You are on page 1of 76

UNIVERSITY OF

LUCKNOW

Tour Report Karnataka

Travel Date, 14 December To 26 December,


2015

Given By:
Ateeq Ahmad
1
BTA- Vth sem

Introduction
Study tour
A study tour is a travel experience with specific learning goals. The learning goals of each
study tour vary, but are always spelled out in the course syllabus that is distributed to each
learner. Study tours emphasize experiential learning and offer both group and self-
directed activities that enable learners to explore new territories, cultures, and people.

Educational trips are important in many ways.


Going on a Educational trip means more than simply leaving the school grounds. Educational trips
should always have a major educational element, but the impact of Educational trips can extend
much further. The importance of Educational trips includes giving students the chance to build
closer bonds with their classmates, experience new environments and enjoy a day away from the
classroom.

New Sight
When students and teachers are together outside the classroom, new educational environments
and experiences are possible. Students may have the opportunity to observe many things that are
not available at school, including exotic wildlife, rare plants and maybe even the stars if the
Educational trip is to a planetarium. Discussing the Educational trip beforehand is wise because
it allows students to know what they will experience during their time away from school .

Bonding
Getting away from the everyday atmosphere of the classroom gives students an opportunity to
spend time with each other in a new environment. They may be able to connect on more of a
personal level without the structure of the normal school day. Students may be able to spend
much of the Educational trip day in small groups, observing, chatting and learning about each
other. Having a Educational trip in the early part of the term is wise, since it will allow students to
bond with classmates they may not know very well.

Informal Learning Environment


Educational trips provide valuable educational opportunities away from the classroom, without
using textbooks and other tools used in a normal school setting. Students on Educational trips can
often learn while having fun in a more informal environment. If the Educational trip destination
has staff members who do hands-on teaching with visiting students -- such as at a science center
or historical museum -- the children will be excited to learn from someone new

Fun

2
No matter how much students learn during a Educational trip, their favorite memories may be
based on their enjoyment of the day. Getting away from school for a day or even half a day is
always exciting for students, and Educational trips are always highly anticipated. Students will
have fun with their friends and they also may return to the classroom with a renewed focus on
their schoolwork.

How Do Students Benefit From Educational trips?


Educational trips can give students exposure to places they might not otherwise visit.
Many schools, camps and institutions offer Educational trips for students to spend several hours
or days outside of the classroom. Educational trips range from local visits to civic offices or
businesses to international excursions, complete with overnight stays. Whatever their scope,
Educational trips can offer many advantages to the students who take them.

Perspective
Part of how students benefit from Educational trips is by gaining new perspectives on the world.
This is especially true for more extensive Educational trips where students travel farther away
from home. By coming into direct contact with a different environment or even a new culture or
language, students can better understand their place in the community and develop an openness
to differences in others.

Variety
Educational trips also function to put some variety into otherwise regimented lesson plans.
Instead of spending every day in the classroom, students get to learn in a new environment with
new instructors. Educational trips also may give students a chance to interact with students from
other schools as they learn together or participate in groupactivities.

Learning Styles
Educational trips will often cater to more than one learning style, making them excellent teaching
tools for certain students. Classroom lectures apply primarily to audio learners, who learn best by
listening. Visual learners can benefit from visual aids, which exist in the classroom, but are much
more frequent during a Educational trip. Finally, for tactile learners, Educational trips offer an
uncommon opportunity to perform hands-on learning.

Classroom Supplement
It's important for instructors and school administrators to choose Educational trips that augment
existing lesson plans and synchronize with classroom learning. A Educational trip that teachers
choose for these reasons can serve to illustrate difficult concepts or extend the general natural of
a classroom lesson by giving more specific information. The specialists who lead school groups
on Educational trips also may be able to provide professional insight from advanced study or
direct experience that teachers could never provide alone.

Reward
Before a Educational trip even takes place, it can begin to produce benefits for students. By not
allowing students with behavioral or academic problems to participate in a Educational trip,
teachers can encourage good behavior and motivate students to work hard with the prospect of a

3
Educational trip looming as a reward. Even the most informative Educational trips usually have
an element of recreation, making them a time to unwind for all students.

The Advantages of an Educational Tour

An educational tour offers an opportunity for a rich immersion experience, and a tremendous way
to facilitate learning. In an educational tour, students have the chance to experience a culture
firsthand, connecting with the people and place on a much deeper level than they ever could in
the classroom. Students have the opportunity to talk to local people, which can broaden their
perspective greatly.

Talking With Locals

Through talking with individuals, students will learn that people of any culture have many
different views. Talking with locals will also give them a greater empathy for people of that culture,
helping them to identify more with people from different places and backgrounds. As the website
Travel Etiquette illustrates, you should familiarize yourself and your class with local customs
before traveling to a foreign country. Know how to greet someone appropriately, what is
acceptable to talk about, and other aspects of social interaction.

Cultural Observation

On a good educational tour, students experience a different culture through new eyes.
Many tours are now offering volunteering opportunities and other chances to see how people of
varying socioeconomic levels in a variety of locales live. Such experiences can help students
develop more compassion for people from different walks of life. It can also help them to reflect on
how these issues affect people near their home, inspiring them to work toward change. If you're
planning an educational tour, consider the many economic, social, educational and other issues
affecting people, animals, and the environment in your destination, and how you can help your
students understand these issues through completely immersing themselves in the experience.

Connecting Different Issues

Students embedded in a different culture and in a new place for the first time can begin
drawing connections between the different issues they've been learning about regarding that
culture. They can begin to learn, in a more concrete way, how environmental, socioeconomic,
political and other issues are all interrelated. You can facilitate this learning by having regular
group discussions throughout your tour in which everyone reflects on their experiences and
impressions. Before leaving you might also want to assign students the requirement to keep a

4
daily journal so they'll be prepared to participate in group reflection, and also retain what they
have learned for years to come.

Instilling a Passion for Travel

An educational tour can be a "safe" way to experience the world outside of one's home.
On the tour, students are surrounded by other people they know, and they're guided throughout
the experience by their teacher and other guides. Plus, they often pay much less than they would
if they went by themselves. When students realize how much they enjoy traveling, it can open
new doors for them. They might decide to study abroad to more thoroughly immerse themselves
in different cultures. They may also be more likely to travel independently in the future, continuing
to broaden their understanding of the world. Some students might even realize their passion for
learning about other cultures, and turn it into a career.

Getting a New Perspective on Home

Through their experiences in a different culture, students will learn to see their homeland
in a new way. Once they learn to think about the issues affecting another country in a holistic way,
they can begin to do the same with their own country, state and city. This can be one of the most
beneficial aspects of an educational tour.

MYSORE
COORG
MANGALORE
BANGaLURU

5
MYSORE

Mysore officially renamed as Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state
of Karnataka, India. Located at the base of the Chamundi Hills about 146 km (91 mi) southwest of
the state capital Bangalore, it is spread across an area of 128.42 km2 (50 sq mi). According to the
provisional results of the 2011 national census of India, the population is 887,446. Mysore City
Corporation is responsible for the civic administration of the city, which is also the headquarters of
the Mysore district and the Mysore division.

Mysore served as the capital city of Kingdom of Mysore for nearly six centuries, from 1399 until
1947. The Kingdom was ruled by the Wodeyar dynasty, except for a brief period in the late 18th
century when Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultanwere in power. Patrons of art and culture, the Wodeyars
contributed significantly to the cultural growth of the city. The cultural ambience and achievements
of Mysore earned it the sobriquet Cultural capital of South Karnataka.

Mysore is noted for its palaces, including the Mysore Palace, and for the festivities that take place
during the Dasarafestival when the city receives a large number of tourists. It lends its name to
the Mysore style of painting, the sweet dish Mysore Pak, the Mysore Peta (a traditional silk
turban) and the garment known as the Mysore silk saree. Tourism is the major industry, while
information technology has emerged as a major employer alongside the traditional industries.
Mysore depends on rail and bus transport for inter-city connections. The city was the location of
the first private radio station in India. Mysore houses Mysore University, which has produced
several notable authors, particularly in the field of Kannada literature. Cricket is the most popular
sport in the city.

HISTORY

The site where Mysore Palace now stands was occupied by a village named Puragere at the
beginning of the 16th century. The Mahishru Fort was constructed in 1524 by Chamaraja
Wodeyar III (15131553), who passed on the dominion of Puragere to his son Chamaraja
Wodeyar IV (15721576). Since the 16th century, the name of Mahishru has commonly been
used to denote the city. The Mysore Kingdom, governed by the Wodeyarfamily, initially served as
a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire. With the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire after
the Battle of Talikota in 1565, the Mysore Kingdom gradually achieved independence,and by the
time of King Narasaraja Wodeyar (1637) it had become a sovereign state.
Seringapatam (modern-day Srirangapatna), near Mysore, was the capital of the kingdom from
1610. The 17th century saw a steady expansion of its territory and, under Narasaraja Wodeyar
I and Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar, the kingdom annexed large expanses of what is now southern
Karnataka and parts of Tamil Nadu, to become a powerful state in the southern Deccan.

6
The kingdom reached the height of its military power and dominion in the latter half of the 18th
century under the de facto rulers Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. The latter demolished parts of
Mysore to remove legacies of the Wodeyar dynasty. During this time, Mysore kingdom came into
conflict with the Marathas, the British and theNizam of Golconda, leading to the four Anglo-
Mysore wars, success in the first two of which was followed by defeat in the third and fourth. After
Tipu Sultan's death in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799, the capital of the kingdom was
moved back to Mysore from Seringapatam, and the kingdom was distributed by the British to their
allies of the Fourth Mysore war.

The Mysore municipality was established in 1888 and the city was divided into eight wards. In
1897 an outbreak ofbubonic plague killed nearly half of the population of the city. With the
establishment of the City Improvement Trust Board (CITB) in 1903, Mysore became one of the
first cities in Asia to undertake planned development of the city. [ Public demonstrations and
meetings were held there during the Quit India movement and other phases of the Indian
independence movement.

Geography

Mysore is located at 12.30N 74.65E and has an average altitude of 770 metres (2,526 ft). It is
spread across an area of 128.42 km2 (50 sq mi) at the base of the Chamundi Hills in the southern
region of Karnataka. Mysore is the southern-most city of Karnataka, and is a neighboring city of
the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in the south, flanked by the state
citiesMercara, Chamarajanagara, and Mandya. People in and around Mysore extensively
use Kannada as medium of language. Mysore has several lakes, such as the Kukkarahalli,
the Karanji, and the Lingambudhi lakes. In 2001, total land area usage in Mysore city was 39.9%
residential, 16.1% roads, 13.74% parks and open spaces, 13.48% industrial, 8.96% public
property, 3.02% commercial, 2.27% agriculture and 2.02 water. The city is located between two
rivers: the Kaveri River that flows through the north of the city and the Kabini River, a tributary of
the Kaveri, that lies to the south.

Climate

Mysore has a tropical savanna climate designated Aw under the Kppen climate classification.
The main seasons are summer from March to June, the monsoon season from July to November
and winter from December to February. The highest temperature recorded in Mysore was 39.4 C
(103 F) on 4 April 1914, and the lowest was 7.7 C (46 F) on 16 January 2012. The city's
average annual rainfall is 804.2 mm (31.7 in).

Climate data for Mysore (19012000)

No Yea
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Dec
v r

Record 36.3 37.8 38.2 38.0 38.5 38.4 37.9 37.5 38.1 37.5 37. 35.8 38.5

7
2
high C (97.3 (100. (100. (10 (101. (10 (99. (10 (99. (96. (101
(100) (99
(F) ) 8) 4) 1.3) 1) 0.2) 5) 0.6) 5) 4) .3)
)

27. 29.8
Average 28.6 33.6 34.3 32.9 29.2 27.7 28.8 27.5
31.1 28 28.9 9 7
high C (83.5 (92.5 (93.7 (91. (84.6 (81. (83. (81.
(88) (82) (84) (82 (85.
(F) ) ) ) 2) ) 9) 8) 5)
.2) 74)

18. 19.0
Average 16.2 17.9 20.1 21.2 20.1 19.6 19.5 19.3 19.5 16.5
21 2 9
low C (61.2 (64.2 (68.2 (70.2 (68.2 (67. (67. (66. (67. (61.
(70) (64 (66.
(F) ) ) ) ) ) 3) 1) 7) 1) 7)
.8) 39)

10.
Record 7.7 10.2 13.8 17.5 17.5 16.8 16.3 15.4 14.2 8.3 7.7
21.1 7
low C (45.9 (50.4 (56.8 (63.5 (63.5 (62. (61. (59. (57. (46. (45.
(70) (51
(F) ) ) ) ) ) 2) 3) 7) 6) 9) 9)
.3)

63.
Average 145. 117. 158. 804.
4.8 5.1 11.6 62.4 67.3 74.3 78.6 8 14.3
rainfall 7 6 7 2
(0.18 (0.20 (0.45 (2.45 (2.65 (2.9 (3.0 (2. (0.5
mm (5.7 (4.6 (6.2 (31.
9) 1) 7) 7) ) 25) 94) 51 63)
(inches) 36) 3) 48) 662)
2)

Demographics

According to the provisional results of the 2011 census of India, Mysore had a population of
887,446, consisting of 443,813 males and 443,633 females, making it the second most populous
city in Karnataka. The gender ratio of the city is 1000 females to every 1000 males and the
population density is 6,910.5 per square kilometre (17,898/sq mi). According to the census of
2001, 76.8% of thepopulatiion are Hindus, 19% are Muslims, 2.8% are Christians, and the
remainder belong to other religions. The population exceeded 100,000 in the census of 1931 and
grew by 20.5 per cent in the decade 19912001. As of 2011, the literacy rate of the city is 86.84

8
per cent, which is higher than the state's average of 75.6 per cent. Kannada is the most widely
spoken language in the city. Approximately 19% of the population live below the poverty line, and
9% live in slums. According to the 2001 census, 35.75% of the population in the urban areas of
Karnataka are workers, but only 33.3% of the population of Mysore are. Members of Scheduled
Castes and Scheduled tribes constitute 15.1% of the population. According to the National Crime
Records Bureau of India, the number of cognizable crime incidents reported in Mysore during
2010 was 3,407 (second in the state, after Bangalore's 32,188), increasing from 3,183 incidents
reported in 2009.

Economy

Tourism is the major industry in Mysore. The city attracted about 3.15 million tourists in
2010. Mysore has traditionally been home to industries such as weaving, sandalwood carving,
bronze work and the production of lime and salt. The planned industrial growth of the city and the
state was first envisaged at the Mysore economic conference in 1911. This led to the
establishment of industries such as the Mysore Sandalwood Oil Factory in 1917 and the Sri
Krishnarajendra Mills in 1920.

For the industrial development of the city, the Karnataka Industrial Areas Development Board
(KIADB) has established four industrial areas in and around Mysore, in the Belagola, Belawadi,
Hebbal and Hootagalli areas.

The growth of the information technology industry in the first decade of the 21st century has
resulted in the city emerging as the second largest software exporter in Karnataka, next to
Bangalore. The city contributed Rs. 1363 crore (US$275 million) to Karnataka's IT exports.

Mysore is slowly becoming a consumer city with a very big outside population working with the
industries and IT hubs. New housing layouts are appearing every month and the number of
supermarkets and other shopping facilities is increasing very fast.

Education

Before the advent of the European system of education in Mysore, agraharas (Brahmin quarters)
provided Vedic education to Hindus, and madrassas provided schooling for Muslims. Modern
education began in Mysore when a free English school was established in 1833. Maharaja
College was founded in 1864. A high school exclusively for girls was established in 1881 and later
converted into the Maharani's Women's College. The Industrial School, the first institute
for technical education in the city, was established in 1892; this was followed by
the Chamarajendra Technical Institute in 1913. While the modern system of education was
making inroads, colleges such as the Mysore Sanskrit college, established in 1876, continued to
provide Vedic education. Vivekananda Institute, Mysore is an international organisation giving
training to Indians and foreigners in development management.

9
The education system was enhanced by the establishment of the University of Mysore in 1916,
making it the first outside the British administration in India. Other important institutes are
CFTRI, MYRA School of Business (founded in 2011) and Mysore Medical College.

Culture

Referred to as the cultural capital of South Karnataka, Mysore is well known for the festivities that
take place during the period of Dasara, the state festival of Karnataka. The Dasara festivities,
which are celebrated over a ten-day period, were first introduced by King Raja Wodeyar I in 1610.
On the ninth day of Dasara, called Mahanavami, the royal sword is worshipped and is taken on a
procession of decorated elephants, camels and horses. On the tenth day, calledVijayadashami,
the traditional Dasara procession (locally known as Jumboo Savari) is held on the streets of
Mysore which usually falls in the month of September or October.. the Idol of the Goddess
Chamundeshwari is placed on a golden mantapaon the back of a decorated elephant and taken
on a procession, accompanied by tabla, dance groups, music bands, decorated elephants, horses
and camels. The procession starts from the Mysore Palace and culminates at a place
calledBannimantapa, where the banni tree (Prosopis spicigera) is
worshipped.The Dasara festivities culminate on the night ofVijayadashami with a torchlight
parade, known locally as Panjina Kavayatthu.

Mysore is called the City of Palaces because of several ornate examples in the city. Among the
most notable are Amba Vilas, popularly known as Mysore Palace; Jaganmohana Palace, which
also serves as an art gallery; Rajendra Vilas, also known as the summer palace; Lalitha Mahal,
which has been converted into a hotel; and Jayalakshmi Vilas. The main palace of Mysore was
burned down in 1897, and the present-day structure was built on the same site. Amba Vilas
palace exhibits anIndo-Saracenic style of architecture on the outside, but a distinctly Hoysala
style in the interior. Even though theGovernment of Karnataka maintains the Mysore palace, a
small portion has been allocated for the erstwhile Royal family to live in. The Jayalakshmi Vilas
Mansion was constructed by Sri Chamaraja Wodeyar for his daughter Jayalakshammanni. It is
now a museum dedicated to folk culture and artifacts of the royal family.

The Mysore painting style is an offshoot of the Vijayanagar school of painting, and King Raja
Wodeyar (15781617 CE) is credited with having been its patron.

Mysore is the location of the International Ganjifa Research Centre, which researches the ancient
card game Ganjifa and the art associated with it. The Chamarajendra Academy of Visual Arts
(CAVA) offers education in visual art forms such as painting, graphics, sculpture, applied art,
photography, photojournalism and art history. R. K. Narayan, a popular English-language novelist
and creator of the fictional town of Malgudi, and his cartoonist brother R. K. Laxman spent much
of their life in Mysore.

Transport

10
Road

Mysore is connected by National Highway NH-212 to the state border town of Gundlupet, where
the road forks into the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. State Highway 17, which connects
Mysore to Bangalore, was upgraded to a four-lane highway in 2006, reducing travel time between
the two cities. A project was planned in 1994 to construct a new expressway to connect Bangalore
and Mysore. After numerous legal hurdles, it remains unfinished as of 2012. State Highways 33
and88 which connect Mysore to H D Kote and Madikeri respectively.

The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation(KSRTC) and other private agencies operate
buses both within the city and between cities. A new division of KSRTC called Mysore City
Transport Corporation (MCTC) has been proposed. Within the city, buses are cheap and popular
means of transport, auto-rickshaws are also available and tongas (horse-drawn carriages) are
popular with tourists. Mysore also has a 42.5-kilometre (26.4 mi) long ring road that is being
upgraded to six lanes by the MUDA.

Rail

Mysore railway station has three lines, connecting it to Bangalore, Hassan and Chamarajanagar.
The first railway line established in the city was the BangaloreMysore Junction metre gauge line,
which was commissioned in 1882. All railway lines that serve the city are single track at some
points and the rest of the stretch is double track, impeding faster connections to the city. All trains
that connect to Mysore are operated by South Western Railway Zone, Hubli of Indian Railways.
The fastest train to serve the city is the Shatabdi Express.

Air

Mysore Airport was modernised and reopened to passenger service in 2010. Three airlines
- Kingfisher Airlines, SpiceJet, and Alliance Air - all attempted flights to Mysore but none were
successful. As of 2015 the airport is without commercial service. The proximity to Bangalore
discourages Mysoreans from using the city airport.

Media

Newspaper publishing in Mysore started in 1859 when Bhashyam Bhashyacharya began


publishing a weekly newspaper in Kannada called the Mysooru Vrittanta Bodhini, the first of a
number of weekly newspapers published in the following three decades. A well-known Mysore
publisher during Wodeyar rule was M. Venkatakrishnaiah, known as the father of Kannada
journalism, who started several news magazines. Many local newspapers are published in
Mysore and carry news mostly related to the city and its surroundings, and national and regional
dailies in English and Kannada are available, as in the other parts of the state. Sudharma, the
only Indian daily newspaper in Sanskrit, is published in Mysore.

11
Mysore was the location of the first private radio broadcasting station in India
when Akashavani (voice from the sky) was established in the city on 10 September 1935 by M.V.
Gopalaswamy, a professor of psychology, at his house in the Vontikoppal area of Mysore, using a
50-watt transmitter. The station was taken over by the princely state of Mysore in 1941 and was
moved to Bangalore in 1955. In 1957, Akashvani was chosen as the official name of All India
Radio (AIR), the radio broadcaster of the Government of India. The AIR station at Mysore
broadcasts an FM radio channel at 100.6 MHz, and Gyan Vani broadcasts on 105.2. BIG
FM and Red FM are the two private FM channels operating in the city.

Sports

The Wodeyar kings of Mysore were patrons of games and sports. King Krishnaraja Wodeyar
III had a passion for indoor games. He invented new board games and popularised
the ganjifa card game. Malla-yuddha (traditional wrestling) has a history in Mysore dating back to
the 16th century. The wrestling competition held in Mysore during the Dasara celebrations attracts
wrestlers from all over India. An annual sports meeting is organised there during
the Dasara season too.

In 1997 Mysore and Bangalore co-hosted the city's biggest sports event ever, the National Games
of India. Mysore was the venue for six sports: archery, gymnastics, equestrianism, handball, table
tennis and wrestling. Cricket is by far the most popular sport in Mysore. The city has four
established cricket grounds, but is yet to host an international cricketmatch. Javagal Srinath, who
represented India for several years as its frontline fast bowler, comes from Mysore. Other
prominent sportsmen from the city are Prahlad Srinath, who has represented India in Davis
Cup tennis tournaments; Reeth Abraham, a national champion in the heptathlon and a long jump
record holder; Sagar Kashyap, the youngest Indian to officiate at the Wimbledon Championships;
and Rahul Ganapathy, a national amateur golf champion. The Mysore race course hosts a racing
season each year from August through October. India's first youth hostel was formed in the Maharaja's
College Hostel in 1949.

Tourism

Mysore is a major tourist destination in its own right and serves as a base for other tourist
attractions in the vicinity. The city receives large number of tourists during the 10-
day Dasara festival. One of the most visited monuments in India, the Amba Vilas Palace, or
Mysore Palace, is the centre of the Dasara festivities. The Jaganmohana Palace, The Sand
Sculpture Museum the Jayalakshmi Vilas and the Lalitha Mahal are other palaces in the city.
Chamundeshwari Temple, atop the Chamundi Hills, and St. Philomena's Church, Wesley's
Cathedral are notable religious places in Mysore.

The Mysore Zoo, established in 1892, the Karanji and Kukkarahalli lakes are popular recreational
destinations.Mysore has the Regional Museum of Natural History, the Folk Lore Museum,

12
the Railway Museum and the Oriental Research Institute. The city is a centre for yoga-related health
tourism that attracts domestic and foreign visitors, particularly those who, for years, came to study with
the late ashtanga yoga guru K. Pattabhi Jois.

A short distance from Mysore city is the Krishnarajasagar Dam and the adjoining Brindavan Gardens,
where a musical fountain show is held every evening. Places of historic importance close to Mysore
are Srirangapatna, Somanathapura andTalakad. B R Hills, Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta hill and
the hill stations of Ooty, Sultan Bathery and Madikeri are close to Mysore. Popular destinations for
wildlife enthusiasts near Mysore include the Nagarhole National Park, the wildlife sanctuaries
at Melkote and B R Hills and the bird sanctuaries at Ranganathittu and Kokrebellur. Bandipur National
Park andMudumalai National Park, which are sanctuaries for gaur, chital, elephants, tigers, Indian
leopards and other threatened species, lie between 40 and 60 mi (64 and 97 km) to the south.

Brindavan Garden
The Brindavana Gardens is a garden located in the state of Karnataka in India. It lies adjoining
the Krishnarajasagara dam which is built across the river Kaveri. The work on laying out this
garden was started in the year 1927 and completed in 1932. Visited by close to 2 million tourists
per year, the garden is one of the major attractions ofSrirangapatna.

The garden was renovated in 2005 with a cost of Rs. 50 million. The renovation included sprucing
up the musical fountain using a digitised system and repairs of dysfunctional fountains. In 2007,
the Gardens were closed for a brief duration as a safety measure to avoid trouble related to
the Kaveri water dispute.

FINANCE

In the year 2003-2004, the gate collection was Rs. 20.7 million, which increased to Rs 26.9 million
in 2004-05 and Rs 43 million in 2005-06. This revenue is shared between Cauvery Niravari Nigam
and Karnataka State Tourism Development Corporation (KSTDC) in the ratio 3:1

Chamundi Hills
Chamundi Hills is located 13 km east of Mysore, the Palace City, in Karnataka, India. Its
average elevation is 1,000 metres (3,300 ft).

Attraction

Patronized for centuries by Mysore rulers, Chamundeshwari Temple is located atop the Chamundi
Hills. It was renovated during the time of Krishnaraja Wodeyar III (1827).

Temple

Named after goddess Chamundi, the Chamundeshwari Temple sits atop the main hill. The main
hill itself features an ancient stone stairway of 1,008 steps leading to its summit. Approximately
halfway to the summit is statue of bull Nandi, the vahana, or "vehicle" of Lord Shiva, which is 4.9m
tall and 7.6m long and carved out of a single piece of black granite. Around this point, the steps

13
become significantly less steep and eventually the climber is rewarded with a panoramic view of
the city.

The Temple has a quadrangular structure. A key feature is the statue of Mahishasura bearing a
sword in his right hand and a cobra in the left. Within the temple's sanctum stands a sculpted
depiction of Chamundeshwari. She is seated with her right heel pressed against the lowest of the
seven chakras. This cross-legged yogic posture echoes the posture of Lord Shiva. Worshipers
believe that this powerful yogic posture, if mastered, provides an added dimensional view of the
universe.

Since the early days of the Maharajahs of Mysore, the idol of goddess Chamundi has been
carried on a decorated elephant as part of the celebrations in the annual Dusshera festival.

From the peak of the Chamundi hills, the Mysore Palace, the Karanji Lake and several smaller
temples are visible. Many of the temples were constructed by members of Shirdi Sai Baba
movement

LegendAccording to a legend, the asura Mahishasura (king of the city that is currently known
as Mysore) was killed by goddess Chamundeswari (also called Chamundi) after a fierce battle.
The goddess is also called Mahishasura Mardini.

According to mythology, this rocky hill was known as Mahabalachala. Two ancient temples occupy
the hill, the Mahabaleshvara and the Chamundeshvari; the Mahabaleshvara Temple on the hill is
the older of the two and is a place of pilgrimage. The car festival and 'Teppotsava' are held there.

Darshana and Pooja Timings: 7.30 a.m to 2 p.m and 3.30 to 6 p.m and 7.30
p.m to 9 p.m.
Abhisheka Timings : 6 a.m. to 7.30 a.m and 6 p.m to 7.30 p.m | Friday 5 a.m
to 6.30 a.m.
Dasoha (free meals) is arranged to devotees daily 12.30 p.m to 2.30 p.m.
KSRTC bus facilities are available every 20 minutes from Mysore city bus stand to
Chamundi hill.
Chamundi Hills are declared as NO PLASTIC ZONE. Devotees are requested not
to bring the plastic carry bags and not throw the plastic wastes in the hill area

NANDI BULL

Nandi is the name for the bull which serves as the mount (Sanskrit: Vahana) of the
god Shiva and as the gatekeeper of Shiva and Parvati. In Hindu Religion, he is the chief guru of
eighteen masters (18 Siddhar ) including Patanjali and Thirumular. Temples venerating Shiva
display stone images of a seated Nandi, generally facing the main shrine. There are also a
number of temples dedicated solely to Nandi.

The application of the name Nandi to the bull (Sanskrit: vrs abha) is in fact a development of
recent centuries, as Gouriswar Bhattacharya has documented in an illustrated article entitled
"Nandin and Vr s abha".The name Nandi was earlier widely used instead for an anthropomorphic
deity who was one of Shivas two door-keepers, the other beingMahkla. The doorways of pre-
tenth-century North Indian temples are frequently flanked by images of Mahkla and Nandi, and
it is in this role of Shivas watchman that Nandi figures in Klidsas poem the Kumrasambhava

14
Etymlogy

The word Nandi is derived from the ancient Indian Language of Sanskrit. The Sanskrit word
'Nandi' in English translates as Happy, Joyous or Happy Person.Another theory is the word Nandi
is derived from Tamil word "Pandi" meaning bull.Ancient Tamils, considered the bull as a sign of
masculinity and valor.

There was a sage named Shilada who underwent severe penance to have a boon a child with
immortality. Lord Indra pleased of the austerities of Shilada appeared in front of him to offer a
boon. After hearing the request of Shilada and his desire to have an immortal child, Lord Indra
suggested he pray to Lord Shiva: nobody else could provide such a boon. Sage Shilada
continued his penance for 1,000 years.

Lord Shiva appeared in front of him and provided the boon for the child. Moreover, Lord Shiva
provided Sage Shilada his old form with a single touch. Sage Shilada performed Yagna and a
child appeared from the sacrificial fire. His body was clad in armour made out of diamonds.

IN HINDUISM

Bulls appear on the Indus Valley seals, including the 'Pasupati Seal', which depicts a seated figure
and, according to some scholars, is similar to Shiva. However, most scholars agree that the
horned bull on the Indus Valley seals is not identical to Nandi.In fact the clay seal seen bottom
right is of a water buffalo and is a grave or death amulet which reads: Ukh-Zu Matu Imin-Bara-Gu
Dara-s' A-Ki-As and translated as: O though sun hawk the dead one bring to heaven's house at
Dara S'aki. Sakias is Agduas Me and refers to the land of Eden. Dara and Go, or Gu, refer to the
Lord (Indara) of the buffalo from which we derive Co, Cow. Ki or Du refers to land and this is
verified as being the script of the Sumerians.
Descriptions on Nandi in the Hindu religious texts include:

Some Puranas describe Nandi or Nandikeshvara as bull face with a human body that
resembles that of Shiva in proportion and aspect, although with four hands two hands
holding the Parasu (the axe) and Mruga (the antelope) and the other two hands joined
together in the Anjali (obeisance). Brahma Vaivarta Purana mentions Krishna himself to have
taken the form of a bull as no one else in the Universe can bear Shiva.

Vehicle of Shiva: The bull Nandi is Shiva's primary vehicle and is the principal gana
(follower) of Shiva.

Gate keeper of Shiva's abode: The close association of Shiva and Nandi explains the
presence of a statue of Nandi at the gate of many temples dedicated to Shiva. It also explains
why the word "nandi" in the Tamil, Kannada and Telugulanguages is used as a metaphor for a
person blocking the way.In Sanskrit, a bull is called vrisha, which has another connotation
that of righteousness or Dharma. It is important to seek the blessings of Nandi before
proceeding to worship Lord Shiva.

Chief in Shiva's army: Some Puranas mention that Nandi lead the Shiva Ganas, Shiva's
attendants.

15
A Guru of Saivism: In addition to being his mount, Nandi is Shiva's foremost disciple. In
the Natha/Siddhar tradition, Nandi is one of the primal gurus. He was the guru to Siddhar
Thirumulanathar, Patanjalinathar and others.

From the yogic perspective, Nandi/Nandhi/Nandikeshvara is the mind dedicated to Lord


Siva, the Absolute. In other words, to understand and absorb Light, the 'experience and the
wisdom' is Nandi which is the Guru within.

Spiritually, Nandi represents an individual jiva (soul) and the message that the jiva should
always be focused on the Atman (Paramatman).

Legend
According to some puranas, Nandi was born to sage Shilada who got him by the grace of Shiva.

It was Nandi who cursed Ravana (the demon King of Lanka) that his kingdom would be burnt by a
monkey (Vanara). And laterHanuman burnt Lanka when he went in search of Sita, who was kept
prisoner by Ravana in Ashok Vatika.

According to one incident, Nandi took the form of a whale. At Mount Kailash when Lord Shiva was
explaining the Vedas to his beloved wife, Parvati lost her concentration and Lord Shiva cursed her
to be born as a fisherwoman. Later Lord Shiva repents for the mistake. Years later when Parvati
reached her marriageable age, Nandi took the form of a whale and started to trouble the people.
Later Parvati's father told that anyone who killed the whale will marry his daughter. Later Lord
Shiva took the form of a fisherman and killed the whale. He married Parvati and returned to Mount
Kailash happily.

When the positive forces, the devas, and the negative forces, the asuras, joined together on a
rare occasion to churn the ocean with a mountain to obtain the nectar of immortality they
utilized Vasuki, the serpent, as the rope. The devas pulled from one end and the asuras from the
other.

"Nandi has surrendered into me so completely that he has all my powers and my protection"..

MYSORE PALACE
The Palace of Mysore is a historical palace in the city of Mysore in Karnataka, southern
India. It is the official residence and seat of the Wodeyars the Maharajas of Mysore,
the royal family of Mysore, who ruled the princely state from 1399 to 1950. The palace
houses two durbar halls (ceremonial meeting halls of the royal court) and incorporates a
mesmerizing and gigantic array of courtyards, gardens, and buildings. The palace is in
the central region of inner Mysore, facing the Chamundi Hills eastward.

Mysore is commonly described as the City of Palaces. There are about seven palaces
inclusive of this; however, Mysore Palace refers specifically to the one within the Old Fort.
Built by the Maharaja Rajarshi His Highness Krishnarajendra Wadiyar IV, Mysore Palace
is now one of the most famous tourist attractions in India, after the Taj Mahal, and has
more than 6 million visitors annually.

16
The Royal Lineage
Mummadi Krishnaraja Wadiyar was Maharaja from 1799 to 1868. After the death of Tipu Sultan
he made Mysore his capital in May 1799 and focused on education, religious sites and donating
jewels to temples including Melkote. Chamaraja Wadiyar IX was coronated on September 23,
1868, at the age of five. He was anointed king on the date fixed by the Governor General. He is
credited with founding India's first democratic institutions with the Mysore representative assembly
in 1881. Nalwadi Krishnaraja Wadiyar was Maharaja from 1895 to 1940 He was also called the
Saint King by Mahatma Gandhi. Assisted by dewans Sir M Visvesvaraya and Sir Mirza Ismail, he
changed Mysore by adding Asia's first hydro electric project at Shivanasamudra, the KRS dam
and the University of Mysore in 1916. Jayachamaraja Wadiyar was the twenty fifth and the last
king, reigning from 1940 to 1950, when he agreed to merge the state with the union of India. A
musicologist and a philanthropist, he was named Raj Parmukh of Mysore from Jan 26, 1950, a
post he held for six years. The present Maharaja is Yaduveer Wadiyar, who was adopted by his
aunt.

MYSORE

King Yaduraya first built a palace inside the Old Fort in Mysore in the 14th century,which was
demolished and constructed multiple times. The regent of Mysore, Her Majesty Maharani Vani
Vilas Sannidhna, and her son, the Maharaja of Mysore His Highness Rajarshi Krishnaraja
Wodeyar IV, commissioned the British architect Lord Henry Irwin to build a new palace to replace
the old one which had been turned into ashes by fire. Meanwhile, the royal family stayed in the
nearby Jaganmohan Palace.

Construction of the current palace was commissioned in 1897, completed in 1912, and expanded
around 1940 (including the addition of the present Public Durbar Hall wing) during the reign of His
Highness Maharaja Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar, the last Maharaja of Mysore Kingdom. The
construction was completed in 1912, but the fort continued to be beautified and its inhabitants
were slowly moved to the newer extension built off the palace.

Architecture

The architectural style domes of the palace is commonly described as Indo-Saracenic and blends
Hindu, Muslim, Rajput, and Gothic styles. It is a three-story stone structure with marble domes
and a 145 ft five-story tower. The palace is surrounded by a large garden. The entrance gate and
arch hold the emblem and coat of arms of the kingdom of Mysore.

The palace has three entrances: the East Gate (the front gate, opened only during the Dasara
and for VVIPs), the South Entrance (for public), and the West Entrance (usually opened only
during the Dasara). In addition, there are numerous secret tunnels from the palace cellar leading
to Srirangapatna, other palaces, and confidential areas.

The three-story stone building of fine gray granite with deep pink marble domes has a facade with
several expansive arches and two smaller ones flanking the central arch, which is supported by
tall pillars. Above the central arch is a sculpture of Gajalakshmi, the goddess of wealth, prosperity,
good luck and abundance with her elephants. There are three major exclusive temple buildings
within the Old Fort, and about 18 inside the palace heart building. The Maharajas of Mysore were
devotees of Goddess Chamundi, which is why the place faces Chamundi Hills. Besides, head of

17
the Parakala Mutt stays the spiritual rajguru (royal teacher and guide) as a reason of which the
palace is built next to an even older Parakala Mutt headquarters

Special Event
Every autumn, the palace is the venue for the famous Mysore Dasara festival, during which
leading artists perform on a stage set up in the palace grounds. On the tenth day of the festival
Vijaya Dashami, a parade with caparisoned elephants and floats originate from the palace
grounds.

Dasarais the most extravagant festival of Mysore. It is celebrated in September and October of
each year. The festival celebrates and commemorates the victory of the great Goddess Durga,
also called Chamundeshwari, after she slew the demon Mahishasura, thereby symbolizing the
triumph of good over evil according to Hindu mythology.

Unique Room
The palace is an excellent combination of Indo-Saracenic architecture and features a number of
unique rooms.

Ambavilasa

This room was used by the king as a hall for private audiences. Entry to this opulent hall is
through an elegantly carved rosewood doorway inlaid with ivory that opens into a shrine dedicated
to Ganesha. The central nave of the hall has ornately gilded columns, stained glass ceilings,
decorative steel grills, and chandeliers with fine floral motifs, mirrored in the pietra dura mosaic
floor embellished with semi-precious stones. This is where the king would confer with his
ministers. It was the chamber in which he gave audience to people deserving special attention.

Gombe Thotti (Dolls Pavilion)

The Gombe Thotti, or Dolls Pavilion, a gallery of traditional dolls from the nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries. The pavilion also houses a fine collection of Indian and European sculpture
and ceremonial objects, including a wooden elephant howdah (frame to carry passengers)
decorated with 84 kilograms of gold.

Kalyana Mantapa
The Kalyana Mantapa, or marriage hall, is a grand, octagonal-shaped pavilion with a multi-hued
stained glass ceiling with peacock motifs arranged in geometrical patterns. The entire structure
was wrought in Glasgow, Scotland.

The floor also displays a peacock mosaic, designed with tiles from England. Oil paintings
illustrating the royal procession and Dasara celebrations of bygone years are displayed on the
walls.

Other rooms

The palace houses several rooms of importance. These include:

The Diwan-e-aam, a public durbar where the general population could meet the king at
scheduled times to submit petitions.

18
An armory which contains arms used by the members of the royal family. It contains
lances, cutlasses, and other 14th century weapons as well as those used in the early
twentieth century, such as pistols.

Temples

The palace complex includes twelve Hindu temples. The oldest was built in the 14th century, while
the most recent was built in 1953.

Some of the famous temples are:

Someshvara Temple, dedicated to God Lord Shiva

Lakshmiramana Temple, dedicated to God Lord Vishnu

Shwetha Varahaswamy Temple, dedicated to Lord Varahaswamy, one of the 10


incarnations of lord Vishnu

Sri Paran Krishna Swami Temple

Sri Bhuvaneshwari Temple

Kodi Someshwaraswami Temple

Sri Gayatri Temple

Sri Trineshwara temple

o Palace light illumination on Sundays and all public holidays between 7 and 7:45 in
the evening.
o Sound and light programs are arranged on all days between 7 and 7:45, except on
Sundays and public holidays

Other Tourist attraction palace

Palaces

Mysore Palace

LalithaMahal .

Jaganmohan Palace

19
Jayalakshmi Vilas Mansion

Gardens

Brindavan Gardens
Happy Man Park
Butterfly park in Karanjilake
Parks, gardens, and children play areas.

Museums
Regional Museum of Natural History
Folk Lore Museum
Rail Museum
Wax Museum - Melody World
Places of worship
Chamundi Hills
St. Philomena's Church
St. Bartholomew's Church,
Infant Jesus Shrine

Wildlife
Mysore Zoo
Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary

KODAGU(COORG)
Kodagu also known as Kodava Nadu, is an administrative district in Karnataka, India. It occupies
an area of 4,102 square kilometres (1,584 sq mi) in the Western Ghats of southwestern

20
Karnataka. In 2001 its population was 548,561, 13.74% of which resided in the district's urban
centres, making it the least populous of the 30 districts in Karnataka. The district is bordered
by Dakshina Kannada district to the northwest,Kasargod district to the west,Hassan district to the
north, Mysore district to the east, Kannur district of Kerala to the southwest, and the Wayanad
district of Kerala to the south. Agriculture is the most important factor that upholds the economy of
Kodagu and the main crops cultivated in this region are rice and coffee. Coorg is rich in natural
resources which included timber and spices. Madikeri (English: Mercara) is the headquarters of
Kodagu.

Kodagu is known for its coffee and its people.

Geography

Kodagu is located on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. It has a geographical area of
4,102 km2 (1,584 sq mi). The district is bordered by Dakshina Kannada district to the
northwest, Hassan district to the north, Mysore district to the east, Kasaragod district in west
and Kannur district of Kerala to the southwest, and Wayanad district of Kerala to the south. It is a
hilly district, the lowest elevation of which is 900 metres (3,000 ft) above sea-level. The highest
peak, Tadiandamol, rises to 1,750 metres (5,740 ft), with Pushpagiri, the second highest, at 1,715
metres (5,627 ft). The main river in Kodagu is the Kaveri (Cauvery), which originates
at Talakaveri, located on the eastern side of the Western Ghats, and with its tributaries, drains the
greater part of Kodagu.

In July and August, rainfall is intense, and there are often showers into November. Yearly rainfall
may exceed 4,000 millimetres (160 in) in some areas. In dense jungle tracts, rainfall reaches
3,000 to 3,800 millimetres (120 to 150 in) and 1,500 to 2,500 millimetres (59 to 98 in) in the
bamboo district to the west. Kodagu has an average temperature of 15 C (59 F), ranging from
11 to 28 C (52 to 82 F), with the highest temperatures occurring in April and May.

History

The Kodavas were the earliest agriculturists in Kodagu, having lived there for centuries. Being a
warrior community as well, they carried arms during times of war and had their own chieftains.
The Haleri dynasty, an offshoot of theKeladi Nayakas, ruled Kodagu between 1600 and 1834.
Later the British ruled Kodagu from 1834, after the Coorg War, until India's independence in 1947.
A separate state (called Coorg State) until then, in 1956 Kodagu was merged with the Mysore
State (now Karnataka).

Coorg in British India

In 1834, the East India Company annexed Kodagu into British India, after deposing Chikka
Virarajendra of the Kodagu kingdom, as 'Coorg'. The people accepted British rule peacefully.

21
British rule led to the establishment of educational institutions, introduction of scientific coffee
cultivation, better administration and improvement of the economy.

Kodagu Culture

The Kodavas are the dominant community of Kodagu. Kodava oral traditions are rich, some of the
traditional folk songs have been compiled into the Pattole Palome . The Kodavas revere
ancestors, arms and worship a number of deities, besides the River Kaveri, some of them
being, Igguthappa, Bhagwathi, Muthappa, Mahadeva, Bhadrakali, Subramani and Ayyappa. Very
similar to the Kodavas in religion, culture and language are the Kodava Peggade (Kodagu
Heggade), the Amma Kodava, the Airi (artisans), the Meda (craftsmen and drummers) and the
Kembatti (labourers).

The Kodava language speakers, other than the Kodavas, include the Kodava Heggade
(cultivators of Malabari origin), the Amma Kodava (a mixed race), the Airi (smiths and carpenters),
the Thatta (jewellers), some of the Male-Kudiya, the Kodagu Kembatti, the Maringi, the Kapala
(of Siddi origin), the Meda (basket and mat weavers and drummers), the Kanya, the Banna, the
Malaya (astrologers of Malayala origin), the Kodagu Golla (cowherds of Mysorean origin), the
Kodagu Ganiga (oil-makers), the Kolla, the Kavadi, the Koleya, the Koyava and others.

Traditional costume

Most of the Kodagu natives, including the Kodavas, the Kodava speakers and the Kodagu
Arebhashe Gowdas, wear the traditional Kodava costume. These men wear Kupyas (knee-length
half-sleeved coats) over a full-sleeved white shirt. Furthermore, a chain with a minuscule gun and
a dagger hanging onto it give them a martial look. The saris worn by women are pleated at the
back and the pallu fixed with a brooch is also wrapped in a unique way. They wear either a full-
sleeved or three-quarter sleeved blouse and cover their head with a scarf. A traditional gold
beaded necklace (Jomalae) and a gem-pendant (Kokkethathi) is widely worn by the women of
Kodagu.

Festivals of Kodagu

Kailpoud, celebrated on 3 September, signifies the completion of "nati", or the transplantation of


the rice crop. Officially, the festival begins 18 days after the sun enters the Simha Raasi (the
western sign of Leo). Kail means weapon or armoury and poud means Brighten.

The festival signifies the day when men should prepare to guard their crop from wild boars and
other animals, since during the preceding months, during which the family were engaged in the
fields, all weapons were normally deposited in the "kanni kombare" (takk in kodava), or the prayer
room.

22
Puttari/huthari

Puttari means new rice and is the rice harvest festival (also called huttari in Kannada). This takes
place in late November or early December. Celebrations and preparations for this festival start a
week in advance.

On the day the whole family assembles in their ain mane (the common family house), which is
decorated with flowers and green mango leaves and banana leaves. Specific foods are
prepared: tambuttu, puttari kalngi, kesa gende hudka and pache puttuand "rice kheer".

Economy
Agriculture

Kodagu is a rural region with most of the economy based on agriculture, plantations and forestry,
as well as one of the more prosperous parts of Karnataka. This is due primarily to coffee
production and other plantation crops. Rice and other crops are cultivated in the valleys. Coffee
plantations, situated on hillsides too steep for growing rice, and taking advantage of shade from
existing forests, became characteristic of the district in the 20th century. Coffee is now a major
cash crop. In recent years tourism has also begun to play a role in the economy. Eco-tourism,
such as walking and trekking tours, take advantage of plantation buildings converted into guest-
houses

Much of Kodagu is used for agriculture. Characteristically and historically, paddy fields are found
on the valley floors, with Coffee and pepperagroforestry in the surrounding hills mainly
near Madikeri. The most common plantation crop is coffee, especially Coffea robusta variety.
Kodagu is the second coffee production region in India, after the Baba Budangiri
hills in Chikkamagaluru district. Coffee revenue helped Kodagu to become one of the richest
districts in India. Coffea arabica is also grown in some parts of southern and western Kodagu,

In those coffee agro-forests are also cultivated spices like black pepper, cardamon, vanilla.
Besides, the other famous agricultural produce of Kodagu is Kodagu Oranges (Citrus sinensis)
known for its distinctive taste and shrunken nature. Kodagu is also known for its forest honey.

Many other crops are also cultivated, including para rubber, teak, and cocoa. There are also large
areas of natural forest, especially in the forest reserves in the south and east.

Tourism

Kodagu is rated as one of the top hill station destinations in India. Some of the most popular
tourist attractions in Kodagu include Talakaveri, Bhagamandala, Nisargadhama, Abbey Falls,
Dubare, Nagarahole National Park, Iruppu Falls, and the Tibetan Buddhist Golden Temple.

23
Talakaveri is the place where the River Kaveri originates. The temple on the riverbanks here is
dedicated to lord Brahma, and is one of only two temples dedicated to Brahma in India and
Southeast Asia. Bhagamandala is situated at the Sangam (confluence) of two rivers, the Kaveri
and the Kanika. A third river, the Sujyothi, is said to join from underground, and hence this spot is
called the Triveni Sangam. Iruppu Falls is a sacred Kodagu Hindu spot in South Kodagu in the
Brahmagiri hill range. The Lakshmana Tirtha River, with the waterfalls, flows nearby and has a
Rameshwara temple on its banks. It is said that this sacred river was created when Laxman,
prince of Ayodhya and younger brother of Lord Ram, shot an arrow into nearby hill, the
Brahmagiri hill.

Omkareshwara Temple is a beautiful temple built in the Indo-Sarcenic style in Coorg. A legend is
associated with the temple, built by Lingrajendra II in 1820 CE

St. Mark's Church is located within the Mercara Fort and was raised in 1859, by the officers and
men of the East India Company. The building was funded by the Government of Madras, and
placed under the Church of England in India, Diocese of Madras. The Church was closed
after Indian independence, and taken over by the Government of Karnataka in 1971. The building
now houses the Madikeri Fort Museum, managed by the Karnataka State Archaeological
Department.

Abbey Falls is a scenic waterfall 5 km from Madikeri. Mallalli falls is 25 km from Somwarpet,
downhill of the Pushpagiri hills. Mandalapatti is 28 km from Madikeri

Flora And Fauna

Kodagu is considered rich with wildlife and has three wildlife sanctuaries and one national park:
the Brahmagiri, Talakaveri, and Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuaries, and the Nagarhole National Park,
also known as the Rajiv Gandhi National Park.

The flora of the jungle includes Michelia champaca, Mesua (Ironwood), Diospyros (ebony and
other species), Toona ciliata(Indian mahogany), Chukrasia
tabularis, Calophyllum angustifolium (Poon spar), Canarium strictum (Black
Dammar),Artocarpus, Dipterocarpus, Garcinia, Euonymus, Cinnamomum, Myristica, Vaccinium,
Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubus(three species) and a rose. In the undergrowth are
found cardamom, Areca, plantains, canes, wild black pepper, Cyathealesand other ferns,
and arums.

In the forest of the less thickly-wooded bamboo country in the west of Kodagu the most common
trees are the Dalbergia latifolia (Black wood), Pterocarpus marsupium (Kino tree), Terminalia
tomentosa (Matthi), Lagerstroemia parviflora (Benteak), Anogeissus latifolia (Dindul), Bassia
latifolia, Butea monosperma, Nauclea parvifiora, and several species
of acacia. Teak and sandalwood also grow in the eastern part of the district.

The fauna include: the Asian elephant, tiger, leopard, dhole, gaur, boar, and several species
of deer. Kodagu also offers a wide variety of birds, roughly around 300 birds have been sighted
and reported over the years.

24
Demographics

According to the 2011 census of India, Kodagu has a population of 554,762, roughly equal to
the Solomon Islands or the US state ofWyoming. This ranks it 539 out of 640 districts in India in
terms of population. The district has a population density of 135 inhabitants per square kilometre
(350/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 20012011 was 1.13%.Kodagu has a sex
ratio of 1019 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 82.52%.

Kodava is the spoken language native to Kodagu.

Kodava people

Kodagu is home to many communities with diverse ethnic origins, with the
dominant Kodavas being the main ethnic group. Despite the native Kodavas, forming only one-
fifth of the total population of Kodagu as most of them have moved to the cities, like Bangalore
and Mysore, and even abroad, to regions like North America, they are however still the largest
group in Kodagu. The Kodavas owned their farms, growing paddy in the fields, pepper, areca,
coconut, cardamom, coffee and other crops in their hill orchards and woods. Guns and swords
are essential for their religion, as ritual cult objects, and they hold rights to carry light arms.

They are not vegetarians, but they do not eat beef. chief deities are Bhagwathi (Parvati),
Mahadeva (Shiva), Muthappa, Bhadrakali (a form of Parvati as Kali or Durga), Subramani
(Subramanya) and Ayyappa. Igguthappa, the most important local god, is an incarnation of
Subramani, the god of snakes, rain, harvest and rice.

Other Kodava speakers

Amma Kodavas, a mixed Kodava origin, live in the southern parts of Kodagu and follow some of
the Brahmin customs. Unlike other Kodavas they are vegetarians, they abstain from alcohol, wear
the sacred thread and study the Vedas. They were the progeny of intercaste marriages between
Brahmins and Kodavas during former times. They belong to 44 family names and two gothras.
Otherwise they follow the Kodava habits and customs, dress like other Kodavas and speak
Kodava Takk. They were also known as the Kaveri Brahmins by the British.

Among other Kodava speaking communities are: the Heggades, cultivators from Malabar;
the Ayiri, who constitute the artisan caste; the Medas, who are basket and mat-weavers and act
as drummers at feasts; the Binepatta, originally wandering musicians from Malabar, now farmers;
and theKavadi, cultivators settled in Yedenalknad (Virajpet). All these groups speak the Kodava
language and conform generally to Kodava customs and dress.

25
Jungle-dwellers

The Kudiya lived in the Western Ghats along Dakshina Kannada and Kodagu and some of them
were toddy-makers. While most of them spoke the Kudiya language, some of the Male-Kudiya (a
Kudiya sub-caste) speak a variation of the Kodava language. The Yerava also live in adjacent
Kerala, where they are known as the Adiya, and are primarily Hindu farm-labourers. They speak
their own Yerava dialect. The Kurbas were forest hunter-gatherers who are now farm-labourers.
They speak their own dialect and belong to two subcastes Jenu, who are honey-gatherers, and
Betta, who are hill-dwellers and good elephant captors, trainers and mahouts.

Kodagu Gowdas

The Arebhashe gowdas, or Kodagu Gowdas, and Tulu Gowdas, are a major ethnic group
of Dakshina Kannada and Kodagu. They live in Sulya (in Dakshina Kannada) and in parts of
Somwarpet, Bhagamandala and Madikeri. Guddemane Appaiah Gowda along with many other
freedom fighters from different communities revolted against the British in an armed struggle
which covered entire Kodagu and Dakshina Kannada. This was one of the earliest freedom
movements against the Britishcalled "Amara Sulliada Swantantrya Sangraama" (Amara Sulya
Dhange formally called the 'Coorg Rebellion' by the British) started in 1837.

Muslims and Christians

Kodagu is home to a sizeable population of Muslims. Those Muslims who are of South Western
Indian origins are known as the maaple, either Malayalam speaking in Kerala and Kodava
speaking in Kodagu. Kodava Hindus converted by Tipu Sultaninto Islam were called Kodava
maaple, or Jamma Maaple. Some of the Kodava maaple (Kodava-speaking) have married with
Malabar Mappila (Malayalam speaking) and Tulu Bearys. A number of Muslims from the Malabar
coast (Kerala Mappilas), have settled in Virajpet (the Southern part of Kodagu) as traders. Those
who speak Urdu and are of Persian (or sometimes Arab or Afghan) origins call
themselves Sheikhs but are locally known as the Turks (Turqa). They settled when the Mysore
Sultans ruled in Kodagu.

A small number of Mangalorean Catholics are also found in Kodagu. They are mostly descended
from those KonkaniCatholics who fled the roundup and, later, captivity by Tippu Sultan. These
immigrants were welcomed by Raja Virarajendra (himself a former captive of Tippu Sultan, having
escaped six years of captivity in 1788) who realising their usefulness and expertise as
agriculturists, gave them lands and tax breaks and built a church for them.

Others

There is a sizeable population of the Brahmins and the Lingayat people and the majority of them
are in the taluk of Somwarpet. A large number of the present people of Kodagu, nearly three-

26
fifths, are mainly agriculturists (Vokkaliga) and labourers (Holeya) who arrive from the Mysore
region and speak Kannada in Kodagu. Those from Hassan District are called
the Badaga ('Northern') people. Also a large number of traders are Muslims (Maaple) from Kerala
and speak Malayalam. Besides Kodava and Kannada, Arebhashe, Konkani, Malayalam, Urdu and
Tulu are also spoken in Kodagu. Kodagu also has a Tibetan Buddhist refugee population as well,
mainly settled around Kushalnagar.

Education
some of the notable college institutions of the region are:

Coorg Institute of Dental sciences, Virajpet

Government Engineering College, Kushalnagar.

College of Forestry, Ponnampet, University of Agricultural Sciences (B).

Coorg Institute of Technology, Ponnampet.

Field Marshal K M Cariappa College, Madikeri

Nagarhole National Park


Nagarhole National Park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi National Park), is a national
park located in Kodagu districtand Mysore district in Karnataka state in South India.

This park was declared the thirty seventh Project Tiger tiger reserve in 1999. It is part of the Nilgiri
Biosphere Reserve. The Western Ghats Nilgiri Sub-Cluster of 6,000 km2 (2,300 sq mi), including
all of Nagarhole National Park, is under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee
for selection as a World Heritage Site.

The park has rich forest cover, small streams, hills, valleys and waterfalls. The park has a healthy
predator-prey ratio, with many tigers, Indian bison and elephants.

Location

The park ranges the foothills of the Western Ghats spreading down the Brahmagiri hills and south
towards Keralastate. It lies between the latitudes 1215'37.69"N and longitudes 7617'34.4"E. The
park covers 643 km2 (248 sq mi) located to the north-west of Bandipur National Park. The Kabini
reservoir separates the two parks. Elevations of the park range from 687 to 960 m (2,254 to
3,150 ft). It is 50 km (31 mi) from the major city of Mysore.

Together with the adjoining Bandipur National Park (870 km2 (340 sq mi)), Mudumalai National
Park (320 km2(120 sq mi)) and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (344 km2 (133 sq mi)), it forms the
largest protected area in Southern India, totalling 2,183 km2 (843 sq mi).

27
Flora

The vegetation here consists mainly of North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests with
(teak and rosewoodpredominating in the southern parts. There is Central Deccan Plateau dry
deciduous forests with Pala indigo and thorny wattle towards the east. There are some sub-
montane valley swamp forests with several species of the Eugeniagenus.

The main trees found are here are the commercially


important rosewood, teak, sandalwood and silver oak. Species of trees of the dry deciduous forest
include crocodile bark, Lagerstroemia lanceolata (crepe myrtle), Indian kino tree, Grewia
tilaefolia, rosewood and axlewood.Other tree species that are seen in the forests
are Lagerstroemia microcarpa (crepe myrtle), kadam, cotton tree, Schleichera trijuga and some
species of ficus.

These forests have some conspicuous tree species such as golden shower tree, flame of the
forest and clumping bamboo.

Fauna
The park protects the wildlife of Karnataka. The important predators and carnivores in Nagarhole
National Park are theBengal tiger, Indian leopard, Ussuri dhole (Cuon alpinus alpinus), sloth
bear and the striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena). The herbivores are chital, sambar deer, barking
deer, four-horned antelope (Tetracercus quadricornis), gaur (Bos gaurus), wild boar (Sus scrofa)
and Indian elephant. Nagarhole National Park provides an opportunity to see some of the
southern population of gaur (jungle bison). Also, this park in Karnataka is a good place to see
elephants in the luxuriant forests and bamboo thickets which they most enjoy. Their total
population in southern India is now about 6500.

Over 250 species of birds are found at Nagarhole National Park. Besides the enormous variety of
woodland birds, there are large congregations of waterfowl in the Kabini river. Birds range from
blue-bearded bee-eater, scarlet minivet and Malabar whistling thrush to the more common
ospreys, herons and ducks.

Mammals
Flagship species like Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), Indian bison or gaur (Bos gaurus)
and Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) are found in large numbers inside the park. A
study carried out by Dr. Ullas Karanth of the Wildlife Conservation Society has shown that the
forests of Nagarhole have three species of predators i.e. tiger, Indian leopard(Panthera pardus
fusca) and Asiatic wild dogs (Cuon alpinus alpinus) present at an equivalent density (PA Update
2000).

The park also has a good number of golden jackals (Canis aureus), grey mongoose (Herpestes
edwardsi), sloth bears(Melursus ursinus), striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena), spotted deer
or chital (Axis axis), sambar (Cervus unicolor), barking deer (Munitacus muntjak), four-horned
antelopes (Tetracercus quadricornis) and wild boar (Sus scrofa).

Birds
Recognised as an Important Bird Area the park has over 270 species of birds including the
'critically endangered' Oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis), 'vulnerable' lesser

28
adjutant (Leptopilos javanicus), greater spotted eagle (Aquila changa) and the Nilgiri wood-pigeon
(Columba elphinstonii).

'Near threatened' species like darters (Anhniga melanogaster), oriental white ibis (Threskiornis
melanocephalus), greater grey headed fish eagle (Icthyophaga ichthyaetus) and red headed
vulture (Sarcogyps calvus) too can be found here. Endemics include the blue winged parakeet
(Psittacula columboides), Malabar grey hornbill (Ocyceros griseus) and the white bellied treepie
(Dendrocitta leucogastra).

Seven of the 15 Biome-10 (Indian Peninsula Tropical Moist Forest) and 21 of the 59 Biome-11
(Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone) species have been noted from here. Some of the birds that can
be sighted here include the white cheeked barbet (Megalaima viridis), Indian scimitar babbler
(Pomatorhinus horsfieldii) and Malabar whistling thrush (Myiophonus horsfieldii).

Reptiles
Reptiles commonly found here are mugger(Crocodylus palustris), common vine snake (Ahaetulla
nasutus), common wolf snake (Lycodon aulicus), rat snake (Ptyas mucosus), bamboo pit viper
(Trimeresurus gramineus), Russell's viper (Daboia russellii), common krait (Bangarus caeruleus),
Indian rock python (Python molurus), Indian monitor lizard (Varanus bengalensis) and the
common toad (Bufo melanostictus).

Insects
Extensive studies on the biodiversity of the insect population have been carried out by
researchers from the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, Bangalore. The
insect biodiversity of this park includes over 96 species of dung beetles and 60 species of ants.
Unusual species of ants that have been identified include the jumping ants such asHarpegnathos
saltator, which are known to jump up to a metre high.

Threats and Conservation effort

Timber smuggling

Threats to the national park come from large scale cutting of sandalwood and teak trees. Timber
smuggling, especially sandalwood smuggling, happens quite extensively here. Timber felling has
been reported from plantation areas in Kollihadi, Vaddara Modu, Tattikere in Veerahosanahalli and
Mettiupe in Kalahalli. Other places where timber felling has been reported include Arekatti,
Badrikatte, Bidurukatte, Veerana Hosahalli and Marhigodu ranges. In July 2002 hundreds of trees
were cut down in the Veeranahosalli range. Local non-governmental organisations (NGOs) like
Kodagu Ekikarana Ranga (KER), Budakattu Krishikara Sangha (BKS) and Budakattu Hakku
Sthapana Samiti (BHSS) are working to stop tree felling.

Cattle disease

Disease outbreaks among the cattle have been recorded. An outbreak of rabies that resulted in
four cattle deaths and affecting 25-30 cattle was reported in the first week of September 2005 at
G M Halli on the border of Antharasanthe Forest Range in the park.

Poaching

Poaching of birds and other mammals is another serious issue. A high number of elephant deaths
have been reported from this park, with nearly 100 elephants dying between 199192 and 2004-

29
05 in the Kodagu and Hunsur Forest Division (PA Update 2005). Elephants are killed for their
ivory. A study carried out by Wildlife First! found that nearly 77 elephants were reported dead
between 1 January 2000 and 31 October 2002. Another study carried out by the Institute for
Natural Resources, Conservation, Education, Research and Training (INCERT) in 2002 revealed
that as many as seven elephants had been killed earlier that year.

A study carried out by Dr. Ullas Karanth and Madhusudan between 1996-97 revealed that hunting
was the biggest threat to wildlife in Kudremukh and Nagarhole National Parks. The survey carried
out on 49 active and 19 retired hunters revealed that 26 species of wildlife were hunted at an
average intensity of 216 hunter days per month per village. As much as 48% of the hunters
reported hunting for the 'thrill'. The study showed that in Nagarhole, 16 mammal species weighing
over 1 kg were regularly hunted with shotguns and also by traditional methods used by tribal
communities.

Non-payment of forestry staff

A report submitted by The Project Tiger Steering Committee stated that barely 25% of the park's
staff were involved in vigilance work, thus putting the park at high risk of both, poaching and tree
felling. Irregular payment to the forestry staff has been reported in both Bandipur and Nagarhole
National Parks and there have also been reports of improper use of project funds.

Forest fire

In January, 2012, there was a catastrophic forest fire that destroyed over 6,000 acres (2,400 ha)
of forest. Huge trees were reduced to cinder. Burnt remains of snakes, monitor lizards, giant
malabar squirrels lay scattered on the charred remains of what was once a verdant patch of
moist-deciduous forest.

Forest fires and seasonal droughts coupled with water shortage have caused many wild animals
to migrate to other greener spaces.

Human wildlife conflict

Human-wildlife conflicts due to raids by wild animals and elephants on nearby villages along with
the consequent retaliation by the villagers is another important threat to the parks wildlife. In 2001,
the Karnataka state government sanctioned Rs 2 crores to dig elephant proof trenches and install
solar fencing around the park to prevent elephants from straying into the farmer's fields.

Human habitations

In 1997, tribal activist groups won a public interest litigation in the Karnataka High Court to halt the
setting up of a resort called the Gateway Tusker Lodge planned to be set up by the Taj Group of
Hotels. With nearly 125 villages present inside the park, NGOs actively working to protect the
tribal communities include, Living Inspiration for Tribals (LIFT), Coorg Organisation of Rural
Development (CORD), DEED, FEDINA-VIKASA and Nagarhole Budakattu Janara Hakkustapana
Samithi. In 2000, the first relocation attempts initiated by a World Bank funded eco-development
project of the local tribal population was begun with 50 tribal people. The relocated families were
given land possession certificates for five acres of land and houses at Veeranahosalli, near
Hunsur. The state and union government planned to relocate 1,550 tribal families at a cost of Rs.
15.5 crores

30
IRUPPU FALLS
Iruppu water falls is located at a distance of 50 km from Madikeri, head quarters of Kodagu
district and 20 km from Nagarahole National Park bordering the Wayanad district of Kerala. The
Iruppu waterfall is surrounded by lush green Western Ghats. The roaring waters of the Iruppu falls
and the picturesque surroundings make it a favourite picnic spot.
Iruppu Falls presents a magnificent view during the monsoon. Originating in the lofty Brahmagiri
peaks, the falls plunge 170 ft in two different stages. Iruppu falls later become a part of the
Lakshmana Teertha River. Hence, this waterfall is also known as Lakshmana teertha falls.

As per the legend, Lakshmana shot an arrow into the Brahmagiri hills and brought into being the
river Lakshmana Tirtha.

The Rameshwara Temple located nearby the Iruppu water falls attracts a huge number of pilgrims
during the festival of Shivaratri. It is believed that Iruppu waterfall possesses magical powers and
they remove one's sins. On the day of Shivaratri, devotees take bath in Iruppu falls to get rid of
their sins.

THE LEGEND
According to popular legend, Rama and Lakshmana, passed along the Bhramagiri range whilst
searching for Rama's beloved, Sita. When Rama asked Lakshmana to fetch him drinking water,
Lakshmana shot an arrow into the Brahmagiri hills and brought into being the river Lakshmana
Tirtha. Due to this legend, the Falls is believed to possess the power to cleanse sins and is visited
by thousands of devotees on Shivaratri day.

Best Time to Visit Iruppu Falls is during the monsoon.


Distance from Iruppu waterfalls
1. Virajpet: 48 km
2. Mysore: 120 km
3. Bangalore: 260 km
4. Mangalore: 136 km

How to get there:


Nearest Airport: Bangalore
Nearest Railhead: Mysore
Road: The Falls can be reached by the highway from Gonikoppal to Nagarahole National
Park off the Kutta Road after Srimangala.

Madikeri Local

31
Madikeri is a beautiful hill station, famous for its natural beauty. Often called as the Scotland of
South India, it is full of lush green hills, flowing streams and rivers, cascading waterfalls, coffee
estates, local hamlets etc. A great place to relax and rejuvenate.
Here's a great itinerary for your trip you can consider.

People and Culture of Madikeri


The Coorgis consider themselves the children of the River Cauvery and worship her. Their language is
an amalgamation of Tulu, Kannada, Tamil, and Malayalam. The traditional dress of the locals is unique
and is worn on festivals and special occasions such as weddings. The Coorgis consider themselves a
martial race and most families have at least one member serving in the countrys armed forces.
KailPodhu, KaveriSankramana, Puttari, and Dasara are some of their festivals.

Madikeri Situated at an altitude of 3,838 feet, Madikeri has a pleasant climate all year round. Winters
can get chilly with temperatures dropping down to the single digits. This makes it a popular tourist
destination all year round with throngs not being unusual at the places to see in Madikeri.Rajas
Seat is one of the famous places in Madikeri. It is a garden with beautiful landscaping and fountains
that offer a great view of the sunset. The 17 th century Madikeri Fort was built by Mudduraja and
houses a Ganesha Temple on its premises. Abbi Falls is one of the best places to visit in
Madikeri.Omkareshwara Temple, St. Marks Church, Bhagamandala, and Dubare Elephant Camp are
some other Madikeri attractions that are easily accessible. There are also plenty of outdoor activities
that figure among the list of things to do in Madikeri such as trekking, hiking, coffee plantation tours,
and coracle rides.

Food and Shopping in Madikeri


The food options available to tourists on a Madikeri sightseeing trip are plentiful. From pure
vegetarian fare to exotic and authentic non-vegetarian Coorgi cuisine, the choices are many. The
famous Pandi curry is a must for non-vegetarians while Kuru curry and Noolputtu are not to be
missed by vegetarians on a trip to Madikeri.

Coffee powder or coffee beans are something that many visitors take home after sightseeing in
Madikeri and nearby places. Honey, spices, and homemade chocolates are some of the other things
you might want to shop for. These are available at most Madikeri tourist places.

Tourist Attractions
Talakaveri
Omkareshwara Temple
Abbey Falls
Gaddige
Talacauvery&Bhagamandala
Cauvery Nisargadhama
ByleKuppe.
Dubare Reserve Forest & Elephant Camp
Manadalpatti View Point
Honnamana kere
Mallalli Falls
Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctua
Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctua
Shri Shringeri Shankar Math
Madakeri fort

32
Mangalore
Mangalore officially known as Mangaluru, is the chief port city of the Indian state ofKarnataka. It
is known as Kudla in Tulu, Mangaluru in Kannada, Maikla in Beary, and Kodial in Canarese
Konkani. It is located about 371 kilometres (230 mi) west of the state capital, Bangalore.
Mangalore lies between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghat mountain ranges, and is the
administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada(formerly South Canara) district in south
western Karnataka. With its pristine beaches, broad roads and calm localities, Mangalore was
ranked the 8th cleanest city of India and 2nd of Karnataka. Mangalore is the 2nd least polluted
city in India and the 1st in Karnataka according to CPCB. Mangalore was ranked India's 13th and
Karnataka's 2nd best destination for business.

It developed as a port on the Arabian Searemaining, to this day, a major port of India. Lying on
the backwaters of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers, Mangalore is often used as a staging
point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast. The city has a tropical climate and lies in the path of
the Arabian Sea branch of the South-West monsoons. Mangalore's port handles 75 per cent
of India's coffee and cashew exports.

Mangalore was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Alupas, Vijayanagar
Empire, Keladi Nayaksand the Portuguese. The city was a source of contention between
the British and the Mysore rulers, Hyder Ali andTipu Sultan. Eventually annexed by the British in
1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency untilIndia's independence in 1947. The
city was unified with the state of Mysore (now called Karnataka) in 1956.

Mangaluru is demographically diverse with several languages, including Tulu, Canarese


Konkani, Kannada, English,Urdu and Beary commonly spoken, and is the largest city
in Dakshina Kannada district. Mangalore is one of the mostcosmopolitan non-metro cities of India.
It is also the largest city in the Coastal and Malnad regions of Karnataka, besides being a leading
commercial, industrial, educational and healthcare hub on the West Coast. Mangalore city urban
agglomeration extends from Ullal in the south to Surathkal in the north, covering a distance of
over 35 km. The city's landscape is characterised by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater
streams and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings.

Mangalore has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart
city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.

Etymlogy
Mangalore was named after the Hindu deity Mangaladevi, the presiding deity of the Mangaladevi
temple or a synonym of Tara Bhagvati of the Vajrayana Buddhist sect. According to local legend,
a princess from Malabarnamed Parimala or Premaladevi renounced her kingdom and became a
disciple of Matsyendranath, the founder of the Nath tradition. Having converted Premaladevi to
the Nath sect, Matsyendranath renamed her Mangaladevi. Eventually she died, and the

33
Mangaladevi temple was consecrated in her honour at Bolar by the local people after her
death. The city got its name from the temple.

History
Mangalore's historical importance is highlighted by the many references to the city by foreign
travellers. During the first century CE,Pliny the Elder, a Roman historian, made references to a
place called Nitrias, as a very undesirable place for disembarkation, on account of the pirates
which frequent its vicinity, while Greek historian Ptolemy in the second century CE referred to a
place calledNitra. Ptolemy's and Pliny the Elder's references were probably made to the Netravati
River, which flows through Mangalore. Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek monk, in his 6th century
work Christian Topography mentions Malabar as the chief seat of the pepper trade,
and Mangarouth (port of Mangalore) as one of the five pepper marts which exported pepper.

Mangalore is the heart of a distinct multilinguisticcultural region: Tulu Nadu, the homeland of the
Tulu-speaking people, which was nearly coterminous with the modern district of South Canara. In
the third century BCE, the town formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist
emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. From the third century CE to sixth century CE, the Kadamba
dynasty, whose capital was based in Banavasi in North Canara, ruled over the
entire Canara region as independent rulers.

European influence in Mangalore can be traced back to 1498, when the Portuguese
explorer Vasco da Gama landed at St Mary's Island near Mangalore.[38] In the 16th century, the
Portuguese came to acquire substantial commercial interests in Canara. Krishnadevaraya (1509
1529), the then ruler of the Vijaynagara empire maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese.
In 1524, when Vasco da Gama heard that the Muslim merchants of Calicut had agents at
Mangalore and Basrur, he ordered the rivers to be blockaded. In 1550, the Vijayanagara
ruler, Sadashiva Raya, entrusted the work of administering the coastal region of Canara to
Sadashiv Nayaka of Keladi.

In 1695, the town was torched by Arabs in retaliation to Portuguese restrictions on Arab trade.

Hyder Ali, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, conquered Mangalore in 1763,
consequently bringing the city under his administration until 1767. Mangalore was ruled by
the British East India Company from 1767 to 1783, but was subsequently wrested from their
control in 1783 by Hyder Ali's son, Tipu Sultan; who renamed it Jalalabad..

According to the Scottish physician Francis Buchanan who visited Mangalore in 1801, Mangalore
was a rich and prosperous port with flourishing trading activity. Rice was the grand article of
export, and was exported to Muscat,Bombay, Goa and Malabar. Supari or Betel-nut was exported
to Bombay, Surat and Kutch. Pepper and Sandalwoodwere exported to Bombay. Turmeric was
exported to Muscat, Kutch, Surat and Bombay, along with Cassia
Cinnamon,Sugar, Iron, Saltpeter, Ginger, Coir and Timber.

The British colonial government did not support industrialisation in the region, and local capital
remained invested mostly in land and money lending, which led to the later development of
banking in the region. With the arrival of European missionaries in the early 19th century, the

34
region saw the development of educational institutions and a modern industrial base, modeled on
European industries.

The linking of Mangalore in 1907 to the Southern Railway, and the subsequent proliferation of
motor vehicles in India, further increased trade and communication between the city and the rest
of the country. By the early 20th century, Mangalore had become a major supplier of educated
manpower to Bombay, Bangalore, and the Middle East.

Geography and Climate


Mangalore is located at 12.87N 74.88E in the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka. It has an
average elevation of 22 metres (72 ft) above mean sea level. It is the administrative headquarters
of the Dakshina Kannada district, the largest urban coastal centre of Karnataka, and the fourth
largest city in the state. Mangalore is situated on the west coast of India, and is bounded by
the Arabian Sea to its west and the Western Ghats to its east. Mangalore city, as a municipal
entity, spans an area of 132.45 km2 (51.14 sq mi).

The city is often used as a staging point for traffic along the Malabar Coast. The coastline of the
city is dotted with several beaches, such as Mukka, Panambur, Tannirbavi, Suratkal, and
Someshwara. Coconut trees, palm trees, and Ashoka trees comprise the primary vegetation of
the city.

Humidity is approximately 75 per cent on average, and peaks during May, June and July. The
maximum average humidity is 93 per cent in July and average minimum humidity is 56 per cent in
January.

The most pleasant months in Mangalore are from December to February, during which time the
humidity and heat are at their lowest. During this period, temperatures during the day stay below
30 C (86 F) and drop to about 19 C (66 F) at night. The lowest recorded temperature
at Panambur is 15.6 C (60 F) on January 8, 1992, and at Bajpe it is 15.9 C (61 F) on
November 19, 1974. Rainfall up to 4,000 millimetres (157 in) could be recorded during the period
from June to September. The rains subside in September, with the occasional rainfall in October.

The highest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 330.8 millimetres (13 in) on 22nd June 2003.
In the year 1994, Mangalore received very heavy annual rainfall of 5,018.52 millimetres (198 in).

Mangalore's economy is dominated by the industrial, commercial, agricultural processing and


port-related activities. One of the largest SEZs in India, the MSEZ is in Mangalore. Karnataka's
2nd biggest industrial area-Baikampady IE is in Mangalore. The New Mangalore Port is India's
seventh largest port, in terms of cargo handling. It handles 75 per cent of India's coffee exports
and the bulk of its cashew nuts. During 200001. Imports through Mangalore harbour
include crude oil, edible oil, LPG, and timber. The city along with Tuticorin is also one of two
points for import of wood to South India.

Major information technology (IT) and outsourcing companies like Infosys, Cognizant Technology
Solutions,MphasiS BPO, Thomson Reuters, Endurance International Group have established a
presence in Mangalore.

35
The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) plans to invest over35000 crore (US$5.20 billion)
in a new 15 million tonnerefinery, petrochemical plant and power, Indian Strategic Petroleum
Reserves Ltd, a special purpose vehicle under the Oil Industry Development Board, is strategic
crude oil reserves in Mangalore and two other places in India. Out of the proposed 5 million
metric tonnes (MMT) storage, 1.5 MMT would be at Mangalore. According to an International
edition of India Today (28 November 4 December 2006), Mangalore is the fastest growing non-
metro in South India.

Corporation Bank, Canara Bank, and Vijaya Bank were the three nationalised banks established
in Mangalore during the first half of the 20th century. Karnataka Bank, founded in Mangalore, was
one of the largest banks to have not been taken over by the Government. The boat building and
fishing industry have been core businesses in Mangalore for generations. The process of
making Mangalore City Corporation into Greater Mangalore has almost begun and steps are
being initiated to embrace 33 villages around the MCC. In this regard, the meeting of the Gram
Panchayat, Town Municipal council and Gram Panchayat Presidents and Secretaries has been
convened.

CULTURE

Many classical dance forms and folk art are practised in the city. The Yakshagana, a night-long
dance and drama performance, is held in Mangalore, while Pilivesha (literally, tiger dance), a folk
dance unique to the city, is performed during Dasara andKrishna Janmashtami.

Most of the popular Indian festivals are celebrated in the city, the most important
being Dasara, Diwali, Christmas, Easter, Eid, andGanesh Chaturthi. Kodial Theru, also known
as Mangaluru Rathotsava (Mangalore Car Festival) is a festival unique to the Goud Saraswat
Brahmin community, and is celebrated at the Sri Venkatramana Temple. The Mangalorean
Catholics community's unique festivals include Monti Fest (Mother Mary's feast), which celebrates
the Nativity feast and the blessing of new harvests.

Mangalorean cuisine is largely influenced by the South Indian cuisine, with several cuisines being
unique to the diverse communities of the city. Coconut and curry leaves are common ingredients
to most Mangalorean Curry, as are ginger, garlic and chili. Mangalorean Fish Curry is a popular
dish in Kanara . Vegetarian cuisine in Mangalore, also known as Udupi cuisine, is known and liked
throughout the state and region. Since Mangalore is a coastal city, fish forms the staple diet of
most people.

Pickles such as happala, sandige and puli munchi are unique to Mangalore. Shendi(toddy), a
country liquor prepared from coconut flower sap, is popular.

Transport
Transport in MangaloreMangalore International Airport The Netravati railway bridge serves as the
gateway to Mangalore.

36
Mangalore's location makes it accessible via all forms of transport Air, Road, Rail and
Sea. Transport systems in Mangalore city include private buses, KSRTC buses, trains, taxis
and autorickshaws.

Mangalore Airport (IATA: IXE) is near Bajpe/Kenjar, and is located about 15 kilometres (9 mi)
north-east of the city centre. It is the second airport in Karnataka to operate flights to international
destinations. It is the second largest and second busiest airport in the state of Karnataka.

These buses usually ply from the Mangalore Bus Station. White coloured taxis also traverse most
of the city. Another mode for local transport is the autorickshaw.

Rail connectivity in Mangalore was established in 1907. Mangalore was also the starting point of
India's longest rail route. The city has two railway stationsMangalore Central (at Hampankatta)
and Mangalore Junction (at Kankanadi).

The Mangalore Harbour has shipping, storage, and logistical services, while the New Mangalore
Port handles dry, bulk, and fluid cargoes. The New Mangalore Port is also well equipped to handle
petroleum oil lubricants, crude products and LPG containers.

Sports
Traditional sports like Kambala (buffalo race), contested in water filled paddy fields,
and Korikatta (cockfight) are very popular in the city. Cricket is the most popular sport in the city.
Dakshina Kannada's only full-fledged cricket stadium, the Mangala Stadium, is in Mangalore.
The Sports Authority of India (SAI) has also set up a sports training centre at the stadium. The
Mangalore Sports Club (MSC) is a popular organisation in the city and has been elected as the
institutional member for the Mangalore Zone of the Karnataka State Cricket Association (KSCA).
Mangalore is headquarters to the South Kanara District Chess Association (SKDCA), which has
hosted two All India Open Chess tournaments.

Other sports such as tennis, squash, billiards, badminton, table tennis and golf are played in the
numerous clubs and gymkhanas. Lokesh Rahul, commonly known as KL Rahul and Budhi
Kunderan, a former Indian wicket keeper was from Mangalore. Ravi Shastri, who represented
India for several years in international cricket as an all-rounder and captained the team, is of
Mangalorean descent.

Utility Services
Electricity in Mangalore is regulated by the Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation
Limited (KPTCL) and distributed through Mangalore Electricity Supply Company (MESCOM).
Mangalore experiences scheduled and unscheduled power cuts, especially during the summer,
due to excess consumption demands.Major industries like Mangalore Refinery and
Petrochemicals (MRPL) and Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers (MCF) operate their own captive
power plants.

Potable water to the city is supplied by Mangalore City Corporation. Almost all water is from the
vented dam constructed across the Netravati River at Thumbe, 14 kilometres (9 mi) from
Mangalore. The Karnataka Urban Development and Coastal Environment Management Project

37
(KUDCEMP) aim to improve safe watersupply systems and reduce leakage and losses in the
distribution system in Mangalore. The official garbage dumping ground of Mangalore is
in Vamanjoor.

Fixed Line telecom services are offered alongside GSM and Code division multiple
access (CDMA) mobile services. Mangalore is the headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada
Telecom District, the second largest telecom district in Karnataka. Prominent broadband
internet service providers in the city include Tata, Airtel andDataOne by BSNL. Recently Bharti
Airtel has also launched 4G LTE service in the city.

PANAMBUR BEACH
Panambur is the site of sea port called New Mangalore Port. It is located
inMangalore at Dakshina Kannada (formerly South Canara) district of Karnataka state, India,
north of the Gurupura river confluence with Arabian Sea. The name Panambur is derived from
'Panam' which means Money and 'Ur' which means place or village in Tulu language.

There is a Nandaneshwara temple in Panambur. The sea port is near to Surathkal railway station
on the Mumbai-Mangalore railway route. There is a beautiful beach on the shore of the Arabian
Sea at Tanniru Bhavi to the south of sea port at Panambur. Gurupur river is to the south of
Panambur.

Many factories are located at Panambur including Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers and
Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited.

New Mangalore Port Trust


New Mangalore Port Trust operates the deep-water, all-weather port at
Panambur, Mangalore in Karnataka state. It is the only major port of Karnataka and is currently
the seventh largest port in India.

It was formally inaugurated on May 4, 1974 by the then prime minister Indira Gandhi. The
construction began in 1962. The port is situated at Panambur, Mangalore on the west coast
of India

The port serves hinterland of Karnataka state and to some extent state of Kerala. The major
commodities exported through the port are iron ore concentrates & pellets, iron
ore fines, manganese, granite stones, coffee,cashew and containerized cargo. The major imports
of the port are crude and petroleum products, LPG, wood pulp, timber logs, finished fertilizers,
liquid ammonia, phosphoric acid, other liquid chemicals, containerized cargo, etc.

Panambur Beach A Stretch of Natural Splendor


Mangalore is famous for its rugged coastline and the Western Ghats and as a historic trading
center and port, Mangalore attracts many tourists who throng its beaches. One such beautiful
beach is the Panambur beach.

38
An Overview of the Panambur Beach
Located at a distance of just 13 kilometers from Mangalore, to the south of the Mangalore Port,
Panambur beach is very accessible. The beach is named after the nearby port and its trade,
because in the local vernacular, Panam means money. This place is crowded during sunsets as
the Konkan coast is famous for such views.

The beach is often called Tanniru Bhavi and as it is adjacent to the mouth of the Gurupu River, it
is very picturesque. Clean and well maintained unlike many other beaches along the Arabian Sea,
Panambur Beach is very safe too, and this is why it mainly attracts tourists.

There are other places of religious interest nearby and it is ideal for a days outing.

What to See and Do in Panambur Beach

There are many tourist attractions in Panambur, like camel rides and carnivals organized
by the district authorities in order to entertain the visitors. The carnivals are particularly
popular during the summer holidays as they help in entertaining the local children.

There are boat rides and boat races, kite flying contests held during the kite festival, air shows
and sand-sculpture contests that keep the holiday crowd happy and entertained.The best season
to visit Panambur is between October and February, after the rains and before summer starts.
Summers can be hot and humid here.

HOTEL SAMA DELUXE


Beautifully planned decor, comfortable Luxury rooms make the Sama Deluxe Hotel, is one
of the leading luxury hotel in Mangalore.

Located near to Central Railway Station, Mangalore, just 16 kms away from the Mangalore
International Airport and in close proximity to the City Center mall, started to serve from 2nd
January 2010. All the 42 fully equipped rooms are designed to suit the needs of every guest who
stays at this hotel in Mangalore.Guests will find our hotel which is situated at a walking distance
from the railway station and bus stand, an ideal retreat to stay.

Mangalore at a Glance

Mangalore is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 350
kilometres (217 mi) west of the state capital Bangalore. Bound by the Arabian Sea and the
Western Ghat mountain ranges, Mangalore is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina
Kannada (formerly South Canara) district in south western Karnataka.

Mangalore Attaractions:

Mangaladevi Temple - 2km Kateel Durgaparameshwari - 18.9km


Carstreet Venkataramana Temple - Milagres Church - 1km
2km Ullal Darga - 14km
39
St. Aloysious Chapel - 2km Roasario Church, Bolar. - 3km
Kudroli Gokarnanatha - 2.5km
Kadri Manjunatheswara - 3.5km
Beaches: Mangalore has many clean and beautiful beaches.

Someshwar Beach, Panambur Beach, Suratkal Beach, Tannirbavi Beach, Kapu


Beach, Malpe Beach etc.

Pilikula Nisarga Dhama is about 12 km from city and is a tourist spot with "Manasa"
water theme park, animal park, boating, science centre, arboretum,golf course etc., all in one
place.

Food Facts
Mangalorean cuisine is largely influenced by the South Indian cuisine, with several cuisines being
unique to the diverse communities of the city.Cuisine in Mangalore has roots in the history,
geography and culture of the land.The staple food here, available in most establishments, is the
Fish Curry Meal.

Bangalore
Bangalore known as Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state ofKarnataka. It has a population
of about 8.42 million and a metropolitan population of about 8.52 million, making it thethird most
populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India. Located in southern India on
theDeccan Plateau, at a height of over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, Bangalore is known for
its pleasant climate throughout the year. Its elevation is the highest among the major large cities
of India.

A succession of South Indian dynasties, the Western Gangas, the Cholas and the Hoysalas, ruled
the present region of Bangalore until in 1537 CE, Kemp Gowd a feudal ruler under
the Vijayanagara Empire established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern
Bangalore. In 1638, the Marths conquered and ruled Bangalore for almost 50 years, after which
the Mughals captured and sold the city to the Mysore Kingdom of the Wadiyar dynasty.
Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, and
remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956. The two urban
settlements of Bangalore city and cantonment which had developed as independent entities
merged into a single urban centre in 1949. The existing Kannada name, Bengalru, was declared
the official name of the city in 2006.

Bangalore is known as the "Silicon Valley of India" (or "IT capital of India") because of its role as
the nation's leadinginformation technology (IT) exporter. Indian technological
organizations ISRO, Infosys and Wipro are headquartered in the city.

A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in


India. It is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of
Science (IISc),Indian Institute of Management (Bangalore) (IIMB), National Institute of Fashion
Technology, Bangalore, National Institute of Design, Bangalore (NID R&D Campus), National Law
School of India University (NLSIU) and National Institute of Mental Health and
Neurosciences (NIMHANS). Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such

40
as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in
the city. The city also houses the Kannada film industry. As a growing metropolitan city in a
developing country, Bangalore confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-
economic problems. With a gross domestic product (GDP) of $83 billion, Bangalore is ranked
fourth in India by overall GDP contribution, after onlyMumbai, Delhi and Kolkata.

Etymology

The name "Bangalore" represents an anglicised version of the Kannada language name,
"Bengalru" The earliest reference to the name "Bengalru" was found in a ninth-
century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vra gallu" (literally, "hero stone", a rock
edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengalr" is referred to
as a place in which a battle was fought in 890CE. It states that the place was part of the Ganga
Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada (Old
Kannada).

On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal
by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengalru. On 27
September 2006, the Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) passed a resolution to
implement the proposed name change. The government of Karnataka accepted the proposal, and
it was decided to officially implement the name change from 1 November 2006.

History

A discover of stone Age artifacts during the 2001 cencus of India at Jalahalli, Sidhapura and
Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalores outskirts today, suggest probable human
settlement around 4,000BCE. Around 1,000 BCE(Iron Age), burial grounds were established at
koramangala and chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins Of the Roman emperors
Augustus, Tiberius, and Claudius found at Yeshwantpur and HAL indicate that Bangalore was
involved ib trans-oceanic trade with ancient civilisations in 27 BCE.

Bangalore Palace, built in 1887 in tutor architectural style was modelled on the windsor castle in
England.

Modern Bangalore had its beginning in 1537 by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, c

the then ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore for three lakh rupees. After the death of Krishnaraja
Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali, Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself
the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.Hyder and Tipu contributed towards the beautification
of the city by building Lal Bagh Botanical Gardens in 1760. Under them, Bangalore developed into
a commercial and military centre of strategic importance.

41
In the 19th century, Bangalore essentially became a twin city, with the "pt", whose residents
were predominantly Kannadigasand the cantonment created by the British. Throughout the 19th
century, the Cantonment gradually expanded and acquired a distinct cultural and political salience
as it was governed directly by the British and was known as the Civil and Military Station of
Bangalore.

Bangalore was hit by a plague epidemic in 1898 that claimed nearly 3,500 lives.

Bangalore's reputation as the "Garden City of India" began in 1927 with the Silver
Jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV.

Bangalore had established itself as the Silicon Valley of India. Today, Bangalore is India's third
most populous city. During the 21st century, Bangalore has suffered terrorist attacks
in 2008, 2010, and 2013.

Geography

Bangalore lies in the southeast of the South Indian state of Karnataka. It is in the heart of
the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger Precambrian Deccan Plateau) at an average elevation
of 900 m (2,953 ft). It is located at 12.97N 77.56E and covers an area of 741 km2 (286 sq mi).

A sewerage system, constructed in 1922, covers 215 km2 (83 sq mi) of the city and connects with
five sewage treatment centres located in the periphery of Bangalore.

Bangalore has a handful of freshwater lakes and water tanks, the largest of which are Madivala
tank, Hebbal lake, Ulsoor lake, Yediyur Lake and Sankey Tank. Groundwater occurs
in silty to sandy layers of the alluvial sediments.

Climate

Climate data for Bangalore

Au
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
g

Record 32.8 35.9 37.3 39.2 38.9 38.1 33.3 33. 33.3 32.4 31.7 31.1 39.2
high C (F) (91) (96. (99.1 (102. (102) (100. (91.9) 3 (91.9 (90. (89. (88) (102.6)
6) ) 6) 6) (91. ) 3) 1)

42
9)

27.
Average 30.2 33.2 35.4 33.8 28.3 28.0 27.0 26.2
27.6 29.4 28.1 5 29.4
high C (86. (91.8 (95.7 (92.8 (82.9 (82. (80. (79.
(81.7) (84.9) (82.6) (81. (84.9)
(F) 4) ) ) ) ) 4) 6) 2)
5)

19.
Average 19.6 21.8 21.5 19.7 19.4 17.7 16.0
15.3 17.2 20.2 19.8 6 19.0
low C (67.3 (71.2 (70.7 (67.5 (66. (63. (60.
(59.5) (63) (68.4) (67.6) (67. (66.2)
(F) ) ) ) ) 9) 9) 8)
3)

14.
Record 9.4 14.4 16.7 13.2 9.6
7.8 11.1 16.7 16.1 4 15.0 8.9 7.8
low C (48. (57.9 (62.1 (55. (49.
(46) (52) (62.1) (61) (57. (59) (48) (46)
(F) 9) ) ) 8) 3)
9)

Average 110. 142 154.


1.8 7.9 7 40 89.1 108.9 241 54.1 17.5 974.5
rainfall 2 .5 5
(0.07 (0.31 (0.28 (1.57 (3.50 (4.28 (9.49 (2.1 (0.6 (38.36
mm (4.33 (5.6 (6.0
1) 1) ) ) 8) 7) ) 3) 89) 8)
(inches) 9) 1) 83)

Average
rainy 0.2 0.5 0.8 3 6.9 6 7.4 10 10.3 7.9 3.9 1.6 58.5
days

Average
relative
60 52 45 51 60 72 76 79 76 73 70 68 65.2
humidity
(%)

Mean
monthly 247. 271. 257. 241. 114 143. 173. 190. 211. 2,360.
262.3 136.8 111.8
sunshine 6 4 0 1 .3 6 1 2 7 9
hours

43
Population Growth

Census Pop. %

1941 406,760

1951 778,977 91.5%

1961 1,207,000 54.9%

1971 1,654,000 37.0%

1981 2,922,000 76.7%

1991 4,130,000 41.3%

2001 5,101,000 23.5%

2011 8,425,970 65.2%

With an estimated population of 8.5 million in 2011. Bangalore is the fifth most populous city in
India and the 18th most populous city in the world. Bangalore was the fastest-growing Indian
metropolis after New Delhi between 1991 and 2001, with a growth rate of 38% during the decade.
Residents of Bangalore are referred to as "Bangaloreans" in English andBengaloorinavaru in
Kannada.

The city has a literacy rate of 89%.Roughly 10% of Bangalore's population lives in slums.a
relatively low proportion when compared to other cities in the developing world such as Mumbai
(50%) and Nairobi (60%).The 2008 National Crime Records Bureau statistics indicate that
Bangalore accounts for 8.5% of the total crimes reported from 35 major cities in India which is a
cascading increase in the crime rate when compared to the number of crimes fifteen years ago.

The language that is mainly spoken in Bangalore is its native language Kannada. Other
languages such as Indian English, Tamil,Telugu, Malayalam and Hindi/Urdu are also spoken in a
few places mostly by the migrants from northern India.

The major communities of Bangalore who share a long history in the city other than
the Kannadigas are the Telugus, the Tamilians and the Malayalees who migrated to Bangalore in
search of a better livelihood. Already in the 16th century, T

Civic Administrator

The Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP, Greater Bangalore Municipal Corporation) is in
charge of the civic administration of the city. It was formed in 2007 by merging 100 wards of the
erstwhile Bangalore Mahanagara Palike, with seven neighbouring City Municipal Councils, one
Town Municipal Council and 110 villages around Bangalore. The number of wards increased to

44
198 in 2009. the Bharatiya Janata Party was voted into power the first time it had ever won a
civic poll in the city.

The BBMP works in conjunction with the Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) and the
Agenda for Bangalore's Infrastructure and Development Task Force (ABIDe).

The Bangalore City Police (BCP) has six geographic zones, includes the Traffic Police, the City
Armed Reserve, the Central Crime Branch and the City Crime Bangalore houses important state
government facilities such as the Karnataka High Court, theVidhana Soudha (the home of the
Karnataka state legislature) and Raj Bhavan (the residence of the Governor of Karnataka).
Bangalore contributes four members to the lower house of the Indian Parliament, the Lok Sabha,
from its four constituencies:Bangalore Rural, Bangalore Central, Bangalore North, and Bangalore
South, and 28 members to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly.

Pollution control

Bangalore generates about 3,000 tonnes of solid waste per day, of which about 1,139 tonnes are
collected and sent to composting units such as the Karnataka Composting Development
Corporation. The remaining solid waste collected by the municipality is dumped in open spaces or
on roadsides outside the city. In 2008, Bangalore produced around 2,500 metric tonnes of solid
waste, and increased to 5000 metric tonnes in 2012,

Slums

According to a 2012 report submitted to the World Bank by Karnataka Slum Clearance Board,
Bangalore has 862 slums from total of around 2000 slums in Karnataka. The families living in the
slum are not ready to move into the temporary shelters

Waste management

n 2012 Bangalore generated 2.1 million tonnes of Municipal Solid Waste (195.4 kg/cap/yr). The
waste management scenario in the state of Karnataka is regulated by the Karnataka State
Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) under the aegis of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
which is a Central Government entity.

Economy

Bangalore's 523 billion (US$7.8 billion) economy (200607 Net District Income) makes it one of
the major economic centres in India, with the value of city's exports totaling 432
billion (US$6.4 billion) in 200405. With an economic growth of 10.3%, Bangalore is the second
fastest-growing major metropolis in India, and is also the country's fourth largest fast-moving
consumer goods (FMCG) market. Forbes considers Bangalore one of "The Next Decade's
Fastest-Growing Cities". With a per capita income of 74709 (US$1,100) in 200607, the city is

45
the third largest hub for high-net-worth individuals and is home to over 10,000-dollar millionaires
and about 60,000 super-rich people who have an investment surplus of 45 million (US$668,700)
and 5 million (US$74,300) respectively.

The headquarters of several public sector undertakings such as Bharat Electronics


Limited (BEL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL),
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML), Central
Manufacturing Technology Institute (CMTI) and HMT (formerly Hindustan Machine Tools) are
located in Bangalore. In June 1972 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was
established under the Department of Space and headquartered in the city. Bangalore also houses
several research and development centers for many firms such as ABB, Airbus, Bosch, Boeing,
GE, GM, Google, Microsoft, Mercedes-Benz, Nokia, Oracle, Philips, Shell, Toyota and Tyco.

Transport
Air

Bangalore is served by Kempegowda International Airport (IATA: BLR, ICAO: VOBL), located
at Devanahalli, about 40 kilometres (25 miles) from the city centre. It was formerly called
Bengaluru International Airport. The airport started operations from 24 May 2008 and is a private
airport managed by a consortium led by the GVK Group. The city was earlier served by the HAL
Airport at Vimanapura, a residential locality in the eastern part of the city. The airport is third
busiest in India after Delhi and Mumbai in terms of passenger traffic and the number of air traffic
movements (ATMs). Taxis and air conditioned Volvo buses operated by BMTC connect the airport
with the city.

Rail

A rapid transit system called the Namma Metro is built. A 7-kilometre (4 mi) stretch from
Bayappanahalli to MG Road was opened to public on 20 October 2011, while another 10
kilometres (6 miles) stretch from Malleswaram to Peenya was opened on 1 March 2014.

Bangalore is a divisional headquarters in the South Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways.
There are four major railway stations in the city: Bangalore City junction, Bangalore Cantonment
railway station, Yeshwantapur junction andKrishnarajapuram railway station, with railway lines
towards Jolarpettai in the east, Chikballapur in the north-east, Guntakal in the north, Tumkur in
the northwest, Nelamangala in the west, Mysore in the southwest and Salem in the south.

Road

Buses operated by Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) are an important and
reliable means of public transport available in the city. BMTC runs air-conditioned luxury buses on

46
major routes, and also operates shuttle services from various parts of the city to Kempegowda
International Airport . The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation operates 6,918 buses on
6,352 schedules, connecting Bangalore with other parts of Karnataka as well as other
neighbouring states. The main bus depots that KSRTC maintains are the Kempegowda Bus
Station, locally known as "Majestic bus stand.Three-wheeled, yellow and black or yellow and
green auto-rickshaws, referred to as autos, are a popular form of transport. They are metered and
can accommodate up to three passengers. Taxis, commonly called City Taxis, Taxis are metered
and are generally more expensive than auto-rickshaws.

There are currently 1,250 vehicles being registered daily on an average in Bangalore RTOs. The
total number of vehicles as on date are 44 lakh vehicles, with a road length of 11,000 kilometres
(6,835 miles).

Culture

Bangalore is known as the "Garden City of India" because of its gentle climate, broad streets,
greenery and the presence of many public parks, such as Lal Bagh and Cubbon Park. Bangalore
is sometimes called as the "Pub Capital of India" and the "Rock/Metal Capital of India" because of
its underground music scene and it is one of the premier places to hold international rock
concerts. In May 2012, Lonely Planet ranked Bangalore 3rd among the world's top 10 cities to
visit.

Bangalore has a wide and varied mix of restaurant types and cuisines and Bangaloreans deem
eating out as an intrinsic part of their culture. Roadside vendors, tea stalls, and South Indian,
North Indian, Chinese and Western fast food are all very popular in the city. Udupi restaurants are
very popular and serve predominantly vegetarian, regional cuisine.

Art and literature

Bangalore did not have an effective contemporary art representation, as compared


to Delhi and Mumbai, until recently during the 1990s, several art galleries sprang up, notable
being the government established National Gallery of Modern Art.Bangalore's international art
festival, Art Bangalore, was established in 2010, and is South India's only art festival.

Kannada literature appears to have flourished in Bangalore even before Kempe Gowda laid the
foundations of the city. During the 18th and 19th centuries, The city has its own literary festival,
known as the "Bangalore Literature Festival", which was inaugurated in 2012.

47
Theatre, music, and dance

Bangalore is home to the Kannada film industry, which churns out about 80 Kannada movies
each year. Bangalore also has a very active and vibrant theatre culture with popular theatres
being Ravindra Kalakshetraand the more recently.

Bangalore is also a major centre of Indian classical music and dance.

The cultural scene is very diverse due to Bangalore's mixed ethnic groups, which is reflected in
its music concerts, dance performances and plays. Performances of Carnatic (South Indian)
and Hindustani (North Indian) classical music, and dance forms like Bharat
Natyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, Kathak, and Odissi are very popular. The two main music seasons
in Bangalore are in AprilMay during the Ram Navami festival, and in SeptemberOctober during
the Dusshera festival, "Bangalore Rock", which is an amalgamation of classic rock, hard
rock andheavy metal, with a bit of jazz and blues in it. Notable bands from Bangalore
include Raghu Dixit Project, Kryptos, Inner Sanctum, Agam, All the fat children, andSwaratma.

Education

The British Wesleyan Mission established the first English school in 1842, St. Joseph's Indian
Institutions.

In post-independent India, schools for young children (16 months5 years) are called
nursery, kindergarten or play school which are broadly based on Montessori or multiple
intelligence methodology of education. Primary and secondary education in Bangalore is offered
by various schools which are affiliated to one of the boards of education, such as the Secondary
School Leaving Certificate (SSLC), Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), Central
Board for Secondary Education (CBSE),International Baccalaureate (IB), International General
Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) and National Institute of Open
Schooling (NIOS). After completing their secondary education, students either attend Pre
University (PUC) or continue High School in one of threestreams Arts, Commerce or Science.

Bangalore University, established in 1886, provides affiliation to over 500 colleges, with a total
student enrollment exceeding 300,000. The university has two campuses within Bangalore
Jnanabharathi and Central College.

Christ University is a private 'Deemed to be University' in Bangalore founded in 1969 by the Syro-
Malabar priests of Carmelites of Mary Immaculate congregation. It is one of India's best private
college for arts, commerce and law.

Notable among them particularly for undergraduate degrees are R.V. College of Engineering, PES
University, BMS College of Engineering, M. S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology and Bangalore
Institute of Technology. Indian Institute of Science, which was established in 1909 in

48
Bangalore, National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS),Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for
Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) University of Agricultural Sciences,
Bangalore (UASB), National Institute of Design(NID), National Institute of Fashion
Technology (NIFT), National Law School of India University (NLSIU)

Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore (IIM-B), the ICAR-National Institute of Animal


Nutrition and Physiology (NIANP), the Indian Statistical Institute and International Institute of
Information Technology, Bangalore (IIIT-B) are located in Bangalore. The city is also home to the
premier mental health institution in India National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro
Sciences (NIMHANS).

Media

The first printing press in Bangalore was established in 1840 in Kannada by


the Wesleyan Christian Mission. In 1859, Bangalore Herald became the first English bi-weekly
newspaper to be published in Bangalore and in 1860, Mysore Vrittanta Bodhini became the first
Kannada newspaper to be circulated in Bangalore. Currently, Vijaya Karnataka and The Times of
India are the most widely circulated Kannada and English newspapers in Bangalore respectively,
closely followed by the Prajavani and Deccan Heraldboth owned by the Printers (Mysore)
Limited the largest print media house in Karnataka. Other newspapers like, Bangalore Mirror,
and Udayavani provide localised news updates.

Bangalore got its first radio station when All India Radio, the official broadcaster for the Indian
Government, started broadcasting from its Bangalore station on 2 November 1955. ] The radio
transmission was AM, until in 2001, Radio City became the first private channel in India to start
transmitting FM radio from Bangalore.] In recent years, a number of FM channels have started
broadcasting from Bangalore.

Bangalore got its first look at television when Doordarshan established a relay centre here and
started relaying programs from 1 November 1981. The advent of private satellite channels in
Bangalore started in September 1991 when Star TV started to broadcast its channels. Direct To
Home (DTH) services are also available in Bangalore now.

The first Internet service provider in Bangalore was STPI, Bangalore which started offering
internet services in early 1990s. This Internet service was, however, restricted to corporates
until VSNL started offering dial-up internet services to the general public at the end of
1995. Currently, Bangalore has the largest number of broadband Internet connections in India.

Namma Wifi is a free municipal wireless network in Bangalore, the first free Wifi in India. It began
operation on 24 January 2014. Service is available at M.G. Road, Brigade Road, and other
locations. The service is operated by D-VoiS and is paid for by the State Government. Bangalore
was the first city in India to have the 4th Generation Network (4G) for Mobile.

49
Sports

Bangalore's pleasant climate makes it a suitable place for a variety of outdoor sports.

Cricket is by far the most popular sport. Bangalore has many parks and gardens that provide
excellent pitches for impromptu games. A significant number of national cricketers have come
from Bangalore, including former captains Rahul Dravid and Anil Kumble. Some of the other
notable players from the city who have represented India include Gundappa Vishwanath,Syed
Kirmani, E. A. S. Prasanna, B. S. Chandrasekhar, Roger Binny, Javagal Srinath, Venkatesh
Prasad, Sunil Joshi, Robin Uthappa and Vinay Kumar. Bangalore's international cricket stadium is
the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 55,000 and has hosted matches
during the 1987 Cricket World Cup, 1996 Cricket World Cup and the 2011 Cricket World Cup. The
Chinnaswamy Stadium is the home of India's National Cricket Academy.

The Indian Premier League franchise Royal Challengers Bangalore and the I
League club Bengaluru FC are based in the city.

Bangalore rugby football club (BRFC),Bangalore Club, The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited SC is
based in Bangalore.

Bangalore Palace

Bangalore Palace, a palace located in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, was built by Rev. J.
Garrett, who was the first Principal of the Central High School in Bangalore, now known as
Central College.

The construction of the palace was started in 1862 and completed in 1944. In 1884, it was bought
by the then Maharaja of Mysore Chamarajendra Wadiyar X. Now owned by the Mysore royal
family, the palace has recently undergone a renovation.

History

Rev. J. Garrett, the first principal of the Central High School, built this palace with a floor area of
45,000 sq ft (4200 m). The palace and the grounds surrounding it are spread across 454 acres
(183 ha). British officials who were in charge of the education of the young prince HH Chamaraja
Wodeyar bought the palace in 1873 A.D. from him at a cost of Rs. 40,000 and later renovated it.
The palace was built in Tudor style architecture with fortified towers, battlements and turrets. The
interiors were decorated with elegant wood carvings, floral motifs, cornices and relief paintings on
the ceiling. The furniture, which wasneo-classical, Victorian and Edwardian in style, was bought
from John Roberts and Lazarus. The upkeep of the gardens was the responsibility of
the horticulturist Gustav Hermann Krumbiegel. A total of 35 rooms were built in the palace with
most of them being bedrooms. The renovation included addition of stained glass and mirrors,
specially imported from England, besides a manual lift and wooden fans from General Electric.
Maharaja's only son Srikanta Datta Narsimharaja Wadiyar instituted a civil suit against this deal.
But the Maharaja HH Jayachamarjendra Wodeyar died in 1974. The legal battle continued and in

50
the mean time Srikanta Datta Narsimharaja Wadiyar gave 28 acres (110,000 m2) each to his five
sisters namely Late Gayatri Devi, Meenakshi Devi, Kamakashi Devi, Indrakshi Devi and
Vishalakshi Devi in 1983 along the Ramana Mahasrhi Road. They are in possession of their
respective portion and many events like Rock shows, exhibitions, marriages, tennis, cricket, golf
and horse academies are conducted in those portions. Group in the years 1990 and 1994, and
got back his portion of the property including the Main Palace except 45 acres (180,000 m2),
which the Chamaraju group still retains along the Jayamahal Road. All along, the Government of
Karnataka was making various attempts to confiscate the property under Land Acquisition Act
1894 and Urban Land (ceiling and regulation) Act 1976. This is in quite contrast to new Land
Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill, 2013 recently passed by the Indian Parliament.

Interior Decor

The ground floor consists of an open courtyard containing granite seats covered
with fluorescent blue ceramic tiles. It also contains a ballroom for holding private parties. The first
floor, containing an elaborate hall known as the Durbar Hall, can be reached by climbing a
decorated staircase. This is a sprawling hall where the king used to address the assembly. The
walls along the staircase are adorned with paintings and the Durbar Hall has a massive elephant
head mounted in it. One side of the hall contains stained glass windows in Gothic style. The
yellow colour is used profusely and the walls and the sofa set in the hall are in yellow. A screen on
one end separates the area where the ladies used to sit and watch the assembly proceedings in
relative privacy. Some paintings of Raja Ravi Verma are also displayed here.

The interior walls of the palace are adorned by old paintings belonging to the mid-19th century,
including some Greek andDutch paintings. Some of the other attractions include a dining table
belonging to the Diwan of Mysore, Sir Mirza Ismail. This table contained a mother-of-pearl inlay
with Chinese lacquer work.

Renovation

Srikanta Datta Narsimharaja Wadiyar worked towards renovating this palace after he obtained the
right to own it. The woodwork has been renovated and the ballroom has been redone. Even the
brass-fittings and lamps have been replaced and the furniture has been newly upholstered. Out of
the collection of 30,000 photographs currently present in the palace, it is planned that about 1,000
of them will be restored and put up for viewing in an exhibition. A room has been converted into a
boutique where silks and other garments used by the royal family will be exhibited. The palace is
open to the public who can visit it after paying a fee (entry is from Palace Road near the railway
overbridge and as of August 2013, the ticket is for Rs. 225 per head for Indians/Rs. 450 for
foreigners including a nifty audio guide. Using a still camera is another Rs. 675). There are also
plans to rent out the ballroom for private parties and to sell silk scarves, photographs and other
articles used by the royal family to tourists. Illumination of the palace and renovating the gardens
using Mexican grass is in progress.

Place Grounds

51
The sprawling grounds surrounding the palace are used for holding public events including music
concerts. Many international artists have performed in the grounds.

Over the past few years, Palace Grounds have been hosts to major artists
like: Aerosmith, Backstreet Boys, Don Moen, David Guetta, Elton John, Deep
Purple, Textures, Amon Amarth, Lamb of God, Mark Knopfler, Akon, The Black Eyed Peas, The
Rolling Stones, Metallica, Michael Learns to Rock, Roger Waters, Guns N' Roses, The
Prodigy, No Doubt, Sepultura,Scorpions, Enrique Iglesias, Machine Head, Cradle of Filth.

Iron Maiden's performance in 2007 was a historic gig named Eddfest in the sub-continent.

Jay Sean, Ludacris and Flo Rida performed in Palace Grounds on 22 September 2011 for the
opening ceremony of the Champions League T20.

Metallica performed at Palace Grounds on Oct 30, 2011 as part of the Rock N India festival, their
first show in India which was attended by 31,000 people. It would also turn out to be the last
concert to take place as the state government and police stopped giving permission for any future
musical events or concerts at the venue.

Orion Mall

Orion Mall is a shopping Mal l at Brigade Gateway Enclave


in Bangalore, Karnataka, India developed by Brigade Group (Developer). Orion mall with a total
mall area of 1.1 million sqft is the 3rd largest mall in Bangalore.

About

Orion Mall is part of a premium integrated enclave known as anand gateway which houses World
Trade Centre, Sheraton Hotel,Columbia Asia Hospital apart from the mall in its premises. Orion
mall has 4 floors of retail space which includes shopping zones, multiplex, Food & Dining
including lakeside cafes and bowling & gaming zones.

Entertainment & Leisure

Places for entertainment and leisure activities in the mall are,

11-screen, 2,800-seat capacity apart from 144 seat gold class screens PVR
Cinemas multiplex

BluO - the 27-lane bowling centre.

Time Zone an 8000 sq-ft gaming zone

Food and Dining

52
Food court is spread over an area of 60,000 sq-ft which is known as Sauce Pan. It houses several
food stalls few among them are Beijing bites, Empire, Fish & chips, Kailash parbat, Mad over
donuts, Mangalore express, Mcdonalds, Rajdhani, Sbarro, Subway, Sukh sagar and Yogurberry.
Events

o Orion mall hosted an automobile exhibition Fuel Auto Expo 2014 organised by Pulse
events from 7 to 9 March 2014 featuring cars and bikes from leading manufacturers,
vehicle accessories along with other events such as vintage car show and bike stunts.

o In September, 2012, Indian Air Force organised an exhibition at the mall to showcase its
capabilities. It had several events part of the expo which included flight simulators, life-
sized models of aircraft, air-warriors performing drills and IAF themed arcade game.

AVENUE ROAD,BANGALURU

Avenue Road is one of the biggest commercial centres and busiest shopping areas
of Bangalore, the state capital ofKarnataka, India. It is located in Chickpet and runs through the
heart of the city. It also connects the Mysore Road and K G Road in the city. It is in close proximity
to Majestic bus station and Bangalore City Railway station.

Earlier, Avenue Road was known as Doddapete.

Avenue Road is known for its traditional trade in used books, garments and textiles, jewellery and
pawn brokering.

Standing on Avenue Road, Bangalore Pete is also the Rice Memorial Church, Bangalore, named
after Rev. Benjamin Holt Rice, a missionary of the London Missionary Society (LMS),
a Canarese scholar and a pioneer of education in the Bangalore Pete region. The Church stands
on the grounds of the London Mission Canarese Chapel which was established in 1834, by
William Campbell.

Chickpet situated in the center of the city is a prime marketplace well known to every
individual. It is a special commercial hub; making corers of money transaction every day. The
main streams of business are silk sarees, textiles, silver & gold jewelry, steel and brass vessel. In
simple words, Chickpet market is paradise for those who always seek innovative and creativity in
their purchase. This market houses so many shops specially dedicated to silk sarees with wide
rage of design, pattern, quality and new varieties.
This bustling market has a historical past, in olden days silk sarees to royal families are supplied
from Chickpet market vendors. Further, to add glory to the market Tipus summer palace valuable
monument of the 18th century is located a kilometer away from here. Walking here across the
road and pavement is a tough task, it involves lot of time as this place is heavily crowed around
the clock. During the time of festival the fever of festive begins from here and the real joy of
festival purchase you can experience.
Despite of being market place, it houses several mathas and temples. There are several
renowned educational institutes Isaac Newton high school, HTM high school, Girls high school
are to name a few. Lokmanya Thilak Park rich in greenery is in close proximity from Chickpet.
KSRTC Depot and Bangalore Central Railway station are near by. If you are new to city, dont
have relative or friends under Bangalores blue sky, bother not there several economic to luxury
hotels are available for the stay.

53
Sultan Pete, Sampangiram Nagar are the areas covered by Chickpet and the place is well linked
to other parts of the city via road route, Tank Bund Road and Mysore Road are important roads in
this region. In this part of city many cinema halls like Vinayaka, Nalanda, Parimala, Super and
Pradeep are situated.
along chickpet's labyrinthine roads, in cottonpet, sultanpet and kr market, in front of downed
shutters. there are thrown away items at throwaway prices __ "these goods are examined and
readied for market,"

Tourist Attraction Place

Parks
LalBagh
Cubbon Park
Jayaprakash Narayan Biodiversity Park

Historical monuments
Bangalore Fort
Tipu Sultan's Summer Palace
Bangalore Palace Windsor Castle in England.
Mayo Hall

Government buildings
VidhanaSoudha

AttaraKacheri

Museums
Government Museum
Kempegowda Museum
Karnataka Folk Museum .

Gandhi Bhavan

HAL Aerospace Museum

Madras Sappers Museum & Archives,

Visvesvaraya Industrial and Technological Museum

NIMHANS Brain Museum .

Philatelic Museum

54
Law Museum

Legends Motorcycle Museum

Jawaharlal Nehru Planetarium

Galleries
National Gallery of Modern Art

Karnataka ChitrakalaParishat,

Nature

DoddaAlada Mara
Bugle Rock
Nandi Hills
Kaivara
Tippagondanahalli Reservoir
Lakes in Bangalore

Wildlife

Bannerghatta National Park


Birds at Hebbal lake
Bangalore Aquarium

Amusement parks
Lumbini Gardens

Wonderla

Innovative Film City

Breakout Escape Experience

55
SUGGESTION RECOMMENDATION AND
CONCLUSION

SUGGESTIONS

1. Tourism is a futuristic industry. The growth of tourism industry mainly depends on attractive
tourist destinations, facilities at tourist places, and infrastructure facilities. This demands huge
investment and managerial capability.

2. Brand is a magic wand to attract tourists. In its own way Karnataka is a brand in itself in many
sectors like IT, BT and Silk. The time has come for developing 'Karnataka' as a brand in tourism
industry. Karnataka has potential to overtake todays brands like 'Kerala' and 'Rajastan'.

3. Tourists are cultural ambassadors. They come to Karnataka to take back home fascinating
experiences. Local population of a tourist place transportation authorities, hoteliers, and all
concerned with tourism have to change their mindset. It is necessary to educate to treat tourist as
'Athithis (guests) in true Karnataka tradition.

56
4. This is an era of convergence, different tourist destinations, tourist service providers and
tourists have to be integrated. In a land of IT, it is necessary to use the available technology to
upgrade the services to tourists.

5. Segmentation is a cardinal principle in todays marketing. Tourism is not an exception. In order


to meet wants of different segments of tourists Karnataka has to focus on niche segments.
Coastal tourism, hill stations tourism, adventure tourism, have to be developed as additional
segments to boost tourism in Karnataka.

6. Tourism is an industry of imaginations. As in many other services sector human resource play
an important role in boosting tourism sector. Human resource development programmes need to
be undertaken particularly to train and develop the tourist guides, travel agents, drivers, and for
people manning tourist places on a priority basis.

7. New and developing tourist segments like, farm tourism, home stay, medical tourism eco-
tourism, have to be specially focused by the Government by the providing initial impetus.

8. It is suggested to the Department of Tourism, Government of Karnataka to have an ongoing


environmental analysis programme to identify their strength, weaknesses, opportunities and
threats from time to time.

9. In the first stage they have to segment the market and identify potential tourist destinations
with needs estimation. In the second stage, they have to define the environmental constraints
such as political-legal, technological, economical, socio-cultural and globalization.

10. The tourism department is suggested to promote all-year tourism zone by creating off-season
demand by attracting the tourists.

11. It is suggested to appraise product-mix, channel mix, promotion-mix, pricing-mix and people
and public relations aspects of Department of Tourism on a regular interval.

12. In Farm Tourism, the tourists especially from foreign countries will stay at a particular village
for sometime. During their stay they will come to know and literally experience the local culture,
language, food habits, rituals and other areas of interest.Similarly, the other fruits, vegetables,
food grains, species can have a separate farm stay concepts. All these, virtually generate
employment opportunities and also supplement the earnings of the farmers beside giving scope
for cultural exchange programmes.

Conclusion

57
The appraisal by these respondents were compiled to know where the TOURISM stands in
respect of marketing strategies, performance, policy formulation and implementation, tourist
satisfaction, tourist experience, the kind of package tours, tour attractions, facilities, amenities,
customer relationship management, creating awareness on a larger scale and in that order. On
the strength of the responses provided by the core respondents mentioned above, it can be
concluded that KSTDC & HAMPI TOURISM is the only established and good-old tour operator in
the State of Karnataka under Government control. It receives the funds and grants-in-aid from
State and Central Governments. Being the package tour operator, it was content and complacent
with the revenue earning and operations till opening up of the economy. Subsequently, in post
economic reform era it encountered upheaval competition from the private players on the one
hand and the neighboring states on the other.

However, the KSTDC & HAMPI TOURISM has established nine tour circuits in Karnataka
covering religious, wildlife, eco, coastal, hill stations, and the like. With Karnataka having pristine
locations, serene locales, sun kissed beaches, good infrastructure, superstructure, good jungle
lodges and resorts could not able to market its destinations effectively as evidenced from the fact
of appraisal supplied by the core respondents under the study

The opportunities are aplenty to the Department of Tourism to develop themselves as a global
brand in tourism sector. As per WTTCs (World Travel and Tourism Council) report one rupee of
investment in tourism sector will fetch ten rupees of returns.

DETAILED ITINERARY

(Study Tour BTA-V SEM)


Lucknow-Bangaluru-Mysore-Coorg-Mangaluru-Bangaluru-Lucknow

Date Departure Arrival Mode Remarks

Lucknow Train No.


14/12/201 11:50am 15015
5

Yashwantpur
9:45 am
16/12/201 Local Sightseeing Night Stay
5 Bangalore Mysore Bus at Mysore Youth Hostel

58
Mysore Sightseeing Night Stay
17/12/201 Local Sightseeing at Mysore Youth Hostel
5

Coorg via Night Stay at Coorg, Alpinia


18/12/201 Mysore Nagarhole Bus Coffee Estate
5 9 am National
Park
Local Sightseeing Night Stay
19/12/201 Excursion Coorg Bus coorg, Alpinia Coffee Estate
5
Local Sightseeing Night Stay
20/12/201 Excursion Coorg Bus coorg, Alpinia Coffee Estate
5
Local Sightseeing and Night
21/12/201 Coorg Mangaluru Bus Stay at Mangalore, Hotel Sama
5 7:00 am Deluxe
Local Sightseeing and Night
22/12/201 Mangaluru Bangalore Bus Stay at Bangalore, Hotel
5 Paragon Lodge

Local Sightseeing and Night


23/12/201 Bangalore Bus Stay at Bangalore, Hotel
5 Paragon Lodge

Yashwantpur Train No.


24/12/201 07:45 am 15016 Railway station drop by bus
5

Lucknow
26/12/201 07:40 am Tour Ends
5

Detailed Itinerar y

S T U DY TOU R

Best of Karnataka

Duration: 8 Night / 9 days

59
Day 1: Bangalore/Mysore Distance 135km/3hrs

On arrival railway station transfer to the hotel PAR AGO N LODGE to relax and
fresh, Later in the afternoon visit Mysore. Evening visit world famous Brindavan
Garden. The garden is open to general public and an entry-fee is charged. The main attraction
of the park is the musical fountain in which burst of water are synchronized to the music of song.
There is also a lake within the garden with boating facilities available for visitors. Overnight stay
at Mysore Youth Hostel .

Day 2: Mysore

Morning breakfast. Visit to the CH AMUNDI HILL to see CHAMUNDESHRI


TEMPLE that offers a panoramic view of mysore. On the wa y back, see the
N ANDI BULL . After than visit a mysore famous market. After that take a lunch.
After that visit the palace of the maharaja built in 1911-12. The palace is of
harmonious syntheses of the Hindu and Saracenic st yle of architecture wit h
archways, domes, turrets, colonnades and sculptures which are magnificent. Visit
Art Galler y. After than visit a m ysore local market and purchasing. Than take a
dinner. Overnight stay at Mysore Youth Hostel.

Day 3: Mysore/Coorg Distance 125km/3hrs

Check-out from Youth Hostel than gone to take a Morning breakfast. After that transfer to the
Coorg, enroute visit a famous Nagarhole National Park and saw on the road Deers, Rabbits and
Babools. After that visit an IRUPPU FALLS 20 km from Nagarhole National Park bordering the
wayanad district of kerala. The roaring waters of the Iruppu falls and the picturesque surroundings
make it a favourite picnic spot. Iruppu falls presents a magnificent view during the monsoon. The
falls plunge 170 ft in two different stages. We went for dinner at a small reataurant .Overnight
stay at Coorg,Resort Alpinia Coffee Estate.

Day 4: Coorg

Morning Breakfast, and proceed for full day madakeri local market sightseeing and small survey.
we went for lunch at a small restaurant named Atithi. By the time we got there. I ordered Shahi
Panner, and it was the best I have ever had. On the menu I saw that the price of coffee and tea
were same; welcome to the land of coffee. We went shopping after lunch. A shop named Coorg
Greens. It was filled with coffee, honey, spices, homemade chocolates and other local specialties.
We went for dinner at a small restaurant. Overnight stay at Coorg, Resort Alpinia Coffee Estate

Day 5: Coorg

Morning Breakfast, visit and proceed for full day madikeri local market sightseeing and survey. We
went shopping. After that visit Madekeri fort and Abbey falls. Back to resort and enjoy a bonefire at
night. Overnight stay at Coorg, Alpinia coffee Estate

Day 6: Coorg/Mangalore Distance 144km/3.30hrs

60
After Morning breakfast Checkout Alpinia Coffee Estate, and visit to Mangalore local sightseeing.
Evening visit in Beaches. Enjoy eve with friends colleagues and teacher. After that we went for
dinner at a small restaurant. Overnight stay at Mangalore, Hotel Deluxe Sama.

Day 7: Mangalore/Bangalore Distance 350km /6-7 hours


After Morning Breakfast, visit 9 am to One such beautiful beach is the Panambur beach. After that
enjoy in the water and enjoy jet ski rides have a good experience in that time. 3-4 hours time
spend in panambur beach full enjoy with classmates, juniors and teachers. Than back to hotel
ready and fresh bag packup than taken a lunch. After that checkout in hotel, visit a Bangalore
local sightseeing. Take a dinner at Paragon Lodge, Overnight stay at Bangalore, Hotel Paragon
Lodge.

Day 8: Bangalore

After Morning Breakfast, Visit a local sightseeing at Bangalore Vidhan soudha- built in 1954 in
granite, this massive building houses the state Legislature and the Secretariat. Go to
Bangalore palace, built this palace with a floor area of 45,000 sq ft (4200 m) It also contains
a ballroom for holding private parties. The first floor, containing an elaborate hall known as
the Durbar Hall. The Durbar Hall has a massive elephant head mounted in it. Greek and Dutch
painting. After that we went for a Orion Mall has 4 floors of retail space which includes shopping
zones, multiplex, Food & Dining including lakeside cafes and bowling & gaming zones. After that
we went to a Avenue road, chickpet market its is a local market It is a special commercial hub:
silk sarees, textiles, silver & gold jewelry, steel and brass vessel. Back to hotel and take a dinner,
Overnight stay at Bangalore, Hotel Paragon Lodge.

Day 9: Bangalore/Lucknow

Transfer to the Yashwantpur railway station at 7:30 to ownward destinataion and Study tour ends.

GALLERY

61
BRINDAVAN GARDEN, MYSORE

MUSICAL FOUNTAIN BRINDAVAN GARDEN

MUSICAL FOUNTAIN BRINDAVAN GARDEN

62
CHAMUNDESHWARI TEMPLE, MYSORE

MAHISHASURA , MYSORE

NANDI BULL(SCARED BULL), MYSORE

63
NANDI BULL(SCARED BULL), MYSORE

IRUPPU FALL, COORG

64
BRAHMAGRI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

IRUPPU FALL, COORG IRUPPU FALL, COORG

65
MADAKERI LOCAL MARKET,COORG

KITE FESTIVAL, PANAMBUR BEACH

PANAMBUR BEACH, MANGALORE

66
PANAMBUR BEACH, MANGALORE

VIDHANA SOUDHA, BANGALORE

67
VIDHANA SOUDHA, BANGALORE

BANGALORE PALACE, BANGALORE

BANGALORE PALACE INSIDE,BANGALORE

68
ORION MALL OUTSIDE, BANGALORE

ORION MALL INSIDE, BANGALORE

CHIKPET LOCAL MARKET, BANGALORE

69
ANNUXURE

Topic : Impact of Hotel & Services

Questionnaire
OVERALL ANALYSIS
1) Category of the hotel/hostel in which we stayed/visited.
A. 2 Star ( )
B. 3 Star ( )
C. 4Star ( )
D. 5 Star ( )
E. Budget hotel( )

2) Hotel staff friendly


A. Excellent ( )
B. Very good ( )
C. Good ( )
D. Satisfactory ( )
E. Very Poor ( )

Sales
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Satisfactory
Very Poor

3) Staff service over all


A. Excellent ( )
B. Very good ( )
C. Good ( )
D. Satisfactory ( )
E. Very poor ( )

70
Sales
Excellent Very Good Good satisfctory

Very Poor

4) Availability of Bell boy service


A. Excellent ( )
B. Very good ( )
C. Good ( )
D. Satisfactory ( )
E. Very poor ( )

Sales
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Satisfactory
Very poor

5) Room Standard (Overall)


A. Excellent ( )
B. Very good ( )
C. Good ( )
D. Satisfactory ( )
E. very poor ( )

Sales
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Satisfactory
Very Poor

6) Room cleanliness
A. Excellent ( )

71
B. Very good ( )
C. Good ( )
D. Satisfactory ( )
E. very poor ( )

Sales
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Satisfactory
Very Poor

7) Washroom Standard (Overall)


A. Excellent ( )
B. Very good ( )
C. Good ( )
D. Satisfactory ( )
E. very poor ( )

Sales
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Satifactory
Very Poor

8) F & B services
A. Excellent ( )
B. Very good ( )
C. Good ( )
D. Satisfactory ( )
E. Very Poor ( )

72
Sales Excellent
Very Good
Good
Satisfactory
Very Poor

9) F & B Quality
A. Excellent ( )
B. Very good ( )
C. Good ( )
D. Satisfactory ( )
E. very poor ( )

Sales
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Satisfactory
Very Poor

10) Room Rate

A. Excellent ( )
B. Very good ( )
C. Good ( )
D. Satisfactory ( )
E. very poor ( )

73
Sales
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Satisfactory
Very Poor

11) Overall satisfaction with this experience

A. Excellent ( )
B. Very good ( )
C. Good ( )
D. Satisfactory ( )
E. very poor ( )

Sales
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Satisfactory
Very Poor

12) Service about hotel was informed


A. Yes ( )
B. No ( )

Sales
Yes
No

74
13) maintainance and upkeep of hotel
A. Excellent ( )
B. Very good ( )
C. Good ( )
D. Satisfactory ( )
E. very poor ( )

Sales
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Satisfactory
Very Poor

14) Checking Experience

A. Excellent ( )
B. Very good ( )
C. Good ( )
D. Satisfactory ( )
E. very poor ( )

Sales
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Satisfactory
Very Poor

75
Bibliography
1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mysore, Date:20 Nov 2016, Time:11:55
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brindavan_Gardens Date:20 Nov 2016, Time:12:47
3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chamundi_Hills Date:22 Nov 2016, Time:19:06
4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nandi_(bull) Date:23 Nov2016, Time:11:00
5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mysore_Palace Date:23 Nov 2016, Time:11:55
6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kodagu_district Date:20Dec 2016, Time:21:30
7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangalore Date:25Dec 2016, Time:10:20
8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panambur Date:25Dec 2016, Time:23:10
9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangalore Date:02Jan 2017, Time:20:16
10. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangalore_Palace Date:02Jan 2017, Time:20:45
11. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_Mall Date:04Jan 2017, Time:11:20
12. http://www.mybangalore.com/locality/chickpet.html Date:04Jan 2017, Time:20:05

76