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‘Ac. 1. Sri Suryodaya, the ‘Holy Sunrise’. Fr sixteenth: Kalpa . rhe te Sin Ma i a penne ea - ie tos Fig. 38. "fr ls ate ey sn Ti omen pet et ge Ts nee af a Zap hs Soe tena itera copes et Se na cea Eo opr For of the Hidden Lightin the Beginning he Coning angie detnnation Se Stryédaya appears asalegendin Nigur characters beside the wane a ee ne nee ei ih ne itn pret sagen recy cs, Sonesta gm ante tether e Introduction. Inthe Reveda, the Five Aryan kindredsare spoken of as immigrants; they have come from another place across the waters, and have setdled and tilled the lands on the hither shore. This process of land-taking has generally been interpreted as referzing to an historical immigration of an Aryan speak- ing people who, fair ia colour and sharply distinguished from the dusky pagan Dasyus, crossed the Saraswati in the Panjab and made their home in Bharatavarsa. Thatisan cuhemeristicinterpretation of traditional literature which isstrictlyspeaking devoid of any historical content whatever. We donot, ‘mean to say by this that there may not have taken place historical events analogous to those alluded to in the Vedic ‘myths’; on the contrary, we assume that history is always enacted in the pattern of the ultimate reality enunciated in the metaphysical tradition, or in Biblical phraseology, “drat it ‘might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets’ (rsqyaA), It may there- fore be sue that the metaphysical radition itself can be a processof inversion ‘be employed by the historian as source material, just asan icon may be used by the aesthete asa piece of brica-brae, or by the anthropologist for his own ends. In chis sense, for example, we may be sure that the people who per- formed the Vedic ritual and chanted the mantras in their recorded form, actunally possessed horses and chariots, had experience of the crossing of seas and rivers, and tilled the soil. Itdoes not follow that the cosmic myth itself — “originale Geistesschépfung allerersten Ranges'—had been unknown previous to that late stage of neolithic culture that is reflected in the symbol- ism of the mantrasin which it is expressed. Certain of the symbols are by no means ‘dated’; the Sun may have been referred to as a bird at any time, nor ‘an it be doubted that a cult of the One Madonna existed already in the Paleolithic age. The symbols that imply a specific cultural niveau may, simultaneously with actual invention, have been developed from earlier prototypes; before the pillar, the tree; before the wheel, the swastika; before the plough, the planting-stick. Itis in this sense that the myth itself, apart from the manner of its formulation (and this will apply even to its Tate ‘Yeremias, Der Kosmos von Sumer, 1982, p. 20. 'Cx Andra, Dis lonische Sane; Bauform oder symbol? Berlin, 1933, pp. 65, 66: "When Wwe sound the archetype, the ultimate origin of the form, then we find that it is anchored in the highest, nor the lowest... He who marvels that a formal symbol can remain alive pot only for millennia, but that, a8 we shal yet learn, can spring to life again after an interval of thousands of years, should remind himself that the power from the spiritual world, which forras one partof dhe symbol, is everlasting CE René Gugnon, ‘Du prévendu “empirisine’ des ancients’ in Le Voile d'Tas, No. 175, 1994, ‘Ac. 1. $r¥ Sryodaya, the ‘Holy Sunrise’. Fr teenth-cent ’ vt tom a sieentcen MS. of he Ripe Suis Masur af Fine Art Bono see oe na aan haa Page 9 oe oe "fhe Dn ped hat fe dy lving Tal’ announenent ot peta tt fe lin ts met Enezpton Mabe ing nol than he Bea te Seat a oe cnthe morning ofa cne?puonetily ead hoe pe Sane freentaon of the ‘incious eemeaa nef he ea Forth of the Hidden Light in the Beginning. * apy i esiation Sa SonySdaysappearsas legend in Nagar characters beside the ronan the mance ene Bocas ae eT fons Pantene bn cha seen ‘red Dymater gong esc lows ofhitands he darkness worded” rem tenes ye Introduction In the Reveda, the Five Aryan kindredsare spoken of as immigrants; they have ‘come from another place across the waters, and have settled and tilled the lands on the hither shore. This process of land-taking has generally been interpreted as referring to an historical immigration of an Aryan speak- ing people who, fair in colour and sharply distinguished from the dusky pagan Dasyus, crossed the Sarasvati in the Panjab and made their home in Bharatavarsa, Thatisan cuhemeristic interpretation ofa traditional Herature ‘which isstrictly speaking devoid of any historical contentwhatever. We do not mean to say by this that there may not have taken place historical events analogous to those alluded to in the Vedie ‘myths’; on the contrary, we assume that history is always enacted in the pattern of the ultimate reality enunciated in the metaphysical tradition, or in Biblical phraseology, “that it ‘might be Falfilled which was spoken by the prophets’ (rsaya). It may there- Fore be true thatthe metaphysical tradition itself can bea process ofinversion bbe employed by the historian as source material, just as an icon may be used. by the aesthete asa piece of brica-brac, or by the anthropologist for his own ends. In this sense, for example, we may be sure that the people who per- formed the Vedic ritual and chanted the mantras in their recorded form, actually possessed horses and chariots, had experience of the crossing of seas and rivers, and tilled the soil. I'does not follow that the cosmic myth itself — ‘originale Geistesschopfung allerersten Ranges''—had been unknown previous to that late stage of neolithic culture that is reflected in the symbol ism of the mantrasin which itis expressed. Certain of the symbols are by no ‘means ‘dated’; the Sun may have been referred to as a bird at any time, nor can it be doubted that a cult of the One Madonna existed already in the Paleolithic age. The symbols chat imply a specific cultural niveau may, simultaneously with actual invention, have been developed from earlier protoyypes; before the pillar, the tree; before the wheel, the swastika; before the plough, the plantingstick. It is in this sense that the myth itself, apart from the manner of its formulation (and this will apply even to its late ‘Jeremias, Der Kormor von Sumer, 1982, p. 20. 1CE Andrae, Dis lonischeSéule: Boufora oder symbol? Berlin, 1938, pp. 65,66: "When, we sound the archetype, the ultimate origin of the form, then we find that itis anchored in the highest, not the lowest... He who marvels thata formal symbolean, ‘remain alive not only for millennia, but that, as we shall yet learn, can spring to life ‘again after an interval of thousands of years, should remind himself thatthe power from the spiritual world, which forms one partof the winbol, is everlasting." Cf. René Guénon, ‘Du prétenda ‘empirisme’ des ancients’ in Le Vole dTos, No. 175, 1934. 108, Pareption ofthe Vedas recension in the two great pscudorhistorigal epics), may not be properly regarded as an historical relation (itihasa), nor as concerned with events in time, burasa metaphysical formulation in accordance with a logical order of ‘thought. Other versions of the ‘single and unanimous tadition’, Genesis for ‘example, are to be understood and have been understood in the same way. In like manner, the miraculous elements in the lives of the Messiahs are not to be regarded as later accretions imposed upon an historical nucleus, but ‘much rather as parts of the essential theme to which an aspect of historicity thas been superadded by way of accommodation (upaya). To some students, these will seem to be self-evident theses, needing no demonstration. To others, merely a fantastic theory, with the latter in view itis proposed to discuss the matter in greater detail, by an analysis of the ‘meanings and content of certain constantly recurring and characteristic terms, viz., ana, carsaniand Met, paiia jana, sarasvati ets, vépa-marigala, 1iéa and ciipati, yaya, and Yama. Ifthe proper interpretation of some of these terms is still a matter of controversy, it may nevertheless appear that some further light can be shed on the problems by a choice of valid interpretations of such sort that all the terms can be understood consistently in relation to fone another or in one and the same context “Abbreviations are employed as follows: RV, Rgvada Satie; AV, Atharvoveda Savihtas TS, Tatiza Semitd, VS, Vjasoneyl Samhita TB, Tatra Brahmanay PE, Pafcovimia Brdkmans; AB, Atareya Brahmana; JB, Jainnisa Brakmancs JUB, fotminiya Upanizad Brahmans AA, AilaryaArenyat; BU, Brhadaranyaka Upanisacs CU, Ohindogya Phaniod: Mos U, Mast Upon: MU; Mandaba Upmiad. SK, Sarat The Rgveda as Land-Nama-Bok ARYA, ARYA Asya, ‘noble’ or ‘gentle’ (as in ‘gentleman’) is from 7, to go, rise up, reach, ‘obtain; cognate forms are ariye, aiya, Iran, Erin, and Germ. Ehrc; for the root, cf. Zend ir, Lith int (to row, cf. Ske. arta, ‘oar'), Greek denurmi, arb, etc., and Lat. erjor, oriens, Any connection with Lat. ar, to plough, may be doubted. The root meanings give the sense of going forward and taking possession. The root meaning of arya is that af ‘pioneer’, in the American sense, where the first settlers are most highly honoured (one might almost speak of an ‘ancestral cult’ in this connection), and where it represents the height of social distinction to be descended from these firs-comers from the other side. From this point of view there develops the secondary meaning of ‘noble’ and that of ‘right’, cf. ra“law’ and ari‘loyal’s the procedure of the setders being thought uf as au estabiishurcnt of law aud order whe: savagery (anrta) had previously prevailed. Thus he, Agni, who piirvam dria “The Comprehentors (viduaisal) ... Uhey of the Law (rlavinah, here the First Sactificers) when they had bared to sight whatthingswere theirswwho-kneweno-Law (anrta) and were remurned, they, the shaper-minstrels (kavayah, Gk. romnrol went forth upon their glorious way’, RV, IL24.67; "The Patriarchs (pizara), on whora as being Angels, the Angelshave bestowed their Providence (Aralu)...have overstridden, the regions, laying out the ancient measureless abodes... pouring outtheir offspring. variously’, X56.45; The generous (viz. videdeudh) have made the Sun to mount the shy, and scattered the Aryan ordinances (ard vrata) o'er the world’, X.65.21 (SSyatia lowes éryaas freythiniand haiyindns, “best and lovely). Par contra, ‘The Herdsman ofthe Law (rtasya gop). the Comprehensor who surveys the several worlds (vz, the .thrusisintothe pitthem thatare unqualified (ajustén) and uninitate (comin). Men of vision (dkiok, here the Firs Secrificers) span the yarn of Law (tary tantur ‘tata upon the purifying sieve, Varuna’stonguesip, by Magic (mayoya); buthe that isnotable thereunto (eprabhul) falls down into the pit (Aartam ava padat), RV.IX.78, ‘5 mark che contrast as berween the latter and the ‘Herdsman moving om the paths, ‘who never fall’ (gopam anipodyarmanam ... this carentam, 1.164.815 X1773, JUB, ILS7), The Herdsman ofthe Universe (hevanary gopah 1164.21; 1.27.4; VIL, 70:2, JUB, 11; IIL12, etc) is the ‘Good shephered’ of Semitic tradition. Indra is typically “designated vratapd Fidei Defensor, whichis his narural function as representing the {temporal power (liane) in alliance with the spiritual: power (Jrahma) represented by ‘Agni, who lays the bolt in Inéra's hands, X.525, and appoints him to perform heroie feat, VII100.1-2,