You are on page 1of 12

International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering, Science & Technology

Volume-1, Issue-1, March, 2016

DESIGN, MODELING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MANUALLY OPERATED SEED


SOWING MACHINE
Prof. Abhijit G. Naik1, Prof. Amay Deorao Meshram2, Prof. Siraj Y. sayyad3.
1
Asst. Professor,Mechanical Engg. Dept., PIET Nagpur-19 , Maharashtra
,India(nike.abhijit@gmail.com)
2
Asst. Professor,Mechanical Engg. Dept., PIET Nagpur-19 , Maharashtra
,India(amaymeshram@gmail.com)
3
Asst. Professor,Mechanical Engg. Dept., PIET Nagpur-19 , Maharashtra
,India(srjsayyad@gmail.com)

ABSTACT do the right thing, in the right place, at the right


Agro-Technology is the process of applying the time in the right way.
technology innovation occurring in daily life and
applying that to the agriculture sector which 1. INTRODUCTION
improves the efficiency of the crop produced and The major occupation of the Indian rural
also to develop a better mechanical machine to help people is agriculture and both men and women are
the agriculture field which reduces the amount and equally involved in the process. Agriculture has
time of work spent on one crop. Hence in this work been the backbone of the Indian economy and it
of project we decided to design a better mechanical will continue to remain so for a long time. It has to
machine which is available to the farmers at a support almost 17% of world population from 2.3%
cheaper rate and also which can sow and seed the of world geographical area and4.2% of worlds
crop at the same time. This project consists of the water resources. The present cropping intensity of
better design of the machine which can be used 137% has registered an increase of only 26% since
specifically for rice, wheat crops etc. 1950-51. The net sown area is 142 Mha. The basic
Developed agriculture needs to find new objective of sowing operation is to put the seed and
ways to improve efficiency. One approach is to fertilizer in rows at desired depth and spacing, cover
utilize available information technologies in the the seeds with soil and provide proper compaction
form of more intelligent machines to reduce and over the seed.
target energy inputs in more effective ways than in The recommended row to row spacing, seed
the past. Precision farming has shown benefits of rate, seed to seed spacing and depth of seed
this approach but we can now move towards a new placement vary from crop to crop and for different
generation of equipment. The advent of autonomous agricultural and climatic conditions to achieve
system architectures gives us the opportunity to optimum yields and an efficient sowing machine
develop a complete new range of agricultural should attempt to fulfill these requirements. In
equipment based on small smart machines that can addition, saving in cost of operation time, labor and
Address: Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hingna Road, Near CRPF Campus, Digdoh Hills,
Nagpur-440019
Website: www.ijnrest.com Email-Id: info@ijnrest.com, editor@ijnrest.com
International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering, Science & Technology
Volume-1, Issue-1, March, 2016

energy are other advantages to be derived from use 2. Available for Tractors drive.
of improved machinery for such operations. A 3. No Arrangement for depth control.
traditional method of seed sowing has many 4. No Arrangement for seed bedpreparation.
disadvantages. This paper is about the different 5. Improper compaction of soil overfurrows.
types of methods of seed sowing and fertilizer 6. Adjustment of row spacing is improper.
placement in the soil and developing a 7. The cost of machine is more.
multifunctional seed sowing machine which can
perform simultaneous operations. a- row sowing; b- dibbling; c- narrow row
The agricultural has always been the sowing; d- wide row sowing; e- strip
backbone of Indias sustained growth. As the sowing; f- single grain
population of India continues to grow, the demand
Objective
for produce grows as well. Hence, there is a greater
need for multiple cropping in the farms and this in
turn requires efficient and time saving machines. To achieve proper distance in two
The paper discusses different types of seed sowing seed in seeding mechanism for
machine which will be helpful for the agriculture proper nutrition and growth of
industry to move towards mechanization. plants.
To make this machine which operate
manually for small farmer
To provide this machine in lowest
cost and light in weight.
Traditional Sowing Methods: To adjust proper depth in variable
Traditional methods include broadcasting soil in any whether condition
manually, opening furrows by a country plough and
Methodology
dropping seeds by hand and dropping seeds in the
To make agriculture project we follow this steps
furrow through a bamboo/metal funnel attached to a
country plough. For sowing in small areas dibbling The first step is to go to the farmers and find
i.e., making holes or slits by a stick or tool and the problems faced by them.
dropping seeds by hand, is practiced. Multi row The second step is to choose a problem.
traditional seeding devices with manual metering of
seeds are quite popular with experienced farmers. In
The third step is to visit to agriculture
manual seeding, it is not possible to achieve
industry.
uniformity in distribution of seeds. A farmer may
The fourth step is toAnalyze the problem&
sow at desired seed rate but inter-row and intra-row
their solution.
distribution of seeds is likely to be uneven resulting
The fifth step is the selection of Design of
in bunching and gaps in field.
gear for proper seed distance.
The following are the limitations of Existing The sixth step is to find which mechanism is
Machine:-
to suitable in lowest cost.
1. The Weight of the Machine is more.
Address: Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hingna Road, Near CRPF Campus, Digdoh Hills,
Nagpur-440019
Website: www.ijnrest.com Email-Id: info@ijnrest.com, editor@ijnrest.com
International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering, Science & Technology
Volume-1, Issue-1, March, 2016

The seventh step is to find all components gate for different sizes of grains. The feed roller and
we require in proper dimension. the feed cut-off device are mounted a shaft, running
The eight stepsare to start fabrication. through the feed cups. The roller carries grooves
The ninth step is to make proper balance throughout its periphery. It rotates with the axle
sheet of work done. over which it is mounted throws the grains out on
The last step is the testing of machine. the adjustable gate from where it falls into the seed
tube. The fluted rollers which are mounted at the
Working Principle Seed Cum Fertilizer bottom of the seed box, receive seeds into
longitudinal grooves and pass on to the seed tube
Drill
through the holes provided for this purpose. By
Seed drills, fitted with fertilizer dropping
shifting the fluted wheel side ways, the length of the
attachment, distribute the fertilizer uniformly on the
grooves exposed to the seed can be increased or
ground. It is called seed cum fertilizer drill. Such a
decreased and hence the amount of seed is
drill has a large seed box which is dividend
controlled.
lengthwise into two compartments, one for seed and
another for fertilizers. Seed drill may be classified
as (i) Bullock drawn (ii) Tractor drawn. Design Of Seed Metering Mechanism

SEED METERING MECHANISM In this project we used two gear having teeth,
The mechanism of a seed drill or fertilizer
t1 = 12 teeth,t2= 18 teeth
distributor which delivers seeds or fertilizers from
the hopper at selected rates is called seed metering and the wheel having diameter = 20 cm
mechanism. Seed metering mechanism may be of
several types: Circumference of circle of ground wheel = 2R
(a) Fluted feed type
(b) Internal double run type = 2R
(c) Cup feed type
(d) Cell feed mechanism = 220
(e) Brush feed mechanism
= 125.66
(f) Auger feed mechanism
(g) Picker wheel mechanism = 126 cm
(h) Star wheel mechanism.
There are two types of seeding
Fluted feed type- 1) Continuous Seeding.
It is a seed metering device with adjustable
fluted roller to collect and deliver the seeds into the 2) Discontinuous Seeding.
seed tube. Fluted feed type mechanism consists of a
fluted wheel, feed roller, feed cut-off and adjustable 1) ContinuousSeeding:
Address: Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hingna Road, Near CRPF Campus, Digdoh Hills,
Nagpur-440019
Website: www.ijnrest.com Email-Id: info@ijnrest.com, editor@ijnrest.com
International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering, Science & Technology
Volume-1, Issue-1, March, 2016

It used for seeds like soya been, maze etc. Table.4.1.1 Continuous type seeding distance for
2/3
Design of continuous type seed metering
mechanism, we have used two types of gear i.e. Sr Rotor Position Distance (mm)
No.
t1 is driven gear & t2 driver gear 1 7 40
2 9 30
3 10 20
The gear ratio = =
4 All 10

Driven gear make three rotation for every two 2) For gear t2 is driver gear & t1 is driver gear.
rotation of driving gear.

We know, The gear ratio = =

Driving gear is connected to ground wheel by axel.


It means that driver gear make two rotation for
Ground wheel rotation = Driving gear every three rotation of driving gear.

Driving gear is connected to ground wheel by


Ground wheel rotation = 126 cm
axel.
For one rotation distance
Ground wheel rotation = Driving gear
Driving gear 2 = 63 cm . (1)

Driving gear 3 = 42 cm . (2) Ground wheel rotation = 126cm.

Driven gear connected with seed metering For each rotation distance
mechanism andhaving 12 slots for contain seed. Driving gear 3 = 42 cm. .(3)

Driven gear 2 = 63 cm. .(4)


= = 3.5 cm
Driven gear connected with seed metering
mechanism and having 12 slots for contain seed,
1-2 seed distance is 3.5 cm.

For above seeding calculation from table for each


variation given below.
= 5.25 cm.

Address: Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hingna Road, Near CRPF Campus, Digdoh Hills,
Nagpur-440019
Website: www.ijnrest.com Email-Id: info@ijnrest.com, editor@ijnrest.com
International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering, Science & Technology
Volume-1, Issue-1, March, 2016

1-2 seed distance is 5.25 cm. Sr no. Seed rotor Distance (inch)
position
1 7 18
For above reading calculation from table for each
2 9 13
variation given below 3 10 9
Table 4.1.2 Continuous seeding distance for gear 4 All 7 (not fixed)
ratio.3/2

Sr No Rotor Position Distance (mm)


2) For Gear Ratio :
1 7 80
2 9 70 From equation (3) and( 4) we show the distance
3 10 60 travelling by ferrow in one rotation of seed
4 All 50 (not fixed) metering gear.

We know, in this type we used 2 slot seed metering


2)Design for discontinuous seed : gear
The discontinuous seed sowing technology used for
seed having maximum distance like cotton. = 31.5 cm.

From this value we calculate all possible condition


1) For gear ratio : of rotor position and their distance given below in
table.
From equation (1) &(2) we show Table 4.2.2 Discontinuous seeding distance for gear
the distance travelling by furrow in one rotation of ratio 3/2
seed metering gear.
Sr no. Seed Rotor Distance (inch)
We know In this type we used 2 slot seed metering Position
gear. 1 7 42
2 9 32
= 21 cm 3 10 22
4 All 14-20 (not fixed)
Design of furrow opener
1-2 seed distance is varying the various position
b*h = shank cross section mm2
of rotor. It is shown in table.
l = length of Brest of shovel
Table 4.2.1 Discontinuous type seeding for gear
ratio 2/3 r = radius of curvature of bent portion of shovel
Address: Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hingna Road, Near CRPF Campus, Digdoh Hills,
Nagpur-440019
Website: www.ijnrest.com Email-Id: info@ijnrest.com, editor@ijnrest.com
International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering, Science & Technology
Volume-1, Issue-1, March, 2016

h1 = height if shank from its tip to the bent portion We know that

d = maximum opening depth


=
H1 = shank height from the frame to the top end of
the brest mm
= Bending stress kgf/cm2
H = height of the shank from tip of shovel to the
M = bending moment, kgf cm
frame mm
C = Distance from the natural axis to the point of
K0 = soil resistance ,kg/cm2
which stress is determined, cm.
Force exerted on the opener is
I = Moment of inertia of the rectangular section,
D = k0 *w*d mm4

D = draft force, kgf The section modules axis was computed by using
formula
Take k0=3 time higher as a factor of safety

W = width of opener, cm Z= Z=M

d = depth of opener, cm
For M.S rectangular section
Take W = 2.5 cm available in the market
= 1000 kg/cm2
d = 5 cm
Z = 843/1000
= 3*0.25*2.5*3
Z = 0.843 cm3
= 9.37
Assume ratio of thickness to width of line
Take factor of safety 3
b:h = 1:2
D = 3*9.37
b = 15 cm mm
= 28.11
Take thickness = 16 mm
Maximum bending moment for a cantilever length
of 30 cm length Availability of standard size width= 16*2 = 32 mm

Bending moment (M) = draft (kgf)* length of shank This section would yield a maximum fluctuation

M = 28.11*30 Ymax =
=843 kgf cm
Address: Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hingna Road, Near CRPF Campus, Digdoh Hills,
Nagpur-440019
Website: www.ijnrest.com Email-Id: info@ijnrest.com, editor@ijnrest.com
International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering, Science & Technology
Volume-1, Issue-1, March, 2016

Area covered for one revolution circumference of


ground wheel * width of seed drill
For M.S material
= 0.63*0.5
E = 2*104
= 0.315 m2
I= No. of turns needed per hector

=
In these way we have find the effective length of
= 1365.3 mm 4 leaver also angle of inclination of leaver from which
we find bending stress momentum
Y= = 4.1 mm Momentum = Effort * 1erdist

= 400*68 = 2200cm.

Design Procedure For Secondary


Design of Ground wheel Type Of Lever
Diameter of wheel = 20 cm
The design of lever consists in determining
the physical dimension of lever when forces acting
circumference of
on lever are given. The forces acting on the lever
are,
ground wheel =
1) Load (W)
2) Effort (P)
= 3) Reaction at the fulcrum F (RF)

Process to find out the Effective Length of


= 62.83 cm
Lever (L=?),
= 0.63 m
Let, the load and effort acts at a right angle, arm is
No. of turns the ground wheel in running in 100 m inclined at an angle of .

100 = 158 turns Therefore , for finding out effective length of


fulcrum , we have to know the inclination angle of
0.63 arm.

Address: Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hingna Road, Near CRPF Campus, Digdoh Hills,
Nagpur-440019
Website: www.ijnrest.com Email-Id: info@ijnrest.com, editor@ijnrest.com
International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering, Science & Technology
Volume-1, Issue-1, March, 2016

Considering, A man exerting effort(P) at point A on AC2 = 9113


lever,

Load(W) acts at point B , C be the fulcrum point. AC = 96 cm 120 cm.


Let, draw triangle from effort point(A),load
point(B),and fulcrum point(C) , as shown in The effective length of lever is 120 cm
following fig..
Reaction at fulcrum RF is given from following
L = AC= be the effective length of lever
method,
AB=be the distance bet. Effort point and load point
Line of action of load (W) acting downward at point
BC= be the distance bet. Load point and fulcrum B and line action of reaction at fulcrum point C (Rf)
point.
Figure shows the line of action of Effort force (P)
acting at effort point A,
From triangle ABC ,
Let,
AB= 67 cm.
P=be nominal effort exerted by a normal man is=
BC=68 cm. 400 N

W = Net load seed planter


Tan = =
= (mass of planter + seed material)x acceleration
due to gravity

Tan = = 10 x 9.81=981N

= be the angle of inclination of arm =45


Tan-1
We know that,
= be the inclination angle of lever
RF =
From Pythagoras Equation we can find the effective
length of lever,
RF =
2 2 2
AC =AB +BC
RF= 753.27 N
AC2 =672+ 682

Address: Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hingna Road, Near CRPF Campus, Digdoh Hills,
Nagpur-440019
Website: www.ijnrest.com Email-Id: info@ijnrest.com, editor@ijnrest.com
International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering, Science & Technology
Volume-1, Issue-1, March, 2016

Now, we know that, the maximum bending stress restitution for plastic material is lower than that of a
mild steel sheet of the same thickness. The plastic
developed is given by ( ),
material will go a long way in minimizing seed
bouncing, thereby protecting the seeds from damage
due to impact.

Where ,b-minor axis of lever arm=2cm=20mm

a- major axis of lever arm = 2b or2.5b=2.5


20=50mm

P- Effort force = 400N

BC- perpendicular dist. between effort force and


fulcrum=68cm=680mm
Fig.Side View Of Seed Sowing Machine
Figure shows the diagram of the seed planter
indicating necessary dimensions. Trial tests were
conducted to see if the seed metering mechanism,
The allowable bending stress is =55.41 , furrow opener, and furrow closer are functioning
which is less than the maximum permissible properly. The results show that they are functioning
properly as expected. For a furrow opener, the
bending stress of 70 for CI material ability to place the seed at a given sowing depth in
the soil is an important factor in evaluating its
FABRICATION performance. For the planter operation, the hopper
was filled with seeds. The filling of the hopper
As shown in Figure, all the parts of the seed
depends on how much area of the field to be
sowing machine were fabricated from mild steel
covered. As the multi-crop planter was pushed
material, except for the metering mechanism which
forward in the direction of travel at an average
was fabricated from good quality plastic material, speed of0.15m/s, the pointed bar type furrow opener
the seed funnel which was made from mild steel, penetrated the soil creating a furrow for seeds to be
and the seed tube which was also made from M-S placed. The planters ground wheel is connected
material. The choice of plastic material for the seed directly to the seed metering device, and as the
metering box was because the coefficient of ground wheel rotates, the seed metering device

Address: Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hingna Road, Near CRPF Campus, Digdoh Hills,
Nagpur-440019
Website: www.ijnrest.com Email-Id: info@ijnrest.com, editor@ijnrest.com
International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering, Science & Technology
Volume-1, Issue-1, March, 2016

placed at the bottom of the hopper also rotates, Table 4.2.1 Discontinuous type seeding for gear
thereby releasing two or three seeds depending ratio 2/3
upon the size of the cells or the size of the seeds. Sr. no. Seed rotor position Distance (inch)

TESTING 1 7 18
2 9 13
Testing of seed sowing machine for 3 10 9
continuous type for multiple type crops like 4 All 7 (not fixed)
soyabeen, maze, etc
For proper distance for maximum distance we
Seed name Diameter(mm) change gear ratio 3/2
Arugula 2.5 After this changing gear give following data
Beet 7.5 are given bellow in table
Broccoli 3.5
Table 4.2.2 Discontinuous seeding distance for gear
Cabbage 3.5
Carrot 3.5 ratio 3/2
Cauliflower 3.5
Sr. no. Seed Rotor Position Distance (inch)
Corn 13.5
Cucumber 9 1 7 42
Lettuce 6 2 9 32
Okra 7.5 3 10 22
Onion 6 4 All 14-20 (not fixed)
Pea 10
Radish 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Sun flower 2.5
Discussion:
Following results are given in below table.

Table.:Continuous type seeding distance for 2/3 This manual seed planter machine has considerable
potential to greatly increase productivity. Other
Sr. No. Rotor Position Distance (mm) countries of the world where the two wheel tractor
1 7 40 is the main traction unit in farming. The main task
2 9 30 now is to promote this technology and have
3 10 20 available to farmers at an affordable price. The
4 All 10
manual Seed Planter machine can be readily made
For maximum distance between seeding to from local components in workshops. The only
specialized items required are the seed meters
change gear ratio.
Testing For discontinuous seeding like plunger which can be sourced at an inexpensive
price from local promoter and plunger is easily
cotton seed.
Following table are given by data manufactured. By using of this machine,
achievement of flexibility of distance and depth
variation for different seed plantation is possible.
Address: Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hingna Road, Near CRPF Campus, Digdoh Hills,
Nagpur-440019
Website: www.ijnrest.com Email-Id: info@ijnrest.com, editor@ijnrest.com
International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering, Science & Technology
Volume-1, Issue-1, March, 2016

Comparison Table:- 3. It perform the various simultaneous operations


SR Parameter Manual Tractor Seed and hence saves labor requirement, labor cost, labor
.NO sowing time, total cost of saving and can be affordable for
machin the farmers.
e 4. It can be improve in planting efficiency and
1 Man power More Moderate Less increase in crop yield and cropping reliability.
ADVANTAGE
2 Time More Less Less
Following are the advantages of manual seed
required
planter machine are
3 Sowing Manuall Automati Automa Improvement in planting efficiency.
technique y cally tically Increase in crop yield and cropping
reliability.
4 Distance Not Fixed Fixed
Increase in cropping frequency.
between Fixed
It increased seed planting.
seed
It was made of durable and cheap material
5 Wastage Moderate More Less affordable for the small scale peasant
of seed farmers.
Lesser maintenance cost.
6 Required High Very high Less
The seed can be placed at any required
Energy
depth.
7 Pollution NO More NO The plant germination can be improved.
Requirement of labor also decreased.
8 Alarm NO YES NO It consume less time for sowing.
and Seed can be placed uniformly in a row with
Display required distance between plants.
9 Cost of Less Very high Very Provide proper compaction over the seed.
machine less
CONCLUSION
We can conclude that our designed
Hence after comparing the different the mechanical machine is advantageous over the
existing machine, it is concluded thatthe multi- existing machines in the following ways:
purpose seed sowing machine can It is of low cost comparatively and accounts
1. It Maintain row spacing and controls seed and
less than50% of the existing costs.
fertilizer rate. The mode of operation is very simple even
2. It Control the seed and fertilizer depth and proper
to the layman.
utilization of seeds and fertilizers can be done with It is more efficient than the present existing
less loss. machinesof this category and range.

Address: Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hingna Road, Near CRPF Campus, Digdoh Hills,
Nagpur-440019
Website: www.ijnrest.com Email-Id: info@ijnrest.com, editor@ijnrest.com
International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering, Science & Technology
Volume-1, Issue-1, March, 2016

The maintenance cost of this equipment is 7). Gupta, O.P. Chandra, S.D. and Mittal, J.P. (1992)
very less asthere are no delicate parts Energy and labour inputs under different Tillage
involved. and weed control combination for maize and wheat
By using this machine we get high accuracy production in India Journal of Rural Energy 1(1):
in seeding . 11-25
This machine used in any type of soil. 7) Hussain, M.A. (1988) Power requirement of
In this machine we can varying depth of different cropping system in Bangladesh A.M.A.
seed plantation for proper nutrients. 19(3): 15-19.
Proper skill not required for operating this 8). xi Kumar, P. S. Prasanna and Hugar L. B.
machine and easy to transferred. ( 2011) Economic analysis of energy use in paddy
REFERENCES cultivation under irrigated situations Karnataka J.
Agric. Sci., 24 (4) : (467-470)
1) J. E. Iken& N. Amusa, Maize research & 9). Mishra, T.N. (1986) Energy analysis of major
production in Nigeria, African Journal of crops of Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh
Biotechnology, Vol. 3(6), 2004, PP.302367. UnpublishPh.D.Thesis G.B. Pant University of
2) B. Mursec et al, Testing of Quality of Pneumatic Agricultural and Technology Pantnagar.
See Sowing Machine, Journal of achievement in
materials and manufacturing engineering, volume26
issue 1.
3) M. Lakshmi Prabha and M. ShanmugaPriya,
Effect of Vermicompost on Nutrient Uptake and
their Influence on Biochemical Parameters of
Selected Vegetable Plants, International Journal of
Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology
(IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 147 - 152,
ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.
4)Adisa A F, Braide F. G, Design And
Development of Template Row Planter,
Transnational Journal of Science and Technology
August 2012 edition vol. 2, No.7
5). Dhawan, K.C. and Mittal, J.P.(1990) Energy
scenario of paddy and wheat production in India
Journal of Rural Development, Hyderabad. 9(4) :
719-728
6) Dhawan, K.C. and Mittal, J.P.(1994) Role of
fertilizer in increasing yield of various crops in
India Economic Affairs, Calcutta 39(2): 92-99

Address: Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hingna Road, Near CRPF Campus, Digdoh Hills,
Nagpur-440019
Website: www.ijnrest.com Email-Id: info@ijnrest.com, editor@ijnrest.com