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AMPLITUDE MODULATION 3

WITH NO CARRIER
Objectives:

1. To be able to explain the concept of amplitude modulation-double sideband


suppressed carrier
2. To be able to distinguish the differences between AM-DSBFC and AM-DSBSC
both in the time and frequency domain
3. To be familiar with the process of SSB demodulation

Practicals:

1. Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier


2. Generating SSB
3. Demodulation of SSB

Workboard Required:

Amplitude Modulation Workboard 53-130, which comprises the following


blocks:

1. Signal Generation
2. Modulation
3. Filters
4. Demodulation

Theory

Theory of DSB Suppressed Carrier Modulation

In the theory for Assignment: Amplitude Modulation with Full Carrier,


Practical 1, it was established that if:

ec(t) = Ec sin ct describes a carrier signal and

em(t) = Em sin mt describes a modulating signal,

then the normal AM signal is

eAM(t) = (Ec + Em sin m t) sin c t


which may be rewritten as

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EXPERIMENT 3
eAM(t) = Ec sin c t + Em sin c t * sin m t

In DSB suppressed carrier modulation, the carrier term E c sin c t is


suppressed, leaving just

Em sin c t * sin m t = ( Em /2) [cos(c - m ) t - cos(c + m ) t]

as the modulated signal.

The two cosine terms represent the lower and upper sidebands respectively.

In the case of SSB suppressed carrier modulation, one of these sidebands


will also be suppressed.

PRACTICAL 1: Overview to Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier

This practical introduces the idea of AM with suppressed carrier. After it you
will understand the following ideas:

1. Balanced modulators and carrier suppression.


2. The BFO as a carrier insertion oscillator.

In the assignment on basic amplitude modulation we saw that the


modulated signal comprises of carrier and two sidebands. The carrier is of
constant amplitude and only the sidebands vary in frequency and amplitude with
the modulation. It is therefore clear that only the sidebands carry the modulating
information while the carrier does nothing except, as we will see, help in the
demodulation process.

The transmission of the carrier takes a large proportion of the total


transmitted power, so if the carrier were removed all the power could be used to
transmit the sidebands which, after all, contain the information.

If the modulation process is carried out by a balanced modulator, the output


signal does not contain the carrier component because it is canceled out by the
balanced nature of the modulator. This signal is described as double sideband,
suppressed carrier or DSB.

Carrier Unbalance

If the modulator were perfectly balanced there would be no carrier in the


output.

In practice, due to circuit imperfections, some carrier is always present.

The ratio of the actual carrier to that which would be there in a simple AM

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ECOMLA1
EXPERIMENT 3
system is called the carrier suppression ratio and is an important parameter in
such systems. Normally the ratio is expressed in decibels (dB) to make the
numbers manageable; 30 dB would be a typical value.

To calculate the carrier suppression ratio, you need to know what amplitude
of the carrier would have been present, if not suppressed. This is the carrier,
which would give 100% modulation by the maximum signal level for which the
system is designed.
Since 100% modulation produces side frequencies of half the carrier
amplitude, the unsuppressed carrier amplitude may be taken as twice the
allowable amplitude of either sideband.

PROCEDURES:

Use the oscilloscope and spectrum analyzer to examine the signals at 4 and
5. Examine at 6 and note the waveshape. Use the spectrum analyzer to observe
that there are two sidebands but no carrier. Adjust the carrier balance; note the
effect on carrier amplitude.

Figure 1 Balanced Modulator

1. Set the carrier level to mid scale and the modulation level to minimum .
2. Sketch the output signal from all monitoring points (4, 5, 6, 13, 14 & 16) both
in the time and frequency domain.
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for:
a. modulation level equals carrier level
b. modulation level less than the carrier level
c. modulation level greater than the carrier level
d. modulation level equals zero
Note that the output from the envelope detector is not the same as the

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EXPERIMENT 3
modulating signal. Monitor at 13 and adjust the BFO frequency for a stable trace,
so that the BFO is in phase with Emthe =original
Ec carrier. Observe that the product
detector output is the same as the modulating signal. Unlock the BFO and observe
the result.
DATA AND RESULTS:
OSCILLOSCOPE: SPECTRUM ANALYZER:
Carrier Signal Carrier Signal

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EXPERIMENT 3

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________
Amplitude: __________________
Modulating
Frequency:Signal
__________________
Modulating Signal

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________
Amplitude: __________________
AM Signal AM Signal
Frequency: __________________
Em = Ec
E(fc): ____________________
E(fc-fm): ____________________ E(fc+fm): ___________________
DATA AND RESULTS:
OSCILLOSCOPE: SPECTRUM ANALYZER:
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BFO BFO

Amplitude: __________________ Amplitude: __________________


Period: __________________ Frequency: __________________
Product Detector
Product Detector

Amplitude: __________________ Amplitude: __________________


Period: __________________ Frequency: __________________

Envelope Detector Envelope Detector

Amplitude: __________________ Amplitude: __________________


Period: __________________

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EXPERIMENT 3
Em < Ec

Frequency: __________________
DATA AND RESULTS:
OSCILLOSCOPE: SPECTRUM ANALYZER:
Carrier Signal Carrier Signal

Amplitude: __________________
Amplitude: __________________ Frequency: __________________
Period: __________________
Modulating Signal
Modulating Signal

Amplitude: __________________
Amplitude: __________________ Frequency: __________________
Period: __________________

AM Signal AM Signal

E(fc-fm): ____________________
E(fc): ____________________
E(fc+fm): ___________________Em < Ec
DATA AND RESULTS:
OSCILLOSCOPE:SPECTRUM ANALYZER:

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EXPERIMENT 3 Page 6 of 26
BFO
BFO

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________
Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________
Product Detector
Product Detector

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________
Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

Envelope Detector Envelope Detector

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________
Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________ DATA AND RESULTS:
OSCILLOSCOPE:
SPECTRUM ANALYZER:

ECOMLA1
Carrier Signal Carrier
EXPERIMENT 3
Signal

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Modulating Signal
Em > Ec

Amplitude: __________________ Amplitude: __________________


Period: __________________ Frequency: __________________
Modulating Signal

Amplitude: __________________ Amplitude: __________________


Period: __________________ Frequency: __________________

AM Signal AM Signal

E(fc-fm): ____________________
E(fc): ____________________
E(fc+fm): ___________________Em >Ec
DATA AND RESULTS:
OSCILLOSCOPE:SPECTRUM ANALYZER:
ECOMLA1
EXPERIMENT 3
BFO
BFO

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Product Detector
Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________
Amplitude: __________________
Product Detector
Period: __________________

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________
Amplitude: __________________
Envelope Detector Envelope
Period: Detector
__________________

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________
Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

ECOMLA1DATA AND RESULTS:


EXPERIMENTOSCILLOSCOPE:
3 SPECTRUM ANALYZER:

Carrier Signal
Carrier Signal

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Modulating Signal
Em = 0

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________
Modulating Signal
Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

AM Signal AM Signal
Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________

E(fc-fm): ____________________
ECOMLA1 E(fc): ____________________
EXPERIMENT 3 E(fc+fm): ___________________Em = 0
DATA AND RESULTS:
OSCILLOSCOPE: SPECTRUM ANALYZER:

BFO
BFO

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

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Product Detector
Product Detector

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

Envelope Detector Envelope Detector

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

ECOMLA1
EXPERIMENT 3
Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

QUESTIONS:

1. Why does AM have a low efficiency when the full carrier is transmitted ?

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

How high is the maximum efficiency in DSB? How can the efficiency be
increased?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

2. How can you tell whether the modulator is balanced :

a. using the oscilloscope?


_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

b. using the spectrum analyzer?


_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

3. Measure the carrier suppression ratio for the system in Practical 1 when set
for maximum modulation and minimum carrier amplitude.

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

4. Does the term overmodulation have any meaning in a DSB system ?

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

5. In DSB the carrier's peak values are affected by the instantaneous value of
the message signal, but the spectrum shows that the carrier amplitude
remains constant! How do you explain the apparent contradiction?

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

6. Can intelligence be sent without a carrier? If so, how?


ECOMLA1
_______________________________________________________________________
EXPERIMENT 3
_______________________________________________________________________
7. In radio links the carrier is normally attenuated to 5%.....10%. What
advantages does this have compared to transmission with 100% carrier
amplitude? Why isn't the carrier completely suppressed.

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
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PRACTICAL 2: Overview to Generating SSB

This practical introduces the concept of single sideband suppressed carrier or


SSB operation. In the Double sideband suppressed carrier practical it was
demonstrated that it was possible to recover the modulating signal without the
presence of a transmitted carrier. This is achieved by inserting a local carrier at
the demodulator. That practical used DSB, i.e both sidebands were transmitted.

It is obvious that as both sidebands are generated from the same carrier and
modulation, they must contain the same information, and therefore the
modulating frequency could be recovered from only one sideband. This saves
further transmitter power. Another very important advantage is that the
bandwidth is half that of simple AM or DSB.

Generating SSB

The generator in the practical is the balanced modulator, producing DSB,


followed by a bandpass filter for the required sideband.

There are other methods but this filter method is the simplest to understand
and is in very common usage in communication systems. It may be necessary for
bandpass filter to have a very good shape factor because, at normal carrier and
audio frequencies, the upper and lower sidebands are quite close in frequency.

Another consideration is that the sideband filter should offer significant


attenuation to the carrier, so that the balanced modulator need not be so
accurately balanced. In practice, the balanced modulator might provide 30 dB of
carrier suppression and the filter a further 10 dB. The other sideband would
normally be about 30 to 40 dB down on the wanted one.
ECOMLA1
In order to achieve this, the SSB filter has 3several poles and is, in most cases
EXPERIMENT
ceramic filter or crystal filter. Various filters are commercially available with
different specifications depending on the application.

In the practical, we use a high modulating frequency so you can see clearly
the relationship between the various frequency components. This means that the
filter specification can be relaxed and here a single tuned circuit is used. Separate
filters are provided for upper and lower sidebands.

You might be surprised that the output from the SSB filters is simply a

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sinusoidal signal but, since we use sinusoidal carrier and modulating frequencies,
the sum or difference of the two must be a single frequency.

Upper or Lower Sideband?

An obvious question is which sideband should be transmitted? The answer


owes more to convention than theory!

There is no reason why one sideband gives better results than the other, but
general practice seems to be favoring the upper sideband.

One convention is that with carrier frequencies below 10 MHz the lower
sideband should be used, but this is not always the case. The result of this is that
many pieces of communication equipment have to be able to deal with both.

PROCEDURES:
ECOMLA1
Use the spectrum analyzer and oscilloscope
EXPERIMENT 3 to observe at 6 . Note that the
signal is DSB. Adjust the carrier balance as before.

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Figure 2 Balanced Modulator Using Filter System

1. Set the carrier level to mid scale.


2. Set modulation level to the following conditions:
a) Em = Ec
b) Em < Ec
c) Em > Ec
3. Monitor points 8 & 9 in the time domain. Compare its output from point 4.
4. Sketch the corresponding waveforms in the time domain.

(Note that the carrier suppression is less dependent on the carrier


balance than before the filter.)

5. Use the oscilloscope to observe that the SSB output is a sinusoidal signal.
Use the spectrum analyzer to note that the upper sideband frequency is the
sum of the carrier and modulation frequencies and the lower sideband is the
difference. Sketch the corresponding output waveform and indicate their
respective frequencies.

DATA AND RESULTS:


OSCILLOSCOPE: SPECTRUM ANALYZER:
ECOMLA1
Modulating Signal EXPERIMENT 3

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Upper Sideband
Em = Ec

Modulating Signal

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________ Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________
Upper Sideband

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________ Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________
Lower Sideband Lower Sideband

Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________ Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________
DATA AND RESULTS:
OSCILLOSCOPE: SPECTRUM ANALYZER:
ECOMLA1 Modulating Signal
Modulating Signal EXPERIMENT 3

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Em < Ec

Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________
Upper Sideband Upper Sideband

Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

Lower Sideband Lower Sideband

Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

ECOMLA1
EXPERIMENT 3
Em > Ec

DATA AND RESULTS:


OSCILLOSCOPE: SPECTRUM ANALYZER:
Modulating Signal Modulating Signal

Amplitude: __________________ Amplitude: __________________


Period: __________________ Frequency: __________________
Upper Sideband Upper Sideband

Amplitude: __________________ Amplitude: __________________


Period: __________________ Frequency: __________________

Lower Sideband Lower Sideband

Amplitude: __________________ Amplitude: __________________


Period: __________________ Frequency: __________________

QUESTIONS:

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EXPERIMENT 3
1. Why is the balance of the modulator less important in a filter method SSB
generator than for a DSB generator ?

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

2. How is the bandwidth of the SSB filter related to the maximum and
minimum
modulating frequencies ?

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

3. How is the output power of an SSB transmitter expressed?

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

4. Can an information signal have a higher frequency than that of the carrier
signal?

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

What would happen if a 1-kHz signal amplitude-modulated a 1-kHz carrier


signal?

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

PRACTICAL 3: Overview to Demodulation of SSB

This practical is about the demodulation of SSB. In the Double sideband


suppressed carrier practical we saw how DSB is demodulated using the BFO to
reinsert the carrier. In the case of DSB the BFO must be in phase with the original
carrier or the process will not work correctly.

Since SSB is transmitted without a carrier it is not surprising that a similar


method is employed. The main difference is that, for SSB, the BFO need not be in
phase with the carrier. It does need to be at the same frequency but even a small
error in the frequency results only in a small error in the frequency of the
demodulated output.

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This means that in non-critical applications, such as speech, a small overall
frequency error does not make the ECOMLA1
system useless. The effect on speech is to
raise or EXPERIMENT 3
lower the tone of the voice, which within limits does not reduce intelligibility.

The fact that the BFO need not be locked, greatly simplifies the design of the
receiver, and makes SSB one of the most powerful techniques for transmitting
audio frequencies over radio links with its narrow bandwidth and efficient use of
available transmitter power.

In the practical you can use both upper and lower sidebands and see that
with the BFO set correctly, near to the original carrier frequency, even though the
two sidebands are at different frequencies the demodulated output is the same.
You can also see that changing the BFO frequency causes the demodulated output
to change in frequency by a similar amount.

PROCEDURES:

1. Following the previous set up of Practicals 1 and 2 monitor at point 6 and


observe the DSB signal. Move to point 10 and note the upper sideband
signal. Use the spectrum analyzer to confirm that the frequency is that of
the upper sideband.

Figure 3 Balanced Modulator Using Filter System - Receiver

2. Change to lower sideband (by pressing the button) and repeat. Now monitor
at point 14 and compare the output with the modulation input. Use either
the oscilloscope or analyzer to set the BFO frequency to that of the carrier,

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by monitoring at point 13 . Note that both sidebands give the same output
frequency.

3. Sketch the output waveform from point 14 using oscilloscope and


spectrum analyzer for the threeECOMLA1
cases stated.
EXPERIMENT 3
a) Em = Ec
b) Em < Ec
c) Em > Ec
ECOMLA1
EXPERIMENT 3
Em = Ec
DATA AND RESULTS:
OSCILLOSCOPE:
SPECTRUM ANALYZER:
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Modulating Signal Modulating Signal

ECOMLA1
EXPERIMENT 3

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________ Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________
Upper Sideband Upper Sideband

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________ Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________
Lower Sideband Lower Sideband

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________ Amplitude: __________________

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Em < Ec

Frequency: __________________
DATA AND RESULTS:
OSCILLOSCOPE: SPECTRUM ANALYZER:
Modulating Signal Modulating Signal

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________
Upper Sideband Upper Sideband

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

Lower Sideband Lower Sideband

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

ECOMLA1
EXPERIMENT 3
Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________

Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________

Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________

DATA AND RESULTS:


OSCILLOSCOPE:
SPECTRUM ANALYZER:
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Modulating Signal
Modulating Signal
Em > Ec

Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________
Upper Sideband Upper Sideband

Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________

Amplitude: __________________
Period: __________________

Lower Sideband Lower Sideband

Amplitude: __________________
Frequency: __________________

Amplitude: __________________ Page 24 of 26


Period: __________________

ECOMLA1
EXPERIMENT 3
QUESTIONS:

1. Why is SSB more efficient than a simple AM or DSB?

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

2. If the BFO frequency rises, what happens to the frequency:

a. of the upper sideband?


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_______________________________________________________________________

b. of the lower sideband?


_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

3. Calculate the bandwidth of the transmitted signal when the modulation


frequency band extends from 500Hz to 50kHz for:

a. simple AM
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_______________________________________________________________________

b. DSB
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

c. SSB
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_______________________________________________________________________

4. If a SSB channel has no modulating signal, what is the modulated signal


like?

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

5. An SSB transmitter with a carrier of 2.3 MHz is modulated by an intelligence


signal in the 150-Hz to 4.2 kHz range. Calculate the frequency range of the
lower sideband.

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

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EXPERIMENT 3
6. Which demodulation method is used for AM with suppressed carrier?

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

CONCLUSION:

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ECOMLA1 Page 26 of 26
EXPERIMENT 3
Point 16 Point 16