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Real

An Operational Amplifier is basically a three-terminal op-amps have output impedances in the 100-20k

device which consists of two high impedance inputs, range.

one called the Inverting Input, marked with a negative

or minus sign, ( ) and the other one called the Non- Bandwidth, (BW): Infinite An ideal operational

inverting Input, marked with a positive or plus sign amplifier has an infinite frequency response and can

( + ). amplify any frequency signal from DC to the highest AC

frequencies so it is therefore assumed to have an

Voltage Voltage in and Voltage out infinite bandwidth. With real op-amps, the bandwidth is

Current Current in and Current out limited by the Gain-Bandwidth product (GB), which is

Transconductance Voltage in and Current out equal to the frequency where the amplifiers gain

Transresistance Current in and Voltage out becomes unity.

The output voltage signal from an Operational Offset Voltage, (Vio): Zero The amplifiers output

Amplifier is the difference between the signals being will be zero when the voltage difference between the

applied to its two individual inputs. In other words, an inverting and the non-inverting inputs is zero, the same

op-amps output signal is the difference between the or when both inputs are grounded. Real op-amps have

two input signals as the input stage of an Operational some amount of output offset voltage.

Amplifier is in fact a differential amplifier.

From these idealized characteristics above, we

In real amplifiers there is always some variation and can see that the input resistance is infinite, so

the ratio of the change to the output voltage with no current flows into either input terminal (the

regards to the change in the common mode input current rule) and that the differential input

voltage is called the Common Mode Rejection Ratio offset voltage is zero (the voltage rule). It is

or CMRR. important to remember these two properties as

they will help us understand the workings of the

An operational amplifier only responds to the Operational Amplifier with regards to the

difference between the voltages on its two input analysis and design of op-amp circuits.

terminals, known commonly as the Differential Input

Voltage and not to their common potential. Then if the Open-loop Frequency Response Curve:

same voltage potential is applied to both terminals the

resultant output will be zero. An Operational Amplifiers

gain is commonly known as the Open Loop Differential

Gain, and is given the symbol (Ao).

of an operational amplifier is to amplify the input signal From this frequency response curve we can see that

and the more open loop gain it has the better. Open- the product of the gain against frequency is constant at

loop gain is the gain of the op-amp without positive or any point along the curve. Also that the unity gain

negative feedback and for such an amplifier the gain (0dB) frequency also determines the gain of the

will be infinite but typical real values range from about amplifier at any point along the curve. This constant is

20,000 to 200,000. generally known as the Gain Bandwidth Product or GBP.

Therefore:

Input impedance, (Zin): Infinite Input impedance is

the ratio of input voltage to input current and is GBP = Gain x Bandwidth = A x BW

assumed to be infinite to prevent any current flowing

from the source supply into the amplifiers input For example, from the graph above the gain of the

circuitry ( Iin = 0 ). Real op-amps have input leakage amplifier at 100kHz is given as 20dB or 10, then the

currents from a few pico-amps to a few milli-amps. gain bandwidth product is calculated as:

impedance of the ideal operational amplifier is

assumed to be zero acting as a perfect internal voltage Similarly, the operational amplifiers gain at 1kHz =

source with no internal resistance so that it can supply 60dB or 1000, therefore the GBP is given as:

as much current as necessary to the load. This internal

resistance is effectively in series with the load thereby

GBP = A x BW = 1,000 x 1,000Hz = 1,000,000. The

same!.

amplifier is connected with feedback to produce a

closed loop operation. When dealing with operational

amplifiers there are two very important rules to

An Operational Amplifiers Bandwidth

remember about inverting amplifiers, these are: No

current flows into the input terminal and that

The operational amplifiers bandwidth is the frequency

V1 always equals V2. However, in real world op-

range over which the voltage gain of the amplifier is

amp circuits both of these rules are slightly broken.

above 70.7% or -3dB (where 0dB is the maximum) of

its maximum output value as shown below.

The junction of the input and feedback signal ( X ) is at

the same potential as the positive ( + ) input which is

at zero volts or ground then, the junction is a Virtual

Earth.

Non-Inverting Op-Amp:

Feedback control of the non-inverting operational

amplifier is achieved by applying a small part of the

output voltage signal back to the inverting ( ) input

terminal via a R R2 voltage divider network, again

producing negative feedback. This closed-loop

configuration produces a non-inverting amplifier circuit

with very good stability, a very high input impedance,

Rin approaching infinity, as no current flows into the

positive input terminal, (ideal conditions) and a low

output impedance, Rout as shown below.

Inverting Op-Amp:

Negative Feedback is the process of feeding back a

fraction of the output signal back to the input, but to

make the feedback negative, we must feed it back to

the negative or inverting input terminal of the op-

amp using an external Feedback Resistor called R . This

feedback connection between the output and the

inverting input terminal forces the differential input

voltage towards zero.

amplifier resulting in the gain of the amplifier now

being called its Closed-loop Gain.

Summing Amplifier:

If we add more input resistors to the input, each equal

in value to the original input resistor, Rin we end up

with another operational amplifier circuit called a

Summing Amplifier, summing inverter or even a

voltage adder circuit as shown below.

The Voltage Subtractor Op-amp Circuit:

Differential Amplifier:

Transresistance Amplifier Circuit: All op-amps are Differential Amplifiers due to their

A Transresistance Amplifier also known as a input configuration. But by connecting one voltage

transimpedance amplifier, is basically a current-to- signal onto one input terminal and another voltage

voltage converter (Current in and Voltage out). signal onto the other input terminal the resultant

They can be used in low-power applications to convert output voltage will be proportional to the Difference

a very small current generated by a photo-diode or between the two input voltage signals of V1 and V2.

photo-detecting device etc, into a usable output

voltage which is proportional to the input current as

shown.

If all the resistors are all of the same ohmic value, that

is: R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 then the circuit will become a

Unity Gain Differential Amplifier and the voltage gain of

the amplifier will be exactly one or unity. Then the

output expression would simply be Vout = V2 - V1. Also

note that if input V1 is higher than input V2 the output

voltage sum will be negative, and if V2 is higher than Op-Amp Integrator:

V1, the output voltage sum will be positive. By replacing this feedback resistance with a capacitor

we now have an RC Network connected across the

operational amplifiers feedback path producing

another type of operational amplifier circuit commonly

called an Op-amp Integrator circuit as shown below.

Instrumentation Amplifiers:

Instrumentation Amplifiers (in-amps) are very high gain

differential amplifiers which have a high input As its name implies, the Op-amp Integrator is an

impedance and a single ended output. Instrumentation operational amplifier circuit that performs the

amplifiers are mainly used to amplify very small mathematical operation of Integration, that is we can

differential signals from strain gauges, thermocouples cause the output to respond to changes in the input

or current sensing devices in motor control systems. voltage over time as the op-amp integrator produces

an output voltage which is proportional to the integral

Unlike standard operational amplifiers in which their of the input voltage.

closed-loop gain is determined by an external resistive

feedback connected between their output terminal and As the impedance of the capacitor at this point is very

one input terminal, either positive or negative, low, the gain ratio of Xc/Rin is also very small giving an

instrumentation amplifiers have an internal feedback overall voltage gain of less than one, ( voltage follower

resistor that is effectively isolated from its input circuit ).

terminals as the input signal is applied across two

differential inputs, V1 and V2. As the feedback capacitor, C begins to charge up due

to the influence of the input voltage, its impedance Xc

The instrumentation amplifier also has a very good slowly increase in proportion to its rate of charge. The

common mode rejection ratio, CMRR (zero output when capacitor charges up at a rate determined by the RC

V1 = V2) well in excess of 100dB at DC. A typical time constant, ( ) of the series RC network. Negative

example of a three op-amp instrumentation amplifier feedback forces the op-amp to produce an output

with a high input impedance ( Zin ) is given below: voltage that maintains a virtual earth at the op-amps

inverting input.

Since the capacitor is connected between the op-amps

inverting input (which is at earth potential) and the op-

amps output (which is negative), the potential voltage,

Vc developed across the capacitor slowly increases

causing the charging current to decrease as the

impedance of the capacitor increases. This results in

the ratio of Xc/Rin increasing producing a linearly

increasing ramp output voltage that continues to

increase until the capacitor is fully charged.

blocking any more flow of DC current. The ratio of

feedback capacitor to input resistor ( Xc/Rin ) is now

infinite resulting in infinite gain. The result of this high

gain (similar to the op-amps open-loop gain), is that

the output of the amplifier goes into saturation as

shown below. (Saturation occurs when the output

voltage of the amplifier swings heavily to one voltage

supply rail or the other with little or no control in

between).

Differentiator Amplifier:

Operational amplifier circuit performs the

mathematical operation of Differentiation, that is it

produces a voltage output which is directly

proportional to the input voltages rate-of-change with

respect to time. In other words the faster or larger the

change to the input voltage signal, the greater the

input current, the greater will be the output voltage

The rate at which the output voltage increases (the change in response, becoming more of a spike in

rate of change) is determined by the value of the shape.

resistor and the capacitor, RC time constant. By

changing this RC time constant value, either by

changing the value of the Capacitor, C or the Resistor,

R, the time in which it takes the output voltage to

reach saturation can also be changed for example.

High resulting in a low gain ( R/Xc ) and low output

voltage from the op-amp. At higher frequencies the

reactance of the capacitor is much lower resulting in a

higher gain and higher output voltage from the

differentiator amplifier.

circuit becomes unstable and will start to oscillate. This

is due mainly to the first-order effect, which

determines the frequency response of the op-amp

circuit causing a second-order response which, at high

frequencies gives an output voltage far higher than

what would be expected. To avoid this the high

frequency gain of the circuit needs to be reduced by

adding an additional small value capacitor across the

feedback resistor R.

Op-Amp Multivibrator:

that generates a rectangular output waveform using an

RC timing network connected to the inverting input of

The Op-amp Differentiator circuit in its basic form has the operational amplifier and a voltage divider network

two main disadvantages compared to the previous connected to the other non-inverting input.

operational amplifier integrator circuit. One is that it

suffers from instability at high frequencies as Unlike the monostable or bistable, the astable

mentioned above, and the other is that the capacitive multivibrator has two states, neither of which are

input makes it very susceptible to random noise signals stable as it is constantly switching between these two

and any noise or harmonics present in the source states with the time spent in each state controlled by

circuit will be amplified more than the input signal the charging or discharging of the capacitor through a

itself. This is because the output is proportional to the resistor.

slope of the input voltage so some means of limiting

the bandwidth in order to achieve closed-loop stability In the op-amp multivibrator circuit the op-amp works

is required as an analogue comparator. An op-amp comparator

compares the voltages on its two inputs and gives a

positive or negative output depending on whether the

input is greater or less than some reference value, Vref.

very sensitive to the voltage changes on its inputs, the

output can switch uncontrollably between its positive,

+V(sat) and negative, -V(sat) supply rails whenever the

input voltage being measured is near to the reference

voltage, Vref.

operations, the op-amp used in the multivibrator circuit

is configured as a closed-loop Schmitt Trigger circuit.

differentiator circuit is not widely used to reform the

mathematical function of Differentiation because of the

The op-amp comparator circuit above is configured as

two inherent faults mentioned above, Instability and

a Schmitt trigger that uses positive feedback provided

Noise. So in order to reduce the overall closed-loop

by resistors R1 and R2 to generate hysteresis. As this

gain of the circuit at high frequencies, an extra resistor,

resistive network is connected between the amplifiers

Rin is added to the input as shown below.

output and non-inverting (+) input, when Vout is

saturated at the positive supply rail, a positive voltage

Adding the input resistor Rin limits the differentiators

is applied to the op-amps non-inverting input. Likewise,

increase in gain at a ratio of R/Rin. The circuit now

when Vout is saturated to the negative supply rail, a

acts like a differentiator amplifier at low frequencies

negative voltage is applied to the op-amps non-

and an amplifier with resistive feedback at high

inverting input.

frequencies giving much better noise rejection.

Additional attenuation of higher frequencies is

As the two resistors are configured across the op-amps

accomplished by connecting a capacitor C in parallel

output as a voltage divider network, the reference

with the differentiator feedback resistor, R.

voltage, Vref will therefore be dependant upon the

fraction of output voltage fed back to the non-inverting

input. This feedback fraction, is given as:

By replacing either resistor R1 or R2 with a

potentiometer we could adjust the feedback fraction,

and therefore the reference voltage value at the non-

inverting input to cause the op-amp to change state

anywhere from zero to 90o of each half cycle so long

as the reference voltage, Vref remained below the

maximum amplitude of the input signal.

Op-amp Multivibrator:

We can take this idea of converting a periodic

waveform into a rectangular output one step further by

replacing the sinusoidal input with an RC timing circuit

Where +V(sat) is the positive op-amp DC saturation connected across the op-amps output. This time,

voltage and -V(sat) is the negative op-amp DC instead of a sinusoidal waveform being used to trigger

saturation voltage. the op-amp, we can use the capacitors charging

voltage, Vc to change the output state of the op-amp as

Then we can see that the positive or upper reference shown.

voltage, +Vref (i.e. the maximum positive value for the

voltage at the inverting input) is given as: +Vref =

+V(sat) while the negative or lower reference voltage

(i.e. the maximum negative value for the voltage at the

inverting input) is given as: -Vref = -V(sat).

the output voltage drops to its negative DC saturation

voltage. Likewise when the input voltage falls below

-Vref, the op-amp switches state once again and the

output voltage will switch from the negative saturation

voltage back to the positive DC saturation voltage. The

amount of built-in hysteresis given by the Schmitt

comparator as it switches between the two saturation

voltages is defined by the difference between the two

trigger reference voltages as: VHYSTERESIS = +Vref -

(-Vref). Firstly lets assume that the capacitor is fully discharged

and the output of the op-amp is saturated at the

Sinusoidal to Rectangular Conversion: positive supply rail. The capacitor, C starts to charge

One of the many uses of a Schmitt trigger comparator, up from the output voltage, Vout through resistor, R at

other than as an op-amp multivibrator, is that we can a rate determined by their RC time constant.

use it to convert any periodic sinusoidal waveform into

a rectangular waveform providing the value of the We know from our tutorials about RC circuits that the

sinusoid is greater than the voltage reference point. capacitor wants to charge up fully to the value of Vout

(which is +V(sat)) within five time constants. However,

In fact the Schmitt comparator will always produce a as soon as the capacitors charging voltage at the op-

rectangular output waveform independent of the input amps inverting (-) terminal is equal to or greater than

signal waveform. In other words, the voltage input the voltage at the non-inverting terminal (the op-amps

does not have to be a sinusoid, it could be any wave output voltage fraction divided between resistors R1

shape or complex waveform. Consider the circuit and R2), the output will change state and be driven to

below. the opposing negative supply rail.

towards the positive supply rail (+V(sat)), now sees a

negative voltage, -V(sat) across its plates. This sudden

reversal of the output voltage causes the capacitor to

discharge toward the new value of Vout at a rate

dictated again by their RC time constant.

amplitude sufficiently greater than its reference

voltage, Vref, the output rectangular waveform will

always have the same period, T and therefore

frequency, as the input waveform.

Once the op-amps inverting terminal reaches the new

negative reference voltage, -Vref at the non-inverting

terminal, the op-amp once again changes state and the

output is driven to the opposing supply rail voltage,

+V(sat). The capacitor now sees a positive voltage

across its plates and the charging cycle begins again.

Thus, the capacitor is constantly charging and

discharging creating an astable op-amp multivibrator

output.

the RC time constant of the two timing components

and the feedback ratio established by the R1, R2

voltage divider network which sets the reference By adjusting the central potentiometer between 1 and

voltage level. If the positive and negative values of the 2 the output frequency will change by the following

amplifiers saturation voltage have the same amounts.

magnitude, then t1 = t2 and the expression to give the

period of oscillation becomes:

frequency of oscillation for an Op-amp Multivibrator

circuit not only depends upon the RC time constant but

also upon the feedback fraction. However, if we used

resistor values that gave a feedback fraction of 0.462,

( = 0.462), then the frequency of oscillation of the

circuit would be equal to just 1/2RC as shown because

the linear log term becomes equal to one.

Op-Amp Monostable:

Op-amp Monostable Multivibrator (one-shot

multivibrator) circuits are positive-feedback (or

regenerative) switching circuits that have only one

stable state, producing an output pulse of a specified

duration T. An external trigger signal is applied for it to

change state and after a set period of time, either in

microseconds, milliseconds or seconds, a time period

which is determined by RC components, the

monostable circuit then returns back to its original

stable state were it remains until the next trigger input

signal arrives.

given as:

Variable Op-amp Multivibrator:

diodes forward voltage drop. We can show this effect

graphically as:

will switch the op-amp monostable circuit into its

temporary unstable state. After a time delay, T while

the capacitor, C charges up through the feedback

resistor, R, the circuit switches back to its normal

stable state once the capacitor voltage reaches the

required potential.

At initial power on (that is t = 0), the output (V OUT) will

saturate towards either the positive rail, (+V cc) or to This time delay period (T) of the rectangular pulse at

the negative rail, -Vcc, since these are the only two the output, the unstable state time, is given as:

stable states allowed by the op-amp. Lets assume for

now that the output has swung towards the positive

supply rail, +Vcc. Then the voltage at the non-inverting

input, VB will be equal to +Vcc. where is the

feedback fraction.

The inverting input is held at 0.7 volts, the forward volt If the two operational amplifiers feedback resistors are

drop of diode, D1 and clamped to 0v (ground) by the of the same value, that is: R1 = R2, then the above

diode, preventing it from going any more positive. Thus equation simplifies down too:

the potential at VA is much less than that at V B and the

output remains stable at +Vcc. At the same time, the

capacitor, (C) charges up to the same 0.7 volts

potential and is held there by the forward-biased The charging recovery time is given as:

voltage drop of the diode.

inverting input, the 0.7v voltage at VA now becomes

greater than the voltage at V B since VB is now negative.

Thus the output of the Schmitt configured op-amp

switches state and saturates towards the negative In order to ensure that the op-amp monostable circuit

supply rail, -Vcc. The result is that the potential at V B is has a good negative trigger signal which starts the

now equal to -Vcc.. timing period on the leading edge of the negative

going pulse, and also to stop any false triggering of the

This temporary meta-stable state causes the capacitor circuit when it is in its stable state, we can add a RC

to charge up exponentially in the opposite direction differentiating circuit to the input.

through the feedback resistor, R from +0.7 volts down

to the saturated output which it has just switched too, A differentiator circuit is useful in producing a negative

-Vcc. Diode, D1 becomes reverse-biased so has no output spike from a square or rectangular input

effect. The capacitor, C will discharge at a time waveform. The sharp and abrupt reduction of the

constant = RC. comparators threshold voltage below its feedback

fraction, value drives the op-amp monostable into its

As soon as the capacitor voltage at V A reaches the timing period. A differentiator circuit is formed using a

same potential as VB, that is -Vcc., the op-amp resistor-capacitor (RC network as shown).

switches back to its original permanent stable state

with the output saturated once again at +Vcc.

RC Differentiator circuit:

op-amps output changes back to its stable state and

saturates towards the positive supply rail, the capacitor

tries to charge up in reverse to +V cc but can only

charge to a maximum value of 0.7v given by the

The differentiator circuit above uses another resistor-

capacitor (RC) network whose output voltage is the

derivative of the input voltage, with respect to time.

When the input voltage changes from 0 to -Vcc, the

capacitor begins to charge exponentially. Since the

capacitor voltage, Vc is initially zero, the differentiator

output voltage suddenly jumps from 0 to -Vcc 2. Capacitor recovery time:

producing a negative spike and then decays

exponentially as the capacitor charges up.

of the negative spike is approximately equal to the

magnitude of the trigger waveform. Also, as a general

rule-of-thumb, for an RC differentiator circuit to

produce good sharp narrow spikes, the time constant, (

) should be at least ten times smaller than the input

pulse width. So for example, if the input pulse width is

10 ms, then the 5RC time constant should be less than

1 ms (10%).

The advantage of using a differentiator circuit is that

any constant DC voltage or slowly varying signal will be

blocked allowing only rapidly varying trigger pulses to

3. Total time between trigger pulses:

initiate the monostable timing period. Diode, D ensures

that the trigger pulse arriving at the op-amps non-

inverting input is always negative.

monostable gives:

negative spike duration will be 1ms (10%). If we

assume a capacitance value of 0.1uF, then the

differentiator RC values are calculated as :

Example:

An op-amp monostable circuit is constructed using the

following components. R1 = 30k, R2 = 30k, R =

150k and C = 1.0uF. If the op-amp monostable is

supplied from a 12V supply and the timing period is

initiated with a 10ms pulse.

time, total time between trigger pulses and the

differentiator network values. Draw the completed

circuit.

and pulse width equals ten milliseconds, (10ms).

1. Timing Period, T:

Op-Amp comparator:

Voltage comparators on the other hand, either use

positive feedback or no feedback at all (open-loop

mode) to switch its output between two saturated

states, because in the open-loop mode the amplifiers

voltage gain is basically equal to A.V O. Then due to this

high open loop gain, the output from the comparator

swings either fully to its positive supply rail, +V cc or

fully to its negative supply rail, -V cc on the application Non-inverting Comparator circuit:

of varying input signal which passes some preset

threshold value.

circuit that operates in its non-linear region as changes

in the two analogue inputs, V+ and V- causes it to

behave like a digital bistable device as triggering

causes it to have two possible output states, +V cc or

-Vcc. Then we can say that the voltage comparator is

essentially a 1-bit analogue to digital converter, as the

input signal is analogue but the output behaves

digitally.

Comparator voltage level detector: the Lower Upper Trip Point (UTP) and the other being

called the Lower Trip Point (LTP). The difference

between these two trip points is called Hysteresis.

Hysteresis:

configured to operate as comparators in their open-

loop mode, and this is fine if the input signal varies Example:

rapidly or is not too noisy. However if the input signal, An operational amplifier is to be used with positive

VIN is slow to change or electrical noise is present, then feedback to produce a Schmitt trigger circuit. If

the op-amp comparator may oscillate switching its resistor, R1 = 10k and resistor, R2 = 90k, what will

output back and forth between the two saturation be the values of the upper and lower switching points

states, +Vcc and -Vcc as the input signal hovers around of the reference voltage and the width of the hysteresis

the reference voltage, VREF level. One way to if the op-amp is connected to a dual 10v power

overcome this problem and to avoid the op-amp from supply.

oscillating is to provide positive feedback around the

comparator. Given: R1 = 10k, R2 = 90k. Power supply +V cc =

10v and -Vcc = 10v.

As its name implies, positive feedback is a technique

for feeding back a part or fraction of the output signal Feedback Fraction:

that is in phase to the non-inverting input of the op-

amp via a potential divider set up by two resistors with

the amount of feedback being proportional to their

ratio.

The use of positive feedback around an op-amp Upper Voltage Trip Point, VUTP:

comparator means that once the output is triggered

into saturation at either level, there must be a

significant change to the input signal VIN before the

output switches back to the original saturation point.

This difference between the two switching points is

called hysteresis producing what is commonly called a

Schmitt trigger circuit. Consider the inverting Lower Voltage Trip Point, VLTP:

comparator circuit below.

reference voltage at the non-inverting input also

changes creating two different reference voltage

values and two different switching points. One called

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