in a mechanical press. Machine- length and burr length. the net horsepower re- quired for shearing can be estimated from the following formula: A•V•S hp ⳱ (Eq 13. 1997]. alternatively. i. It is also observed that rollover length.

6). is seen schematically in Fig. which ensures the maintenance of a constant billet weight despite changes in bar diameter. 13. by means of laser sensors. 13. closed blade and held against a stop by an axial ple.8. The holddown mechanism is necessary for obtaining good sheared surfaces. In this machine. or hydraulically. It operates mechanically. (a) Tooling for one billet per revolution.8 Schematic of a shear with axial load to improve operation. as in mechanical forging presses.. Most conventional shears are mechanical and their operation is based on the eccentric slide principle. the ma- ductivity terial to be sheared is confined by a close-fitting ● Automated billet quality control (for exam. The billet is then sheared and ready for further processing. 1973] ● Fast blade clearance adjustment to reduce the A radically different design. According to tooling arrangement. (b) Tooling for two billets per revolution [Altan et al. 1973] . shear quality [Altan et al. blade. through an additional linkage from the eccentric. 13. 13. Billet Separation and Shearing / 155 Fig. which is then sent to a programmable logic controller (PLC) that com- putes the adjustments and moves the back gage accordingly (Fig. With ● A high shearing speed and shear rate in order this shear. because it is not sufficient to control the billet weight and geometrical accuracy only manually and intermittently. continuous stock volume monitoring) The last point becomes increasingly important. production rates of 300 billets/min are to improve billet quality and process pro.7. In the design seen in Fig. the energy is provided by changes a flywheel that carries an open-type moving ● A tiltable shear base that can be used for in..7 High-velocity rotary-type shear. Modern shearing machines use a stock volume monitoring system. The use of an outboard support also improves the quality of the billets. one or clining the bar when blanking soft materials two billets per revolution can be obtained. In that device. the billet is supported during the entire Fig. a high-velocity lead time for new setups rotary-type shear. feasible. The system measures the bar diameter. ● Hydraulic knife clamps for fast blade 13.

distortion.. or it can be performed using a ing Equipment. and angles up to 8 ⳯ 8 ⳯ 11⁄2 in. efficient. 1984].. The capacity of hibits crack propagation. (63.” Journal of Materials . blade design is more critical and blade life Some machines are capable of maintaining the decreases as the strength of the work metal in. that rotate at a constant speed. F. the machine is a 21⁄2 in... T. Production can (152 mm) in diameter or thickness. hexagonal. ther. or special-shaped bars into blanks or slugs. H. performed on a machine specifically designed Becker. Equipment is available for shearing as maintaining square cuts and ends that are free round. E. One manufacturer of cutoff machines utilizes [Breitling et al. or octagonal bars up to 6 in. flat. 13. Forg- for slug cutoff.9 Double-cutting principle [Wick et al. and economical as the strength of the work metal increases. T. V. This process can be [Altan et al. and Practices. Chernaus- a double-cutting principle to shear the blanks or kas.. Henning. Boulger. 13..156 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. The dies (Fig. HB03. (203 ⳯ 203 ⳯ 38 mm). Akgerman.. J. any metal that can be machined having a maximum length of 36 in. Altan.. (914 mm). J. Cutoff-type shearing machines are used for REFERENCES cutting round.005 in. telle Columbus Laboratories. rectangular be as high as 150 pieces per minute. box-type shearing die in conjunction with a Metal and Ceramics Information Center. when billets in large quantities are required. p 4–7. (Ⳳ0. The axial load ensures squareness and in.. Materials.. Fur. 1997]: Breitling.. square. (75 ⳯ 305 mm) in cross section. Taupin.. 1984] load. 1973]: Altan. length to within Ⳳ0. “Precision slugs. bars and billets up to 3 ⳯ 12 in.. N.9) are actuated with Shearing of Billets—Special Equipment and short strokes by two flywheel-cam assemblies Process Simulation. can be sheared. Bat- press [Wick et al.5 mm) diam bar In general. but power requirements increase This method is fast.13 mm) as well creases. and rollover. of burrs.

Engineers. 2003]: Duvari. p Ngaile. Springer. p 119– SELECTED REFERENCES 125. Tool and Manufacturing Engi... Billet Separation and Shearing / 157 Processing Technology.” Metal Forming.. Vas. Inc. Forming and Forging. ● www. H. Ed. G. Engineering Re. 1967]: Geleji... Equipment. V. p 11-1–11-21. C. R. Engineering Handbook. p 136. (in English).” ERC/NSM-97-27. 1999]: Davis.T. ● [Geleji et al. 71.. T.. 1998]: Schuler. J. S. Akademiai Kiado. ● [Stotmann. Drop Forging Industry. Ficep Corp. Frontzek. ASM ing Process. W. tion of Machines and Automation in the search Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. WEB SITES [Wick et al.. neers Handbook. MI.R. Vol. May.. p 457–459.. Schu- ler Group. Metal Forging Handbook. T. 1984]: Wick... p 714–719.. “Optimization of Tool 168.sms-eumuco. ● www. S. H. Benedict.bemcor. Dearborn... Goppingen. 1968]: Stotmann. [Camille et al. Rolling Mills. “Evolu- ing. Society of Manufacturing ● www. 1998]: Santiago-Vega. Altan. Veilleux. A.” ERC/NSM-03-R-09.. Isbir. Hoffman. Design in Hot Shearing of Billets for Forg. Vol 14. Forge ing. [Schuler. 1997.. quez. Altan. J. Germany. SMS Eumuco GmbH . and Accessories [Duvari et “Simulation of Bar Shear. ● [ASM International. Bemcor. H.ficep. Research Center for Net Shape Manufactur.

14. and finally forged in finisher using multistage forging. fillet and corner radii. aircraft. flows into the flash zone . Finisher dies are used to enhance geomet. the shapes of the pre- dies. the part is first forged in a set added for flash. 14. that is. forms are selected. considers design parameters such as grain flow. based software. and blocking stage. due to shape complexity and forged. industry. and positioning of the parting line. rical details without significant material flow. then moved to one or more sets radii. The flash dimensions and or folds. must be shaped in all economy of the process being CHAPTER 14 Process Design in Impression-Die Forging Manas Shirgaokar 14. DOI:10. This often takes obtain a more complex shape. two or more dies dies are manufactured and prototype parts are are moved toward each other to form a metal forged to determine metal flow patterns and the billet that has a relatively simple geometry to possible occurrence of defects. draft angles. Forged components The design of any forging process begins with find application in the automobile/automotive the geometry of the finished part (Fig.asminternational. draft. In The quality of the finished part depends greatly making these selections.2. the blocker dies are designed. billet dimensions influence: Before being used in production.and closed-die forging can not contain flow defects such as laps. p159-183 All rights reserved. Alterna- and the dies allow the excess billet material to tively. The multiple sets of dies. editors. can be used to obtain informa- ity at moderate cost. be seen in Fig. all sections The terminology used to describe the flash of the die cavity must be filled. When of blocking dies. facilities. materials. ing stage. Gracious Ngaile. the material that are tested to verify proper filling of the die cav. and resis. variables on the forging process. tance to impact and fatigue. namely. fillet and corner of busting dies.1 Introduction ities.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. Forgings offer a high tion about the effects of die design and process strength-to-weight ratio. If the ma. and the part must zone in impression. and the initial billet geometry is determined. shrinkage. and the over- material flow limitations. the number of parts to be dies while others. the billet several iterations and is very costly in terms of is heated to an appropriate forging temperature time. terial has been improperly distributed during the parting line. The most commonly used method of pro- cess verification is die tryout in which full-scale In impression-die forging. Consideration is given to the shape of the part. defects may appear in the finish. In a common multistage finisher die is then designed with allowances forging process. railroad. This process is simulation using finite-element method (FEM)- capable of producing components of high qual. toughness. cold shuts. In a good-quality forging. two other methods for modeling metal flow outside of the die cavity to form a flash that flow. flash dimensions. Usually. forging dies ● The flash allowance. the forging designer on the design of the previous stages. and mining equip. ment.1).1361/chff2005p159 www. physical modeling and process is later trimmed and discarded. the application of the part. and labor. the type of forging Some parts can be forged in a single set of equipment to be used. Gangshu Shen. the material to be forged.

and die quires the prediction of: temperature influence the temperature distribu- tion in the forged part. ● Characteristics of the stock or preform to be ing for each of the forging operations forged. energy. 14. and forging energy and conse- or blockers quently influence the loading and the design of ● The flash dimensions in the dies and the ad- the dies. brication: tool materials. configuration.160 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications ● The forging load in Fig. flow stress and the workability at various strain rates and deformation condi- 14. fric- ● Shape complexity and volume of the forging tion. Finally. and center of load. flow stress. 2000] .2 Forging Process Variables tions. Ram speed. ● Variables associated with the tooling and lu- The interaction of the most significant vari. part geometry. in summary.. design ables in forging is shown in a simplified manner of drafts and radii. It is seen that for a given billet ● The forging energy material and part geometry. stock temperature. and part geometry determine metal flow. 14. etc. the ram speed of the ● The die life forging machine influences the strain rate and The overall design of a forging process re. temperature.3. the following three ditional flash volume required in the stock groups of factors influence the forging process: for preforming and finishing operations ● The forging load. ● Number and configurations of the preforms forging load. Thus.1 A flow chart illustrating forging process design [Vasquez et al. flash de- Fig. preform shape. flow stress.

In general. strain rates.. etc. the material cools down excessively ences the design of the forging itself as well as during deformation. 14. nonisothermal. operations. its flow stress and forge. large. for example. the potential production rate increases. the dies.. Consequently. However. i.1 Forging Materials the hot or warm material and the colder dies. that are highly rate dependent. Forge- ability has been used vaguely in the literature to denote a combination of both resistance to de- formation and ability to deform without fracture. the load. to have short contact times. i. The contact time is extremely important. as temperature increases.5. the strain rate.2. the large rate of deformation would lead to an ● The forging material resistance to flow and increase in flow stress and excessive die ability to flow. Metal flow and die filling and hot-die forging of titanium and nickel are largely determined by: alloys.e. friction conditions. in impressed-die forging with flash . ram velocity un. the contact time also influ- Table 14.. both the flow stress and forgeability are influenced by the metallurgical characteristics of the billet material and the tem- peratures. i. the ● The rate of deformation. and the metal flow and die filling are ample. The flow stress determines the resistance to deformation. Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 161 sign. availability of ejec. grain growth occurs. In all these tests. temperature of the workpiece material is higher In certain cases. i. For ex. the flow stress in- the details of the entire forging process.e. the amount of deformation prior to failure of the specimen is an indication of forgeability at the temperature and deforma. The forgeabilities of metals at various deformation rates and tem- peratures can be evaluated by using various tests such as torsion. strain. forgeability decreases with increasing grain size. A diagram illustrating this type of information is presented in Fig. Fig. and compression tests. in isothermal than that of the dies. single or multi.4 shows that owing to difficulties reduced. This depends on the ram tors. the forgeabilities of metals in- crease with increasing temperature. stresses.. stiffness. The forging material influ. With increasing stroke ● The friction and cooling effects at the die/ rate. Fig. production rate. When the contact time is broff et al. the behavior and the load and energy capacities. and stresses that occur in the deforming material. Thus. ability ● The production rate.2. that of the dies. nickel alloys allow for less shape def. be- cause it determines the heat transfer between 14.2 Schematic of a die set and the terminology used tion rates used during that particular test. in conventional forging in forging. and energy requirements. 14. under load. 14. material interface provided the machine can be loaded and un- ● The complexity of the forging shape loaded with billet or preforms at these in- creased rates. velocity and the stiffness of a given press. 1968]. 14.1 lists different metals and alloys in ences the temperatures of the forging and order of their respective forging difficulty [Sa. and in some alloy systems. creases. stress.2 Forging Equipment etc. it is desired inition than do aluminum alloys.e.e. In most practical hot forging operations.. ● The contact time between the material and der load. For a given metal. ● Characteristics of the available equipment: In hot and warm forging. tension. forging stresses. characteristics of the forging press influence: blow availability.

In forging. and drive tional phosphate soap lubricants or oils ● m ⳱ 0. the values of stroke of the forging press. and copper. Ram guid.3 in hot forging of titanium 14. lubricated extrusion of aluminum alloys tant and influence the die stresses and the forg- ing load as well as the wear of the dies. quantitatively. and die fill. s. the magni- m tudes and distribution of temperatures depend s ⳱ f r¯ ⳱ r¯ (Eq 14. the dies have flat surfaces that con. and aluminum alloys with graphite- based lubricants ● m ⳱ 0. This allows very m vary as follows: close control of the thickness tolerances even if the flow stress and friction conditions ● m ⳱ 0. i.. the friction conditions at in hot rolling of plates or slabs and in non- the die/material interface are extremely impor. for example. f is the fric- presses. Hydraulic and screw where s is the frictional shear stress. stiffness of the press frame. pressure transmitted from the dies to the deform- ing material. die it is necessary to express the interface friction life. and m is the shear friction factor (0  dies. operate with kissing tion factor.1) 冪3 mainly on: Fig. temperatures that exist in the material In forging. change during a production run.e.4 Heat Transfer and Temperatures to evaluate the performances of various lubri- Heat transfer between the forged material and cants and to be able to predict forming pressures.g.3 Variables in forging .2. aluminum alloys.3 Friction and Lubrication and high-temperature alloys with glass lu- The flow of metal in forging is caused by the bricants ● m ⳱ 0..2.162 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications ● The part tolerances. e. in terms of a factor or coefficient. cop- also contribute to tolerances that can be achieved in forging. 14. properties of the forged product.7 to 1 when no lubricant is used.4 in hot forging of steels. m  1). therefore. per. the frictional shear stress.05 to 0. Often. using conven- ing. tact each other at the end of each working For various forming conditions. the dies influences the lubrication conditions.1 to 0.2 to 0.15 in cold forging of steels. is most during forging are the most significant variables commonly expressed as: influencing the success and economics of a given forging operation. In order 14.

in hot forming. where velopment of shear bands on the formed material the load-displacement curves are given for hot often can be explained by excessive chilling of forging of a steel part using different types of the surface layers of the formed part near the forging equipment. These curves illustrate that. due to strain rate and temperature effects. 1968] Approximate range of forging temperature Metal or alloy F C Aluminum alloys (least difficult) 750–1020 400–550 Magnesium alloys 480–660 250–350 Copper alloys 1110–1650 600–900 Carbon and low-alloy steels 1560–2100 850–1150 Martensitic stainless steels 2010–2280 1100–1250 Maraging steels 2010–2280 1100–1250 Austenitic stainless steels 2010–2280 1100–1250 Nickel alloys 1830–2100 1000–1150 Semiaustenitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steels 2010–2280 1100–1250 Titanium alloys 1290–1740 700–950 Iron-base superalloys 1920–2160 1050–1180 Cobalt-base superalloys 2160–2280 1180–1250 Niobium alloys 1740–2100 950–1150 Tantalum alloys 1920–2460 1050–1350 Molybdenum alloys 2100–2460 1150–1350 Nickel-base superalloys 1920–2190 1050–1200 Tungsten alloys (most difficult) 2190–2370 1200–1300 ● The initial material and die temperatures whereas in the hammer. 14.. 1968] et al.6. Thus. 14. 14. The reason for this is that in the presses.. the extruded flash cools rapidly. the forging load is initially higher due to strain-rate effects.5 Generalized diagram illustrating the influence of (b) nickel-base superalloys (all dimensions are in mm) [Sabroff et forgeability and flow stress on die filling [Sabroff al. the flash temperature ● Heat generated due to plastic deformation remains nearly the same as the initial stock tem- and friction at the die/material interface perature. Fig.4 Comparison of typical design limits for rib-web- type structural forgings of (a) aluminum alloys and Fig. Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 163 Table 14. coolant. 1968] . for the same forging process. but the maxi- mum load is lower than for either hydraulic or screw presses..1 Hot forging temperatures of different metals and alloys [Sabroff et al. not only the ma- ● Heat transfer between the deforming mate. Surface tearing and cracking or de- and forging load is illustrated in Fig. die/material interface. different forging loads and energies are required by different presses. terial and the formed shape but also the type of rial and the dies as well as between the dies equipment used (rate of deformation and die and the environment (air. lubricant) chilling effects) determine the metal flow behav- ior and the forming load and energy required for The effect of contact time on temperatures the process. For the hammer.

The preform. As a result. expansion. more complex shape of the final forging. but die costs are very that the desired finish part geometry can be ob- significant because these costs must be amor. because (webs and ribs) are more difficult to forge.2. There is a direct relationship Fig. Also. Often. in this case. several operations (preforming omitted even if this would cause the use of more or blocking) are needed to achieve gradual flow billet material. Therefore. thus. In addition. Forging tolerances are very important in de. ume. tained without any external or internal defects. initial temperature ⳱ ing increasing forging difficulty with increasing rib 2012 F. Precision forging of gears and fects of friction and temperature changes and hence influence the final pressure required to fill the die cavities. spherical and blocklike shapes are for economic production. will not 14. general sense. Die dimensions vary would be die wear. quick die-changing and au. 14.3 Shape Complexity in Forging wear out easily. which determine the final part dimensions.6 Load-displacement curves for the same part forged in three different machines with three different ram Fig.7 Rectangular shape and three modifications show- speeds (dimensions of the part in inches.. or 1100 C) [Altan et al. mechanical loading during assem- pecially wear resistant even if they are made bling of the dies in a holder. If the production lot size corrections can be made while designing and is large. In a tomatic die-holding mechanisms are required.5 Production Lot blades. inder or round-cornered square billet) into the duction. 14. tized over a smaller number of parts. as is the The main objective of forging process design case in the aerospace forging industry. die wear is to ensure adequate metal flow in the dies so is not a major problem.. require not only very close Size and Tolerances manufacturing accuracies on the dies but also close control of die temperatures. In this case. 1968] . 1973] height and decreasing web thickness [Sabroff et al. Metal flow is greatly influenced by part or die some of the preforming or blocker dies may be geometry.164 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 14. the dies must of the metal from an initially simple shape (cyl- be changed more often than in large-scale pro. often it is necessary to estimate the changes in these two factors have a significant influence on die dimensions under forging conditions so that die design in forging. ing and the finishing dies are designed such that relatively little material movement is allowed in the finisher dies. loading during the forging process itself. and mechanical from somewhat expensive alloys. If the production lot size is small. be- they depend considerably on the manufacturing cause they have more surface area per unit vol- tolerances and elastic deflections of the dies dur. die materials during the forging operation because of thermal and their hardnesses would be selected to be es. As is the case in all manufacturing operations. the easiest to forge in impression or closed dies. for example. Parts with long thin sections or projections signing the die holders and die inserts. the main reason for changing the dies manufacturing these dies. the finisher dies. Such variations in shape maximize the ef- ing forging.

inder that circumscribes the forging.” b.3) Fc horizontal projections on the part. and height (h) approximately equal. bosses and rims placed The first group of compact shapes has the farther from the center are increasingly more dif- three major dimensions. once tor. however.” Thus. Therefore. F is the surface area of the would require not only higher forging loads but axial cross section of the forging (surface that also at least one more forging operation than includes the entire axis of symmetry). 2Rg The second group consists of disk shapes..4) Rc which two of the three dimensions (length and width) are approximately equal and are larger where Rg is the radial distance from the sym- than the height (h). the factor ␣ represents a comparison of the ● Oblong shape (class 3) shape of the forging with that of the cylinder. and Fc is ings can be classified into three main groups the surface area of the axial cross section of the [Spies. forgings. The ease of forging more complex shapes de. sidered to be at the “neutral axis. Figure 14. 14. which includes approxi- cross section. terial is moved laterally down (toward the ends culty factor” has been suggested by Teterin et of the cylinder) from the center. and Rc is the maximum radius of mately 30% of all the commonly used forgings. perimeter of the axial cross section of the cyl- As shown in Fig. On round forgings.” S. which is con- al. a “shape difficulty factor” can also be calculated in nonsymmetric Xf forgings. for expressing the geometrical com. the forged piece. during the forging operation. tor. is defined as: The number of parts that fall into this group is rather small.4 Design of Finisher Dies P2 Using the shape complexity and the forging Xf ⳱ (Eq 14. the forging process en- .8. which have one dimension significantly A “shape difficulty factor. the majority of forg. a “lateral shape fac- width (w). Pc is the parts “A” and “B” to ensure die filling. for b⳱ (Eq 14. Because ● Compact shape.5) shape. ficult to forge. This “shape classification” is useful for practical purposes. the ma- A quantitative value called the “shape diffi. In round past experience. such as for estimating costs and for predicting preforming steps. Pc2 pends on the relative proportions of vertical and Xc ⳱ (Eq 14. the length (l).2) F material as guidelines. All the round forgings be- metry axis to the center of gravity of half of the long to this group. spherical and cubical shape the circumscribing cylinder has the maximum (class 1) diameter and the maximum height of the forg- ● Disc shape (class 2) ing. Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 165 between the surface-to-volume ratio of a forging and and the difficulty of producing the forging. This The factor S expresses the complexity of a method is. namely. A “longitudinal shape fac. both the longitudinal and lateral factors is de- These three basic groups are further subdi- fined as: vided into subgroups depending on the presence and type of elements subsidiary to the basic S ⳱ ␣b (Eq 14.” In a nonsym- plexity of round forgings (having one axis of metric forging the material is still moved out rotational symmetry). which is equal to the radius of The third group of forgings consists of long the circumscribing cylinder.1) Xc with 14. not entirely quantitative and half cross section of a round forging with respect requires some subjective evaluation based on to that of the circumscribing cylinder. 1968. laterally from the “neutral surface.” ␣. 1959]: cylinder that circumscribes the forging. Parts “C” and “D” tion of the forging. is defined as: this neutral surface is defined. shapes. ␣⳱ (Eq 14. incorporating larger than the other two (l  b ⱖ h).7 is a schematic representation of the effects of where P is the perimeter of the axial cross sec- shape on forging difficulties.

● Estimating the forging load and stresses to ometry in turn is obtained from the machined ascertain that the dies are not subjected to part drawing by modifying this part to facilitate excessive loading Fig. ● Selecting the appropriate die block size and ing die design is the geometry and the material the flash dimensions of the forging to be produced. 1959] . starting with the finisher dies. The most critical information necessary for forg. the of forging operations) and designs the dies for die designer first designs the finisher dies by: each operation. The forging ge.8 Classification of forging shapes [Spies. Starting with the forging geometry.166 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications gineer establishes the forging sequence (number forging. 14.

Thus. The influence but. it is possible to determine the cen. (c) End. in- later. The forging cal fatigue. the load in- creases sharply to point P2. the calculated forging stress distribution reached the flash opening (Fig. 14. forging load. and the friction factor.9. The FEM approach is discussed combinations of increasing restriction. 1983] . The selection of hand. at this point the cavity pressure provided by the flash geometry should be just sufficient to fill the en- Fig. to fill the die cavity it is desirable to in.9. forged part and the magnitude of flash allow- mensions (thinner and wider flash on the dies). and decreasing By modifying the flash dimensions. difficult details are partly filled and the metal tion. the stage at which the die cavity is filled completely.10 Metal flow and the corresponding load-stroke Fig. conditions that Fig. ance. 14. The flash dimensions and the billet dimen- mensions of the flash should be optimized.. the designer should not of flash thickness and flash-land width on the allow the forging pressure to reach a high value. and the die cavities in the press. To analyze stresses. two conditions must be ful- analysis. Ideally. (d) Load- [Altan et al. the press speed. designer must make a compromise: on the one forging energy. 1983] stroke curve [Altan et al. ● Decreasing flash thickness ment method (FEM)-based computer codes is ● Increasing flash-land width because of the generally used. forging load. 14. the di. The sions influence the flash allowance. (b) Filling. In addi. creasing frictional forces. (a) Upsetting. Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 167 The geometry of the finisher die is essentially 14.4. these variables influences the quality of the crease the die stresses by restricting the flash di. on the other hand. from a qualitative point of view. As the dies continue to close. For stresses in the dies by means of elastic FEM successful forging. This can be utilized for estimating the local die stage corresponds to point P1 in Fig. such that off-center extrusion of metal through the narrowing gap of loading is reduced.. forging pressure is reasonably well understood which may cause die breakage due to mechani. volume of metal must be trapped within the con- ter of loading for the forging in order to locate fines of the die to fill the remaining cavities. and the die life. the flash opening must be more difficult than filling of the more intricate detail in the die. and the die life.1 Flash Design and Forging Load that of the finish forging augmented by flash configuration.9 Typical load-stroke curve for closed-die forging curve. Loads are relatively low until the more appear most favorable can be selected.10). “slab method of pressure increases with: analysis” or process simulation using finite-ele. After these forging stresses and loads filled when this point is reached: A sufficient are estimated. 14. In designing finisher dies. 14. the die metal temperatures at the flash gap and material temperatures. the die designer is able to A typical load-versus-stroke curve from an evaluate the influence of these factors on the impression-die forging operation is shown in forging stresses and loads.

12. The choice is vari- able within a range of values where the flash allowance and the forging load are not too high. 14. there. flash thickness. was made to establish a relationship between taneous height of the extruded flash and. (1. while the ratio of flash width to flash thickness (w/t) de- creases to a limiting value. because that amount determines the instan. This graph with various flash geometries provided that there also shows the relationship between the flash is always a sufficient supply of material in the width/thickness (w/t) ratio and the forging die. obtain the flash dimensions based on the weight the advantages of lower forging load and lower of the forging. cavity stress are offset by increased scrap loss) There is no unique choice of the flash dimen- or if the workpiece is properly preformed (in sions for a forging operation.11 and 14. Thus.8. flash width/thickness ratio. and forg. The results fore. Fig. For this purpose.5 in.11 Relationships among excess stock material.13 as an The effect of excess metal volume in flash example [Altan et al. 14.e. the di. the die stresses. signs suggested for these forgings. however. Thus. 1973]. 14. completely filled and that the forging has the proper dimensions. which case low stresses and material losses are However. There has to be a compromise between the two. 14. as flash. for a constant flash thickness. forging weight and flash dimensions. t. Formation of the panies were classified into shape groups. of 0. P3 represents the final load reached in obtained by extra preforming). It was found that a cavity can be filled the forging weight.11) [Vieregge. During the stroke from P2 to 14. These relation- normal practice for ensuring that the cavity is ships are illustrated in Fig. mensions of the flash determine the final load 1500 forgings from eight different forging com- required for closing the dies. (8. 14. 1968] as that shown in Fig. thicker.4. and the forging should be completed. 14. and energy mately 3 in.04 in. knowing the weight of the part to using a less restrictive. 14. By evaluating the flash de- amount of excess material available in the cav... it is possible to fill the same cavity by weight. it is possible to find the corresponding do this at a lower total forging load if the nec.9 cm) high [Vi. Thus. 1968] .168 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications tire cavity. all the metal flow occurs near or in the flash Flash Design gap. excess stock material.6 cm) in diameter by 3. dimensions in steel forgings. used for selecting the flash thickness based on 1968]. the detail most The “shape classification” (Fig.12 Relationships among flash width/thickness ratio. the user can essary excess material is available (in this case. ing load for mechanical press forging of a round part approxi. (7.0 mm) (same forging eregge. Thus. In general.8) has difficult to fill determines the minimum load for been utilized in systematic evaluation of flash producing a fully filled forging. This figure can be formation was studied extensively [Vieregge. which in turn becomes more restrictive as the dies close. for group 224 are presented in Fig.2 Empirical Methods for P3. forging load. flash thickness and w/t ratio. is greatly influenced by the shown in Fig. In that respect. i. In order to investi- Fig. of the forging. the flash thickness is shown to in- crease with increasing forging weight. an attempt ity. flash and to be forged. Q.

and impression-die forging operations is forging load [Vieregge. forging loads are t 冪冤 冢 2 • D2 3 D 1Ⳮ H(2Rh Ⳮ D) 冣冥 usually estimated on the basis of empirical pro- cedures using empirically developed formulae. it is possible to obtain little flash allowance and minimize the forging en. and temperatures. Forging Stresses and Loads dict the flash dimensions that are a good com- Prediction of forging load and pressure in promise between the flash allowance and the closed. D is the outside diameter of the forg- significant as that of forging weight [Altan et al. techniques W 30 of engineering analysis.7 pre. forgings comprise an enormously large number of geometrical shapes and materials. In addition. i. ing (mm). 14. using the billet di- mensions. of forgings of group 224 (materials: carbon and alloy steels) .7) culties encountered in practice. 1968]: difficult. mensions for round forgings. even though similar.13 Variations in flash-land-to-thickness ratio and in flash thickness.6 and 14. Most forging operations are of non- steady-state type in terms of metal flow. where w is the flash width (mm). stresses. center of a rib from the axis of symmetry of the It is also possible to determine the flash di. and it was thickness (mm).. t. For round forgings. with weight. Thus. other subgroups were studied. forging. Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 169 gate the effect of forging shape on flash dimen. t is the flash sions. Because of these diffi- ⳱ (Eq 14.6) continuously during the process. all these variables vary t ⳱ [0. 14.e. Fig.017 • D] Ⳮ 冤冪D 1Ⳮ 5冥 (Eq 14. and Rh is the radial distance of the 1973].5 Prediction of ergy. which re- quire different. H is the height of the ribs or concluded that the influence of shape is not as shaft (mm). Q. Eq 14.

the flash of an axisymmetric cross section. of the forging. 14. and the flash width by w.6% C) and with low-alloy steels using flash considered to be different from the flow stress ratios. 14. As seen in Fig. The They found that the variable that most influences total load (Pta) on the cross section is the sum- the forging pressure. the flow stress in the flash region is 0.8) tons/in. flash ratios. w/t (where w is flash-land width and t is in the cavity. flash region.2 depending on the material and the ge.14 Forging pressure versus average forging height (Ha) for forging of carbon and low-alloy steels at the cross section can be estimated as follows.. In this analysis.8 and 14. Pa. This method used in the practical prediction of forg- ing loads is shown in Fig. Most empirical methods. 冪3 t 2 able empirical formula. Because of rapid chilling and a high defor- periments with various carbon steels (up to mation rate. The stresses at various locations of the cross section and hence the load acting on Fig. The forging pres- 冢冪3 m 冣 2 w sures encountered in practice vary from 20 to 70 rea ⳱ Ⳮ 1 rf (Eq 14. 2 w rep ⳱ rf 1 Ⳮ m (Eq 14. is surface area of the forging. are not ⳮ r2 冢 冣 冢R 冣冥 2 sufficiently general to predict forging loads for m R Ⳮ 1 Ⳮ2 a variety of parts and materials. and rc is the flow stress in the cav- ity.15 [Subramanian et al. where the cavity is not rectangular. mation of the load acting on the flash region and Ha. it is assumed that the cavity has a rectangular shape and the flash geometry illustrated in Fig. 1962]. rea. 冪3 t a forging is divided into various plane strain and axisymmetric sections.1 Empirical Methods for Estimation With the flow stress in the flash region de- of Forging Pressure and Load noted by rf and the frictional shear factor by m. one may use suitable an- alytical techniques of varying degrees of com- plexity for calculating forging load and stresses. the radius (or half width of the cav- ity) by r.10) ceptable engineering accuracy. the flash thickness by t.5.15. is multiplied by an average forging pres- sure known from experience. rf is the flow stress in the for predicting forging loads. the cross section is simplified to conform to this model. the equa- Method to Estimate Forging Load tions corresponding to Eq 14. from 2 to 4 [Neuberger et al.... and then simplified equations are used to predict the average pres- sure and load for each section before all these load components are added together.170 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 14. is the average height. whereas the upper curve to slightly difficult ones [Neuberger et al. are used for the flash and cavity regions.5. the stress at the entrance from the cavity into the In estimating the forging load empirically.2 Simplified Slab For the plane-strain cross sections. 14.9) Among these techniques. 14. The lower curve relates to the load acting on the die cavity: relatively simple parts. summarized in Pta ⳱ 2prf ⳮ 冤 2 m 1 3 3 冪3 t (R ⳮ r3) terms of simple formulae or nomograms. Lacking a suit. including the flash given by: zone. Neuberger and Pannasch [Neuberger et al. Hence. Ⳮ 2pr2 冤冪m3 r3 c r H Ⳮ rea 2 冥 (Eq 14.9 are: The slab method has been successfully used 冢 冣 for predicting forging loads and stresses with ac. In actual practice. 1962] conducted forging ex.14). t ometry of the part. 1962] . For this purpose. two different flow stresses the flash thickness).15. 14. 1980]. from 2 to 4 (Fig. 14. the cavity height is de- noted by H. w/t. the relatively simple slab method has been proven to be very practical where R ⳱ r Ⳮ w.

14. The above equations are relatively simple tion is an especially difficult task and an art in and can be programmed for practical use.15 Schematic of a simple closed-die forging and forging stress distribution [Subramanian et al.e.16 Defect formation in forging when fillet radii are round-cornered square stock with constant cross too small [Haller. round or Fig. in the finish forging operation. requiring skills achieved only by years of following information is required to perform extensive experience. 14. In preforming. 14. 1980] Ptp ⳱ 2 冪3 冢 wrf 2 Ⳮ mw t 冣 冢 Ⳮ rep Ⳮ L m 2H 冪3 c r L 冣 section is deformed in such a manner that a de- sired volume distribution is achieved prior to im- (Eq 14.15. The itself. The determination of the preform configura- 14. In blocking. the preform is forged in a blocker cavity prior to finish forging. i. 1973].11) pression-die forging. Thus. L ⳱ 2r in Fig.. 1971] .6 Design of Blocker (Preform) Dies One of the most important aspects of closed- die forging is the design of preforms or blockers to achieve adequate metal distribution [Altan et al. and metal losses into the flash can be minimized. A comparison between the theoretical prediction and the actual data from forging trials is also provided... where L is the cavity width. Designing a correct pre- these calculations: ● The geometry of the part ● The flow stresses in the cavity and the flash during the final stages of the forging opera- tion ● The friction at the die/forging interface Appendix A gives an example of estimation of the load required for forging connecting rods. defect-free metal flow and complete die filling can be achieved. Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 171 Fig.

e. selected cross sections of the forging (Fig. 1973]. 14.172 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. Understanding the principles of the ma- terial flow during the forging operation can help attain a better understanding of the design rules. 14...18 illustrates the various preforming opera- tions necessary to forge the part shown [Haller. configuration. blocked in a blocker die cav. (b) Finished forged shapes. 1973] form allows the control of the volume distribu. Lay out a dimensioned drawing of the finish can form with insufficient volume distribu. 1971]. Fig. The volume dis- preform in order to: tribution can be obtained in the following man- ● Ensure defect-free metal flow and adequate ner [Haller. 1971] . and finish forging opera- ity..17) [Altan et al. 1971] ● Minimize the amount of material lost as flash ● Minimize die wear in the finish-forging cav- ity by reducing the metal movement in this operation ● Achieve desired grain flow and control me- chanical properties The common practice in preform design is to consider planes of metal flow.17 Planes of metal flow. (c) Directions of flow [Altan et al. The main objective of forging based on the areas of successive cross preform design is to distribute the metal in the sections throughout the forging. 14. (a) Planes of flow. blocking. bent in a die to provide the appropriate shape. tion of the part during forging as well as control it is first necessary to obtain the volume of the over the material flow. tions for an example steel forging [Haller. complete with flash. 1971]: die filling. Figure 14.16 shows how a defect 1.18 Preforming. depending on the geometry in order to simplify the analy- sis. 14. tion in an H-shaped cross section [Haller. The example steel forging presented in Fig. Any complex shape can be divided into axisym- metric or plane-strain flow regions. i. and finish forged. The round bar from rolled stock is rolled in a special machine called a reducer roller for volume distribution. In determining the forging steps for any part.

e. The flash will generally be of constant thickness but will be widest at the narrower sections and smallest at the wider sections (the proportional allowance for flash is illustrated by the examples in Fig.19 Preform designs for two example parts. the material will then be section of the flash [Haller 1971] . (c) and (d) are the ideal preform. including the fillet ra- dii. on the preform must be greater than the corresponding radii on the finished part. There are various methods of preforming i. 1977]. Figure 14. Plot these area values at proportional dis- tances from the baseline. and Lange et al. additional points should be plot- ted to assist in determining a smooth repre- sentation curve). volume and cross the finishing stage. 1977]: ● The area of cross section of the preform ⳱ the area of cross section of the finished prod- uct Ⳮ the flash allowance (metal flowing into flash). 14. Above this curve. Such conditions minimize friction cross-sectional areas perpendicular to the and forging load and reduce wear along the centerline of the part. Thus. 14. the thickness of the preform should be greater than that of the Fig.20 for H-shaped cross would best show the changing cross-sec- tional areas. VE and qE. ● In the forging direction. (a) forging. Construct a baseline for area determination squeezed laterally toward the die cavity parallel to the centerline of the part. (b) is the cross-sectional area versus length. 14.. 7. the initial stock distribution is obtained by determining the areas of cross sections along the main axis of the forging. Determine the maximum and minimum interface.. add the approximate area of the flash at each cross section. 1973.19 shows two examples of obtain- ing a volume distribution through the above pro- cedure. In forging steel parts. 4. a correct preform can be designed by using the following three general design rules (these rules do not apply to forging nonferrous materials) [Lange et al.. 6. volume and cross by upsetting rather than extrusion. (c) and (d) ideal preform. 1971. The application of these three design rules for 5. Haller. ● All the concave radii. Convert the minimum and maximum area values to rounds or rectangular shapes having the same cross-sectional area. for distributing the metal prior to die forging in a blocker or finisher die [Altan et al. giving con- sideration to those sections where the flash should be widest. without additional shear at the die/material 3. In both examples. length. and VG and qG. Connect these points with a smooth curve (in preforming of steel forgings is illustrated by ex- instances where it is not clear how the curve amples shown in Fig.19). During section of the finish forging. Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 173 2. (a) is the forging.. VE and qE are the vol- ume and cross section of the finish forging. and VG and qG are the volume and cross section of the flash. (b) cross-sectional area vs. In both finished part so that the metal flow is mostly examples. die surfaces.

the finish operation. In certain cases. of cross sections. 14. the fillet ra. 14. They are basically categorized ished part is illustrated in Fig.0) 0.2 RFF Ⳮ 0.21 following ranges given in Table 14. (mm) 0. A comparison of the preform and the fin- rial to material. ● Carbon and low-alloy steel parts 14. preform.4 (10) 0.1) .2 Preform dimensions for carbon or low-alloy steels [Altan et al.3. end) [Lange et al. (3. 14. there might be more than one preform lected when the web area is relatively small and operation involved.16 (4. especially when part. when the height of the adjoining ribs is very Preform design guidelines differ from mate. in. 1977] Table 14. E. 1973] Dimensions of the finish forgings Dimensions of the preforms Flash No flash Blend-in radii (RF) RP 艑 RF Ⳮ C or HR/6  RP  HR/4 Fillet radii (RFF) RPF 艑 1.08 (2. DF  WF (Fig. In the preform.1 Guidelines for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels 14. 14. into the following three categories.174 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications sections of various rib heights and in Fig. 14..4) are similar to those for the aluminum alloys. The design guidelines for preform design the height of the rib over the web is larger than for rib-web-type sections must consider: the rib width.125 in...0) 0. For this reason parting line is influenced by the adjacent cavity it is good to have specific rules for these types depth (Table 14.6. the preform usually does not have flash.20 Preforms for different H-shaped forgings [Lange Fig. the recommended preform dimensions fall into the Fig.. large.2 (5. angles as the finish part. when very The preform is the shape of the billet before deep cavities are present in the finisher die. depending larger draft angles are provided in the preform. The pre- for some solid cross sections [Lange et al. However.4 to 1 (10 to 25) 1 to 2 (25 to 51) 2 (51) Value of C. i.2 Guidelines for Aluminum Parts ratios ● Different distances between the ribs (WD) For rib-web-type aluminum alloy parts.. 14. are H cross-section-type parts or they can be de- The blend-in radius (RP) of the preform at the composed into H cross sections. (mm) 0. ● Different rib-height (DF) to rib-width (WF) 14.23.6. form is usually designed to have the same draft 1977].22). in.21 The blocker and finish cross sections for various et al. on the ratio of the height of the preform to its A greater web thickness in the preform is se- width.e.175 mm) Depth of the cavity (HR).6.6.0) 0. These rules are different for dius (RPF) between the web to a rib is larger than different proportions in an H cross-section-type that in the finish forging (RFF).3 Guidelines for Titanium Alloys ● Aluminum alloy rib-web-type parts The guidelines for designing the titanium al- ● Titanium alloy rib-web-type parts loy preforms (Table 14.12 (3.2).4 Guidelines for H Cross Sections In hammer forging of carbon or low-alloy Most of the parts that are closed-die forged steels. 1977] shapes (P.

(0.2 to 2) • Rfc Draft angle (␣f) ␣p 艑 ␣f Ⳮ (2 to 5) Width of the rib (Wf) Wp 艑 Wf ⳮ1⁄32 in.22 Preform and finish shape [Altan et al.5) • tf Fillet radii (Rff) Rpf 艑 (1. such as HP ⳱ (SA Ⳮ flash)/BP radii and the draft angle. 14.5 to 2. For an H cross-section part in which after calculating the preform width by divid- the rib height is smaller than two times the rib ing the surface area (SA) of the finish cross width. 14. 1973] Width of the rib (Wf) Wp 艑 Wf ⳮ 1⁄16 to 1⁄8 in. All one has to know is how to cal- culate the overall width of the preform.2) • tf Fillet radii (Rff) Rpf 艑 (2 to 3) • Rff Corner radii (Rfc) Rpc 艑 (2) • Rfc Fig. 14. 1973] Dimensions of the finish forgings Dimensions of the preforms Web thickness (tf) Tp 艑 (1 to 1.4 Preform dimensions for titanium alloys [Altan et al. and its height.. BP. For an H cross-section part in which BP ⳱ BF ⳮ(0.23 Comparison of the preform and finished part for Draft angle (␣f) ␣p 艑 ␣f Ⳮ (3 to 5) a quarter of an H cross section [Altan et al..2 mm) .08 to 0. Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 175 Fig.. 1973] Height of the Rib (DF)  2 • Width of the ● The height of the preform (HP) is obtained Rib (WF).8 mm) Table 14.6 to 3. 1973] Dimensions of the finish forgings Dimensions of the preforms Web thickness (tf) Tp 艑 (1. HP.4) the rib height is larger than two times the rib Table 14. will be set according Flash ⳱ 5 to 15% of SA to the generic guidelines for different materials: ● The overall width of the preform (BP) is de- termined in terms of the finish cavity width (BF).24).3 Preform dimensions for aluminum alloys [Altan et al. the preform will have a rectangular shape section by the preform width: (Fig.. (1. All the other parameters. It is expressed as: Height of the Rib (DF)  2 • Width of the Rib (WF).2 to 2) • Rff Corner radii (Rfc) Rpc 艑 (1.

25). preform height and the additional rib height termined in terms of the finish cavity width are determined.4) HP ⳱ (SA Ⳮ flash)/BP Flash ⳱ 5 to 15% of SA ● Rib height (x): The preform for this cross section is assumed to have a trapezoidal form. The necessary rib height (x). will be set according to the generic guidelines for different materials: ● Overall width and height of the preform: BP ⳱ BF ⳮ(0. where the web and the rib are BP ⳱ BF ⳮ(0. ● The height of the preform (HP) is obtained Distance between Ribs (WD) Very Large. rib height (x).25 (HF ⳮHP) the draft angle.08 to 0. such as radii and the draft angle.26).25 Preform shape when DF  2 • WF [Bruchanov et al. additional trapezoidal form (Fig. the preform has by the preform width: a trapezoidal shape (Fig. For an H cross-section part in which the distance ing the surface area of the finish cross section between the ribs is very large.. The parameters HP ⳱ (SA Ⳮ flash)/BP to be set are overall width and height of the pre- form (BP and HP). It is expressed as: tion is calculated by setting the areas f1 ⳱ f2 (Fig. The ● Additional rib height (x): The preform for parameters to set are overall width of the pre. after calculating the preform width by divid. fillet and flash Flash ⳱ 5 to 15% of SA radius (RPF and RP). 14.. the preform has a trapezoidal shape.24 Preform shape when DF  2 • WF [Bruchanov et al. 14.6 to 0.176 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications width. 1955] .8) DF Fig. such as radii and x ⳱ 0. height of the preform (HP).26). and thinning of the web portion additional rib height (x) is determined by: (y).25). and preform thickness (HP). 14. the thinning of the web por- (BF). The required rib height is determined by the relation: Fig. will be set according to the ge- neric guidelines for different materials: ● Thinning of the web portion (y): Once the ● The overall width of the preform (BP) is de.08 to 0. All the other parameters.4) blended together with large radii. 14. 14. 1955] x ⳱ (0. All the other parameters. The surface area f2 can be significantly larger than the surface area f1 (Fig. 14. this cross section is considered to have a form (BP).

blocker: ness is determined by using the condition 0.1.9 mm) wide. All the cavity cross sections were approximated as rectangles.1 in.” in this chapter.31 in. H ⳱ 0. The part was forged in a was relieved.55. Hence.32 Finish: L ⳱ 0. (3.96. only one-half of the section was loads were compared with the results obtained considered and was treated as a plane-strain . H ⳱ 0. A.26 Preform design when the distance between the ribs is very large [Bruchanov et al.93. H ⳱ 0. H ⳱ 0.06 in. in order to reduce the of the calculations described in section 14. H ⳱ 0. H ⳱ 0.26).95. All the cross sections ● Preform thickness (HP): The preform thick. excessive load resulting from forging a very thin “Simplified Slab Method to Estimate Forging web.. A.64 Finish: r ⳱ 0.31 in.18 ● Section C-C: A.15 and A. as shown in Fig. The dimensions of the rectangles APPENDIX A (in inches) used for load estimation were: Example: Prediction of ● Section A-A: Load for Forging of a Blocker: r ⳱ 0. (7.18 Connecting Rod ● Section B-B: Blocker: L ⳱ 0. had the same flash dimensions. that the volume represented by f4 should be finish: 0. 14.125 in.175 mm) Three representative cross sections of the con- RP 艑 RF Ⳮ C necting rod were chosen for the estimation of the forging load (Fig. 14.9 larger than the volume represented by f3 by mm) wide.1 Introduction Blocker: r ⳱ to estimate the load in this 500 ton mechanical press.59 A connecting rod (Fig. RPF ⳱ 1. 1955] ● Fillet and flash radii (RPF. (2.1). (1.2 RFF Ⳮ 0. and the measured cross section. namely.5 mm) thick by 0. (7. These dimensions were the dimen- the excess of the flash material (Fig.5 mm) thick by 0. The values of flash thickness used in the forging load esti- mations were those actually measured on the forged parts.1) was selected as a component to be used for practical evaluation During finish forging. the central portion of cross-section A-A Load.32 Finish: L ⳱ 0. sions of the flash lands in the dies. 14. Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 177 Fig.5. RP): from computer-aided analysis as well as with re- sults from the simplified slab method.

The flow stress is a function of the strain. Both dies circumference of the lower boss of the connect. (b) Directions of metal flow.1 (a) Geometry of the connecting rod. some cooling The forging trials were conducted in a me. and a speed of 90 strokes per minute (Fig. The tem- perature of the billet prior to finish forging. A. A.4 cm) and transfer into the finisher. was approxi- mately 1950 F (1065 C). (25.2 Estimation of the Flow Stress measured during the trial runs.178 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications cross section of a length equal to the average by side on the press bolster (Fig. AISI type 1016 steel billets were heated to 2100 F (1150 C) prior to blocker forging. as A. occurred during forging in the blocker cavity chanical press with a stroke of 10 in.2). A. The blocker and finish dies were mounted side strain rate. and temperature that exist at a given Fig.3). Thus. ing rod. were heated to approximately 350 F (175 C). (c) Representative sections and their simplification .

3 (7. However. The temperature of the stock at the end of the forging stroke depends on the stock tem- 冪0.1) 冪w ⳮ 1 pn S The values of C and m for the material used V⳱w 30 for the trials are given in Table A.¯e˙ m (Eq A. (19 mm). the average distance of the ram from the bottom dead center (BDC) position during forging is: 0. A. (8.67 ␣T h ⳱ h1 Ⳮ (hs ⳮ h1) exp ⳮ 冢 cqt冣 (Eq A. Hence: known.4 cm) and a speed of 90 temperature of the deforming material should be rpm. These values vary significantly with temperature. (25. V ⳱ 0.2 The 500 ton mechanical forging press used for forg- (Eq A.32 ⳱ ⳱ 0. Hence.215 ⳮ 1 p ⳯ 90 10 perature.2) The values of T can also be obtained from the load or stroke versus time curve similar to the As an example. Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 179 time during the deformation process and can be Thus.1 mm) ● c (specific heat of the billet material) ⳱ 0. A.2/F (3.215 and frictional conditions.1 mm).3) ing trials . 30 ture varies across the forging due to die chilling V ⳱ 13.35 m/s) and due to heat generation by friction and de- formation. Hence. the ram velocity with respect to the ram expressed approximately as: location (w) before BDC obtained from the kin- ematics of the crank slider mechanism is: r ⳱ C. consider cross-section A-A of one in Fig. the aver- age ram velocity during forging should be known.285 lb/ in.1889 W/m2-K) (estimated from values obtained from the forging of steel) ● t (average forging or plate thickness) ⳱ 0.0039 Btu/ in.1: ing temperature is: ● h1 (initial die temperature) ⳱ 350 F (175 C) ● hs (initial stock temperature) ⳱ 2100 F (1150 C) ● ␣ (heat-transfer coefficient) ⳱ 0.125 in.75 ⳮ 0.1. (8./s (0. In this case.32 in.89 g/cm3) To estimate the duration of contact. The average thick- ness of the blocker is 0. The instantaneous average forg- the blocker dies in Fig. in The mechanical press used for these trials has order to estimate the flow stress accurately. (3.75 in. the billet has round sections with an average di- ameter of 0. die temperature.108 Btu/lb/F (452 J/kg-K) ● q (density of the billet material) ⳱ 0.67 in. the average tempera.0315 s 13.32 w⳱ ⳱ 0.75 ⳮ 0. A. if the temperature gradient The duration of contact. Further. is: is neglected and the forging is considered to be a thin plate of uniform temperature cooled sym- (Average billet thickness) ⳮ (Average forging thickness) metrically from both sides. T⳱ Average ram velocity ture of the forging in the cavity or in the flash can be expressed as follows: 0. T. speed of deformation. This velocity is half of the velocity of the ram when it touches the billet.4.175 mm) 2 Fig. the tempera. the a stroke of 10 in.32 in.

12 Si.7 0.148 0.2 0.117 6. F (C) 1650 (900) 1830 (1000) 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) Strain C m C m C m C m 0.32) 冣 124 MPa.8 0.¯e˙ m for AISI 1016 steel at various temperatures Value of C or m at a temperature of.099 9.124 9.5 0.2 0.109 12.1 0.3 Ⳮ 53.4 C) Fig.5 0.1 0.9 0.119 9. hcb ⳱ h Ⳮ hd ⳱ 2078.4 0.0315) (0.104 17.7 0.2 formation.097 16.5 F (1166.098 12.1 0. 0.7 22.32 ⳱ 0.180 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications h ⳱ 350 Ⳮ (2100 ⳮ 350) 10ⳮ7 Btu/in.088 13.140 0. assumed). and e¯ a is the average strain.1 0.034 S.157 0.68 Mn.798 J/m-kg).126 9.205 0.75 e¯ a ⳱ ln The temperature increase due to deformation is given by: Hence: hd ⳱ 53.2 20.088 18.108) (0.8 0.-lb) (9.9 0.15 C. the av- erage temperature in the cavity of the blocker die is: where.189 0. 0.127 12.4 0.099 13. 0. estimated from the initial and final thickness: ⳱ 2078.7 0.141 8.0 0.150 0.156 7.6 23. A.8 0.1 Summary of C (ksi) and m values describing the flow stress relation r ⴔ C. A is a factor used to convert me- chanical energy to heat energy (A ⳱ 1.082 16.130 7.127 12.084 18.1 0. in addition to the symbols previously de- fined.1 0. hd is the temperature increase due to de.000 psi.4 0.9 0.1 16.2 F (11.1 0.3 22.8 C) Ar¯ ae¯ a hd ⳱ cq Ignoring the heat gain due to friction. 0.4 23.164 0.07 ⳯ ⳱ 2131.3 F (1136.3 0.5 0.025 P) in the hot rolled and annealed condition .133 10.5 23.0039) (0.090 12.085 18. or exp ⳮ 冢 (0.1 0.05 11.8 0.196 AISI type 1016 steel (composition: 0.285) (0.85 Initial thickness 0.2 0.5 0.8 C) 冢 Final thickness 冣 ⳱ ln 0.0 0.151 8.8 0.3 Blocker and finish forging dies as mounted on the bolster of the mechanical press Table A. r¯ a is the aver- age flow stress in the material (18.109 9.

1. In reality.7 for sections A-A and B-B and 0.998 89. Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 181 From Table A. would be unrealistic.2 Estimated flow stresses in different The value of m varies between 0.5 Comparison of Predictions with A. temperature psi (MPa) Forging F C A-A B-B C-C Blocker 2100 1150 18.200 (139) Table A. the values of C and m for a ever. (5 cm). A.55/s section C-C of both blocker and finish forgings.1 model assumes that metal flow occurs by sliding Stock/ the entire die/material interface. but internal shearing is inevitable in the 0.600 (149) 20.187.4 Summary and comparison of forging loads (tons) Forging Simple analysis Experimental results Blocker 311. blocker Flow stress in section.2.234 285.000 (117) 16.25 and 0. A.7 Finish 407.4 Load and displacement versus time for a forging Finish 408. the length of the rib sections is al- most equal to that of the web regions in cross- Velocity 13. the corresponding values of flow stress for the cross sections as shown in Table A. Substituting the appropriate values ity of the section A-A in the blocker shape.947 816.7 320.00 operation . in Eq 14. how. considering a e˙¯ ⳱ ⳱ weighted average.4 Estimation of the Forging Load r¯ ⳱ 9. the metal deforms by sliding along the web temperature of 2130 F (1165 C) and strain of surfaces.8 ⳯ 103 ⳯ 25. Using Eq A.187 ⳱ 17. In the terial is given by: present case. to assume a nominal average C ⳱ 9.67 sections A-A and B-B.32)/2 to be 0.85 are calculated by linear interpolation as rib regions.4 for ⳱ 25.3 Table A. the values for m are chosen Average thickness (0.964 psi (124 MPa) The average length of plane-strain cross-sec- tion B-B for both blocker and finish forgings is This is the value of the flow stress in the cav.214 196.690 408.000 (124) 17. Hence. faces in forging.11. 2 in. which is usual for sliding sur- The average strain rate in the deforming ma.497 311. forging trials mr¯ were conducted using a 500 ton Erie scotch- s⳱ 冪3 Table A. m value of 0.550. Hence.8 ⳯ 103 and m ⳱ 0.8 to 14.3 Estimation of the Friction Factor Data from Actual Forging Trials The frictional shear stress is given by: To evaluate the accuracy of the simplified forging load estimation procedure.509 123.4 for cross sections of the connecting rod forging most hot steel forging operations.3 425.000 (152) 21.3. A.3 Estimated loads in different cross sections of the connecting rod forging Loads in section. the average flow stress is: A.4.1.67 Fig. Sim. lb Total Forging A-A B-B C-C lb Tons Blocker 337. The simplified shown in Fig. other sections are given in Table A.300 (112) Finish 1950 1065 22.285 623.75 Ⳮ 0. the loads were estimated for ilarly.

“Material Consumption in Die For simple to moderately complex forgings.V. are [Lange et al. A. The dies Batelle. 1968]: Sabroff. N..” Fertiegungstechnik und Be- analysis can be used effectively for die material trieb. T.. 1971]: Haller. F. and load starts increasing when the upper die con.. The experimental values Nolkemper. and Meyer- compared in Table A. Vol. Henning. Akgerman.. 1962]: Neuberger.. Example forg.L.” Doc- is necessary to make these estimates with ac. H. A. Pannasch. K.. should be noted that the accuracy of the final Forging Materials and Practices.. University of Hannover.. Closed-Die Forging and tacts the workpiece. Verlag Technik. and T. “Preforming in Forging experience and knowledge of forging analyses and Preparation of Reducer Rolling. The billets were heated in Forging Equipment. results depends largely on proper estimation of 1968... The entire forging operation Warm Forging. ings are shown in Fig. 1980]: Subramanian. fired burners. then detailed cal. [Haller. A. H. this Forging of Steel.. A. it [Sabroff et al. ceptable accuracy. speed computer are available. selection and for press selection.W... 1959]: Spies. and ysis are within practical engineering accuracy. function of time. 1977 (in German). man translation from Russian). It is observed that the forging [Bruchanov et al. measured in experiments ing. forging stress. ment curve shows the position of the ram as a 1983.4. 1973]: Altan.. et al. can be seen that the results of the simplified anal. 1973.. [Altan et al.-I. The displace. K. A. were heated to 350 F (175 C) by infrared gas.. eson Colloids Co. Closed-Die Forging.R.. timating Forging Loads with the Use of a Pro- . Handbook of Forg- The forging loads. culations of flow stress. Gegel...W. Oh. If the capabilities of a high. 1962. T. Metal Forming Fundamentals and Ap- recording is shown in Fig. Some [Spies. 1955 (Ger- takes place in less than 100 ms.. 12. Rebelski..4.5. J. represent averages of several measurements.. toral dissertation. F..N. American Society for Metals. However. 1983]: Altan.5 Parts that were blocker and finish forged in forging trials yoke-type mechanical press. plications... [Subramanian et al. Boulger. A typical load and displacement H. the flow stress and frictional shear factor. Reinhold. spraying with Acheson’s Delta-forge 105 (Ach.M. and Altan.. 1955]: Bruchanov. Materials and Practices. H. Both the blocker REFERENCES and finisher dies were mounted side by side on the press bolster. It Springer-Verlag. S.J.182 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. Becker. and predicted by the simplified slab method. 1977]: Lange. T. Carl Hanser Verlag. A.L.). “Practical Method for Es- forging load can be made accurately. 1971 (in German). The dies were lubricated by [Altan et al. 1959. p 775–779 (in German). [Neuberger et al. an induction coil to 2100 F (1150 C). S.

Vol. and Tar. T. Energy. F.. p 60. 381. 87. Processing Technology. p 237. Engineering Research Cen- ter for Net Shape Manufacturing. 1968.” Jour.” Doc. Du¨seldorf.” Kuznechno-Stampovochnoe Proiz... 1999]: Brucelle. “New Concepts in Die Design—Physical mation in a 3-Station Closed Die Forging and Computer Modeling Applications. Oh. P. June. 2002]: Shirgaokar.D. and tances of Pressed Contacts.” CIRP Annals. 1968]: Teterin.. S.” Journal of Applied Increase of Hot Forging Tools. Vol 5. “Thermal Resis- ● [Brucelle et al. No. ● [Sagemuller. SELECTED REFERENCES S. nal of Materials Processing Technology. H. 1986]: Snaith. p 31–84..” ERC/ NSM-02-R-84.W. [Teterin et al.” Appl. 2000. “Calculation of Plastic Dimen. Operation. ● [Jenkins et al. ● [Shirgaokar et al. 2000]: Vasquez. No.. 1999. Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 183 grammable Calculator. Vol... vodstvo.J.. Vol.” [Vieregge. 1.D. and Altan. Cold Ex- sions in Forging Axisymmetric Parts in trusion of Steel. Bernhart. “Cold 98. 2. 1968]: Sagemuller. 1977.. I. . Material. K.. “Multi-Stage Forging Hannover. Altan. novskij.. p 243.I. B. 1977]: Feldman. Impact Extrusion of Large Formed Parts. 2002.. Merkblatt 201. O’Callaghan. 1968]: Vieregge. ● [Snaith et al. 1980. Jan. O. G. 1989]: Jenkins. Vol. “Methodology for Service Life Vol. V. G. 2.. “Contribution Wire. M. p.L. 1986.P.. Simulations of Aircraft Components.. p 212–223... 1968. “Investigation of Defect For- T. to Flash Design in Closed Die Forging.. 95... T. ● [Feldman.. Hammers. p 6 (in Russian). Probert. Altan. B. 22.” Journal of Metalworking. G.. Technical University of Ngaile.. toral dissertation. [Vasquez et al. 1969.

then it is possible to In hot impression-die forging. the factors that affect the of analysis. if the effect of flash dimensions on the forging load is known. ● The flow stress of the forged material as stand the effects of several forging parameters. can planning stage.asminternational. and forging load are largely determined by The forging load and die stresses may be cal. forging geometry. and and friction (lubrication) on the forging load. where higher val- ues are used for thinner forgings and stronger During the forging process. During the die design and process forging load. it may be possible to forge at provide for necessary forging load to fill the die lower stock temperatures.2 Effect of Process forging steels and 20 to 30 ksi (140 to 205 MPa) Parameters on Forging Load for forging aluminum alloys. strain rate (rate of deformation).org CHAPTER 15 A Simplified Method to Estimate Forging Load in Impression-Die Forging Hyunjoong Cho 15. by multiplying the plan area of the forging with an empirical pressure value. 60 to 100 ksi (415 to 690 MPa) for 15. it is necessary to estimate these assist in optimizing the forging conditions. As a result. forging temperature . Forging load may be estimated by experience- based values. 15. heating cavity. if it is quantitatively known. creasing the flash thickness or reducing the flash fect die life and determine the selection of press width.1361/chff2005p185 www. tion). fill. The interrelationships of the most significant able computer time. p185-192 All rights reserved. face. Gangshu Shen. for example. it is often desir.. estimates by using the so called “slab method” For a given part. were effects of material properties. 15. In variables to avoid unexpected die failure and some instances. This method may help the designer to under. and clude: billet and die temperatures. editors. This method takes into account the forging load.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. flash dimensions.1.” The factors in- speed. costs and scale formation can be reduced. tion and cooling effect at the die/material inter- quires a rather sophisticated software package. elaborate input data preparation. forging load reduce the forging pressure. friction and heat discussed in detail in Chapter 14. the fric- culated using finite-element analysis that re. by in- and die stresses are important variables that af.1. and consider. Therefore. press ram sign in Impression-Die Forging. metal flow. briefly discussed in Fig. the flow stress of the forging materials. i.1 Introduction For example.e. and the complexity of the forging shape. within limits. DOI:10. forging temperature. “Process De- transfer at die/material interface. Gracious Ngaile. The effect of stock temperature on the capacity. forging variables are illustrated in the block di- able to use a simple method for making quick agram in Fig. function of strain (or amount of deforma- such as flash dimensions. die alloys.

3 Schematic of simple impression-die forging .3 Methods for Load Estimation ● Empirical methods: Use simple empirical formulas and graphs or monographs to esti- In impression-die forging.186 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. (a) Planes of flow. 1975] ● Friction and heat transfer at the part/die in. the forging load is mate the load for simple forging operations. 15. (b) Finish forging. 15. (c) Directions of flow [Altan et al.” four broadly defined ● Geometric complexity of the part and the methods are used in estimating this maximum number of forging operations used (pre. the maximum at the end of the forging stroke. flash thickness and width (or based on available data from previous forg- flash land) ing of similar parts. These methods are quick but limited in their accuracy and are not sufficiently general to predict forging load for a variety of parts and materials. blocker. As discussed in Chapter 14.1 Interaction of significant variables in closed-die forging process [Nagpal et al. load in hot forging.. 15. 15. These estimations are very conservative and lead to significant er- rors. “Process Design in terface Impression-Die Forging.2 Planes and directions of metal flow for two simple shapes.. ● Analytical methods: A forging is viewed as being composed of several unit components. and finisher) ● Applied experience: The load is estimated ● Flash design. blocker. Fig. 1983] Fig.

It is suc- unit and then added together to calculate the cessfully used for predicting forging loads total forging load and stresses. A Simplified Method to Estimate Forging Load in Impression-Die Forging / 187 Forces and stresses are calculated for every to perform this type of analysis.4 Approximate load calculation for a complex part Fig. 15..5 Transformation of a complex forging part into a simplified model. 15. (a) Connecting rod (example of complex forging). (d) Cross section of simplified model (section B-B) . 1999]. Fig. (c) Plan area of connecting rod and perimeter of plan area. (b) Simplified model of the actual forging for forging load estimation [Mohammed et al. The slab and stresses with acceptable engineering ac- method is the most widely known technique curacy.

Ka.1 Derived equations for load calculation Flash load Cavity load Stress at the cavity entrance Fictitious disk shearing Plane strain r¯ c L 冢冪3 Ⳮ 冪3 t 冣 wr¯ 冢冪3 t Ⳮ r 冣L 冢冪3 Ⳮ 冪3 t 冣 r¯ 2 m w 2 2m w Pf ⳱ 2 f Pc ⳱ 2 ce rce ⳱ f Axisymmetric r¯ c L rce 冢3冪3 t Ⳮ 2 冣 冢 冣 2m R3 ⳮ L3 R2 ⳮ L2 2m w 冢 冢 冣 冢 冣冢 冣冣 2m R Pc ⳱ 2pL2 rce ⳱ 1 Ⳮ r¯ f Pf ⳱ 2pr¯ f ⳮ Ⳮ 1 Ⳮ 冪3 3t 冪3 t 2 冪3 t Sliding in the cavity center Plane strain 冢冪3 Ⳮ 冪3 t 冣 wr¯ 冢冪3 Ⳮ 冪3 t 冣 r¯ 2 m w 2 2m w Pf ⳱ 2 f Pc ⳱ 2(Kp r¯ c t Ⳮ rce L) rce ⳱ f Axisymmetric 冢 2m R3 ⳮ L3 冢 冣 冢 冣冢 R2 ⳮ L2 冣冣 冢 冣 2m R 2m w Pf ⳱ 2pr¯ f ⳮ Ⳮ 1 Ⳮ Pc ⳱ (Kar¯ c t2 Ⳮ prce L2) rce ⳱ 1 Ⳮ r¯ f 冪3 3t 冪3 t 2 冪3 t Complete shearing in the cavity Plane strain 冢冪3 Ⳮ 冪3 t 冣 wr¯ 冢冪3 Ⳮ 冪3 t 冣 r¯ 2 m w 2 2m w Pf ⳱ 2 f Pc ⳱ 2(Kpsr¯ c t Ⳮ rce L) rce ⳱ f Axisymmetric 冢 2m R3 ⳮ L3 冢 冣 冢 冣冢 R2 ⳮ L2 冣冣 冢 冣 2m R 2m w Pf ⳱ 2pr¯ f ⳮ Ⳮ 1 Ⳮ Pc ⳱ (Kasr¯ c t2 Ⳮ prce L2) rce ⳱ 1 Ⳮ r¯ f 冪3 3t 冪3 t 2 冪3 t Note: The factors Kp. and Kas are determined from L/t and H/t ratios. (b) Sliding in the central portion of the cavity. . Kps. (a) Fictitious disk shearing. 15. (c) Complete shearing in the cavity Table 15.188 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig.6 Possible modes of metal flow at the end of forging stroke in impression-die forging.

7 Geometry. it is still attractive because it does not require formation units or blocks. Figure 15. Axisymmetric flow is en- ing and is able to predict instantaneous countered in round forgings and at the end of strains. The major advantage of the deformation units is assumed to be either this method is its ability to generalize its ap. directions of metal flow and representative cross sections of a connecting rod: (a) cross-sectional views of the connecting rod. the slab Fig. Then. depend. Metal flow for method in this field. by putting the defor. flow occurs in relatively long forgings where the striction on workpiece geometry. The FEM deformation along the length is relatively small is able to analyze metal flow during hot forg. axisymmetric or plane strain. 15. and these could be considerable computation time and does not re- analyzed separately. quire training for the user. The disadvantage of the ward the flash. The plane-strain plicability to various problems with little re. (c) representative sections and their simplification . forgings. (b) directions of metal flow (A ⳱ axisymmetric. stresses. loads for any complex method (FEM) is the most widely used shape forging can be determined. In addition. complex forging can be divided into basic de. Even though the slab method cannot be as ac- curate as the FEM because of the assumptions The advantage of the slab method is that a made in developing the mathematical approach. ing on the problem. A Simplified Method to Estimate Forging Load in Impression-Die Forging / 189 ● Numerical methods: The finite-element mation units together. P ⳱ plane strain). and temperatures within the long forging where the metal flows radially to- deforming metal. and can be neglected.2 shows examples of FEM is a large amount of computation time plane-strain and axisymmetric flow in complex and expensive system requirements.

2 Inputs for the load estimation of connecting rod Material data Flow stress SS 304 Specific heat. 15. Once As Table 15. the cross section is simplified plified model is equal to the plan area of the to conform to this model. and width. allows conduct- model of impression-die forging and uses the ing slab analysis for load estimation. works on a simplified and axisymmetric metal flows. 15.3 (g/cm3) 0.013 (1101) 2.116 (486) Density. in. (mm) 0.8 Lead disk forging Initial billet height.55 (16.409 (127) Forging load. forging model is divided into an axisymmetric gular and has the flash geometry. in. This (3.5(b).8) Equipment data Press type Mechanical Press speed. to take into account the change of flow software commonly used in industry. This model. The present method. In actual practice. As. it is assumed that a simplified cross sections of forging. in.56 (14. F (C) 2. 15. Also. (cm) 13. 15.2) forging operation.4 A Simplified Forging Geometry Method for Load Estimation Any arbitrary three-dimensional forging is transformed into a simplified forging model. where the cavity ponent of length Ls. the effect of dimensional pa- method can show the trend in the calculation of rameters such as flash thickness. forging load while the FEM only provides the on the total forging load can be easily obtained final calculated results. of the actual forging and is expressed by 15. t.3). lb/in.3 Estimated flow stresses and forging loads Axisymmetric portion Plane-strain portion Component Cavity Flash Cavity Flash Temperature.3.063 (1128) 2.6) Perimeter.4.3 (7. (Fig.1 Simplification of 15. F (C) 400 (205) of design variables by conducting a parametric study when he is designing a new forging opera- tion. including the simplified plane-strain tion of forging load.4. the perimeter.958 (103) 18. In load es.3 the effect of certain process parameters on the Heat-transfer coefficient 0. in. It is assumed that for all in Fig. the cavity is rectan. (cm) 14 (36) Geometry data Fig. Ps.2/s/F forging load can be investigated quickly.7) stress due to temperature change during the hot Projected area. tons 34 18 241 47 52 (cavity Ⳮ flash) 288 (cavity Ⳮ flash) Total forging load. psi (MPa) 15. F (C) 2050 (1120) Initial die temperature.298 (105) 18. w. as shown in Fig. in.12 (28) Flash thickness.6) Cavity height.055 (1124) 2. 15. Btu/lb•F (J/kg•K) 0. of a simplified simpler components where metal flow is either model is equal to the perimeter of the plan area axisymmetric or plane strain. used in practical predic. rpm 50 Press stroke.5) Flash width. part can be determined from any solid modeling timation. As shown slab analysis technique. tons 340 (axisymmetric Ⳮ plane strain) . as illustrated component of radius L and a plane-strain com- in Fig. (mm) 0.015 (1102) Flow stress. For example.190 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 15.1889 W/m2•K) enables an industrial designer to know the trend Initial billet temperature.1 (2. The plan area. in.67 (34.285 (7. (mm) 1. in. The load calculation actual forging and is represented by As ⳱ pL2 is simplified by dividing a complex forging in Ⳮ 2LsL. (cm) 6. (mm) 0. As and Ps of an actual forging loads calculated for each component.467 (127) 14. Then the load is estimated by adding the Ps ⳱2pL Ⳮ 2Ls. heat-transfer analysis is con- Interface data ducted.0039 Btu/in. of a sim- is not rectangular. The advantage of this approach is that Friction factor 0.

The results of the Total forging load. In the present method. tons 340 312 320 calculations are summarized in Table 15. ton 42 41 . Estimation of Flow Stress. 15. ton 35 N/A Half die length.1) Flash load. Ls. plan area.2 (5.6c).10) . in. t. and shearing angle.. ForgePAL Table 15. 15. ForgePAL Measured Flash width.3) Total load. L and Ls are found.A. (mm) 0. Based on the geometry is assumed to flow into the flash by shearing transformation rule. the cavity width. L. calculated the forging load for the stainless steel pends on the cavity height. and connecting rod. the user should experiment with re- the material forms a shear surface ABC.4. The load estimation is made for the final stage of forging operation when the die is totally filled 15. The same dimensions are used flash thickness. the ing rod.6b). is the is a computer program running on the program- average height of the actual forging and is ob.5 Example of Load Estimation section of the simplified model is simplified.780 (19. face (friction factor. The other necessary forging conditions cavity thickness ratio is greater than 2). The introduced load estimation method has noted by H and the radius (or half width of the been programmed at the Engineering Research cavity) by L. the material forms a dead metal zone culated (Table 15. The Simplification of Forging Geometry.113 in. and a sults and try to guess a more realistic height in- sticking friction condition is assumed at this sur. ton 7 N/A Cavity height. the half cavity length. Table 15. and the depth type of metal flow in the die cavity is determined of the plane-strain component.1 shows the L ⳱ 0. In the im. (mm) 0. For a large flash thickness (cavity width to 15. 15. The perimeter. Using the mate- rial input data. as shown in Fig. ForgePAL were shown in this section.2 Metal Flow in the Cavity given on the CD attached to this book. and volume as the flash.2). is de. A copy of ForgePAL is included in Appendix 15. in ForgePAL to estimate the forging load (Fig.5482 in. (mm) 0. The cavity height is de. equations derived for each type of metal flow to calculate the load components. and heat-transfer coefficient of SS 304. In For a high cavity height to cavity width ratio. simply dividing factor is then 1. At the surface BC.8) Cavity load. material are approximated here. and the cavity height was cal- its width. in. such as density.. As discussed earlier in Appendix A of Chap- pression-die forging. With shearing height.5 Geometry input and estimated forging load for a lead disk forging Flash thickness.4 Comparison of forging load first calculated the average forging temperature Nagpal Experimental required for estimating the flow stress value at ForgePAL and Altan results the end of the forging stroke. A Simplified Method to Estimate Forging Load in Impression-Die Forging / 191 and Ps are known. an approximate metal flow ter 14.5(d). as shown in Fig. Nagpal and Altan [Nagpal et al. and Ls ⳱ 5. m ⳱ 1) (Fig. ForgePAL flash width by w.877 (22. this average at the die corners. in. 1975] in the die cavity at the final forging stage de.7). such cases. the perimeter and projected area of the connect- termined analytically. the connecting-rod part was along a fictitious disk having the same thickness simplified. the friction (changing greatly in height). Examples of without flash by its plan area. of the forging were found by using a solid mod- If the die cavity height is small in relation to eling software.004 (0. w. However. (mm) 0.3. and the material slides along height may not be realistic for certain forging AB and flows by internal shearing along the line parts.. L. If the profile of the die is too complex BC (Fig. 15. volume by plan area may yield poor results. The cavity height. the flash thickness by t and the Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. hs. Table 15. H.6(a). ␣.1 Connecting Rod Forging and the load has its maximum value. The cross 15.5. mable controller and calculates the forging load tained by dividing the volume of the forging of impression-die forging. hf. were found based on the principle that material flows in a as follows: manner that consumes a minimum amount of plastic deformation energy. put. 15. specific heat. in.

]: Schey. p center axis with flash at the periphery. V.” Research 15.” Report No. S.. Gegel.. Eng. Manufacturing. a Programmable Calculator. T. ASME.R. 1999]: Asaduzzaman. T. T.. Handbook of lation in ForgePAL. Vazquez. are given as: ● [Douglas et al. the flow stress values in the cavity. ● [Lange. as shown in Fig. No. 1975]: Nagpal. K..300 psi Altan. “Practical Method for H. and Altan. As “Estimation of Forging Load in Closed-Die is shown in Table 15. 340 tons is predicted and its results are com. T. T. The necessary axisymme.300 psi and r¯ f ⳱ 5..192 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Estimation of Forging Load. Demir. T.. “Flow Stress Determination for Metals at Forging Rates and Temperatures. enler. Metal Forming Fundamentals and Appli.. “Prediction of Forging Load and Stresses Using a Programmable Calculator. Chicago. 1989]: Douglas. r¯ c.I.8 and pany. ment of Computer Program for Estimation of culation method for a complex part is based on Forging Load and Die Pressures in Hot Forg- the addition of the loads calculated for each ing.5. The forging load of each component gineering Research Center for Net Shape consists of the cavity load and the flash load. Feb.” Topical Report No. J. Estimating Forging Loads with the Use of cations.. J. 1983. T. Altan. 1989. pared with experimental results. Finally. 15.. ● [Subramanian et al. American Society for Metals.8. and r¯ c ⳱ 2. 1983]: Altan. axisymmetric model is selected for load calcu. and Altan. et al. Jan. Sev- 15. 1985]: Lange. 1975. McGraw-Hill Book Com- tric geometry inputs obtained from Fig. 15. rod is equal to the combination of the load for [Nagpal et al. The Ohio State University. 2. and in the flash.” The part is symmetric and round about the Trans... the total forging load for the connecting 1999. [Schey et al.. 1980. Industry.. F/ERC/NSM-99-R-18.. J. En- component. 1981. .. 1975. 1981]: Schultes. In this reference.. estimated forging loads are summarized in Table ● [Schultes et al. the axisymmetric and plane-strain portions. T. 4.. Altan.2 Forging of a Lead Disk with Flash Report to American Iron and Steel Institute. “Metal Flow in Closed-Die Press Forming of Steel.4. Metal Forming. [Altan et al.. 1980]: Subramanian.” Battelle Columbus Laboratories. V.L. K. p 60. a total forging load of Forging. [Schey et al. The load cal. A.. Battelle REFERENCES Columbus Laboratories. Oh.. Thus. M. Illinois.” Journal of [Mohammed et al. the 66. SELECTED REFERENCES r¯ f. Applied Metal Working..5..A...] measured separately the flash and the cavity loads in lead disk forging.. “Develop. IIT Research Institute. 1985.

editors. Metallurgical aspects of forging. selected for a given application. a considerable amount of b.. Reducing die tryouts and lead times puter. Microstructure modeling allows the a. effective strain rate. 2002].. 1982]. Predicting processing limits that should selected individual locations within a forging not be exceeded so that internal and sur. Predicting and improving grain flow and right-the-first-time optimum metallurgical fea- microstructure tures of the forging to be previewed on the com- b. able.1361/chff2005p193 www. In its earlier application. such as ef- a. and Shen reducing manufacturing costs by: et al. The appropriate forging machines can be time was needed to complete a simple FE simu. 1989. Gangshu Shen. DOI:10. Process simulation to assure die fill fective strain. processes and to enhance the performance of sign and development process. 1993]. Gracious Ngaile. process design in forging are to [Vasquez et al. can also be tracked [Shen et al. such as . the devel. can laps and cold shuts be generated. After the forging simulation is process parameters by: done. Process modeling of closed-die forging using opment of remeshing methods and the advances finite-element modeling (FEM) has been applied in computational technology have made the in. components through better process understand- The main objectives of the numerical process ing and control. These face defects are avoided functions of process modeling provided an in- d.. The thermomechanical histories of c. 1999]: modeling helped die design engineers to pre- view the metal flow and possible defect forma- ● Develop adequate die design and establish tion in a forging. 2000]. and die wear able in the old days. p193-209 All rights reserved. tool stresses and temperatures so that: At that time. Premature tool failure can be avoided. lation [Ngaile et al.asminternational. in aerospace forging for a couple of decades dustrial application of FE simulation practical.1 Introduction c. a. 1990. microstructure modeling is a new area ● Improve part quality and complexity while that has a bright future [Sellars.. automatic remeshing was not avail. and therefore. Reducing rejects and improving material yield Development of finite-element (FE) process ● Predict forging load and energy as well as simulation in forging started in the late 1970s. Integrated with the process can be controlled modeling. However. [Howson et CHAPTER 16 Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis Manas Shirgaokar Gracious Ngaile Gangshu Shen 16. friction conditions. Predicting temperatures so that part prop.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan.. and tempera- b. Preventing flow-induced defects such as ture at any instant of time during a forging. sight into the forging process that was not avail- erties. The goal Commercial FE simulation software is gaining of using computer modeling in closed-die forg- wide acceptance in the forging industry and is ing is rapid development of right-the-first-time fast becoming an integral part of the forging de. the contours of state variables. and Oh.

. shown schematically in Fig. 6. or fractures as well as internal crostructure model for microstructural feature fractures prediction. cylinder are defined in the preprocessing stage. if which need a two-dimensional geometry han- necessary. the distribution of the ● Prediction of die stresses.194 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications grain size and precipitation. and residual stresses rameters until the satisfied results are obtained. Information flow in process modeling is ● Design of forging sequences in cold. Verify the initial design and process condi. and material parameters sets shapes up a unique case of a closed-die forging. There is a saying in computer 15%. and hot forging. A lot of closed-die forgings are axisymmetric. the optimum process is selected for shop practice. Process modeling input is discussed in product. based on the re. such as strain. strain ● Prediction and elimination of failures. maintenance. If 3. and material parameters [SFTC. Establish a preliminary die design and select process parameters by using experience. Complete the die design phase and manufac. chamfers. rate. Some of the proven practical applications of the necessary changes before manufacturing the process simulation in closed-die forging include: dies. and die state variables at any stage of the forging. The input of the geometric parameters. and preform process parameters. The diameter and the height of the 5. ing modeling.3 Process Modeling Input It is a well-known fact that product design Preparing correct input for process modeling activity represents only a small portion. a new model with a set of modified process pa- elastic recovery. The ● Prediction and optimization of flash dimen. the die process variables. the following steps lead to a rational eters. 5 to is very important.3. including the prediction of 2001]. at this stage little or no modification with reasonable accuracy using computational will be necessary. The starting workpiece geometry and the die based knowledge. Some- However. since process modeling is ex- tools prior to committing the forging to shop tri. Once the part is designed for a specific terms of geometric parameters. times..1 [Shen et al.1 Geometric Parameters 1. 2002]. sults of process simulation. modeling: garbage in and garbage out. process design: 16. Boundary conditions on specific segments . forming forces.2 Information Flow in Process Modeling 16. are then input to the mi- face folds. ment. For this pur. 16. geometry need to be defined in a closed-die forg- 2. a time-consuming process modeling is termine the overall manufacturing. axisymmetric or commercially available computer codes. die stresses. as needed. to produce quality parts. dling. decisions made at the design stage de. complexity. or a three-dimensional problem. plane-strain. warm. A typical starting workpiece geometry for a 4. 16. useless because of a small error in input prepa- and support costs associated with the specific ration. can be predicted Hopefully. Modify die design and process conditions. Modify die design and initial selection of the process involves multiple stations. All of the information generated is ● Investigation of the effect of friction on used for judging the closed-die forging case. Then. temperature. The his- die design to reduce die failure tories of the state variables. a forging process can be simulated pose it is appropriate to use well-established either as a two-dimensional. fracture. etc. modeling is then performed to provide infor- sions in hot forging from billet or powder mation on the metal flow and thermomechanical metallurgy preforms history of the forging. improvement in process variables and the equipment response during forging. sur. of the total production costs of a part. pected to be accurate and sufficient to make all als. process param- process. The metal flow nonsatisfaction in any of these areas will require ● Prediction of microstructure and properties. closed-die forging is a cylinder with or without ture the dies. geometry of each station needs to be provided. Depending on its geometrical tions using process modeling. and wear. Conduct die tryouts on production equip.

ficiency. Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 195 of the workpiece and dies that relate to defor. Fig. and ● The die temperatures the ram displacement need to be defined. 16. with unique ve- ● The time needed to have the workpiece rest.) [SFTC. the efficiency. If a screw ● The workpiece temperature press is used. etc. The ac- 16.2 Process Parameters tual die speed recorded from the forging can also The typical process parameters to be consid.3.. locity versus stroke characteristics. software DEFORM (Scientific Forming Tech- fer coefficient during free resting nologies Corp. and the time interval be- ● The time used to transfer the workpiece from tween blows must be defined. For fer coefficient during deformation example. the nodal The die velocity is a very important parameter velocity in the direction perpendicular to the to be defined in the modeling of a closed-die centerline should be defined as zero. the blow energy. 2001] . can be defined as a constant or series of veloc- ities that decrease during deformation. If a hydraulic press is used. for an axisymmetric cylinder to be ● The workpiece and die interface friction. mosphere the number of blows. the die velocity zero. mechanical press is used. be used to define the die velocity profile. the mass of the moving ram and die. 2002]. ● The workpiece and die interface heat-trans- mation and heat transfer need to be defined.1 Flow chart of modeling of closed-die forging [Shen et al. depending flux in that direction should also be defined as on the actual die speed profiles. If a ● The coefficients of heat transfer between the hammer is used. If a ered in a closed-die forging include [SFTC. and the distance from the bottom dead center when the upper die ● The environment temperature touches the part need to be defined. Forgings per- the furnace to the dies formed in different machines. and the heat forging. have been ing on the bottom die simulated successfully using the commercial FE ● The workpiece and die interface heat-trans. the blow ef- dies and the billet and the billet and the at. the total energy. the press stroke. forged in a pair of axisymmetric dies. the rpm of the fly- 2002]: wheel.

The stress-strain relation or flow and die materials. In forging well defined and can have the desired mesh den- simulations.4 Characteristics of die stress analysis is a crucial part of process the Simulation Code simulation to verify the die design and the forg- ing process parameters. “Temperatures and Heat Transfer. and friction as a function of temperature.3. In such applications. 16. and forming loads. As the simulation progresses.4 Interface Conditions In forging processes. The mesh density should conform to the pression test. however.196 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 16. flow stress for metal forming simulations. temperature. The flow test. In order to obtain the flow stress at large tant for the correct prediction of metal flow be- strains and strain rates. the compression data is strain. two-dimensional (2-D) simu- double cup extrusion test is recommended for lations use quadrilateral elements. The material parameters commonly used for heat- In order to accurately predict the metal flow transfer modeling are the thermal conductivity. and the thermal expansion of the die materials tions. With this automatic 16. workpiece interface. little interaction with the user. From these tests.3. and interpolate the simulation data from the old The most common way to determine the shear mesh to the new one to obtain accurate results. In DEFORM. the Poisson’s ratio as a function of temperature. and the The friction and heat-transfer conditions at relative motion between the deforming material the interface between the die and the billet have and the die surface is significant. The friction condi. are not valid for preci. Automated mesh generation (AMG) schemes pression tests. the interface between the workpiece and the die. thus.” eration of the FE mesh based on the given den- Friction factors measured with the ring com. as discussed in Chapter 7. alternatively. whereas estimation of the friction factor.1 Mesh Generation and Automatic Remeshing 16. the torsion test can be havior. the relatively small elastic deformations of are important parameters for die stress analysis. essary to consider mesh densities that take into tions change during the process due to changes account the boundary curvature and local thick- in the lubricant and the temperature at the die/ ness. strain.. In the simu- a significant effect on the metal flow and the lation of such processes. These parameters are usually curve is generally obtained from a compression defined as a function of temperature. and possible extrapolated with care. friction factor in forging is to perform ring com. it is possible to have been incorporated in commercial FE codes estimate the heat-transfer coefficient. the workpiece generally (Friction and Heat Transfer) undergoes large plastic deformation. die deformation and stresses are ne. geometrical features of the workpiece at each sion forging processes (hot. it is necessary to generate a new mesh sults than the coulomb friction coefficient. However. In most simulations. the mesh tends to get distorted significantly. In order where the interface pressure is very high and the to maximize the geometric conformity. 16. the tools are considered starting microstructures. the dies may influence the thermal and mechan- ical loading conditions and the contact stress dis- tribution at the die/workpiece interface. sity. Thus.. strain there are two tasks in AMG: 1) determination of rate.4. the In DEFORM. 1992]. due to the high contact stresses at sity distribution. and emissivity of the workpiece input data. warm. . The Young’s modulus. it is necessary to use reliable heat capacity. rigid. the test is limited in achievable stress of the workpiece material is very impor- strains. simulation model and run it to the end with very pled heat-transfer and deformation simulation. “Friction and Lubrication. as discussed optimal mesh density distribution and 2) gen- in Chapter 6. and cold) step of deformation [Wu et al. it is nec- surface generation is large. the constant shear friction factor gives better re. 1996].3 Tool and Workpiece Material parameters that relate to both heat Material Properties transfer and deformation need to be defined.” three-dimensional (3-D) simulations use tetra- hedral elements for meshing and automatic re- meshing [Wu et al. and forming pressure. in precision forging opera. It is usually defined as a function of used or. However. glected. Hence. the starting mesh is loads required to produce the part. strain rate.5 Material Parameters remeshing capability. it is possible to set up a The closed-die hot forging modeling is a cou.3.

a value of analysis 0. the equipment response during forging. Qform can be tracked.5. a week. 1992]: the actual forging.7 to 0. with mately 1.2 shows the lap for- mation for a rejected process in the design stage. mesh ing the workpiece geometry (the billet or pre- generation.4 to 0. and the microstructure of the forging. The effective strain value is approxi- and workload the computer has. The time required to run a simulation depends the bore rim transition region has the largest on the computer used and the amount of memory strain.. This specific stage. In real closed-die Computational Time forging.9.3(a) shows the effective strain dis- ● Analysis capabilities that are able to perform tribution of a closed-die forging forged in an iso- the process simulation with rigid dies to re. it is possible to run a 2-D the bore region. operations Figure 16. Fig. and temperature.. 16. etc. From the state variable distri- simulation in a couple of hours. thermal press. In addition to a reliable FE solver. or the die geometry. at any die/workpiece interface under the processing stage of a closed-die forging can be plotted from conditions investigated. The com- meshing to allow the simulation to continue puter modeling can again indicate if the when the distortion of the old mesh is ex. the distribution and history of state variables. Several FE simulation codes are commer. it is necessary to wait until the forging is finished to see the forged part and the defect.0 to 2. 1996]. With an effective strain of 2. and the region rigid dies to perform elastic-plastic die stress that is in contact with the lower die. The advantage of computer simu- cially available for numerical simulation of forg. cessive. Whether there is a defect formed (2-D and 3-D). and input data. such as material the heat transfer and friction at the the strain. ● Interactive preprocessing to provide the user The lap formation can be eliminated by chang- with control over the initial geometry. or both. 16. the database file saved for the forging simula- ior of the deforming material at the relatively tion.).4. interactive postprocessing that pro- vides more advanced data analysis. The effective strain has a value of duce calculation time and to use contact 0.5 for both the rim and the midheight of today’s computers. automatic re. Figure 16. The region stresses and temperature distribution esti. while a 3-D bution plot.9 in the bore die lock region.9.2 Distribution and point tracking and flow line calculation ● Appropriate input data describing the ther- History of State Variables mal and physical properties of die and billet The distribution of the state variables. is stored in a database file in the computer and FORGE (2-D and 3-D) (Ternion Corp.1 Metal Flow The information on metal flow is very impor- tant for die design. lation of forging is that the entire forging process ing processes.8. strain rate. Improper metal flow pro. Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 197 16.2 Lap prediction using process modeling tool .5. However. corrective measure works or not. such as 16. depending on the part complexity [Wu et al. such as DEFORM (2-D and 3-D). the state variable at a specific stage simulation can take anywhere between a day to of the forging is known. the accurate and efficient use of metal and how it is formed can be previewed before flow simulations require [Knoerr et al. 16.5 Process Modeling Output The process modeling provides extensive in- formation of the forging process. The output of process modeling can be discussed in terms of the metal flow. The history of these state variables can also large strains that occur in practical forging be tracked. that is in contact with the upper die has an ef- mated with the process simulation using fective strain value of 0.4 to 0. if there is one.2 Reliability and duces defects in the forging. form). and the flow behav.

4 Load versus stroke obtained from a hammer forg. the figure. This zero position is the same for all of the eight hammer blows. The total Fig. In this isothermal forging case. 16. However. the length of forging Fig. a forging that determines its mechanical proper- 20 min deformation time was used. 1.4 shows the load versus stroke pre- dicted for a hammer forging operation. and temperature) provides valuable infor- of the bore section of the forging. it is useful for understanding the hammer response to a forging process. The zero stroke refers to the position of the die. the workpiece increases its contact area with the dies. shown in The distribution of the state variables can be Fig. 16.3 Equipment Response/Hammer Forging Process modeling also provides the informa- tion regarding the response of the equipment. where the first die/workpiece contact occurs dur- ing forging.3(a).198 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications shown in Fig.3(b) is in agreement with the value plotted for any other stages of forging as well. 16. This be- havior is very real for hammer forging opera- tions.5. 16. The last blow of the sequence has the shortest stroke. Each ends with a zero load. Fig. Figure 16.5 Ram velocity versus stroke obtained from a ham- ing simulation mer forging simulation .3(b) shows the effective strain ver. The history plot of state variables (strain. Examples of equipment response discussed here are forging load and ram velocity of hammer forging. shown in the distribution plot in Fig. Figure 16. 16. During a hammer forging operation. With the increase in the number of blows.3 (a) Effective strain distribution and (b) the effective available blow energy is fixed for a hammer. The fig- ure shows that there are eight blows in the ham- mer operation.5. strain sus time of a material point located at midheight rate. The stroke in the figure is the stroke of the ram/die. strain history of the center location of a closed-die With the increase in forging load. which increases the forging load. the load increases and the stroke per blow decreases. The final strain value. 16. as shown in mation on the thermomechanical history of the Fig. as shown in ties. is the end of the forging. The information is usually not available in the hammer shop.3(a). 16.3(a). 16.

Figure 16. In a soft blow.. The velocity of the first blow was smaller than the other eight blows. reduced with the increase in forging load. because a soft blow was used initially to locate the workpiece. Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 199 stroke is reduced.8 Rene 88 experimental part out of forging press with (a) coarse. (b) medium. There are nine blows for this hammer operation. full energy was ap- plied to the forging.9 Predicted model and optically measured grain sizes in the three developmental Rene´ 88DT disks Fig. and (c) fine grains [Hardwicke et al. [Hardwicke et al. 2000] 2000] . the first blow has a smaller starting ram velocity. Thus. 16.. the starting ram ve- Fig. 16. is also the end of a blow sequence and with the de- crease in the stroke per blow. 16. which is the ratio between the energy used for a smaller amount of energy is available toward deformation and the total blow energy. Thus.5 gives the ram velocity versus stroke obtained from a simulation of another hammer forging process. After the first blow. Moreover.7 Comparisons of hot-die forging and mechanical press forging of an experimental part using process modeling Fig.6 Prediction of the distribution of the size (lm) of gamma prime for a Rene 88 experimental forging Fig. Thus. the blow efficiency. there is only a portion of blow energy applied to the workpiece. 16.

the distribution of the size of gamma prime of However. One of the major concerns in the research of els and the integration of the models with finite. especially in forging 16. cess parameters has to be investigated. Con- The grain size modeling is discussed in detail in ducting experiments can be a very time-consum- Chapter 19. manufacturing processes is to find the optimum element analysis has allowed for microstructure production conditions in order to reduce pro- prediction by computer. The fine gamma prime was each blow is a result of both the energy con. ing and expensive process. coupled with a few measurement Hence. It is possible to peralloy Forging. Microstructure and property modeling is now the major emphasis in advanced forging process design and improvement.21 lm. Gamma using FEM-based simulation of metal forming prime is a very important precipitation phase in processes.14 lm. Rene 88. blow efficiency does not influence the points. Fig. Modeling Applications peralloys. strengthening superalloys. Therefore. The development and utilization of physical metallurgy-based microstructure mod. for further improvement of the gamma-prime model. duction costs and lead-time.200 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications locity for the rest of the blows was the same..07 to 0.6 Examples of aerospace alloys such as nickel and titanium su. “Microstructure Modeling in Su. In order to optimize structural features of superalloy forgings are the a process.10 Investigation of defects in ring gear forging using FEM [Jenkins et al. the blow efficiency only has an effect an experimental nickel-base superalloy forging.” The prediction of gamma. Figure 16. The model predicts a range during the blow. reduce the number of necessary experiments by prime distribution is discussed here. The size and spacing There is always an energy loss to surroundings are two features of interest in gamma-prime pre- in a hammer blow. It is factored in of 0. the effect of the most important pro- grain size and the gamma-prime precipitation. after the ram/die workpiece are in contact. correctly predicted and the coarser gamma prime sumption in deforming the workpiece and the was underpredicted. 1989] . The measurement made is in the range starting velocity of the ram/die.6 shows the prediction of needs to be factored in for each hammer blow. The decay in ram velocity in of 0. blow efficiency cipitation. which pointed out the need energy lost to the surroundings. Two important micro.4 Microstructures in Superalloys useful for the process development for closed- die forging. The microstructure prediction feature is 16.5.08 to 0. 16.

2 Optimization of Microstructure in ing process was performed for a reality check. the modified blocker design [Jenkins et al. A coarse grain disk provides excellent creep properties with a lower tensile strength. In this example. using Equipment Selection FEM code DEFORM. 16.11 Modified blocker design (broken lines) posi. The specific goal was to produce Rene 88 (a nickel-base superalloy) disks with coarse (ASTM 6).6. Each disk hit its duces excellent tensile and fatigue properties but assigned grain size goal. and there with reduction in creep property. There was a grain size at that point were used to calculate the preferred strain and temperature window for the final grain size. after a die forging appears to generate better strain and couple of iterations. 1989] 1989] . crostructure model developed for Rene 88 was plication of process modeling to select the most integrated to DEFORM postprocessing module. Fig. suitable equipment (a hot-die hydraulic press or where the user-defined subroutine can be linked a mechanical press) for forging a superalloy part with DEFORM. Forging Jet Engine Disks One forged disk is shown in Fig. The micro- structure modeling provided possible process windows for producing each disk with the tar- Fig.7 illustrates an example of the ap. provided the actual ther- momechanical histories of each disk. the entire thermomechanical history press.. Process modeling coupled with microstruc- ture modeling was used to develop processes to produce disks with different grain sizes for a po- tential new product. selection of the process to meet the customer’s With the guidance from the process modeling property requirements. medium (ASTM 8). and ASTM 12 (fine). kins et al. experienced in each local point and the starting tions are compared in this figure.1 Process Modeling for geted grain size. integrated with microstructure modeling. Effective strain and temperature distribu. and fine (ASTM 12) grain sizes. the hot. The process modeling. respectively. During the postprocessing in in a hot-die hydraulic press or a mechanical DEFORM. processing conditions were temperature distributions than the mechanical selected for producing disks with the three tar- press. geted grain sizes: ASTM 6 (coarse). The mi- Figure 16. 16. The grain For manufacturing superalloy disks for jet en..8. A disk with a were no abnormal grains observed on any of the medium grain size yields balanced tensile and creep properties.6. The actual forg- 16. Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 201 16.12 Deformed mesh of the finishing simulation with tioned in the open finisher dies (solid lines) [Jen. and ASTM 12–13. it is extremely important to meet specific of the disks were actually uniform ASTM 5–6. sizes obtained from three production processes gines. grain size requirements. ASTM 8 (medium). 16. Disks used in different sections of a jet engine require different grain sizes and proper- ties. A new disk product can be defined by meet- ing new requirements for distribution of grain size and related properties. ASTM 7–9. A disk of fine grain pro.

the formation of a gap between the inside die The success in producing disks with the required wall and the workpiece.11) was modified so that upsetting transferred to and forged in a finisher die (Fig. a new blocker die de- grained disks. lock regions (where metal flow is prevented). buckling tained from the model prediction (color coded) flow in the blocker dies caused a lap to be and the optical rating (number in the block) for formed intermittently around the circumference the three disks [Hardwicke et al. Because of this defect. During initial forging trials. 16. and grain size modeling as well as good pro..202 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications disks. The of the part (Fig. 16. Figure 16. lubricated with a graphite and ● The corner radius (region A of Fig. a billet is placed in the busting dies and blocker.. the model predicted two small die sign was required.10b) and finally Fig. ● The radial flow from the web region forced the buckle out toward the outer die walls. 16. metal flow around the corner.10c).11) water mixture and maintained at approximately was increased by a factor of 2 to aid the 300 ⬚F (150 ⬚C). 16.12 shows the die fill in the simu- lation run with the new blocker design. At the start of the working stroke.10a).10d). 1999] . the inside surface of the blocker began to duction process control. ● As the workpiece contacted the uppermost grain size was attributed to both the selection of proper process conditions aided by the process surface of the top die and began upsetting. 16. the part is hot forged from design: AISI 4320 steel in three sets of dies. The first step in the manufacturing process in.13 Automotive component formed by forward/ backward hot forging process [Brucelle et al. The measured grain sizes in the disk ● The sharp corner radius and steep angle of proved this phenomenon. 16. the complex friction phenomenon in real forgings makes it the inside wall on the upper die resulted in difficult to predict the exact die lock location. the following automotive ring gear blank [Jenkins et al. it was horizontal to increase the height of the Next. As the finish dies filled. the buckling became more severe. However. buckle. modification was made to the original blocker 1989]. The following observations were made during where the grain size is a little different than the simulation of the process: bulk.3 Investigation of Defect and as the upsetting and radial flow com- Formation in Ring Gear Forging bined. 16.11) was decreased until induction heating them to 2200 ⬚F (1200 ⬚C).6. the part all of the three cases. In the coarse and fine. In production.9 compares the grain sizes ob. measurements agree well with the predictions in the lap worsened. The process analyzed was the forging of an To counter the above problem. 16. ● The angle of the top surface of the upper die volves cold shearing the billets from stock and (region B of Fig.. 16.14 Cracks formed as a result of thermal cycling 1999] [Brucelle et al. 2000]. 16. was rejected. It is then transferred to a ● The outer wall of the lower die (region C of blocker die and forged (Fig. Fig. and hence. flow from the top die would fill voids in the upper die cavity instead of voids in the lower die cavity. the workpiece fol- lowed the walls of the upper and lower die. The dies were of H11 steel. Figure 16. With Fig. upset (Fig..

Fig. the upper die pushes the workpiece down until 16. Either thermal cracking or Fig. the uppermost wall of the top die.12(a–c) shows the finish die operation with without defects. the workpiece contacted terns. and the and the workpiece.6. Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 203 further deformation. Upon deformation. At the final stroke position. but no buckle was formed. 16. stresses in the dies.4 Investigation of Tool Failure contact is made with the outer wall of the lower die. Part geometry courtesy of Weber Metals Inc. Figure modified blocker workpiece fills the finisher die 16. 16. With further upsetting of the workpiece.16 Forging sequence of the aircraft wheel. the inside corner fills up duction rates result in severe thermomechanical without any indication of defective flow pat. Hence. Part geometry courtesy of Weber Metals Inc. the workpiece con. die cavity fills up completely. High pro- the stroke continues. . the result a small gap remained along the inside wall of from the finisher simulation indicates that the the upper die. With further reduction. Hot forging is a widely used manufacturing tacts the outer web region of the upper die. As process in the automotive industry.15 Forging sequence of the titanium fitting. and a gap the uppermost fillet of the top die and the outside formed between the inside wall of the top die fillet of the bottom die continue to fill. the modified blocker output.

a re- perature and the forging rate. Process simulation to determine the to 10% of the total cost of the component. ● A two-step experimental stage: less steel AISI 316L. contact pressures. 1986]..13 [Brucelle et al. The factor of the heat-transfer coefficient at the tool/ stresses due to thermal cycling were found to workpiece interface.204 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications wear governs the life of the dies. or decreasing the tools. the punch had to and duration of contact [Snaith et al.. The punch was from tool a. In the forging ● A two-step numerical simulation: industry. be changed approximately every 500 cycles due Forging tests were conducted on an industrial to cracking as a result of thermal cycling (Fig. Industrial forging test validation of the purely mechanical stresses due to forging and thermal boundary conditions for the the thermomechanical stresses as a result of ther. Originally. parameters to achieve higher life expectancy of thus reducing the flow stress. workpiece temperature. such as surface topog- field. temperature difference. It is a commonly known fact that ge. it was determined that increased temperature distribution was in agreement with tool life could be achieved by modifying the hot that from the experiments. must be obtained.14). heat-transfer coefficients until the calculated From this study. Thermoelastic simulation for thermal component shown in Fig. Metallurgical validation of the constitu- steel (X85 WCrMoV6-5-4-2). 16. The surface temperatures on the punch are a ternating hot forging and waiting periods. There are two options: 1) perimental work were used to conduct a para. purely mechanical stresses. the tooling cost alone can constitute up a. This combined numerical and experi. The workpiece was from austenitic stain. This example deals with the investigation of and thermal boundary conditions for the the effect of thermomechanical stresses on the punch tool life in the hot extrusion of the automotive b. forging process parameters such as billet tem. modification of process parameters to decrease metric study to determine the optimum process the temperature (reduction of the punch speed. punch mal cycling of the punch surface due to the al. as heat checking. press using a test punch with five thermocou- 16. This cycling causes tool damage.. Several numerical iterations (FEM simu- ometry changes are not the best way to reduce lations) were performed by using different the stress level with regard to thermal stresses.17 Sections taken along the fitting to check for die filling at the blocker stage [Shirgaokar et al. The resulting tive laws of the workpiece material stresses in this process are a combination of the b. forging loads. duction of the thermal gradient during forging Finite-element modeling simulation and ex. stress analysis of the punch 1999]. resulting in an increase mental approach can be summarized as: in flow stress) or 2) use of lubricating/insulating Fig. known raphy. This coefficient is a func- comprise approximately 75% of the total stress tion of various factors. ples. 2002] . 16. In order to reduce the thermal stresses.

it was necessary to run nonisothermal simulations. Figures 16. which is an empirical approach. tic. was achieved. 2002]. The optimum process param. Each of the components was forged in three stages. The commercial FEM code DEFORM-3D was used for these simula- tions. and die stresses [Shirgaokar et al. respectively.16 show the forging sequence of the titanium fitting and the aluminum wheel. workpiece temperature on the final thermome. Die filling was checked by examining vari- A parametric study was conducted to inves. and the stresses from the workpiece were 16.e. volume manipula- of increased flow stress. 16. The simulation strategy adopted for the two fer. metal flow during forging. and it was this stage of the simu- eters were thus determined. and strain distribution. The two components considered for this study are produced by closed-die forging with flash. temperature distri- bution. In order to reduce computational time.. tion.18). 16. ous cross sections along the length of the forging tigate the influence of forging speed and initial (Fig. The first components was to remove the flash in-between option was selected.19 Forging of AISI 4340 aerospace component . since the available press stages. die filling. Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 205 products during forging to reduce the heat trans.17 and 16.. resulting in a 30% lation that was used to determine the stresses in decrease in the stresses. process simulation and experimental verification the dies were kept rigid throughout the simula- resulted in an increase in the tool life for the tion. namely. Since the parts are forged at elevated tem- peratures. a combination of the dies.15 and 16. At the last step.5 Multistage Forging Simulations of Aircraft Components Multistage forging simulations of two aircraft components (a titanium fitting and an aluminum wheel) were run to study metal flow. Thus. 16. 2002] Fig. i.6. Flash removal between the forging stages also had to be considered for the simu- lations in order to ensure appropriate material volume in the dies for the subsequent forging stage. The simulations were stopped when die filling chanical stresses. they were changed to elas- punch in this hot forging process. The results obtained at the end of the simulations were the effective stress distribution. two blocker stages fol- lowed by a finisher stage. This was done by using the Boolean ca- could handle increased forging loads as a result pability of DEFORM. Fig.. tempera- ture distribution. die filling.18 Section A-A of the fitting after the first blocker operation [Shirgaokar et al.

20(b) shows the initial pre- Fig. Experiments for this compo.. overloading the dies and in order to fill the cav- sults.. Thus. Using these re.6. In order to verify the Forging of Connecting Rods applicability of the simulation results. deflection to thickness measurements taken at various locations of the forgings. The nor a shortage. the 16. tainer. It is equally important that the preform be simple enough to be mass-produced. prestressing containers for dies used in forging of complex parts. The results from the sim- volume of the die cavity at the final forging ulations were compared to the experimentally determined loads and were found to be in good stage must be approximately the same. ● There must be neither a local volume excess agreement.. the real cavity must be filled first. the maximum principal stress. The simulation results are used to obtain the loading on the die and the punch. physical In conventional hot forging of connecting modeling experiments were conducted using rods. ity. must be precise. an effective die design was established. 16.6.20 Development of the preform shape for flashless forging of a connecting rod [Vasquez et al. the material wasted to the flash accounts plasticine. The simulated part is shown The requirements for conducting a successful in Fig. the volume distribution of the preform to avoid and the temperature distribution. nent were conducted in a previous study con. The 2-D and 3-D FE simulations were used extensively to analyze and optimize the metal flow in flashless forging of the connecting rod 16.7 Die Design for Flashless shown in Fig. In order to accelerate the de- The simulation of a precision-forged aero- velopment process and reduce prototyping costs. 16. The results obtained for approximately 20 to 40% of the original from the die stress analysis simulations were the workpiece.19(b). ● If there is a compensation space provided in form a stress analysis and correlate the punch the die. The loading on the punch is used to per. 2000] . 16. Figure 16.206 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications interpolated onto the dies.6 Precision Forging of design of a flashless forging operation is more an Aerospace Component complex than that of a conventional closed-die forging with flash. flashless forging process are [Vasquez et al. 1972]. 2000]: ducted at Batelle Columbus Laboratories ● The volume of the initial preform and the [Becker et al. which means that the mass load on the die is used to perform stress analysis distribution and positioning of the preform and design a cost-effective prestressing con. It is essential to accurately control effective stress.20(a). space component was conducted as part of a it is essential to conduct a substantial amount of study to develop guidelines for the design of the design process on the computer.

the gear geometry was modified to account for the flash 16. used for local mesh refinement during simula- derfilling with the initial preform. the gear was austenized by heating to 1560 steel bevel gear was analyzed using DEFORM ⬚F (850 ⬚C) and cooled in 60 s with a heat-transfer 3D. 16. The coefficient representative of an oil quench. Thus. which was tion. The modified gear geometry was used to sim- Treatment Analysis ulate a heat treatment operation. Contours of effective strain (darker areas modified accordingly to give a defect-free con. indicate higher strain) are shown in Fig. only 1⁄20th of the total volume medium-carbon manganese steel determined the Fig. Finite-element simulation predicted un.21).. In this simula- The forming of a medium-carbon manganese tion.6. Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 207 form design along with the final modified pre.8 Integrated Heat removal and drilling the inside diameter.22 (a) The deformation simulation of a hot forged gear with flash. Mesh density windows were form.. (b) The volume fraction of martensite (dark is higher) in a steel gear after quenching [Wu et al. 2001] . 16.21 Deformation sequence for flashless precision forging of a connecting rod [Takemasu et al. was simulated. 16.22(a). 16. This gear was hot forged with flash. necting rod (Fig. A simulation was conducted utilizing rotational time-temperature-transformation diagram for symmetry. 1996] Fig. After the forging simulation.

iatin. 2002.” Methodology for Service Life In. Altan. R.” Altan.E. 357. crease of Hot Forging Tools.M.. P/M Rene 88DT Forgings. 223–231. “Simulations of Manufacturing Processes: T. Japan. Arvind. and K..” Materials Design Approaches Columbus Laboratories. Douglas.E. 1982]: Oh. Zhao.R. 4) 1982. nologies for Superalloy Affordability. France. Vol. 1999. Vol.” Materials Science and Technology.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. Oh.” ERC/ [Hardwicke et al...T. 2002]: Shirgaokar. W. 24 mination for the FEM Simulation of Forming (No. of Metal Forming Problem with Arbitrarily Miller.. dustry. T. 1989]: Howson. p 347– hart. Flashless Forging of a Connecting Rod.K.. “Die Design for Flashless Forging of Com- Past. 2000]: Vasquez.-M. 1986]: Snaith. “Development of a Three Di- 6. signs for Production of Precision Forgings. Battelle Modeling. Simulations of Aircraft Components. Fahrmann. “Modeling Grain Size Evolution of for Net Shape Manufacturing. [Takemasu et al.. Al. 2002]: Ngaile. Present and Future. [Sellars. whereas the Magee equa.R.” Proceedings of the Third Biennial Columbus..A. 1990.. Mech. Altan. Furrer. and Altan... Ngaile. Painter. G.2 User Manuals. F. T. S. Ed.M. C.. Technology. “Thermal Resistances of Chang. 1972. 1996. T. crostructural Development during Hot Roll. Altan.. [Shen et al. 2000. Ed..” Advanced Tech. 346. in a 3-Station Closed Die Forging Operation..... S.. 2002]: DEFORM 7.I.. K. Bain. S. T. 1992]: Wu. p 271.. 1992]: Knoerr. and Experiences.P. J. V.. “Multi-Stage Forging p 237. and K. S.. T. p 32–34. [Brucelle et al. [Wu et al. Srivastava. Sept 14–18.. D. Oct 2002.J. [Shirgaokar et al.. and Bern. p 1072. [Vasquez et al. “Application of the 2D Finite Element State of the Art in USA. G.. the volume fraction of marten.. J... 33. and Altan.. Processes. 98. J. V. G. of Metal Flow and Preform Optimization in [Jenkins et al. J. [Vasquez et al... p 243.. 1972]: Becker. Stuttgart. mensional Finite Element Based Process [SFTC. and Mate- 1986..... G. TMS. Engineering Research Center Shen. p. 381.22(b).. OH.L. Vol. Li. G.. V. Germany.I... p 479. O. 16. O’Callaghan. May 19–20. “Investigation of Defect Formation Journal of Materials Processing Technology.” Journal of Ma.. p 95. 1992. rials Society. T...K. J. G. Denkenberger.R.. 2000.. structure and Thermomechanical History in In Fig... S. 2001.. Probert. Vol. T. 1989. R. M. Vol. M. CIRP Annals.” NUMIFORM ’92. Lee. [Oh.. ing.I.R. C. Simonen.U... and Del- quez. Walters. and Altan. and the light areas indicate a mixture of [Shen et al.” Proceedings of the plex Parts. “Investigation of Micro- tion was used to model the martensite response. Ed. B. Tang. Furrer.. H. 2001].. 1993.. Pressed Contacts. 1993]: Shen. “Effective Tooling De. Energy.208 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications diffusion behavior during the austenite-pearlite/ [Shen et al. P. Vas- [Howson et al. 22 Bain.A. 1996]: Takemasu.L. p 31. p [Becker et al.D. Shivpuri. the Hammer Forging of an Incoloy 901 Disk. “Aerospace Forging—Process and Technical Report AFML-TR-72-89.” Int. The Minerals. 1999. S. mation. 1992. A.. and NSM–02-R-84. [Knoerr et al.. TMS.T... “Modeling Mi.. Metals.. Oh. p 343– represent a more complete martensite transfor. W...Y. 2000]: Hardwicke..” Ad- vanced Technologies for Superalloy Afforda- REFERENCES bility. D. Vol. “Computer Modeling Metal Flow in Forging. Vol. Feb. J. B. 1989]: Jenkins. 87... Modeling of Forged Components of Ingot Metallurgy Nickel Based Superalloys. “Forging Process Simulation— tan.” Proceedings of the Method to Simulation of Various Forming Conference on New Developments in Forging Processes.” Appl.W. G. Vol. D.C. Sem- bainite transformation.. 1999]: Vasquez. “Microstructure bainite and pearlite [Wu et al. 81. R. 1999]: Brucelle. 1996]: Wu. T. “Optimal Mesh Density Deter- Shaped Dies. p 31–84. J. 59. “Finite Element Analysis [Wu et al. 2001]: Shen. K.” Vol. The dark regions Annals of the CIRP. Technology. Chang. G. Srivastava. S. “Investigation gado. [Ngaile et al. Simulation Tool for the Metal Forming In- Scientific Forming Technologies Corporation.M. Joint Conference on Engineering Systems . Science. T. and T.” Furrer. 2002.” site is shown after quenching. [Snaith et al. Lee.U... 2000. 42/1..” Journal of Materials Processing Seventh ICTP. 1990]: Sellars. 2000]: Shen. Pollock. terials Processing Technology. G. B.” JOM.. M.

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up to 1290 to 1470 F (700 as extrusion. axisymmetric with relatively small nonsym. Cold forging is defined as forming or forg.1. Gracious Ngaile.1 Schematic illustration of forming sequences in cold forging of a gear blank. the billet or the slug is at room tempera- and Altan et al. in order to lower the flow ironing. as shown in Fig. The terms cold forging and cold In warm forging. generate flash. coining. Watkins.2.1361/chff2005p211 www. 17. Fig. (c) Forward extrusion. These operations are ture when deformation starts.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Copyright © 2005 ASM International® Taylan Altan. 1983]. the billet is heated to tem- extrusion are often used interchangeably and peratures below the recrystallization tempera- refer to well-known forming operations such ture. 17. as illustrated schematically in Fig. Cold extrusion is a special type produce a final part or relatively complex ge- of forging process wherein the cold metal ometry. upsetting or heading. Gangshu Shen. which are discussed in Chapter 10. In cold forg- 1961. DOI:10. p211-235 All rights reserved. for example.” and Chapter ing of a bulk material at room temperature CHAPTER 17 Cold and Warm Forging Prashant Mangukia 17. (d) Backward cup extrusion. “Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot with no initial heating of the preform or inter. to 800 C) for steels. 1973. unlike impression-die niques. Forging.” Several forming steps are used to mediate stages. ing. editors. starting with a slug or billet of simple flows plastically under compressive forces into shape. a very large number of parts can be forging (see Chapter 14. (a) Sheared blank. 1973. and. Impression-Die Forging”). 17. Some basic tech- a variety of shapes. “Principles of Forging Machines.asminternational. These shapes are usually niques of cold forging are illustrated in Fig. Billigmann et al. Through a combination of these tech- metrical features..3. 1961. “Process Design in produced. stress and the forging pressures.. and swaging [Feldmann. the process does not 17. 1968] . (b) Simultaneous forward rod and backward extrusion.1 Introduction usually performed in mechanical or hydraulic presses. (e) Simultaneous upsetting of flange and coining of shoulder [Sagemuller. Wick.

1977] Fig.3 Examples of cold forged tubular or cup-shaped parts [Feldmann. container. especially for ● Excellent dimensional tolerances and surface producing round or nearly round parts in large finish for forged parts quantities.212 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Cold and warm forging are extremely impor.2 Various types of cold forging (extrusion) techniques (P. W. E. 17. punch. ejector) [Feldmann. ● High production rates tant and economical processes. C. Some of the advantages provided by ● Significant savings in material and machin- this process are: ing Fig. 1977] . 17. workpiece.

1 surface. Metal 6066. and 5152. This group consists primarily of steels and aluminum alloys. these materials are difficult to lu- environment where the process is being con. bricate. 1967]. 430. manufacturing bicycles. aus- A cold forging system. summarizes the properties of aluminum alloys enced by the process variables. 5120. 1015. 17. 6053. titanium. 4130. Fig. tic-ferritic steels (which work harden very formation. 2001a]. 1035. lium. How- By far the largest area of application of cold ever. 17. alloyed: 5140. metal flow. desired shape and properties. i. the plant Furthermore. 3115 ● Heat treatable steels: unalloyed: 1020.2 Cold Forging as a System 1045. the equipment used. tics of the final product. Cold forging of stainless steel is some- ducted. 431. the characteris. the magnitude of deformation. cold forged parts are also used in applications [Gentzsch. 304. beryl- and warm forging is the automobile industry. 321 or blank (geometry or material). ● Case hardening steels: unalloyed: 1010. 2002]. is the understand- 1070. geometry and material). The local metal flow is in turn influ. The key to a successful num alloys are: metal forming operation. 1050. 316. off-highway equipment. times limited due to lack of information on the lows study of the input/output relationships and behavior of the material [ICFG. the effect of process variables on product quality Examples of commonly cold forged alumi- and process economics. and 7075 flow determines both the mechanical properties related to local deformation and the formation Aluminum may be used as an alternative to of defects such as cracks or folds at or below the steel to save weight [ICFG. strongly) require high forces and tool pressures. the mechanics of plastic de. and nickel are also cold forged for special However. 2017. tin. cold forging of austentic or austen- material interface. comprises all the input variables such as billet tenitic: 302. and 1100 ing and control of metal flow.e. the material at the tool/ Especially. 2024. Table 17. properties of the formed components. 17. suitable for cold forging.4 Cold forging as a system . the tooling (the Stainless steels usually are not easily forged. The direction of ● Nonhardenable aluminum alloys: 3003. alloys of copper.3 Materials for Cold Forging than in the original material. and finally. farm ma- Examples of steels that are used extensively chinery. The “systems approach” in forging al. zinc. alloyed: 5115. motorcycles. and nuts and for producing cold extruded parts are: bolts. Cold and Warm Forging / 213 ● Higher tensile strengths in the forged part 17..4. and 5052 the temperatures involved greatly influence the ● Hardenable aluminum alloys: 6063. to obtaining the ● Pure or nearly pure aluminum alloys: 1285. because of strain hardening All metals that exhibit ductility at room tem- ● Favorable grain flow to improve strength perature can be cold forged. 8620 ● Stainless steels: pearlitic: 410. 4140. as shown in Fig.

2002] Aluminum alloy Heat treatable Strength Elongation Corrosion resistance Machinability Weldability 1050 No * **** **** * **** 3103 No ** * **** * **** 5056 No *** ** **** ** ** 2014 Yes *** ** * *** * 6061 Yes *** *** *** ** **** 7075 Yes **** ** ** *** * Note: * ⳱ poor. the ters. The success of the zinc phosphatizing with other types of lubricants. Rinse in cold water. and surface finish of the sheared (or which adhere tenaciously to the phosphate coat- sawed) billet or preform must be closely con. The most common con- bars. most universally employed for cold extrusion of 7. or alkali stearates (es- material in coils and large-diameter stock in pecially zinc stearate). horizon. 6. are preferred for aus- of sheared or sawed-off billets. . especially the chromium content. In forging of relatively surfaces are completely clean when applying the small production lots. It is essential that the slug forged in several steps. so as to avoid and lubricating billets of carbon and low-alloy metal-to-metal contact between the tool and the steels for cold extrusion extruded material. such as oxalates. conversion coating. develop a uniform coating of appropriate thickness. version coatings are calcium aluminate and alu- tal mechanical presses. 1994]. fed into the machine. coated with lubricant. vertical presses are used. Stearate-type soaps. coat the surface of the billet or coil with a lu. tenitic stainless steels. it is accepted practice to min at 151 to 203 F (66 to 95 C). the lubricant is required to withstand high pressures. treatment is influenced by the composition of the 9. are used. neutralize if necessary. **** ⳱ best Materials for cold forging are supplied as quently. Cold The lubricants applied without conversion forging plants usually receive small-diameter coatings are oil. proved to be beneficial under severe forging conditions.2 Typical procedure for phosphating (1930 Mpa) in extrusion of steel.2 are al. weight is closely controlled. vides a good substrate for lubricants that with. where it is sheared and normally zinc stearate. ing and extrusion of steel at room temperature. called headers or upset.1 Properties of aluminum alloys suitable for cold forging [ICFG. adherent coating of lubricant steel. Air dry the slugs to obtain a thin. and Bay. ings. 2. Lubricate the slugs. usually by pickling. weight. minum fluoride coatings. bricant carrier. Conse. grease. The phosphating for approximately 5 min at 180 to 203 F (82 to 95 C) to and lubricating steps given in Table 17. 4. This requires careful de- and individual billets (after being lubricated) are greasing and pickling of the surface before coat- fed into the first die station. ances in the cold forged part and to avoid ex. In very large-volume production. The dimensions. Billet volume or ing [Bay.214 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 17. Lubrication for cold forging of aluminum 17. is conversion coating is combined with a lubricant. 5. 1967]. The coil. Rinse in cold water. 1972]. are commonly used as lubricants for forg- trolled in order to maintain dimensional toler. where surface generation and form- ing pressures are large [Doehring. and it is desirable The types of alloys and the surface expansion to obtain square billet faces during shearing or have a major influence on the choice of the lu- sawing [Herbst. Degrease and clean slugs in a hot alkaline solution for 1 to 5 and low-alloy steels. special procedures and other conversion rolled or drawn rod or wire as well as in the form coatings. 8. Remove scale. Solid lubricants such as MoS2 and graphite have cessive loading of the forging press and tooling. usually with stearate soap but sometimes steels. In cold forging. 1997.4 Billet Preparation and may be divided into two categories: Lubrication in Cold Forging of Steel and Aluminum ● Lubrication without conversion coatings ● Lubrication with a conversion coating By far. on the order of 280 ksi Table 17. Rinse in neutralizing solution if a pickling process was used. In cold forging of low-carbon 1. adsorbed on the zinc phosphate coating. In both cases. Rinse in cold water. This zinc phosphate coating pro. 3. Dip in a zinc phosphate solution (usually of a proprietary type) stand high forming pressures. the largest area of application for cold forging is the production of steel parts.

0 . lubrication with oil. the required upset ratio. 17. A sketch of the upset- ting process is shown in Fig.” Upsetting is a basic deformation pro. its medium.3 can be ate lubricants for different aluminum alloys and achieved in one hit if the deformation occurs surface expansions. Cold and Warm Forging / 215 cess that can be varied in many ways. sketches. can extru- sion). 1994]. e¯ . Multistroke (more than three) with whole die duced in height between usually plane. The abscissa indicates the over a portion of the workpiece. 1985] 17.6 Sketch of upsetting process [Lange et al. The lubricant system is divided into When forming in several stages. In cold upsetting. depending on the strength. 17.2) bricant system. Figure 17. arranged of Ru require several deformation stages. In upsetting. the design of three groups: the heading preforms affects the fiber structure ● Oil or grease ● Zinc stearate ● Conversion coating Ⳮ lubricant Series AA 1000 and 3000 can be cold forged without conversion coatings. nuts. 17. Larger values different series of aluminum alloys.6. 17. The ordinate in.5 shows the appropri. parallel (limited by difficulties arising during ejection) ⱕ10. even in cases of large surface expansion (for example. For alloys in series AA 6000 and 5000. and rivets. forming process. and high levels.3 gives the recommended values for Ru. 1997] Ru ⳱ 冢hd 冣 0 0 (Eq 17. as shown in the corresponding the desired accuracy. 1985] Bay. conversion coatings are always necessary [Bay. a ratio of Ru ⱕ 2.. or zinc stearate may be applied in cases of low to medium surface expansion. creasing difficulties in forging.. Large reductions can be achieved by using conversion coatings. nificant: dimensions of the workpiece. Multistroke (more than three) with split die ⱕ20.0 which a billet or a portion of a workpiece is re. and the surface quality. grease.3 Upsetting is defined as “free forming. which affects the buckling of the workpiece: Fig. 1997 and Fig.1) ● Upset ratio. only light reductions are possible without con- version coatings.5 Choice of lubricant system for different aluminum alloys for different processes [Bay. which affects the forming limit or forgeability of the workpiece mate- rial: e¯ ⳱ ln 冢hh 冣 0 1 (Eq 17. and for series 7000. Table with increasing hardness corresponding to in. the following parameters are sig- dicates the degree of surface expansion at low. its formability. For the series 2000. Table 17. by Two operations (two-stroke process) ⱕ4.5 Upsetting Operation Ru value One operation (single-stroke process) ⱕ2. A large segment of industry primarily depends on the upsetting process for producing parts such as screws. Successful upsetting mainly depends on two process limitations: ● Upset strain.5 Three operations (three-stroke) ⱕ8.3 Recommended Ru values for cold upsetting [Lange et al.0 platens.

1985]. The limits on the length of the unsup- ported stock may vary. 17. At this point. the two primary than cylindrical upsetting. are the load and energy required to form the part. and it corresponds to the conditions Figure 17. upsetting... Upsetting with ta.8b). The maximum tooling load. In order to ap. depending on the type of the heading die and the flatness and squareness of the end surface of the bar. 1996]: p 2 L⳱ 4 冢 d1rf 1 Ⳮ md1 3冪3h1 冣 (Eq 17. based on geometry and material properties is [Altan et al. 1985]. ply the above rules to taper upsetting. (c) Stock supported in heading tool recess. It is important to alent diameter (dm) is calculated as: correctly estimate the forming load for each die station. Heading preforms are to be where d1 and d2 are diameters of the tapered die shaped such that the workpiece is guided cor. based on material prop- erties and process geometries..8a). It consists of a flat- faced punch and a simple round die cavity. Slab method analysis is used to predict the forging load required. 17. the maximum production rate. thus. 1982. The equiv.6 Load Estimation for pered dies (Fig. cavity. Oversizing a header will result in un- d41 Ⳮ d42 1/4 dm ⳱ 冢 2 冣 (Eq 17. 17.7 Different techniques for upsetting. At the beginning of the stroke. the number of considerations in determining process feasibility stages required may be reduced. 17. as seen in the load-stroke curve (Fig. lower production rate. 1996]. This design method allows greater ma- rectly to avoid buckling and folding [Lange et terial to be gathered in a single stage for taper al.4a) where L ⳱ maximum load on tooling Fig. Undersizing a header will lead to overloading the press. (b) Stock supported in die impression. upsetting. The load required to fill the cavity is ex- tremely high (approximately 3 to 10 times the load necessary for forging the same part in the cavity without corner filling) [Altan et al.216 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications of the final shape. These two factors determine the press size and alent diameter” must be calculated. because it allows greater upset ratios In cold forming operations. d1 ⳱ final upset head diameter ported working stock. (d) Stock rf ⳱ material flow stress ⳱ K¯en ⳱ rf ⳱ supported in heading tool recess and die impression [ASM.7 illustrates different techniques for found in practice. the forming load increases dramatically as the corner filling occurs. and higher part costs. 17.. The tooling used in this pro- cess is shown in Fig.8. 17. and Lange et al.. resulting in frequent downtime for maintenance and repairs [Altan et al. L. the billet is cylin- drical and undergoes a process similar to an open upset until it makes contact with the die casing (Fig.7c) is commonly used for the Flashless Closed-Die Upsetting intermediate stages of a multistage upsetting process. 1970] K(ln h0 /h1)n . (a) Unsup. The amount of corner filling is expressed as the ratio of the length of die wall in contact with the deformed billet to the length of the die wall and is termed in percentage of die wall contact (%DWC).3) necessarily large machine cost. an “equiv.

height. in addition to the symbols given above: 4 h⬘0 ⳱ V (Eq 17. 1996].4c) Equation 17. h⬘1 ⳱ 冢100% ⳮ2 %DWC冣h 1 (Eq 17. as shown in h0 ⳱ initial height of the billet Fig.. 17. the final head diameter. closed-die upsetting.9 K ⳱ strength coefficient n ⳱ material strain-hardening exponent To use the modified slab analysis. restricted by the cavity in the closed-die upset. Cold and Warm Forging / 217 m ⳱ shear friction factor h⬘0 ⳱ initial height corresponding to final h1 ⳱ final height of the upset head height of layer 1 (or 3). The final slab height. as shown in paring the predictions with experiments [Altan Fig. 1996] . respectively. a modification of the traditional slab method is made to account for the reduced de- formation zone to predict the forging load. the volume constancy principle is used: 4 3冪32h⬘1 where.4d) pd40 rf ⳱ material flow stress ⳱ K¯en ⳱ rf ⳱ n K(ln 2h⬘/2h⬘) 0 1 The validity of Eq 17.4 was verified by com- h⬘1 ⳱ final height of layer 1 (or 3). the initial head diameter and the head height must be Equation 17. 冢 冣 md1 L⳱ d1rf 1 Ⳮ (Eq 17. 17. 1 is found by using: deformation is less than in the open upset. h⬘.8 Tooling for flashless cold upsetting process and load-stroke curve [Altan et al. p 2 To find the corresponding initial slab height. 1996]: where h1 and h⬘1 are the same as in Eq 17. Hence.4(a) and (b).9 et al..4(a) needs to be modified for known. Fig.4(a) is modified and presented as [Altan et al.4b) h⬘0. Since the material flow is and amount of die wall contact must be known.. Also. 17.

which is constant. 17. the material at various lo- and can be easily calculated when the extrusion cations in the deformation zone is subject to dif- load in backward extrusion.10. Fig. or when. are illustrated in Fig.11. in forward rod extrusion. 17. cesses.1 Variables Affecting itative variations of the punch load versus punch Forging Load and Energy displacement curves are shown in Fig. 17.218 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 17. 1996] Fig. The areas under these curves represent energy In cold extrusion. forward rod extrusion and backward cup extrusion.9 Dividing layers for the modified slab analysis method [Altan et al. strain. and the corresponding flow stress.. 17. The values of is estimated.7. The qual. r. 1983] . e. 17. known.10 Schematic illustration of (a) forward rod and (b) backward cup extrusion processes [Altan et al. ferent amounts of deformation.7 Extrusion both the peak load at the beginning of the stroke and the end load at the end of the stroke are The two most commonly used extrusion pro..

It is therefore length of the die decreases. and con- where Pfd is the load necessary to overcome fric. Typical limits of reduction in area for open-die extrusion are 35% for low-carbon steel. Fig. Pfc. In open-die extrusion (where the billet is not en- tirely guided in the container.. about 70 to 75% [Drozda. the extrusion velocity does not tion at the die surface (in forward extrusion) or significantly affect the load in cold extrusion. extrusion. flow stress values depend not only on ables: the chemical composition of the material but ● Extrusion ratio. and effective strain. mation zone. an strain. there is an optimum die an- load consists of the following components: gle that minimizes the extrusion load.5. ● Lubrication: Improved lubrication lowers trusion).10a). it affects the distribution of the ef. There- are influenced by the following process vari. the billet length has little effect on fective strain and flow stress in the defor. for low-to-medium carbon steel. Cold and Warm Forging / 219 vary within the deformation zone. For trapped die. . resulting in in backward extrusion). maximum reduction in area of 70 to 75% is allowed.11. fore. On the other hand. a larger die angle increases the volume of metal undergoing shear de. which is 20 to 25% [Altan et al. billet material directly influences the loads homogeneous deformation. for a given reduction and given fric- deformation of the material. This is illustrated in Fig. the bottom thickness cannot be less than punch displacement curves in forward rod and backward cup extrusion processes 1 to 1.13a).11 Schematic illustration of punch load versus Also. which results in necessary to use average values of flow stress. The prior heat treat- extrusion load for forward rod and backward ment and/or any prior work hardening also cup extrusion are shown in Fig. because perature of the workpiece material influences the amount of deformation. a decrease in die friction load. 25% for aluminum. this limit is much higher. Pdf. and Pds is the ● Workpiece material: The flow stress of the load necessary for internal shearing due to in. r¯ . given reduction. the average the flow stress. Pdf. 17. the load required must be less than that causing buckling or upsetting of the unsupported stock. The tem- creases with increasing reduction.5 times the extruded wall thickness. increase in billet length results in an increase etry directly influences material flow.5. The total forging tion conditions. the most important rule formation and results in an increase in shear is that the reduction in area cannot exceed some deformation load. The extrusion angle is also a function of the reduction in the area. ● Die geometry (angle. 17. and in container friction load. Pfc is the load necessary to overcome the container friction force. of Eq 17. Higher reduction ratios can be ob- tained in trapped-die extrusion (Fig. Pfd. Fig.5) both the strain rate and the temperature gen- erated in the deforming material increase. 1987]. the extrusion load. also on its prior processing history. Conse- r. Another rule is that the maximum height of the cavity cannot exceed three times the punch diameter. 1983].. P ⳱ Pfd Ⳮ Pfc Ⳮ Pdh Ⳮ Pds (Eq 17. 17. Pdh is the load necessary lower extrusion loads. sequently. i. In forward extrusion.11. to characterize the total quently. The variations of the Pdh and Pds of Eq 17. In forward extrusion. In backward therefore. e. the known limits. and the die container friction in forward extrusion (Pfc ⳱ 0 friction force. for homogeneous deformation. In backward extrusion. ● Billet dimensions: In forward extrusion. and 40% for AISI 4140 steel. Pds. ● Extrusion velocity: With increasing velocity. 17.e. increases with reduction. The loads affect the flow stress of a material. for a 17. In backward extrusion. These effects counteract each other. R: The extrusion load in. radii): The die geom. at the die and punch surfaces (in backward ex. there is also a limit for the minimum reduction in area.

The process is also known 17. 2. 17. 17.7. termines the shape of the tool opening. ● Rod forward (Fig. The billet is pressed through a die by a as hooker extrusion. the tool opening. such as blank material. Different types of these processes are de. 1985] . (e) Backward tube. or sleeve is produced from a solid component.. 17.12b): A hol- low cup or can of reduced wall thickness is 17. coating. 17. ing. Fig. 17. low cup. The die de- and final part shape. nent is reduced in cross section. final shape of workpiece [Lange et al.2 Trapped-Die or Impact Extrusion produced from a hollow can or sleeve. (c) Forward can. 1. lubrication. (b) Forward tube.13). punch. (g) Side rod. (f) Backward can. can.12).12c): A hol- scribed below and illustrated in Fig. (d) Backward rod. ● Tube forward extrusion (Fig. (a) Forward rod. ● Can forward extrusion (Fig.12. initial shape of workpiece. 17. (h) Side tube.12a): A solid compo- tors. The die and the counter- ● Forward extrusion: The metal flow is in the punch determine the shape of the tool open- direction of action of machine motion. Both In this process (Fig.220 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications These rules are also affected by several fac.12 Schematic representation of extrusion process for components. higher strains are the die and the punch determine the shape of possible compared to open-die extrusion (Fig.

7. 17. The split die determines the tool inherent in a given formula. Cold and Warm Forging / 221 ● Backward extrusion: The metal flow is op. a specific process also introduces inaccuracies piece with a hollow protrusion of any profile into the predictions. Wick. These formulas are derived either tool opening. con- med portion of the component in the con. 17. ¯ vary with location. The split die and the mandrel Friction is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. the flow stress. tainer shape at the end of the hollow body The tool opening is determined by the punch depends on its wall thickness.” The value of the friction factor. r. 17. body with a solid protrusion of any profile is In both cases. shearing. 17.12f): A There are a number of formulas for predicting thin-walled hollow body (can. in addition to the approximation extruded. value of l (used in expressing s ⳱ rnl. the strain and. extruding the hollow body (can.13: This value is approximately the same as the ● Free-die extrusions of solid bodies (Fig.8 Estimation of is produced from a sleeve or a can. 17. low and illustrated in Fig. Both the die and the punch determine the 1967].12g): A solid ory or empirically from a series of experiments. ● Can backward extrusion (Fig. [Feldmann. 17. is extruded. In the deformation zone. 1. f. (a) Solid bodies.13 Schematic representation of free-extrusion processes. determine the tool opening. Both the die and the punch determine the tool open.08 in cold extrusion. sleeve. 1961.13a): Reduction of the cross section of a normal stress) used in some literature references. material flow stress and of the friction factor for ● Tube side extrusion (Fig. through approximate methods of plasticity the- ● Rod side extrusion (Fig. initial shape of workpiece. (b) Hollow bodies (nosing).12e): A sleeve or a can with reduced wall thickness 17. tainer. (c) Hollow bodies (sinking) with container. solid body without supporting the undefor. ● Free extrusion of hollow bodies. only. or the pressures in forward and backward extrusion cup) is extruded from a solid component.12h): A work. estimation of the opening. The requirement of the con- solid component is reduced in cross section. sleeve. “Friction and Lubrication. 2. with rn 17.. Dif- ferent types of these processes are described be- is in the order of 0. 1961. sequently. 17. ● Tube backward extrusion (Fig. or ● Rod backward extrusion (Fig. 17. Due to inhomogeneous deformation and internal ther upset nor buckle during the process.13b and c): This process consists of machine.12d): A tube) at its end. and Gentzsch.03 to 0. 1985] .3 Free or Open-Die Extrusion shear stress: The process of free or open-die extrusion is s ⳱ f r¯ ⳱ mr/ ¯ 冪3 used for relatively small extrusion ratios. the volume of the material near the die Fig. final shape of workpiece [Lange et al. or nosing posite to the direction of the action of the (Fig. The unsupported portion should nei. used in expressing the frictional 17. Friction and Flow Stress ing.

. 1970] P ⳱ A0Kcruln(A0/A1) Kc ⳱ 2.5 Formulas for calculation of forming load in backward cup extrusion Source Formula Remarks [P.8) are summarized in Tables 17.9) varies over the deformation zone. A0. i. described above.. e ⳱ ea ⳱ 2. and Near the interface.3% C steels 冪A 冣 pL 冢 P ⳱ r¯ a • A0(ln R Ⳮ 0.. and the average flow stress.15) For 0. shearing.72 H. The Table 17.9 Prediction of Extrusion a⳱ 冮 0 rd ¯ e¯ (Eq 17. and by interface lubrication conditions. 1966] P ⳱ A06..0r0. Since the flow stress 1 r¯ a ⳱ K¯enrd e¯ ⳱ (Eq 17. then: pressures in forward extrusion [Altan et al.4 and 17.2 r¯ 0 Ⳮ ruFn Based on average strain.E. 1950] 2 A0r¯ a ln Rl P includes loads due to homogeneous [Feldmann.73 ⳱ 2. where R is the ratio of the initial cross-sectional r¯ a.5 to 3 for low-carbon steel. the lows: strain distribution and consequently the average strain. 1966] P ⳱ 8. e¯ .71828 Fn ⳱ (e¯ea/n)n [Altan. 1965] P ⳱ A0 e¯ a 2. Since stress. r¯ a. ¯ versus effective strain. which is difficult to determine accurately. 1961] P ⳱ A0 • r¯ a ln R Ⳮ ␣A0r¯ a Ⳮ Ⳮ pD • Lr¯ 0l deformation. e¯ a. die friction. hardness in kg/mm2 r0 in tons/in.78(ln R)0. determined in P ⳱ 0. If the flow stress can be expressed in the tainer friction were included in predictions of exponential form.78 u (ln R) 0. 1965] 4lL Based on average strain. r.4 Formulas for calculation of load in forward rod extrusion Source Formula Remarks [Siebel. [P. area.1 to 0. e¯ . used Kc ⳱ 3 . 1 ton ⳱ 2240 lb (1016 kg). 3 cos ␣ sin ␣ container friction. r¯ a.5A0(r¯ 0 Ⳮ ru • Fn)¯ea exp model test with lead and with ␣ ⳱ 27 D e¯ea n e ⳱ 2. can be obtained from the curve for the material flow is influenced by tool geometry flow stress.E. is not reflected in the ap- proximate estimation of the average flow stress.7) Loads from Selected Formulas The value “a” of the integral is the surface Various formulas for forward and backward area under the effective stress/effective strain extrusion were evaluated in predicting loads for curve and corresponds to the specific energy for 35 different material values (17 different steels homogeneous deformation up to the strain e¯ i ⳱ with various heat treatments). P in tons [James and Kottcamp.25 Ⳮ 2l 0 [Pugh et al.2A0r0. to the final cross-sectional area. H ⳱ hardness of billet before extrusion.A.222 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications surface is subject to more severe deformation.3% C steel [Pugh et al.A.71828 Fn ⳱ 冢n冣 e¯ a ⳱ 1. 1972]. ea.24 ln R Ⳮ 0. determined in model test 冢 冣 [James and Kottcamp. however.2.6) • 1.72(ln R)0.. ru in tons/in.R.36 ln R Ⳮ 0. kg/mm2. A1.53 Table 17. are also ln R 冮 1 a influenced by tool geometry and lubrication. therefore.. R ⳱ A0 /A1: ln R 17.8H0. A where n is the strain-hardening exponent.5. The formulas that gave the best results r¯ ⳱ K¯e n (Eq 17.7A H0.28 2. most formulas ln R 0 nⳭ 1 use a so-called “average” or “mean” flow stress. Values of con- ln R.45 ln (A0/A1) Ⳮ 1.8 u (ln R) 0.15) For 0.6) ln R 0 ln R This fact.72 Steels with zinc phosphate Ⳮ Bonderlube 235 ⳱ A02.1 to 0.4 with lead and with 5% cone-nosed punch. 1973] P ⳱ A0r¯ 0(3. ra ⳱ rd ¯ e¯ ⳱ (Eq 17.e. as fol.73 0 Originally derived for steels with zinc phosphate Ⳮ MoS2. the local strains ln R K(ln R)n 冮 and flow stresses are higher.R. and K reasonable approximation of the average flow is the flow stress at effective strain e¯ ⳱ 1. r¯ a. 1973] P ⳱ A0r0(3.45 ln R Ⳮ 1.

subcritical annealed 120 827 0. 1973] and by Pugh [Pugh et al. annealed 134 924 0.173 55 379 74 510 82 Table 17. l can be estimated to be between 0.255 44 303 70 483 71 8620.6 Mechanical properties of forward and backward extruded steels K r0 ru 103 psi MPa n 103 psi MPa 103 psi MPa Hardness. r¯ 0. val. hot rolled 86 593 0. yield stress. phate-stearate lubrication.A.4.6. the dicted pressure values correspond to break- average flow stress.224 45 310 68 469 70 12L14. suggested by P. Whenever necessary.4.4 are compared pressures. (2..7. 60 die half angle and a 1⁄8 in.250 35 241 47 324 50 1018. an average of the pressures obtained Table 17. or 1.R.5 to 3.05 in.. The of friction l ⳱ 0.04 was selected on punch loads.4. trusion are given in Table 17.0 in.9. or the simplest formulas.. None of the formulas given in Table 17. The predicted in cold forging (zinc phosphate coating Ⳮ Bon.9 cm) gles. subcritical annealed 20 98 676 137 (945) 112 (772) 106 (731) 86 (593) 124 (855) 50 178 1227 202 (1393) 202 (1393) 194 (1338) 188 (1296) 195 (1344) 60 205 1413 230 (1586) 245 (1689) 232 (1600) 230 (1586) 216 (1489) . r¯ u. HRB 1005. or pressures. In some formulas. hot rolled 20 68 469 84 (579) 70 (483) 64 (441) 60 (414) 84 (579) 50 120 827 132 (910) 128 (883) 127 (876) 132 (910) 137 (945) 60 144 993 153 (1055) 154 (1062) 155 (1069) 161 (1110) 153 (1055) 70 161 1110 184 (1269) 189 (1303) 194 (1338) 195 (1344) 181 (1248) 1018. i. are obtained.R. The experimental results were ob. punch edge radii).R. tainer friction. f. Cold and Warm Forging / 223 flow stress data were obtained. in most backward extrusion trials.312 43 296 59 407 60 1038. It can be seen in Table 17. zinc-phos- value of the friction factor.6. or a coefficient given by the other formulas in Table 17. 1966].7 Comparison of measured and predicted breakthrough punch pressures in forward extrusion of various steels Measured pressure Pressure predicted using formula from Table 17. and measured punch pressures are compared in derlube 235 lubricant. (2.8 for five steels.5. at different reductions through a die with a for two punch designs (with 0. in the form r¯ ⳱ with experimental data in Table 17. For The predicted extrusion pressures obtained by comparing the predicted and measured punch use of the formulas in Table 17.5 cm) long. The experimental results in length.. radii. die angles). they include the con- determined from Eq 17.A.03 truded billets were 1 in.A. Henkel Surface Technol.E. annealed 20 96 662 99 (683) 87 (600) 75 (517) 72 (496) 111 (765) 50 172 1186 165 (1138) 158 (1089) 159 (1096) 158 (1089) 185 (1276) 60 187 1289 194 (1338) 191 (1317) 197 (1358) 192 (1324) 209 (1441) 1038.. hot rolled 20 111 765 118 (814) 92 (634) 93 (641) 80 (552) 115 (793) 50 186 1282 183 (1262) 166 (1145) 178 (1227) 176 (1213) 187 (1289) 60 205 1413 212 (1462) 201 (1386) 216 (1489) 214 (1475) 208 (1434) 12L14. The mechanical prop- The formulas that gave the best predictions erties of backward extruded steels are given in for punch loads in forward extrusion are given Table 17.5 takes into account the tool geometry (punch an- cm) in diameter and 1. and 0. hot rolled 117 807 0.5 cm) in diameter and and 0. annealed 20 103 710 124 (855) 87 (600) 99 (682) 82 (565) 121 (834) 50 190 1310 200 (1379) 161 (1110) 197 (1358) 181 (1248) 198 (1365) 60 210 1448 234 (1613) 195 (1344) 241 (1662) 220 (1517) 221 (1524) 8620. from tensile tests. in Table 17. ksi (MPa) Steel Reduction. in backward cup ex- the basis of previous studies that indicated that. used in the formulas was through pressures. materials considered in this study are given in give predictions approximately as good as those Table 17. Table 17. tion.09 in.5 tained by extruding various steel billets 1 in. i. annealed 115 793 0. The pre- K¯en.e.8 to 8.E. with zinc-phosphate-stearate lubrica. % ksi MPa Siebel P. (3. The properties of the billet [P. The lubrication was the pressures would vary considerably with the same as in forward extrusion.4 that ues of tensile strength. or 2. As expected. (3. hardness were used. The value l ⳱ 0.04 was used in evaluating all formulas that gave the best-predicted values of formulas.2 mm) die land. r¯ a.3 mm.e. (2.3 mm.E.5 in. Billigmann Pugh James and Kottcamp 1005. A friction factor. the predicted extrusion 1. The backward ex- ogies).08.

then Eq 1967].12 gives: formation energy [Altan. the external mechanical energy is equal to the internal de. The effects Assuming that every volume element in the of material properties on metal flow are rela.e. e¯ . annealed 50 304 2096 309 (2130) 325 (2241) 309 (2130) 290 (1999) 60 313 2158 312 (2151) 331 (2282) 343 (2365) 319 (2199) 70 327 2255 327 (2255) 344 (2372) 392 (2703) 357 (2461) 1018. 17. pa is average punch pressure. at each volume ele- Except where exaggerated inhomogeneities ment are known.13 to estimate the real ex- volume of material equal to the volume of the trusion pressure.224 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 17. metal flow usually available. First. subcritical annealed 50 305 2103 389 (2682) 340 (2344) 300 (2068) 307 (2117) 60 309 2130 393 (2710) 345 (2379) 326 (2248) 337 (2324) 70 341 2351 412 (2841) 359 (2475) 366 (2523) 377 (2599) 1038. Then. pa. V is volume mild steel) is extruded using certain tool geom- of deforming material. r¯ a. annealed 50 274 1889 303 (2089) 284 (1958) 293 (2020) 245 (1689) 60 282 1944 306 (2110) 288 (1986) 329 (2268) 269 (1855) 70 316 2179 321 (2213) 300 (2068) 380 (2620) 301 (2075) with both punches was used whenever experi. method can be used.14 can be used for predicting extrusion pressures from a model test. v is punch velocity. of Eq 17.E. values of the model material.11 can be written as: If a strain-hardening material is considered and the friction at the tool/material interfaces of paV ⳱ r¯ ae¯ aV (Eq 17. 17. and etry. . and the extrusion pressure. Dt is time increment.: pa ⳱ K¯eanⳭ1 (Eq 17.13 and 17. ksi (MPa) Steel Reduction. and r¯ ⳱ K¯en with Eq 17. deformation zone (V ⳱ A0vDt). ometry and lubrication conditions. 1970]. which moves at a velocity e¯ a and the K and n values of the real material (v) during the time (Dt) necessary to extrude the are used with Eq 17. the following averaging in extrusion is influenced mainly by tool ge.8 Comparison of measured and predicted punch pressures in backward cup extrusion of various steels Measured pressure Pressure predicted using formula from Table 17. is calculated. e¯ .10 Prediction of Extrusion the deformation zone. in addition to the symbols previously de. where. deformation zone has the same average strain. This total deformation en- Loads from Model Test ergy can be calculated only if the flow stress. Pugh James and Kottcamp Schoffmann 1005.12) the deformation zone is neglected. the average strain.10 represents the total deformation en- ergy obtained by adding the deformation ener- gies consumed within each volume element in 17. hot rolled 50 286 1972 320 (2206) 317 (2186) 290 (1999) 281 (1937) 60 293 2020 323 (2227) 322 (2220) 319 (2199) 308 (2124) 70 313 2158 338 (2330) 335 (2310) 362 (2496) 345 (2379) 12L14.R.14 and the known K and n represents the amount of mechanical energy nec. i. the calculated values of duced by the punch. Since this information is not are present in the deforming material.5. r. The right side mental data were available for both cases.11) Equations 17. 1970.10) or 1/nⳭ1 or e¯ a ⳱ 冢pK冣 a (Eq 17. aluminum.13) pa A0vDt ⳱ 冮 rd¯ v ¯ e dV (Eq 17.14) e¯ h paV ⳱ 冮0 rd ¯ e¯ (Eq 17. hot rolled 50 223 1538 245 (1689) 236 (1627) 214 (1475) 194 (1338) 60 228 1572 248 (1710) 240 (1655) 237 (1634) 213 (1469) 70 249 1717 260 (1793) 249 (1717) 270 (1862) 240 (1655) 8620. and the same average flow stress. or fined. ¯ and effective strain. tively insignificant [Altan. and Sashar. essary for deformation. is measured.10 By use of Eq. e¯ a. The left side of Eq 17. This energy is intro. % ksi MPa P.A. a model material (plasticine.

17. Eq 17. pp. In order to predict the maxi.18. to assume that the friction factor. Table 17. The agreements between prediction and 冢pD4 冣 ⳱ dxs pD 2 dpx f (Eq 17.14. the model test D method described above was applied in order to predict punch pressures in forward extrusion for Equation 17. necessary to overcome the container 20%.13 is the same as the ejec.16) dx D A tooling setup for cold forging is shown in by integrating.9 Comparison of measured and predicted (model test) punch pressures in backward extrusion of various steels (model material. in most cases. formation and the addit