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3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

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Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality
April16th,2009|PostedinPowerquality
Tags:DCmotor,electricalsystem,harmonics,powerfactor,Powerquality,uninterruptiblepowersupplies

PowerQualityOptimizationwithActiveHarmonicFilter:

Itiswidelybelievedthatactiveharmonicsfilters(AHF)areverycostly
and,therefore,arethelastchoiceforpowerqualitysolutions.Theanswerisitdepends.Everyharmonics
mitigationandpowerfactorcorrectiondevicehasitsplaceinthemarket.

Knowingwhatasolutiondoesforpowerqualityandtheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofeachsolutionprovide
optimizedsolutionswithmaximumbenefitsfortheuser.

Activeharmonicsfiltersprovidecontrolledcurrentinjectiontoremoveharmoniccurrentfromthesourceside
ofelectricalsystemsandreactivecurrenttocorrectforpoordisplacementpowerfactor(PF).Active
harmonicsfilterscanbeappliedtoasinglenonlinearloadormany.Thenonlinearloadscanbemixedtypesor
devices,suchasvariablefrequencydrives(VFD),DCmotorspeedcontrols(akaDCdrives),uninterruptible
powersupplies(UPS),orthyristor(DC)powersupplies,tonameafew.

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3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

Whenisthebestvalueachievedwithactiveharmonicfilters?

Whenmorethanonenonlinearloadand/ortypeofloadsarepresent:DCdrives,UPS,VFD,andothers
canoperateonthesameelectricalsystemasanactiveharmonicsfiltersystem
Wheninputlinereactorsareusedtoreducethetotalharmonicsdistortionofnonlinearloads.
When6pulserectifiersareemployedinDCdrives,UPS,VFDorDCpowersupplies.
Whenthyristorrectifiersareusedandpowerfactorandharmonicscorrectionarerequired:DCdrives
andDCpowersuppliesrequirepowerfactorcorrectionandharmonicmitigation.
WhenPFcorrectionisrequiredwherehighharmonicscontentispresent:Poorpowerfactorinan
electricalsystemahighcontentofnonlinearloadscannotbeperformedbytraditionalpowerfactor
correctioncapacitorsystems
Whererapidinrushorsteploadchangesrequiresupport(akaVARcompensation)tostopflicker:The
powerqualityofanelectricalsystemisquitepoorduetothemassivevoltagevariationscausedbythe
loads.
Whenmeetingharmonicsspecificationswithinyourfacility.

Thenatureofharmoniccurrentsisthattheyarevectorsumsoftheamplitudes,currentandvoltage,ateach
harmonicorder.Thatistheyaretherootsumsquareofeachharmonicordertimesthecosineofthephaseangle
differencesbetweenthevectors.Vectormathmakes1+1=Sqrt2(1.414)not2.Activeharmonicfilter
selectionusesthistoactuallyreducetheperampsizeoftheactivefilterasthequantityofnonlinearloads
increases.Individualsolutions(thatisperrectifier)mustbesizedforthefullamplitudeharmonicspectrum
makingthem,collectively,moreexpensiveandphysicallylargerthanAHF

6pulserectifiersproducethehighestlevelofharmoniccurrentamongthreephaseloads.Ifnoimpedanceis
presentasaninputlinereactororaDCbuschoke(fordioderectifiersonly),6prectifiersmayapproach100
120%totalharmoniccurrentdistortion(TDD).AfirststeptoreducethisveryhighlevelofTDDistoinsert35
%impedancelinereactancetoreducetheTDDtoabout3240%perrectifier.ThentheAHFisselectedforthis
muchlowerTDDlevel.ThustheAHFsizeisreducedduetotheinexpensiveinsertionofinductors.

Thyristorrectifiersareknownasphasecontrolledrectifiers.ThyristorsareturnedonatvaryingpointsintheAC
waveformtocontrolthepowerdeliveredtotheDCsideoftherectifier.ThisprocesscausesdisplacementPF
variationsandharmonics.TheinterestingpointisthatmaximumharmonicsoccuratbestdisplacementPFand
viceversa.TheAHFisthebestdevicetoprovideexactlywhatisrequiredtoachievebesttotalortruePF
highestlaggingPFandlowestTDDallthetime.Thisachieveshighlevelsofpowerquality.

ItisalwaysdifficulttoselecttunedPFcapacitorsystemswhentheharmonicscontentishigh.Thetuningtends
tobedifficultduetotheamplitudeofharmoniccurrentthatflowsthroughthecapacitorcircuit.Thesolutionis
tomakethePFcapacitorVARslargersoasnottooverloadthecapacitors.Thismaypreservethecapacitorsbut
cancauseleadingPFattimes.AHFwillnotcauseleadingPFatanytimeanddontcareifharmonicsare
presentwhileperformingPFcorrection.

Loadsthatcauseflicker(lightintensityvariationsduetorapidlinevoltagevariations)areveryshortduration
eventssometimesasshortas23cycles.AHFarefastenoughtoprovidesupportinabout100microseconds.
OftentheAHFcanbepackagedwithPFcapacitorstagestocreateahybridVARcompensation(HVC)system
forpriceandphysicalsizeoptimization.

Whenapplyingharmonicsstandardsinsideafacility,thesolutionissometimesdifficulttoattain.Thisis
usuallyduetothelowshortcircuitcurrentcapacityofthepointofcommoncouplingchosenwithintheplant.
AHFmakemeetingorexceedingthestandardsimple,effective,andcomplete.

DoestheabovehelpyouunderstandAHFandpowerquality?

Whatcanwedotohelpyoufurther?

JimJohnson
http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 2/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

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Comment(s)toHarmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

1. didarsinghsays:
2009/05/13at9:56am

willkvareffectsgeneration&transmission

Reply

JimJohnsonsays:
2009/05/13at2:51pm

UitlitysystemshavetheabilitytoprovideKW(voltageandcurrentinphase),KVAR(voltageand
currentoutofphase),andharmoniccurrent(currentatintegermultiplesofthebasefrequency).
VARandharmoniccurrentareconductedinthepowercables.
VARcurrentproportionallyreducestheabilityofthegridtoproviderealcurrent(KW).
Harmoniccurrentcausesheatingdisproportionatetoitsamplitude.Heatingeffectismuchlarger
thanactualcurrentamplitude.
WhenloadsdemandeitherVARorharmoniccurrent,thegridcapacityisreduced.Therefore,the
gridconductorsmustbeoversizedwherethisoccurs.Thesolutiontopreventoverutilizationor
oversizingofthegridduetoVARandharmoniccurrentistoprovidethesourceofeachlocallyand
removethedemandfromthegridPFcorrectionandharmonicfilters.

Fromthegenerationside,whenrotatinggeneratorsareusedtoproducethepower,thegeneratorhas
theabilitytoprovideVARsupportreadily.Itistheelectricalnatureofthegenerator.Generatorsdo
notliketoproduceharmoniccurrentextraheatingoccursbutcan.

http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 3/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

However,aswemovetomoreandmorealternativemethodsofpowergeneration,theelectronics
usedtocreatethepower(fromPVorwindoretc.)onlyproduceKW.Thusaneedofalternate
KVARandharmonicsupportisrequired.Thiscanbelocalbytheuseroruniversalbytheutility.
Thecostmustbebornbytheuserinallcases.

Fromanenergyefficiencystandpoint,localsupportforbothKVARandharmoniccurrentreduces
thecostoftransmission(sizeofcablesandalternatesources)andutilizationofthegrid.Itpermits
moreKWtobetransmittedontheexistingcablesandpermitsplanningoffuturegridstoinclude
smallercables=lessmineralresourcesconsumedandprocessed.Ithelpsmaketheplanetgreener.

Reply

UmeshSonawanesays:
2010/11/22at7:23am

IhavereadyourcommentsonHarmonicFillters.Iamreallyimpressedonyourknowledge
aboutpowerconditioning.Wearefacingoneproblemregardingharmonics.Wehavevarious
ratingsofinductionmotorsatourwaterpumpingstationsinNASIK,INDIA.Themotorsare
440Vratingsfrom3HPto300HPatalmostallsites.At2sites,wehave3.3KV430HPand
1000HPmotors.WeareusingconventionalDOL,StardeltaandAutotransformerstarters.
TheElectricityboardhassentusnoticethatatsomesites,nearthemeteringpoint,thesupply
checkedisdistortedandTHDfoundfrom10to25%.Wearenotusinganytypesofdrives,
wedonothaveUPS,Inverter,Rectifiersoranytypeofelectronicswitchingdevices.Howcan
harmonicsbecreatedbyourload?Isitpossible?Wearemaintainingpowerfactorunityatall
oursites.Isitpossiblethatatsomepointifpowerfactorgoesleading,harmonicsare
generated?Willleadingpowerfactorcreateharmonics?Isitpossiblethatharmonicsare
enteringfromelectricityboardline?Pleaseexplaincurrent/voltageharmonics.

Jimsays:
2010/11/22at3:39pm

HI,Umesh,

WhenthereannononlinearloadspresentandPFcapacitors(PFC)areusedtoraisethe
displacmentPF(DPF)aboveabout0.95lagging,theissueisusuallyresonance.

YouindicatedtheDPFobjectiveisunity.Attemptingtomaintainaboveabout0.95lagging
DPFwithPFCisoftendangerousandresultsinexactlywhatyouhavestated.

PFCaredesignedtoswitchslowly.TheresultisthatattimestheDPFgoesleading.If
curcumstancesarecorrectresonancewiththeutilityPFCcanoccur.Onesymptonisthatthe
mainsvoltagerisesbeforetheresonancebegins.

Asageneralrule,SchniederElectricdosnotrecommendusingPFCtocorrectforDPFabove
0.95lagging.Wesuggestusinganactiveharmonicfilter.Activeharmonicfilters(AHF)
provideDPFcorrectionbyinjectingphaseshiftedcurrentelectronically.Thiseliminatesthe
possibilityofresonance.

YoucanusePFCtocorrectto0.95laggingandsupplementtheresttounitywithAHF.

PleasecontactyourSchneiderElectricsalesandaplicationcenterinIndiaforassistance.

Thanksforwritingandgoodluck.

http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 4/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

Cobussays:
2014/11/03at6:53am

HiJim,
Ihavesomethingdifferenttoaskyouaboutplease.Irecentlydiscoveredthatitispossibleto
take3phases400VoltsAC50hzandwiththehelpofachokeandacapacitor,makeita3
phasebalancedsupplytoa2phase400Voltsinductionfurnace.ButIknowverylittleabout
itandwishtounderstandthisbetter.Canyouhelp?Wehave12furnaceson2phasesandthe
powerisveryunbalancedallthetime.Thefurnacesarebeingswitchedbythyristorsat
presentfromaPIDconfiguredEurotherm3204temperaturecontrollerputtingout4to20mA
toaphaseanglecarddrivingabacktobackthyristorpackinonelegofthe2phasesupply.
IalsowishtounderstandhowswitchingitwithIGBTdriverswillworkandifitisbetter,
sinceIhavebeenadvisedtochangethethyristorcontroltoIGBT.Canyouhelpmewith
adviceherealsoplease?
Cobus

2. GopalaKrishnansays:
2009/06/13at3:17pm

Thisblogisfantasticbyjohnsonandistootechnical.IsimplyloveitandIwanttoaskonethingtoJim,
Whatisexactlythediff.betweentunedanddetunedharmonicfilter.WhichoneisappropriateforVFDs?
whatistheexactprocessofconnectingthefilterswiththeload?Isthereanygoodqualitymakesavailable
inthemarket?Pleaseconfirm

Reply

3. JimJohnsonsays:
2009/06/15at6:25pm

Thanksforthecompliment.Thesubjectisnotsimpleitgetstoughtomakeitsimple.

APFcapacitorwhenplacedinanelectricalsystemhasaresonantfrequencybasedupontheinductanceof
theelectricalsystem(fromanypoint)andthecapacitanceofthePFcapacitors.ThePFcapacitorsare
installedparalleltotheloads.Addingareactorintheparallelportionofthecircuitinserieswiththe
capacitorsmodifiesthefrequencyofthePFcapacitorbankandthustheresonantfrequencyofthePF
capacitorbankintheelectricalsystem.Thisisdetuning.

PFcapacitorswillinteractwithallfrequenciespresentintheelectricalsystem.Whenharmonicsare
presentthisisharmfulltothecapacitors.TheharmoniccurrentswilloverheatthePFcapacitorstoshorten
itslifeortripitsthermalsafetydevices.Detuningcanbedesignedtoblockmostoftheharmonic
currentsorcanbedesignedtopermitthecurrentofoneharmonicfrequencytoflowintothecapacitors.
Theblockingdesignisconsidereddetunedwithintheindustry.Thedesignthatpermitsaharmonic
ordertoflowintothecapacitorsiscalledatunedcapacitororaharmonicfilter.

Detunedandtunedcapacitorsystemsaretypicallyoftwoapplicationphilosophies.Oneisanelectrical
systemsolutionwhereonelargebankisusedforagroupofloadsorusedattheutilityconnection.Local
andworldwidesuppliersoftheseexist.However,aharmonicstudyisrequiredforthesetypesofsolutions.
Besurethecompanychosencanprovidethisbeforeequipmentispurchased.

Thesecondphilosophyistoplaceasmalltunedcapacitorsystemateachnonlinearloadtoprovide
harmonicsuppressionfortheelectricalsystem.Tobesurethatthesesmalltunedbanksdonotinteract
witheachother(whenmorethanoneisinstalled)oroverloadduethepresenceofothersourcesof

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3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

harmonics,aseriesreactoronthesourcesideofthefiltersectionisrequired.Theseriesreactorissizedfor
thefullloadcurrentofthenonlinearloadonwhichapplied.

Thetunedfilteralsoprovidesleadingreactivecurrentthatmustbeevaluatedwithinthesystemto
determineifproblemsmayoccurduetoexcessiveleadingPF.Themanufacturersofthesetypeoffilters
tendtobelocalizedoperationswithinindividualconutries.Theyexistsinmanycountries.

TheresultofproperlyapplyingeitherdevicewillrelievetheutilityofconductingVARsandspecific
harmonicsandpermitgreengenerationtechnologiestobemoreeasilyemployed.

Regards

Reply

4. Engr.OrlandoOrensesays:
2009/08/18at4:15am

DearJim,

ReallyadmireyourindepthknowledgeandexpertiseinthePowerQualityissues.Thoughtheressome
otherschoolofthoughtwhichIwishtostreamlinetoavoidconfusionsasthereareotherterminologies
beingutilize.

CouldyougiveusparticularcommercialavailableasourcesofHarmonicsMitigatosandfilters.

Thanksandregards,

Orlando

Reply

JimJohnsonsays:
2009/08/18at5:29pm

Hi,Orlando,

Thankyouforyourcommentsandinterestinthesubject.

Thecommercialmarkethasadifferentconcernthandoestheindustrialmarket.Forthemostpart
theindustrialmarketutilizesthreephaseloads.Thatiswhatthepreviousdiscussionsaddress.

Thecommercialmarkethasamixtureofthreeandsinglephaseloads.Typically,theseloadsare
dividedintoenvironmentcontrol(HVACequipment)andofficeenvironment.TheHVAC
equipmentofbuildingsistypicallyisolatedfromtheofficeenviornment(suppliedbyseparate
electricaldistributionsystems).Thecomfortequipmentisalmostallvariablefrequencydrive
(VFD)controlled.VFDprovidebestefficienciesandbestandrepeatablecontrols,butdorequire
harmonicmitigationduethehighconcnetrationofVFD.

Theofficeareacanbedividedintotwosegmentstodaylightingandallotherequipment.Lighting
hasbeenoneareawherethemanufacturershavetakenverygoodstepstoreducetheirharmonic
levels.Generally,electronicballastsarelimitedtoabout20%TDD(totalharmoniccurrent
distortionbaseduponfullloadlevel).Someofferpremiumsystemsthatlimitharmonccurrent
contenttoabout5%TDD.Manygovernmentshaveissuelawsdemandingtheselevels.

Allofficemachines(copiers,printers,desktopPCs,computerperipherals,etc.)utilizeswitched
modepowersupplies(SMPS).TheearlySMPSwereveryhighinharmoniccontentbutoperatedat
http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 6/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

nearunitydisplacementpowerfactor.

Sincethemid2000s,codesandstandardshavebeenissuedthatrequireSMPStobelowharmonic
devices.Theresultsarethatnewinformationtechnology(IT)equipmentcomplywithabout5%
TDD.However,thedesignoftheSMPSisnowcausingleadingdisplacementpowerfactoratlow
loadlevels.ThishascausedmuchtroublefortheUPSmanufacturerssincetheUPSwasnot
designedtohandlethishighleadingpowerfactorlevels.Theresultisthatactiveharmonicfilters
havebeenusedtocorrectfortheleadingpowerfactorbyinjectinglaggingpowerfactortopermit
useontheinstalledUPS.(NotethatnewerdesignsofUPShaveaddressedthisissuesotheUPS
doesoperateproperlywithleadingpowerfactorloads.)

AlloftheaboveisapreambleforthediscussionthatIthinkyouaskedaboutharmonicmitigation
fortheofficeenvironment.

Thereareseveralpointsthatareuniversal.1)Singlephasenonlinearloadscreateneutralharmonics.
(Neutralharmonicsaresometimescalledzerosequenceharmonicsortriplen(multiplesof3)
harmonics.)2)Neutralharmonicscanexceedtheamplitudeofthefundamentalcurrentmaximum
levelsare1.73(squarerootof3)timesthefundamentalcurrent.3)Mostcodesandstandardsnow
requiretheneutraltobesizedtotwicethesizeofthefundamentalcurrentcables(whereoneneutral
servicesallthreephases)oreachphasegetsitsown100%ratedneutral.

Inthe480V/60Hzworld,the208/120VAClevelisderivedfromthe480Vsupplyutilizing
isolationtransformerswithadeltaprimaryandwyesecondary.Thisconfigurationpreventsthe
neutralharmonicsfrombeingconductedonthe480VACsystem.

Inthe400V/50Hzworld,thesinglephaseloadsareconnectedfroma400Vphasetoneutraland
operateat220VAC.Theresultisthatthe400VACsystemcarriersthetriplenharmonics.

Theemphasisinthe480Vworldistopreventoverheatingoftheneutralandthetransformer
providingthesupplyvoltage.Protectingthetransformeriseasy.Manytypesofneutralfiltering
exist.Theyrangefromblockingreactorsthathaveaveryhighimpedanceforthethirdharmonic,to
zigzagtransformersthatshuntthetriplenharmonicsintothemains,totunedthirdorderpassive
filters,andultimatelyactiveharmonicfiltersthattreatthetriplenharmonics.Theissueinallof
thesesolutionsisthattheelectricalsystemupstreamfromthefilterlconnectionwillhavereduced
harmoniccurrent,butnothinghasbeendonefortheloadsideoftheharmonicsolution.Theneutrals
stillcarrytheharmoniccurrentsthatthenonlinearloadsneedtooperate.

The400Vworldhasaverydifferentissue.Besidestheneutraldiscussionwhicharethesame,the
400Vsystem(whichcanfeedmanyusers)totalharmonicsincludethetriplens.So,theTDDlevels
arehigherandmoredangerous.Surprisingly,thesamesolutionsareused.

Ihopethisishelpful.

Regards,Jim

Reply

josemauriciobarrossays:
2011/01/03at2:33am

PrezadoJim
eusouengenheiroeletricoetrabalhocommanutenopredial,UPS,cablingedatacenters.
eumoroemBrasiliaDCBrazilepresencionodiaadiatudooqueVcrelatounotextoacima.
SEUSCOMENTRIOSSOTIMOS.
poucosprofissionaisentendemdeharmonicas,aliteraturasuperficialoumuitoacademica.
http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 7/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

osfiltrosativossoamelhorsoluonomeupontodevista,masnoBrazilsomuitocaros.
asharmonicassoumproblemamundialeasituaostendeapiorarcomoacessoa
computadoresetodosequipamentoseletronicospresentesnoslares,escritorioseindustrias.
temosumainvasodeprodutoschinesescomfontescomFDPpertode1oucapacitivose
comaltaTHI.
meuprincipalclienteoGOVERNOFEDERALeomenorpreofundamental,acimada
qualidade.

temospredioscomenergiatrifsica380/220Volts,poremcomcargaspredominantemente
monofasicascomharmonicasdesequenciazero.
oscomputadoressoligadoscomumentementeem120Vac(F,N,T)emalgunscasos
utilizamtransformadoresisoladoresK20deltaestrela.
cuidamdoprimarioeesquecemdafontedasharmonicas

5. CobusVerstersays:
2009/08/24at1:56pm

Jim,
InmyEnergymanagementbusinessIfindthatharmonicsispoppingupalloverformyindustrialandbig
commercialclients.
IseethebenefitofAHFandunderstanditisquiteexpensive.Atpresentmyfeelingisthatitisbestto
makeeachpieceofequipmentorlightingcircuitascleanaspossiblebecausethenitseemstomea
shoppingmallownercanexpecthistenantstonotcontributeanyharmonicstothereticulationofthemall.
MyquestioniswherecanIfindsomeonewhohasthedesignsavailableforbothkindofharmonics
filteringAFHandLCLorwhateverotherdesignisfeasable?
My2ndquestionis,whetheritmaybepossibletodiverttheharmonicsenergyintoaresonantfrequency
tunedcircuit,andtapitoffforotherusessuchasresistiveheatingetc?
IaminJohannesburgRSAandislookingforafilterdesigner.

Reply

6. JimJohnsonsays:
2009/08/24at8:59pm

Hi,Cobus,

Thereasonharmonicsareatopicisbecausesemiconductortechnlogyisbeingusedforenergysavingsin
alltypesofapplications.Newwashngmachinesemployavariablefrequencydriveanddigitallogic.They
haveeliminatedthemechanicalgearboxforadirectcoupledmotor.Itismoreefficient.Also,all
electronicproductsemployACtoDCrectifiers.Switchedmodepowersupplies(SMPS)areeverywhere.
Astimepassesmoreofthesenonlinearloadswillemploytheirownharmonicmitigationmethods.But
designevolutiontakestime.

Inthemeantime,solutionsareofferedinmanyvarities.Dependinguponthetypeofloadsandthe
concentrationofthoseloadsonanygivennetworkthesolutionsvarywidely.Iamnotfamiliarwiththe
SouthAfricanmarket,soIdontknowwhomightbeabletohelpyou.ShaunWilsonat
shaun.wilson@za.schneiderelectric.comisonecontactIdoknowwhomaybeabletoassist.

Harmonicsiscalledimaginaryorreactivecurrentinelectricalengineering.Itdoesnotdoworkbut
permitsworktobedone.Thisisthesamedefinitionappliedtoreactivecurrentthatisphaseshiftedfrom
thefundamentalcurrent(Cosphi).Thereisnoknownwaytocapturethispowerandreuseitforrealwork.

Regards,Jim

http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 8/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

Reply

7. CobusVerstersays:
2009/08/28at9:19am

Jim,
Ihavequestionsforyouregardingtheselectionanddesignofharmonicsfilters.IfIhavea400/440Volt3
phase40kVarcapacitorbankinaPowerfactorsystemwhichneedstobeprotectedagainst3rdto13th
harmonicsofvariousamplitudes,howdoIchoosetheinductanceorXlforeachlegofthe3phasesupply
tothecapacitor?Myconcernisresonanceatsomeoftheharmonicfrequenciesobviously,aswellasthe
internalheatintheinductor/filterandthevoltagedropaccrosstheinductoratthebasefrequencyof50Hz,
becausethatwillreducethecapacitorseffectivekVarslightly.
ThenIalsowishtoknowifIcanusetunedfiltersforeachharmonicinasmallerinductor/filterdesign
insidethevariousmachineswheretheharmonicsarebeinggeneratedandifitisagoodidea,whatmustI
bearinmind,ordoIratherblocktheharmonicsinamachinewithalocalinductor/filterdesignedforthe
machineandwhataboutvoltagedropandheat?
Regards

Reply

raedodehsays:
2009/12/18at2:47am

HiCobus,
Youwouldporpablyneedtoconnectyourcapsindelta.Thisdecuplethecapsfromthetriplens.
Asforthereactor,youneedtoselectatunningorderwherethecap/reactorwillprovidelowest
impedanceatthatorder.forinstancewetuneourfilterto3.7order.Thisorderwillnotinterferwith
utilityripplesignalandwilldecuplethecapsfromanythinghigherthan5thorder.Thiswillonly
workwhenvoltagedistortionisaround7%.Abovethatyouneedtomannagetheharmonicsviaa
tunedfilter.usuallyaround57orderthusremovingalmost80%oftheharmonicsinthesystem.
Theissuewiththistypeoffilterisyouneedtomakesurethefiltercanabosrballharmoniccurrents
withoutoverloadingthecaps.Thecapwillonlytake130%ofitsratedcurrentbeforeitstartstoe
fail,henceyoumayneedtoaddresstheamountofharmoniccurrentinthenetwrokthensizeafilter
accordingly.Thekvarvalueoftheallthefilterswillcontributetoreactivecompenstaion.Thisis
verycruicalindefiningthecorrectwaytocontrolthefilter.TheeasiestoptionistoinstallanActive
filteratthemainLVboradandallowittoruninPF/harmonicmode.youhit2birdsinonestone
andyoudonothavetoworryaboutresonance.

Reply

8. CobusVerstersays:
2009/09/03at8:04am

Jim
IsthereamuchbetterrectifiersystemforplatingplantsotherthanSCRcontrol,whichwillhavezeroor
verylittleharmonicdistortioncontributiontothesystem?
Cobus

Reply

JimJohnsonsays:
2009/10/19at12:27am

Hi,Corbus,

http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 9/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

Sorryforthelatereply.Gotalittlebusyandfailedtogobacktomynoticefromtheblog.

Thethyristorrectifieristhemostrugged,mostdependable,andeasiesttocontrolrectifieronthe
market.Itisalsotheleastcost.Noonehasspenttime,thatIknowof,indevelopingadifferent
method.

Regards,Jim

Reply

9. Er.parmjitSinghsays:
2009/09/15at12:47pm

iamparmjitfromdaviet.wearemakingamajorporject.sopleacetellmecircuitdiagramofHarmonic
filterforbetterpowerquality.
iamverythankfulltoyou.

Reply

10. suyogsays:
2009/09/22at8:16am

iamsuyogfrombhopaliampreparingamajorporject.sopleasetellmecircuitdiagramofHarmonic
filterforbetterpowerquality.

Reply

11. anilsays:
2009/10/18at7:28pm

thepaperisexcellentbutiwantfullinformationaboutthetopic.canugivemeplease??????
myemailidisanil05.perala@gmail.com

Reply

12. nadiasays:
2010/03/14at6:18pm

hello..imadmiredyourknowledgeinpowerqualityproblem..imdoingmyprojecttoeliminatethe
harmonic,butstillinprogresssincethecircuitisnotwelldesign.mayiknowhowtodesignasimulationof
singlephaseactivepowerfilterthatuseIGBTasaninverter,andhowtocontroltheIGBT,Iveinject
pulsegeneratortocontrolIGBTbutitsstillnotsucceed.mysimulationrunusingmatlab/simulink.will
youhelpmetosolvethisproblem?ireallyneedyourattention..thismyemailnadya_mon87@yahoo.com

Reply

Jimsays:
2010/04/05at9:58pm

Ihaveconsultedourengineeringstaffregardingyourquestion.Theadvisethatamastersdegreeor
PhDcouldprovidetheknowledgerequiredtofulfillyourquestion.Thatplusonthejoblearninghas
permittedthemtoknowtheanswers.

However,theprocesscannotsimplybemadeviathismedium.Sorry

http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 10/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

Reply

13. Premkishoresays:
2010/05/15at12:39pm

HiJimJohnson,

Iwentthoughtyoupaper.Itisverynicetostudyabouttheharmoniesasiamnewtothisfield,Ineed
someclarification.WhattypeaharmoniesfilterscanbeusedinAirconditionandwhatamountofpower
willbesavedintheprocess.Wehavelike5000Airconditionindifferentplace.Plsletmekonwmore
aboutit.
Thankingyou

Reply

14. CobusVerstersays:
2010/05/16at5:47pm

Prem,
Idonotbelieveyouactuallyhaveharmonicproblemsbecauseofairconditioners.Normallytheyare
eitheronoroffandpureinductiveload.Ifyouhavephaseanglecontrolonheatingelementssomewhere,
thenyouwillhaveharmonics.YoushouldconsiderinstallingaPowerQualityMonitoringMeter
permanentlywhichyoucandownloadandseewhetheryoumayreceiveharmonicsfromthegridor
generateharmonicsandtheusertrends,balancingofphasesetc.ifyouareseriousaboutimprovement.
Regards
Cobus

Reply

15. Premkishoresays:
2010/05/17at6:26am

HiCobus

WeareinterestedinharmonicfiltersforBSNLelectroMechanicalequipments.Canyouplsletmeknow
weatherpowersavingwillbethereifwedesignhormonicfiltersforeachsite.

Thankingyou
M.Premkishore

Reply

16. Jimsays:
2010/05/17at5:35pm

HI,Prem,

Airconditioners(A/C)canbepurelyACmotorloads(directconnectedtoAClines)orcouldbedriven
viaACmotordrives(PWMVFD).

IftheA/CareACmotordriventherecannotbeanyharmoniccontentdeveloped.Theproblemcouldbe
reactivecurrent(phaseshiftedcurrentfromtheACvoltagewaveform).

IftheA/CaredrivenbyPWMVFDthenharmoniccurrentwillbepresent.Theamountwillvarybased
uponthemountofimpedanceinstalledintheVFDDCbus(akaDCchoke)or3phaseinductors(akaline

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3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

reactors)ontheinputtotheVFD.IfnoinductanceispresenttheTHDiatfullload(worstcasefor
harmoniccontent)willbe90120%perVFD.Usinga3%impedanceratedinductorintheDCbusoron
theAClineswillreducetheTHDitothe3240%range.

AsfarasenergysavingsgoesitisonlytheIsquaredR(I2R)lossesthataresaved.Thatisthepowerloss
duetotheconductorresistancecharacteristics.

Forreactivecurrentduetoinductiveloads,thecurrentreductionisproportionaltothereactivecurrent
reduction.So,placingPFcapsattheACmotorsthatarelineconnectedwillreducethecurrentandsave
theI2R.Foreveryampereofreductionthereisa3timessavingsatthepowerplantthatusescoal
generationtechniques.Locally,thereductionsareatbest12%.

Also,theutilitymayenhancethemonetarysavingsforusersbychargingforpoorpowerfactor.This
powerpenaltywillnolongerbechargediflocalPFcorrectionisemployed.Thisisusuallyamuch,much
highermonetraryvaluethantheI2Rlossessavings.

Asfarasharmoniccurrentreduction,theI2Rlossesareminimal.Thermscurrentduetoharmonicsisa
functionof[Ifundxsqrt(1+THDisquared)].So,theI2Rsavingsaremuchlessthanreactivecurrent
correctionforpoorpowerfactor.Aoneamperereductioninharmoniccurrentyieldlessthan1amp
benefitontheAClinesasfaraslossesareconcerned.

Greatersavingsisachievedduecapacityutilizationreductionsintransformersandpowercables.Greater
savingsisachievedduetoreducedTHDvcausedbynonlinearloads.ReducingTHDvreducesthechance
oftheTHDvcausingotherequipmenttofailandthuscausedowntimewithintheplant.Downtimeisa
majormonetaryloss.

So,IdontseeanenergysavingsdiscussionforTHDireductions.Itistheleastbenefittodiscuss.
Operationaldowntimeisamuch,muchlargerplay.

Regards,Jim

Reply

17. OmairAnwarsays:
2010/06/09at8:31pm

IhaveahugeconfusionregardinganewVFDpanelinstalledatmyfertilizerplantsinceIamafresh
traineeengineerandIhavenohandsonexperienceonthem.TherearetwoVFDsofDanfossmakeand
areusedtocontroltwounbalancedmotorsperVFD.MyconfusionisthatifIfollowthetheory,thenany
vfdhasessentiallythreeparts:therectificer,thedclineconditioning,theinverter.Nowmyconfusionis
thatthatattheVFDPanel,theinputsupply(480V)firstentersintoanAHF,fromtheAHFthentothe
VFD(thatcontrolsthefrequencywithintheband,35to60hz),thenintoalinereactorandthenfinally
subdividestofeedtwomotors.SincetherectifierandPWMcircuitryarepresentINSIDEtheVFD,why
hasthelocalmanufacturerisfeedingthelinesL1,L2,L3withanAHFBEFOREtheVFD?

Reply

18. Jimsays:
2010/06/15at10:57pm

Hi,Omar,

DanfossoffersanAHF/VFDpackagewheretheAHFandVFDarepackagedinthesameenclosure.As
partofthispackage,theyincludealineside3phaselinereactorandDClinereactorafterthediode
rectifier.
http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 12/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

TheentireharmonicfilteringsystemconsistsoftheAClinereactors,theDCbusreactor,andtheparallel
AHF.Itissupposetomeet5%THDilevelsatfullload.

ThepurposeistoreduceVFDharmonicstomeetaharmonicstandard.

Regards,

Reply

19. santhoshKGsays:
2010/07/25at4:29am

IHAVEANREQUIREMENTTOREDUCETHIDLESSTHAN5%ANDVOLTAGEHARMONICS
LESSTHAN3%FOR50HPVFDFORHVACSECONDARYPUMPINGSYSTEM,ANYBODYCAN
GUIDEMEOVERTHIS

Reply

20. Jimsays:
2010/07/25at11:02am

HI,Santhosh,

SettingTHDiandTHDvlevelsisnotalwaysstraightforward.

THDiandTHDvaresubjecttothesizeofthesource(shortcircuitcapacity),impedanceoftheelectrical
network,allloadsinsatlled(suchasACmotors),thetypeofrectifierandtheloadontherectifier.Since
thisknowledgerequiresutilityinput,systeminvestigationthroughmeasurements,andknowledgeofthe
equipmentitisdifficulttoprovideanswers.

Ofcourse,asimulationcouldbedoneusingassumptions.Theresultsareonlyasgoodastheassumptions.

InsertionofsolutionsinthesimulationisrequiredtoobtainTHDiandTHDvresults.

DocumentslikeIEEE5191992andtheIEC61000seriesofrequirementsarefinedocumentsthatprovide
discussionsaboutthissubject.

Onemajorpointtorememberisthat%THDiisacounterindicatorforharmonccurrentlevels.Harmonic
currentamplitudeisalwaysworstatfullload.%THDiincreasesastheharmoniccurrentamplitude
decreases.So,theneedistomeet5%THDiatfullload(notthroughouttheoperatingrange).

5%THDiisadifficultspecificationtocomplywith.IfyouhavenotpurchasedtheVFD,activefrontend
VFDsormutlipulseVFD(18pulse)couldbeused.TheseVFDtypeswilllimitTHDi(atfullload)to
about5%.

IftheVFDexiststhepathtosolutionisfirsttobesurethat35%impedancelinereactorsareinstalled.
ThiswillreduceVFDharmoniccurrentfromabout100%to35%.Applyinganactiveharmonicfilterat
thispointwillobtain5%orlessTHDi(atfullload)aswell.

Allpassivesolutionssuchastunedharmonicfiltersandbroadbandfiltersaresubjecttosystemelements
(asmentionedabove).Theymayattain5%THDIbutmaynot.

NotethatIhavereallyleftTHDvoutofthisdiscussion.Thatisbecauseitreallydependsuponthe
electricalsystemelements.

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3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

Also,TotalTHDvisalsodependentuponthesupplyquality.Iftheutility(supplysystem)hasTHDv
levelstheycontributetothetotalandcannotbeincludedinsimulationseasily.OnlyloadinducedTHDv
canbesimulated.

Nowhavingsaidalloftheabove,ifyouhaveone50HPVFDinapumpstation,thesolutionmaybevery
simple.Iftheshortcircuitcapacityoftheutilityorgenerator(backupifpresent)isabove20timesthe
VFDfullloadcurrentrating,thesolutionrangeislargeasfarasTHDi.

Iftheshortcircuitcurrentofthesourceislargerthan1000timestheVFDrating,youcanlikelybywith
3%inputlinereactorsbecausetheloadisverysmallcomparedtothesource.But5%THDiisnotthe
objective,20%THDiispermitted(perIEEE5191992).

Astheshortcircuitofthesourcedrops,passivefilterswillworkAccordingtoIEEE5191992THDi
guideleines.

Ifyoumustmeet5%THDi,thenanactivefilterand3%linereactorswillmeetthis.

ImguessinghatyouarelocatedinIndia.IfyouprovideanemailaddressIcanhaveourexpertsinIndia
contactyou.Sendtojjohnson@accusine.com.

Regards,Jim

Reply

21. OwenMurphysays:
2010/09/30at6:55am

thebestthingaboutACmotorsisthattheyrequirelessmaintanennance'

Reply

22. Kersteinsays:
2010/11/07at5:18pm

foryearswehavebeenusingacmotorsforindustrialuseandyestheylastlonger

Reply

Jimsays:
2010/11/22at4:42pm

Hello,Owen,GarageandKerstein,

IdontknowwherethisdiscussioncomefrombutIwilloffersomecomments.

Directonline(DOL)ACmotorsaretheworldwidestandardtoproducemechanicalworkfrom
electricity.Nodispute.Itshuge.

DOLACmotorsprovdefixedspeedoperation.Theyaredependableandlastalongtimeif
environmentalconditionsaremaintainedtostandard.

DCmotorsareonlyusedwhenvariablespeedisneededandaDCcontroller(DCdrive)isrequired.

SoanydiscussionaboutcomparingDCandACmotorsrequiresadiscussionaboutthemotor
controllersalso.

http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 14/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

DCmotorsaremoreefficientthanACmotors.TypicallyDCmotorsare9799%efficient.AC
motorsarenotmorethan94%efficient(checkthemanufacturerstables).

DCdrivesare99%efficient.ACmotorspeedcontrols(PWMVFD)areatbest9798%efficient.
Typicallyabout97%.

Butefficiencyisonlyonepartofthediscussion.Maintainenceisanotherissue.DCmotorsrequire
maintenenceforthebrushes.ACmotorsneedgreaseandtheyrunforever.

DCdrivesaresimpleandlesscostlyandeasytomaintain.PWMVFDaremorecomplexanddo
requiremoremaintenecethanDCdrives.

DCmotorsareconsideredspecialandhaverelativelylongdeliveries.ACmotorsforDOLuseare
stockedandreadilyavailable.Foragivensizerating,theDCmotorislargerphysically.

ACmotorstobeusedwithPWMVFDrequireadifferentdesignthandostandardDOLACmotors.
NEMAandotherbodieshavedefinedhowthesediffer.NeedlesstosaytheACmotorthatoperates
onVFDshouldbespecial.

Tradeoffsabound.

Generally,PWMVFDwithACmotorsareusedasapreferenceoverDCdirveandmotorstoday.

Regards,

Reply

23. Jimsays:
2010/11/22at4:12pm

Hi,Alen,

Sorryforthelateresponse.IwasansweringanothercommentwhenIsawyourquestion.

Imnotabletoseethedetailsofloadsizesinyourattachements.So,Iwillmakegeneralcomments.

Usingpowerfactorcapacitors(PFC)withdetuningtomake5thand7thharmonicfiltersisalways
questionable.ThereasonistheamountofleadingVARsinjectedbythetwofilters.Ifoftenexceedsthe
requiredVARinjectionandleadingdisplacementPFoccurs.LeadingPFcancausethesafetydevices
(circuitbreakersandcontactors)tofailovertime.Also,iftheleadinglevelishighenoughothercustomers
ortheutilitymayexperienceresonance.Youwillseeelevatedmainsvoltagelevels.

SchneiderElectricgenerallyrecommendsthefollowingregardingnonlinearloadcontent:

a)Ifthenonlinearcontentoftotalloadislessthen15%,thenstandardPFcapacitorscanbeused.

b)Ifthenonliearcontentisbetween15and50%ofcontent,thendetunedPFcapacitorsystemsareused.

c)Ifthenonliearcontentexceeds50%ofcontent,thenacticeharmonicfiltersareusedforPFcorrection.

Itsoundslike(baseduponyourbriefdescription)thatyournonlinearcontentisover50%ofthetotalload.
IfsoyoumayneedsomedisplacmentPFcorrectionbutnotasmuchasparalleld5thand7thorderfilters
willinject.

Activeharmonicfilters(AHF)injectcontrolledreactivecurrentfordisplacementPFcorrectionand
harmonicmitigation.CurrenttransformersareusedtodefinetheloadcurrentsoAHFinjectonlywhatis
http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 15/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

requiredtoattainthesetpointdisplacmentPFand5%TDDforharmonics.Thereisnochanceofover
correctingdisplacementPFandthusnochanceofleadingPF.

IsuggestyoucontactyourlocalSchneiderElectricspecialistsforassistance.

Regrads,Jim

Reply

24. JohnMauldinsays:
2011/01/28at10:40am

AlthoughwearetalkingaboutanentirelydifferentfieldoffiltersImustcommentthatmanyofmy
commercialclientsforhvacfiltershavebegundiscussingtheharmonicfilterissuefrequently.Outof
curiosity,Ididsomeresearchandfindthatthisarticleislikelythemostcomprehensiveoneonthenet
regardingthissubject.Admittedly,Idonothavethebrainpowertointelligentlydiscussthisissue.ButI
mustsaythatanyonewhodoeshavethatcapacityhasaTexashatsofftoyousaluteforyourlevelof
intelligenceandcomprehension.NowIknowwhatblogtorecommendtomyclientsIwillsurelysend
sometrafficyourway!Bestregards!JohnMauldin,Dallas,Texas

Reply

Jimsays:
2011/01/28at3:25pm

WOW!!!Thankyouforyourverykindwords.

Theknowledgeexpressedhereistheresultof39yearsofworkinthepowerelectronicfield.First
withACandDCmotorspeedcontrolsandthenativeharmonicfilters.ButIhavetosayalotof
otherpeoplehaveteughtmemuchovertheyears.Withoutcompetentengineerstodiscussissues
withtherewouldbemuchconfusionandpoorassumptions.

Please,dosendotherstothissite.Ihopeeveryonethatcomesandlearnspassesitontoanother.

ThankyouandRegards,

Jim

Reply

25. Jimsays:
2011/01/28at3:54pm

HI,Joe,

Safetydevicesandcontactorsaredesignedtooperatewithleadingvoltage,notleadingcurrent,onanAC
system.Whenasafetydeviceorcontactoropensitisdesignedtobreakthevoltagewhichthenstopsthe
currentflow.

Ifthecontactoropenswithleadingcurrent,thevoltageisstillpresentandarcingoccurs.Thearcingcauses
damagetothecontactsurfaces.Theamountofarcingdependsuponthevoltagepresentwhentheconacts
areseparated.Asthephaseangle(displacementpowerfactor)becomesmoreandmoreleadingthe
instantaneousvoltagelevelincreasestowardthepeakofthesinewaveofthevoltageandmoredamage
willoccur.

http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 16/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

Theproblemisthepitting(chunksofmetalarepulledfromthemetalsurface)uponeachactivationdueto
arcing.Astheamountofpittingincreasestheactualsurafcearealeftislessandlessonthecontacts.At
somepointthecontactsurfacesareerodedsufficientlytoeithertheyweldshutuponthenextoccurenceor
preventclosurebecausenotenoughsurfaceispresent.

Hopethishelps.

Regards,Jim

Reply

26. Jimsays:
2011/01/28at3:59pm

Hi,Alen,

MostofyourattachmentshavebeenremovedfromtheBlogcontent.Ihavenotbeenabletoreviewmost
ofwhatyousent.

Obviously,thisisnotthecorrectmediaforyourinvestigation.

PleasepsotyouremailandIwillgetbacktoyou.

Regards,

Reply

27. Jimsays:
2011/02/01at4:02pm

Hi,Joe,

ItlookslikethelastresponseIpostedforyoudidnotmakeithere.So,Iwilldoitagain.

ContactorsandcircuitbreakersdeisgnedforACvoltagesystemsoperateontheprincipleofbreakingthe
voltagebeforethecurrentisinterrupted.Inthismannertheenergysupplyvoltagehasbeenremoved
andthecontactsopenstoppingcurrent(andvoltage).

Ifcurrentleadsvoltage,thecontactsmustbreakthecurrentbeforeitbreaksthevoltage.Thiscausesthe
source(voltage)tocontinueasthecurrentisinterrupted.Theresultofthisisahighenergyarcaccording
tothelevelofvoltagebroken.Asthepowerfactorgoesmoreleadingtheinstantaneousvoltageriseson
theACvoltagewaveformtowardthepeakvoltageat90degrees.

Theissueiswhathappenstothecontactswhenthevoltageisstillpresentandsupplyingenergy.This
energymustarctobetweenthecontacts.Eacharcliftsthemetalcontentatthepointofarc.Overtimethe
contactbecomesheavilypitted.

Atsomepointoneoftworesultswilloccur.Oneistheconatctswillweldclosedandpreventopeningthe
contacts.Thuscontinuedsupplyofpowertotheload.Theotherisifthecontactsareopen,theymaynot
closebecausethereisanirregularsurfaceandlockincannotoccur.

Regards,Jim

Reply

28. Mahesh.says:
http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 17/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

2011/03/02at12:55pm

DearJim,

Actuallyiaminthefiledofpowerquality,andvisitindustriestodoharmonicanalysis.

Ihavesomequestionsinmymindthatiwanttoaskyou,

1.Reasonforselecting189Hzdetuningfrequency,forthedetunedfilters??
2.Iftheparticularindustriyishavingtotalcurrentharmonicsofsay25%ithd(withoutcapacitors),
customerusedtoaskmewhatwillbethepossiblereductionofharmonicwithdetunedortunedfilter.

IsthereanyformulaeorMatlabsimulationsoftwareavailabletocalculatethis%reductioniniTHD,5th,
7th,11thlevelafterconnectingpassivefilters.

Ifyoucouldhelpme,iwillbeveryglad.Bythisicancommitcustomerthatafterconnectingpassive
filtersharmoniclevelswillcomedowntobelow56%asperIEEEnorms.Iknowthereareveriousfactor
involveinthistocalculateexactreduction.

Youarerequestedtoguideme.

Reply

29. charuvarshneysays:
2011/03/25at2:11pm

hellojim,
iamveryimpressedwiththeknowledgethatyousharedwithusinyourblog.ihavneverseensuchapool
ofinformationgatheredatoneplaceonpowerqualitysolution.yourknowledgewillprovetobehighly
benificialformyprojecti.e.powerqualityimprovementatdistributionstation.coulduplzmailme
researchpaperbasedonit.myemailidis:chavar05@gmail.com
thankyou!

Reply

30. Owensays:
2011/06/21at11:54am

HiJim,

Ilovethewayyouexplainthingsimlearningalotjustbyreadingyourblog.IhaveaquestiononPower
qualityoptimizationasatooltoEnergyefficiencyperhapsyoucanhelp.Icomefromanonelectrical
engineeringbackgroundbuthaveanelectricalhardwareshopandsomefamiliaritywithelectrical
engineering,imconsideringchangingmyentirebusinesstoprovidingEnergyefficiencytechnologiesin
Kenya.LEDs,CFLs,Geysercontrolsystems,lightautomationsystems,Solar,electricitymonitoringare
easyenoughtounderstandwhatimhavingaproblemwithis3specificPowerqualityimprovement
technologieswhethertheyworkassaid,whataretheirdisadvantagesandwhatelseishouldknowabout
them.MostoftheEngineersiveconsultedseemtohavelimitedexperiencewiththesetechnologies
perhapsyoumayhaveencounteredthem.TheyareVoltageOptimization(PowerPerfectorUK),
Capacitortypeeg.KVARUS,Wavepropellingchipie.(Sunglobalsaver)Themanufacturerstalkabout
severalbenefitsincludingActualKVAreduction15%,Powerfactorimprovement,Harmonicsreduction,
Surgeprotection,lessequipmentwear&tear.Myquestionis.Dotheyworkassaid?arethereany
disadvantagestousingthemthatthemanufacturerdoesntstate?Whatelseshouldiknowaboutthem?
wouldyourecommendthem?

http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 18/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

Reply

JimJohnsonsays:
2011/06/21at4:47pm

Hi,Owen,

Itisprettyamazingtowatchtechnologiesemergewhenthecostofelectricityincreasesor
somethingisdoneinthenameofreducedgreenhousegassesor.

Thethreecompaniesyouhavereferenceddealwithpassivecomponents(inductorsand/orPF
capacitors).Theyassemblytheminuniquewaysandaretoutedasnew,energysaving,
harmonicfilter,andtransientprotector,tonameafewpoints.

AsnearasIcantellthedevicethatemploysaseriesinductorandstardeltatransformersprovides
loadbalancingandtransientprotectionprimarily.Sinceitisaninductor,itwillcauselaggingPFto
getworsethatisdrawmorephaseshiftedcurrentforworsePF.Theamountoftransientprotection
dependsupontheactualinductiveimpedanceitcontains.[ThiswillcausetheI2Rlossestoincrease
aswell.Seebelowdiscussion.]

BenefitswouldbebalancedvoltageandcurrentdrawperphaseforcoolerACmotoroperation.Is
thereabigproblemhere?Mightthisoffsetthephaseshiftcausedbytheadditionoftheinductor?
MightthiscovertheaddedI2Rlossestheinductors/transformerscause?Maybemaybenot.

Theinductordoesactasaharmonicfilter.Ithelpstodecreasetheharmoniccurrentdrawnfromthe
utility,butnotatthenonlineardevice.Theamountofthebenfitdependsupontheimpedancerating
oftheinductor.Lowimpedancehaslittleeffectwhilelargerimpedances(37.5%)havegood
effects.Noideawhatisdesignedintothisproduct.

TheothertwoproductsarePFcapacitorsinabox.TheyeithercorrectforpoordisplacementPF
(laggingcurrent)ofaddleadingcurrenttocauseleadingPF(whennolaggingisrequired).Thereis
noKWsavingsfortheuser.TheKVAisreducedandtheKVARisnormallyreduced(iflagging
loadsarepresent).Neitheractionprovidesanybenefittotheusersutilitybill.Ifadevicecould
generateKWandreplacetheutilityKWsupply,thentherewouldbeauserbenefitthinksolar
panelsorwindturbines.

PFcapacitors(alone)donotfilterharmoniccurrent.Theywillcauseresonanceifhighlevelsof
harmoniccurrentarepresent.PFcapswonthelpbutcouldharminstallationswhenharmonic
producingloadsarepresent(sayabove15%oftotalloading).[Heresaninterestingthought:More
andmoreoftheloadsinresidentialhomesareenergysavingdevices=electronicloads=harmonic
producingloads.Whathappensasmoreandmoreelectronicsareinstalledinhomesandthese
capacitorsareinplace?]

ThediscussionregardingenergysavingstypicallyhingesonI2R(IsquaredR)losses.Thisisareal
losswithintheelectricalnetworkanddoeswasteenergy.BUTattheuserlevelitisusuallyvery
small(under2%potetnial).Howevertotheutilitythesumofallthesavingscanbelarge.Thisis
truebecausetheenergytoprovidetheI2Rlossesatthecustomerdeliverypointmustbegenerated
atthegenerationfacilityandpushedthroughthewholeelectricalnetwork(HV,MVandLV+
transformers,etc).Thiscanbe34timestheactualI2Rlossesforthesumoftheuserssavingsata
PCCwiththeutility.

TodaythereisnoeconomicbenefitforuserstolimitI2Rlosses.TheutilitychargesfortheKW
deliveredandthatmakesupmorethan98%oftheKWneededforoperatingthefacility.Ifthe
utilitiesgotseriousandofferedanincentivetosavethe2%I2Rlosses,thentherewouldbecash
backforusers,albeitsmall.
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3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

Imadeapointabovethatmoreoftheloadsinhomesarebaseduponelectronicsbecausetheysave
realenergyKW.ThissavingsfarexceedsanybenefitsPFcapswillprovideforI2Rlosses.
Utilitiessometimesofferrebatesforinstallingenergysavingsdevicesbecausetheycanreducethe
quantityoffuturegenerationsfacilities.Rebatesforheatpumps,highefficiencyfurnaces,thenew
washingmachines(VFDdriven),tonameafewexist.Why?Becausethereallysaveenergy.

Justtomakeanotherpoint,whenutilitybillsavingsareproclaimed,itisusuallybaseduponthe
utilitybill.Howmuchoftheutilitybillisaffectedbytheweathernotwhattheuserdoesor
doesntdo?Istheweatherforanyperiodofthisyearequaltosameperiodaslastyear(theusual
basisofcomparison)?Notveryoften.Thevariablesalsoarewastheheatorairconditioningturned
onoroffforthesameperiodsoftimeaslastyear?Mypointisthatsuchcompariosnsarehardto
doandtypicallyaresubjecttomanyvariableswhichbythewaytheequipmentsuppliersfrom
aboveusetotheiradvantagewhenchargesincrease.

Reply

31. govindarajsays:
2011/10/13at1:38pm

hi,wehavea2500kVAtransformer13.8kV/480Vsystemsupplyingharmonicloads2x300kW6
pulsevariablefrequencydriveandmotorat480Volts.Thesystemalsohasone30kVAUPS.Thereis
standby1x1250kVAgeneratoralso.

Weproposetoinstallharmonicfilterhoweverthereisnoisolatorswitchonmainbustoconnect,since
UPStrippingisobservedduringoperationofmotors.

Howtodeterminethesizeofactiveharmonicfilter?

Pleaseadvice

Reply

JimJohnsonsays:
2011/10/13at3:12pm

Hi,govindraraj,

Theabsolutemostaccuratemethodistoperformapoweranalysisandcreateacomputermodel.
Thepoweranalysisdefinestheentireelectricalsysemfromtheutilitytotheloads.Itisalsovery
expensiveandtakesanfairlylongtimetocomplete.

SchneiderElectrichavedevelopedanactiveharmonicfilterselectiontoolthatusessome
approximationstoshortcuttheabovetimeandcostsandprovideanaccuratesolution.Thetool
includesguidelinesandbestpracticesdiscussionstohelpyouinstalltheoptimumequipmentfor
bestresultsinharmoniccurrentelimination.

Usingthattoolandtheinformationprovided,yieldsthefollowingprovidedtheVFDandUPShave
3to5%impedanceinductoanceinstalledeitheronthemains(3phaselinereactor)orDCbus
chokes.TheTDDiscalculatedat238ampsofrmsharmoniccurrent=30.87%TDD.So,youneed
anactiveharmonicfilterthatisrated1.2x238=286amps.

Quicksolutionnocostinvovled.Butyouneedtobesuretheinductorsarepresentora300amp
activefilterwillnotprovidethebeenfitsexpected.

ContactyourlocalSchneiderElectricrepresentativeforlocalassistance.

http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 20/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

Rgeradsandgoodluck,

Jim

Reply

32. Maheshsays:
2012/01/05at2:16pm

Mr.Jim

Myquestionisstillunansweredpleaseguideme..awaitingyourreply..

Reply

JimJohnsonsays:
2012/01/05at4:55pm

Hi,Mahesh,

Sorryforthetardyreply.

Theselectionofadetuningfrequencyis1)definedbytheobjectiveand2)customaryandusual
practiceswithinacountryorregionofgeographyor3)philosophyofthedesigner.

The189HztuningrepresentsadetuningtoprotectthePFcapacitorsusedforpowerfactor
correctionfrom5thharmoniccurrents(fora50Hzelectricalsystem).Thistuningactuallypermits
smallamountsof5thharmoniccurrenttoflowinthecapacitors.The5thharmonicfrequencyisat
250Hz.

Thedetuningfrequnecydefinestheamountof5thharmonic(inthiscase)currentthatwillbe
permittedtoenterthecapacitors.Tuningatthe5thharmonicwillresultinresonance.So,tuning
belowthe5thharmonicisdonetolimitthe5thharmoniccurrentflowandpreventresonance.

189Hztuningisatthe3.78thharmonic.ThisindicatesthattheresonantpointforthisPFcapbank
isatthisfrequency.Sincethisfrequencyisnotsupposetobepresentitisasafefrequencyto
preventexcessive5thharmoniccurrentflowintothecapacitorsandpreventresonancefrom
occurring.Thistuningpermitsthecapacitorstoprovidepowerfactorcorrectionatthebanksrating
andsurviveina5thharmonicrichenvironment

Bytuningclosertothe5thharmonic,more5thharmoniccurrentwillflowintothecapacitorsand
providemore5thharmonicfiltering.Thecapacitorsmustbeincreasedincurrentcapacitytohandle
thetotalhighercurrentas5thharmoniccurrentflowsintothecapacitors.

Thecapacitorbankisconsidereda5thharmonicfilterwhenthetuningfrequencyisabovethe4.7th
harmonicorder.At4.8,about80%ofthe5thharmoniccurrentisremovedfromthesourcesystem.
At4.9,about90%ofthe5thharmoniccurrentisremovedfromthesourcesystem.

Simulationsmustbemadetoreviewtheresonantfrequenciesthatmayoccurduetoadding
capacitanceintotheelectricalsystem.Sourcecharacteristics,transformerandcablingimpedances,
thetypeofloadsinstalledbothlinearandnonlinearmustbeincludedinthesimulation.
Omissionofanydatacouldresultinanundefinedresonancefrequency.

OurengineerstypicallyuseSKMToolstomodelthesystem.IassumeMatlabcandothejobas
well.

http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 21/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

Somethingtokeepinmind,ascapacitorsagethefaradratingchanges.Thisresultsinthefrequency
ratingofthedetunedcircuitincreasing.Thusadetunedcapacitybankforsomefrequencybelowthe
5thharmonicwillactuallyovertimewalktothe5thharmonicfrequencyandresonate.So,regular
maintenacemustbeperformedtoinsurethecapacitorsarehealthyandarenotindangerofcausing
resonance.

Also,ifanyofthesimulationvariables(electricalsystem,transformersandcableimpedance,loads,
etc)changethesimulationmustbereviewed.Itispossibletoaddoneloadandcauseresonance.

Finally,differentcompaniesthatprovidedetunedcapacitorsystemstunetodifferentfrequencies.
Someofthisisbasedupontheircapacitordesignsandsomeisbaseduponlocalcustomsor
companyphilosophy.ItistypicaltoseedetuingforPFcorrectiontolevelsbetween3.8and4.3.5th
harmonicfiltersaretypicallytunedto4.8to4.9.Butanytuningcanbeachievedbaseduponthe
needs.

Obviously,tuningtoperform5thharmoniccancellationforthesourcesystemcostsmorethan
tuningat3.8thorder.Thecapacitorsandinductorsmustberatedforthehighercurrentspermittedat
thehighertuningpoints.

Hopethishelps,

Regards,Jim

Reply

33. szekcionltgarzskapusays:
2012/01/17at10:20pm

Thankyoualotforsharingthiswithallpeopleyouactuallyrecognisewhatyourespeaking
approximately!Bookmarked.Kindlyalsotalkoverwithmywebsite=).Wemayhaveahyperlink
alternateagreementamongus

Reply

34. smitasays:
2012/01/28at3:46pm

Hallojim

weareconnectedwithmaintenanceofelectricaldistributionsysteminindia.Asuknowourstdfrequency
is50Hz.systenratedvoltagebysypplyagencyis11KV.weinstalled250KVA11/.433KVtransformer
atoursite.ourMaxdemandisapprox210KVA.andtypeofloadsarelightingMechanicallaundry,traing
workshopswithlatheetc.Wearefacingproblemoflowpf.whilecheckingtheparametersLTvoltageis
460volts.Anoldpowerfactorcorrector115KVARisinsystembutnotworking.Howcanweincrease
ourPftounityor0.99lag.areharmonicfiltersalsoessential?

Reply

35. francissays:
2012/08/07at4:25pm

hellojim

imanelectricalengstudent
imstudyingthecauseoftheoverheatingofequipmentatafactoryinthephilippines.

http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 22/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

DowejustdividethetotalcurrentcapacityoftheLVSGby2todeterminethemodeloftheAFHtobe
installedcanuexplainwhy.

CurrentTHD=PhaseA=972.5x26.9%=261.60Amperes
PhaseB=1051.3x25.1%=263.87Amperes
PhaseC=1001.2x26.2%=262.31Amperes

MinimumRequiredAHFCapacity=Max.CurrentTHD=264Amperes
RecommendedAHFCapacity=300Amperes

RecommendedTotalAHFCapacityforLVSG1A=600Amperes

Sircanyoutellmewhytherecommendedtotalcapacityis600A

CanyougivemeagoodreferencehowactiveharmonicfiltersworkIcantunderstandhowAHF
producetheoppositeneededcurrentwheredoesthecurrentcamefrom.Fromothersource?Isitbetter
thanapassivefilter?

Ineedhelpfrompeoplewhoareknowledgeableinthistopic..helpme.Thanks

Ihavemoredatajusttellmeiftheaboveisinsufficient.

Reply

36. francissays:
2012/08/08at7:12am

fransjack123@yahoo.comismyemail

canisendyousomemoredataandexplainsomeofthemforme?activeharmonicfilterisnewtome

ineedyourexpertiesherethankyouforthereply

Reply

37. francissays:
2012/08/08at1:00pm

haveyoureceivedthedataisentyou?

Reply

38. francissays:
2012/08/10at3:07am

thankyoumrsrinivas.ioweyouone.

Reply

39. K.R.NATARAJANsays:
2012/09/03at8:09am

DearSir,Canyoupleasesuggest/commenthowtoselectadetunedfilterwhenthesystemispollutedwith
5th&7thharmonicpredominantly.Isitadvisabletoselectatunedfilterseparatelyfor5th&7th?Please
reply.Regards

http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 23/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

Reply

JimJohnsonsays:
2012/09/04at6:07pm

Hi,K.R.,

Itsoundslikeyouaretryingtocorrectforharmonicsemploying5thand7thharmonictunedfilters.
Thiscanbedifficultandresultinsystemissuesifthetotalharmonicloadsaremorethan50%ofthe
totalloads.

Inordertomeetthecancellationcapacityneededfor5thand7thharmonicfilters,itisverylikely
thatthetotaldisplacementPFiscorrectedtoleading.IftheleadingPFissubstantial,thevoltage
willbeincreasedtounacceptablelevelsfortheconnectedloads(>10%ofactual).Thiswillbe
harmfultoyourloadssomemayfaultduetoovervoltageorfailcompletely.

Additionally,itispossiblethatsafetydevicesandcontactorsbegintofailtooperate.LeadingPF
causescontactstobecomepittedastheyareactuated.Oneresultisthatcircuitbreakersmayfailto
openorfailtoclose.

AnotherissueisthatPFcapacitorsystemsaredesignedtoswitchaccordingtothedisplacementPF
atthepointofmonitoring(wheretheCTislocated).Thisdoesnotassurethattheproperamountof
filteringstepsareactivatedattherighttimes.Itispossiblethatthe5thand7thtunedfiltersareover
loadedandsufferprematurefailure.

Finally,ifadditionalloadsareaddedtothenetwork,thewholefiltering/PFcorrectionsystemmust
bereexaminedforsuitabilityofuse.

Wesuggestthatactiveharmonicfiltersbeusedwhenmorethan50%ofthetotalloadsareharmonic
producing.Thismaybemoreexpensivebutthesystemwillnotencounteranyoftheaboveissues.
[Doremembertoinsurethat35%impedancereactanceisinstalledateachharmoncrectifier.]

Regards,Jim

Reply

40. Johnnysays:
2012/11/26at9:42pm

HiJim,

InregardstotheActiveHarmonicFilter.Howwouldonesizethefilterwithbothlinearandnonlinear
loadsonthebus.

Example:Withseveralnonlinearloadswithafullloadampratingof225Amps@480Volts/60hzand
linearloadsof75amps.Assuming35%THDandwantingtobeat<5%THD.Whatwouldbetheproper
calculationtofindthecorrectiveampsneededforanactiveharmonicfilter.
Regards,
Johnny

Reply

41. Kalisays:
2013/01/06at6:53pm

http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 24/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

Hi,
Oneofthesubstationwearefacingissuehormonicsmorethan25THD,onlywhentheloadisvery
low(10amps&PFisunity).someonecanexplianhowtomitigatetheharmonicsdistoration.
Thanks,
Kali

Reply

JimJohnsonsays:
2013/01/09at3:44pm

Hi,Kali,

Theinformationyouhaveprovidedisverysketchyandmakesitextremelydifficulttoprovidegood
andpertinentcomments.

Asageneralstatement,youmentionasubstationwith25THD.IstheTHDmeasurementfor
voltageorcurrent?IfthatisaTHDvmeasurment,thenyoumayhaverealproblems.Ifthatisa
THDimeasurement,thenyoumaynothaveaproblem.

Ifyouarereferringtoasubstation,Iwouldexpectthecurrenttobemuchgreaterthan10amperes
asstated.Forasubstation10amperesisalmostnothing.

Somethingtothinkaboutisthat10amperesisaverysmallload.Dependinguponthesourcerating
(shortcircuitamperesShCA),theTHDvshouldbealmost0%(12%wouldbetypical
backgroundnoise).IftheShCR(Shortcircuitratio:ShCA/fundamentalcurrentofload)isvery
high,theTHDvwouldbeextremelylowfora10amploadwith200%THDi.

Muchmoreinformationisneededtobetterunderstandyoursituation.ButIcansaywithmuch
convictionthata10amploadisnotgoingtobeaproblem.

Regards,

Reply

42. MD.SHAHZAHANALIsays:
2013/01/20at6:52am

HiJim,

IthankyouforgivingtheideaofPowerQualityinElectricalDistributionSystemthatleadstoEndusers.

Reply

43. krunalsays:
2014/09/25at8:25am

in50hpVFDigotTHDiis67%..
pleasetellmetheallowablelimitofthat.

samewayallowablelimitofTHDiforUPSsystem

Reply

44. LBOdendaalsays:
2015/12/04at8:11am
http://engineering.electricalequipment.org/powerquality/harmonicfilter.html 25/28
3/15/2017 Harmonicfilterforbetterpowerquality

PleasesupplycontactdetailsforSouthAfrica.

Reply

45. JimJohnsonsays:
2015/12/06at12:00am

nathan.potgieter@schneiderelectric.com

NathanistheProductManagerforPowerQuality.Hewillbeabletoputyouincontact.

Regards,

Reply

46. hargagensetsays:
2015/12/22at12:20pm

Thankstomyfatherwhostatedtomeconcerningthiswebpage,thisblogisactuallyawesome.

Reply

47. MANZOORsays:
2016/04/04at12:31pm

heyjim..Iamconfusedabouttheselectionofharmonicfilter..Ifiwanttoputaharmonicfilterin
500kvarPFIplantwhatshouldbetheratingofharmonicfilter

Reply

JimJohnsonsays:
2016/04/04at5:11pm

Hi,Manzoor,

Therearetwomainmethodstoselectanactiveharmonicfilter.

1)Knowtheplantoperatingdetails:Couldbefromcontinuousmonitoring(alreadyhave
appropriatemeteringinstalled)couldbefromperformingaharmonicstudyorcouldbefrom
performingasimulation.AllprovidedetailsaboutV(phasesandneutrals,ifappropriate),I,KW,
KVAR,KVA,PF,THDi,andTHDv.Fromthis9informationsomegoodsizingcanbeattained.

2)Ifplanning/designingafacility,simplecalculatorsprovidedbytheactiveharmonicfilter(AHF)
manufacturersallowentryofloadsizesandtypesandutility/generatorsourceinformation.Thisis
moreconservativethanpoint1above.Butitpermitsonetoknowwhatwillmeettheharmonic
standardsandprotecttheeventualusers.

Youneedtodefinethestartingpointanddecidewhatthestandardsofcompliancetobeapplied.

Regards,Jim

Reply

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