You are on page 1of 4

EARTHQUAKE

They are known as tremors (or) shaking of earths crust.


Evidence of present day earths movement.
They are actions of internal forces of earth.

CAUSES
- Crustal plates are continually in motion interacting with neighbouring plates-causes
strain and deformation at their edges.
- When the deformation exceeds the elastic limit, the rocks emit some form of waves
called earthquakes.
- Earthquakes of lesser magnitude are caused by human activities also.

PLACE OF ORIGIN
- Most of the earthquake origin 60kms below the surface of earth.
Seismic focus point of origin of earthquake in the interior of earth.
Epicentre focus where earthquake is 1st felt on the surface of earth.
- from here it goes to different parts of the world.
Coseismal lines lines joining the places experiencing the earthquake at the
same time.
Isoseismal lines lines joining places experiencing same intensity of the
earthquake.

EARTHQUAKE WAVES

The energy released during earthquake moves from the seismic focus in different directions
in the form of seismic waves .

- TYPES P-waves, S-waves, L-waves


P-waves Primary waves
- like sound waves
- velocity increases when density of rocks increases, but gets
deflected through molten rock material.
S-waves Secondary waves (or) transverse waves
- Direction of displacement of particle perpendicular to direction
of wave movement.
- Cannot travel through molten rock material.
L-waves Surface waves
- Orginate on the surface of earth.
- Causes maximum damage.

MEASURED IN ?

- Intensity Richter scale


- Instrument seismograph

FACTORS CAUSING EARTHQUAKE

a) Elastic rebound theory


b) Theory of plate tectonics
c) Volcanoes
d) Anthropogenic factors

a) Elastic rebound theory

- Rocks of earth pressed highly due to increasing overburden.


- Thus pushed into the zone of high density in the interior.
- However the rocks have the tendency to resume their original position, if the pressure
over them is released.
- This may cause earthquake.

b) Theory of plate tectonics

- Earthquake occur around the margins of mobile lithospheric plates.


- 3 types of plate movements.
Divergent 2 plates move away from each other.
- Magma from mantle underneath the crust rise up at the surface to
cool and solidify at the plate boundary.
- Constructive since new crust is formed
- Takes place in boundaries of oceanic plates forming new sea floors
- Sea floor spreading.
- Eg)- mid oceanic ridges of atlantic and pacific oceans.

Transform - 2 plates slide laterally past each other.


- Movement not smooth due to fiction between the rocks of two
plates.
- Results in severe earthquake.
- Eg)- California pacific plate moves NW
Theamerican plate along san andreas fault.

Convergent - 2 plates move towards each other they collide.


- Due to his some crust is destroyed destructive movement.
- Maximum number of earthquakes take place here.
- Causes mountain building, faulting, volcanic explosuions.
- Eg)- earthquake along ring of fire, Himalayas, rockies, andes,
Japan and Philippines.
c) Anthropogenic factors

- Pumping out excess ground water.


- Oil mining.
- Nuclear explosions.
- Dam building.

d) Volcanic factors

- Ejection of molten material from the interior of the earth to the surface.
- Caused due to convergent and divergent plate movements.
- This might result in earthquakes of varying intensity.

EARTHQUAKE SHADOW ZONE

- Area diametrically opposite to epicentre does not experience earthquake


- Because P-waves are deflected from liquid core and S -waves fail to reach here due to
absorption in the liquid core.

IMPACTS OF EARTHQUAKE

- Landslides - Loss of life & property


- Damming of rivers - Damage to oil pipelines and
- Floods electric wires
- Fault formation - Change in surface drainage
- Fall of buildings - Tsunami
REMEDIAL MEASURES

- Installation of more seismic stations to issue warning.


- Long term predictions based on cyclic nature of earthquakes.
- Suitable building designs.
- Abnormal behaviour of animals.
- Special trainings to people.
- Effective disaster management in coordination with various agencies rescue, relief,
rehabilitate

CONCLUSION

Though man has no control over earthquakes, its proper study, early prediction and
remedial measures could help in better management of disasters and thus saving many
lives.

REFERENCE

- TMH GENERAL STUDIES


- INTERNET
- YOUTUBE VIDEOS

By,
DINESH . S