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ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY

LABORATORY

EXPERIMENT 4:
WIRING TOOLS, DEVICES, SYSTEM AND
TESTING PRACTICES

OBJECTIVES:
After this lesson, you will be able:

1). To learn how to use the ac power supply.


2). To learn how to connect circuits with resistors, inductors and capacitors
in series and parallel.
3). To solve complex ac circuits by using impedance equations.

KEYWORDS:

Impedance, series and parallel connection, phase angle.

Experiment 4: Wiring Tools, Devices, System and Testing Practices. 1


1.0) INTRODUCTION:

In any circuit containing both resistance and capacitance (or inductance) the total
opposition offered to the circuit is not the simple arithmetical sum of the reactance XC (or
XL) and the resistance R. The reactance must be added to the resistance in such a manner as
to take into account the 90 phase difference between the two voltages (series circuits) or
two currents (parallel circuits). This total opposition is termed IMPEDANCE and is
designated by the symbol Z. Since the voltage across the inductance (or capacitance) is
determined by the reactance and the current, then:
EL = IXL or, EC = IXC

The voltage across the resistance is the determined by the resistance and the current:

ER = IR

The total voltage is the current times the total opposition (or impedance) of the circuit:

E = IZ

The impedance and total voltage drop may also be obtained by the use of phasors.

Figure 16

The voltage ER across the resistance is equal to IR, and the voltage EL across the inductance
is equal to IXL. The resultant phasor sum is the source voltage Es which is equal to ISZ.
Since each phasor represents a product of which the current I is a common factor, the
phasors may be drawn proportional to R and XL as shown in Figure 16.

Experiment 4: Wiring Tools, Devices, System and Testing Practices. 2


The resultant phasor sum Z represents the impedance of the circuit. The phasor sum of the
reactance and resistance (impedance Z) is also the hypotenuse of the right triangle a, b, c
and, therefore, can be calculated mathematically by use of the Pythagorean theorem:
2 2
Z = R + XL

The phase angle of Z is the same as the phase angle of the resultant phasor sum, and can be
calculated from tan = XL/R or cos = R/Z. The relationships between I, E and Z in ac
circuits are similar to the relationships between I, E and R in dc circuits. Because of this, the
equations for Ohm's Law can be used for solving ac circuits by using the impedance Z in
place of the resistance R.
These equations are called the Ohms Law for the ac circuits. They are:

E E
I = ; E = IZ ; Z =
Z I

In parallel RC or RL circuits, the applied voltage is the same across each branch. It is
therefore used as the phase reference. The current in each of the branches is found by
using equations above. The source current is found by adding the branch currents
vectorially.
2 2 2 2
IS = IR + IC ; IS = IR + IL
The impedance of parallel circuits can then be found by using Ohm's Law for ac circuits.
The magnitude of the impedance can also be found by adding the parallel resistance and
reactance vectorially.

RXC RXL
Z = 2 2
Z = 2 2
R + XC or R + XL

The phase angle for parallel circuits can be calculated from tan = R/X or
cos = Z/R.
When a circuit contains both inductive and capacitive elements, first solve for the total
combined reactance, and then proceed using this magnitude of X in the above
equations. For series circuits:

X = XL - XC and for the parallel circuits:

XL XC
X =
XL XC

Experiment 4: Wiring Tools, Devices, System and Testing Practices. 3


In equations above, if the result of (XL XC) is positive, the combined reactance is
inductive, and thus, the phase angle associated with the whole impedance is positive. If
(XL XC) is negative, the combined reactance is capacitive, and the phase angle of the
impedance is negative.

Experiment 4: Wiring Tools, Devices, System and Testing Practices. 4


Section: ______________ Group: __________ Date:_______________

Name : ____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________

1.1) INSTRUMENTS AND COMPONENTS

Variable Resistance
Variable Inductance
Variable Capacitance
AC Ammeter
AC Voltmeter
Power Supply
Connection Leads

1.2) SAFETY PROCEDURES


Warnings: High voltages are present in this Laboratory Experiment! Do not
make any connections with the power on! The power should be turned off after
completing each individual measurement!

2.0) EXPERIMENTS

2.1) PROCEDURES

1) For each of the following circuits:


a) Calculate the unknown quantities using the equations given in the
INTRODUCTION. Show all calculations in the space provided adjacent to the
circuit.
b) Record your calculated results in the space provided.
c) Connect the circuit as shown in each Figure.
d) Turn on the power supply and adjust for the voltage or current as specified in
each case.
e) Make the required measurements and record them in the space provided.
f) Return the voltage to zero and turn off the power supply.

Experiment 4: Wiring Tools, Devices, System and Testing Practices. 5


g) Compare your calculated values with your measured values.
2) Connect the circuit shown in Figure 17 below. Adjust the voltage, VS until AC
ammeter indicates 10 mA ac, f = 50 Hz.

Circuit impedance, Z = ____________________

Phase angle = cos-1 (R/Z) = ______________


Calculated VS = ___________ V Measured VS = ____________ V
Calculated VC = ___________ V Measured VC = ____________ V
Calculated VR = ___________ V Measured VR = ____________ V

vs C 100 F vc

R 10000 vR

Figure 17

Experiment 4: Wiring Tools, Devices, System and Testing Practices. 6


3) Connect the circuit shown in Figure 18. Adjust the voltage, VS until AC ammeter
indicates 10 mA ac, f = 50 Hz.

Circuit impedance, Z = ____________________

Phase angle = cos-1 (R/Z) = ______________


Calculated VS = ___________ V Measured VS = ____________ V
Calculated VL = ___________ V Measured VL = ____________ V
Calculated VR = ___________ V Measured VR = ____________ V

vs L 0.1 H vL

R 10000
vR

Figure 18

Experiment 4: Wiring Tools, Devices, System and Testing Practices. 7


4) Connect the circuit shown in Figure 19. Adjust the input voltage to 150V ac, f =
50 Hz.

Circuit impedance, Z = ____________________

Phase angle = cos-1 (Z/R) = ______________


Calculated IS = ___________ A Measured IS = ____________ A
Calculated IC = ___________ A Measured IC = ____________ A
Calculated IR = ___________ A Measured IR = ____________ A

C 50 F R 10000
150 V ac

Figure 19

Experiment 4: Wiring Tools, Devices, System and Testing Practices. 8


5) Connect the circuit shown in Figure 20 below. Adjust the voltage, VS until AC
ammeter indicates 11 mA ac, f = 50 Hz.

Circuit impedance = ____________________

Phase angle = cos-1 (R/Z) = ______________


Calculated VS = ___________ V Measured VS = ____________ V
Calculated VC = ___________ V Measured VC = ____________ V
Calculated VR = ___________ V Measured VR = ____________ V
Calculated VL = ___________ V Measured VL = ____________ V

100 F C vc

vs 10000
R vR

L
0.1 H vL

Figure 20

Experiment 4: Wiring Tools, Devices, System and Testing Practices. 9


6) Connect the circuit shown in Figure 21. Adjust the input voltage for 120V ac, f =
50 Hz.

Circuit impedance = ____________________

Phase angle = cos-1 (Z/R) = ______________


Calculated IS = ___________ A Measured IS = ____________ A
Calculated IC = ___________ A Measured IC = ____________ A
Calculated IR = ___________ A Measured IR = ____________ A
Calculated IL = ___________ A Measured IL = ____________ A

120 V ac
50 F C 10000 R 0.1 H L

Figure 21

Experiment 4: Wiring Tools, Devices, System and Testing Practices. 10


3.0) TUTORIALS

1. If a circuit connected across a 240 V line draws 2 A of line current, what is the
circuit impedance, Z?

2. Can you calculate the phase angle, between the current and voltage, of
the circuit described in Question 1? Explain.

3. Can an ac circuit containing only resistance, be considered as having impedance, Z?


Explain.

______________________________________________________________________________________

Experiment 4: Wiring Tools, Devices, System and Testing Practices 11