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LABORATORY

EXPERIMENT 4:

WIRING TOOLS, DEVICES, SYSTEM AND

TESTING PRACTICES

OBJECTIVES:

After this lesson, you will be able:

2). To learn how to connect circuits with resistors, inductors and capacitors

in series and parallel.

3). To solve complex ac circuits by using impedance equations.

KEYWORDS:

1.0) INTRODUCTION:

In any circuit containing both resistance and capacitance (or inductance) the total

opposition offered to the circuit is not the simple arithmetical sum of the reactance XC (or

XL) and the resistance R. The reactance must be added to the resistance in such a manner as

to take into account the 90 phase difference between the two voltages (series circuits) or

two currents (parallel circuits). This total opposition is termed IMPEDANCE and is

designated by the symbol Z. Since the voltage across the inductance (or capacitance) is

determined by the reactance and the current, then:

EL = IXL or, EC = IXC

The voltage across the resistance is the determined by the resistance and the current:

ER = IR

The total voltage is the current times the total opposition (or impedance) of the circuit:

E = IZ

The impedance and total voltage drop may also be obtained by the use of phasors.

Figure 16

The voltage ER across the resistance is equal to IR, and the voltage EL across the inductance

is equal to IXL. The resultant phasor sum is the source voltage Es which is equal to ISZ.

Since each phasor represents a product of which the current I is a common factor, the

phasors may be drawn proportional to R and XL as shown in Figure 16.

The resultant phasor sum Z represents the impedance of the circuit. The phasor sum of the

reactance and resistance (impedance Z) is also the hypotenuse of the right triangle a, b, c

and, therefore, can be calculated mathematically by use of the Pythagorean theorem:

2 2

Z = R + XL

The phase angle of Z is the same as the phase angle of the resultant phasor sum, and can be

calculated from tan = XL/R or cos = R/Z. The relationships between I, E and Z in ac

circuits are similar to the relationships between I, E and R in dc circuits. Because of this, the

equations for Ohm's Law can be used for solving ac circuits by using the impedance Z in

place of the resistance R.

These equations are called the Ohms Law for the ac circuits. They are:

E E

I = ; E = IZ ; Z =

Z I

In parallel RC or RL circuits, the applied voltage is the same across each branch. It is

therefore used as the phase reference. The current in each of the branches is found by

using equations above. The source current is found by adding the branch currents

vectorially.

2 2 2 2

IS = IR + IC ; IS = IR + IL

The impedance of parallel circuits can then be found by using Ohm's Law for ac circuits.

The magnitude of the impedance can also be found by adding the parallel resistance and

reactance vectorially.

RXC RXL

Z = 2 2

Z = 2 2

R + XC or R + XL

The phase angle for parallel circuits can be calculated from tan = R/X or

cos = Z/R.

When a circuit contains both inductive and capacitive elements, first solve for the total

combined reactance, and then proceed using this magnitude of X in the above

equations. For series circuits:

XL XC

X =

XL XC

In equations above, if the result of (XL XC) is positive, the combined reactance is

inductive, and thus, the phase angle associated with the whole impedance is positive. If

(XL XC) is negative, the combined reactance is capacitive, and the phase angle of the

impedance is negative.

Section: ______________ Group: __________ Date:_______________

Name : ____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

Variable Resistance

Variable Inductance

Variable Capacitance

AC Ammeter

AC Voltmeter

Power Supply

Connection Leads

Warnings: High voltages are present in this Laboratory Experiment! Do not

make any connections with the power on! The power should be turned off after

completing each individual measurement!

2.0) EXPERIMENTS

2.1) PROCEDURES

a) Calculate the unknown quantities using the equations given in the

INTRODUCTION. Show all calculations in the space provided adjacent to the

circuit.

b) Record your calculated results in the space provided.

c) Connect the circuit as shown in each Figure.

d) Turn on the power supply and adjust for the voltage or current as specified in

each case.

e) Make the required measurements and record them in the space provided.

f) Return the voltage to zero and turn off the power supply.

g) Compare your calculated values with your measured values.

2) Connect the circuit shown in Figure 17 below. Adjust the voltage, VS until AC

ammeter indicates 10 mA ac, f = 50 Hz.

Calculated VS = ___________ V Measured VS = ____________ V

Calculated VC = ___________ V Measured VC = ____________ V

Calculated VR = ___________ V Measured VR = ____________ V

vs C 100 F vc

R 10000 vR

Figure 17

3) Connect the circuit shown in Figure 18. Adjust the voltage, VS until AC ammeter

indicates 10 mA ac, f = 50 Hz.

Calculated VS = ___________ V Measured VS = ____________ V

Calculated VL = ___________ V Measured VL = ____________ V

Calculated VR = ___________ V Measured VR = ____________ V

vs L 0.1 H vL

R 10000

vR

Figure 18

4) Connect the circuit shown in Figure 19. Adjust the input voltage to 150V ac, f =

50 Hz.

Calculated IS = ___________ A Measured IS = ____________ A

Calculated IC = ___________ A Measured IC = ____________ A

Calculated IR = ___________ A Measured IR = ____________ A

C 50 F R 10000

150 V ac

Figure 19

5) Connect the circuit shown in Figure 20 below. Adjust the voltage, VS until AC

ammeter indicates 11 mA ac, f = 50 Hz.

Calculated VS = ___________ V Measured VS = ____________ V

Calculated VC = ___________ V Measured VC = ____________ V

Calculated VR = ___________ V Measured VR = ____________ V

Calculated VL = ___________ V Measured VL = ____________ V

100 F C vc

vs 10000

R vR

L

0.1 H vL

Figure 20

6) Connect the circuit shown in Figure 21. Adjust the input voltage for 120V ac, f =

50 Hz.

Calculated IS = ___________ A Measured IS = ____________ A

Calculated IC = ___________ A Measured IC = ____________ A

Calculated IR = ___________ A Measured IR = ____________ A

Calculated IL = ___________ A Measured IL = ____________ A

120 V ac

50 F C 10000 R 0.1 H L

Figure 21

3.0) TUTORIALS

1. If a circuit connected across a 240 V line draws 2 A of line current, what is the

circuit impedance, Z?

2. Can you calculate the phase angle, between the current and voltage, of

the circuit described in Question 1? Explain.

Explain.

______________________________________________________________________________________

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