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Charts and Pivot Tables Training Manual

Excel 2007
TableofContents

Section 1: Working With Charts ................................................................................................... 1


Lesson 1.1: Working With Charts, Part 1............................................................................................ 2
Creating a Chart ..................................................................................................................................................2
Formatting a Chart ..............................................................................................................................................4
Modifying Charts with the Layout Tab ..............................................................................................................11
Manipulating a Chart.........................................................................................................................................24
Enhancing a Chart with Shapes and Graphics ..................................................................................................31
Lesson 1.2: Working with Charts, Part 2 ........................................................................................... 35
Changing the Type of Chart...............................................................................................................................35
Changing the Source Data .................................................................................................................................38
Working with the Chart Axis and Data Series ...................................................................................................41
Saving a Chart as a Template ............................................................................................................................49

Section 2: Getting the Most From Your Data............................................................................. 51


Lesson 2.1: Getting the Most from Your Data................................................................................... 52
Using Automatic Outlining ................................................................................................................................52
Displaying and Collapsing Levels......................................................................................................................54
Grouping Data Manually...................................................................................................................................56
Creating Subtotals..............................................................................................................................................59
Lesson 2.2: PivotTables........................................................................................................................ 63
What is a PivotTable? ........................................................................................................................................63
Creating a PivotTable ........................................................................................................................................64
Creating a PivotTable Frame ............................................................................................................................68
Specifying PivotTable Data................................................................................................................................71
Rearranging PivotTable Data............................................................................................................................74
Lesson 2.3: More About PivotTables .................................................................................................. 81
Modifying PivotTable Calculations ...................................................................................................................82
Formatting a PivotTable ....................................................................................................................................84
Refreshing a PivotTable.....................................................................................................................................88
Charting a PivotTable........................................................................................................................................89
Creating a PivotTable Based on External Data.................................................................................................96
Lesson 2.4: Exploring Scenarios........................................................................................................ 104
What is a Scenario? .........................................................................................................................................104
Creating a Scenario .........................................................................................................................................105
Creating a Scenario Summary Report .............................................................................................................108
Saving Multiple Scenarios................................................................................................................................110
Lesson 2.5: What If Analysis ............................................................................................................. 111
Using a One and Two Input Data Table ..........................................................................................................111
Using Goal Seek...............................................................................................................................................120
Using Solver.....................................................................................................................................................122

Index ........................................................................................................................................... 131


Section1:WorkingWithCharts

Inthissectionyouwilllearnhowto:
Createcharts
Formatcharts
Enhancechartswithdrawingtools
Changethecharttype
Changethesourcedataforachart
Workwithchartaxesanddataseries
Createacharttemplate
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Lesson1.1:WorkingWithCharts,Part1

Sometimesitcanbehardtodiscernpatternsorrelationshipsinyourdatafrombasictablesof
numericalentries.Excel2007spowerfulcharttoolscanhelpyoucreateamoremeaningful
representationofyourdata,bymakingiteasytobuildprofessionallookingcharts.

Inthislessonyouwilllearnhowtocreate,format,andmanipulateachart.Youwillalsolearn
howtoenhanceyourchartwithExcelsdrawingtoolsandhowtoaddtitlesandtables.

Inthepracticeexerciseyouwillcreateandmodifyachart,stepbystep.

CreatingaChart

OneofthemajorchangesinExcel2007isthewaythatchartsarecreatedandhandled.In
previousversionsofExcel,chartswereoftencreatedwiththechartwizard.InExcel2007,a
newapproachistakeninhopesthataprofessionallookingchartcanbecreatedinjustafew
clicks.Insteadofachartwizard,Excel2007providesaseriesofchartbuttonsandcontrolson
theInserttab.

Beforeyoucreateachart,firstconsiderthetypeofchartthatyourequire.Piechartsandbar
chartsaregoodforshowingcomparisons.Linegraphscanbeusefulforshowingtrendsand
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plottingrelationshipsbetweenvariables.Ifyouwantareallyvisuallyinterestingchart,consider
athreedimensionaltype.

Tocreateachart,firstselectthedatathatyouwanttobaseyourcharton.

Ouraimhereistocreateapiechart.Todothis,wehaveselectedtheregionlabelsandthe
salesdata.Theregionlabelswillgiveuscategoryheadingsforourchartandthesalesfigures
willcomprisetheactualdataforourchart.

Onceyouselectthedata,youcanproceedbyclickingtheInserttabtodisplaytheInsertTab.
OntheInserttab,clickthePieChartsbuttontodisplayamenuofpossiblepiecharts.Forthis
example,wewillclickontheExploding3DPieChartoption.

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Thisactioncreatesanexploding3Dchartinthespreadsheet,showingcomparativeslicesfor
thesalesperregion.

FormattingaChart

Evenafteryoucreateachart,youcanstillalteritsappearance.Theeasiestwaytodothisisto
singleclickinsidethebox(chartarea)thatsurroundsthechart.Whenyoudothis,youwillsee
thewordsChartToolsappearintheExceltitlebar.

IfyouclickonthewordsChartTools,youwillseetheDesigntabappear.

Thistabprovidesyouwithavarietyofquickandeasychartreformattingoptions.Atthefarleft
ofthetab,thereisabuttontocompletelychangethecharttypeifyouwish.

Fornow,wewillonlyworryaboutchangingthegeneralformatofthechart.
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Tobegin,ifyourightclickonthechartlegendandchooseFormatLegendfromthepopup
menu,youwillseeaboxappeararoundit,andyouwillseeaFormatLegenddialogboxonyour
Excelscreen.

Chart
legend

Inthisdialogbox,youcanselectanyoneofthelegendpositionradiobuttonstoplacethe
legendinthepositionspecified.IfyouclicktheFilloptiononthepanelontheleft,youwillsee
optionspertainingtothelegendbackgroundfillcolor.

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Asanexample,ifyouselecttheGradientFillradiobutton,youwillseeoptionsforfillgradients.

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IfyouclickthePresetsarrow,youcanchooseafillgradientforthelegendbackgroundfroma
dropmenu.

Hereyoucanseetheresultsofselectingthetopradiobuttonforthelegendposition,anda
gradientfillforthelegendbackground.

Ifyouclickintheareaoftheboxthatisclosetothechartitself,youwillseeasecondinnerbox
surroundthechart.Thisboxdefinestheplotareaofthechart.(Intheimageabove,youcansee
athinlineformingaboxthatisinsidetheheavyouterbox.)

IfyourightclickinsidetheplotareaandselectFormatPlotAreafromthepopupmenu,you
willdisplayaFormatPlotareadialogbox.

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YoucanusetheoptionsinthisdialoginthesamewayastheFormatLegenddialog.

Hereisthesamechartwiththeplotareaformattedasaparchmentgradient.

Finally,ifyourightclickontheblankwhiteareaofthechart(aroundthesalesheadingand
legend)andthenselectFormatChartAreafromthepopupmenu,youwilldisplaytheFormat
ChartAreadialogbox.

Justasintheprevioustwoexamplesforthelegendandplotarea,youcanusethisdialogboxto
formattheChartArea.JustselectaradiobuttonforGradientfill,Solidfill,orNofill,andthen
choosefromtheavailableoptions.

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Thefollowingimageshowsthepiechartfromabovewithasolidfillcoloraddedtothechart
area.

Asmentionedatthebeginningofthisformattingdiscussion,clickinginsidethebox(chartarea)
aroundachartwillallowyoutodisplaytheDesigntab.

IntheDesigntab,youwillseeaChartStylesgroupthatisfantasticforreformattingyourchart.
Withthesestylebuttons,Excel2007canprovideprofessionallookingchartsinjustafewclicks.

ThestylesavailableintheChartStylesgrouphavebeencarefullycomposedtouse
complementarycolors,shading,andformatting.Itismostoftenthecasethataquickstylewill
produceabetterlookingchartthanmanualformatting,andwithlesstimeandeffort!

Youcancyclethroughthequickstylesbyclickingthebuttonsandwatchingyourcharts
formattingchange.Youcanusethescrollbarattherightofthegrouptodisplayseveralmore
styleoptions.
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Moreoftenthannot,thequickstylesbuttonswillprovideaformattingoptionthatyouwillfind
quitesatisfying.

Hereisthesamechartthatwehavebeenusing,afterbeingformattedwithaquickstyle.

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Ifyousingleclickonthetitleofthechart,aboxwithathinborderwillformaroundthetitle.If
youthendoubleclickonthetitle,formattingoptionswillbedisplayed.



Youcanusetheseoptionstoalignyourtitle,boldyourtitle,italicizeit,changethefontcolor,
andmore.

ModifyingChartswiththeLayoutTab

Asyoualreadyknow,whenyoucreateachartinExcel2007,therewillbenewtabsintroduced
ontheuserinterface.Forexample,theDesigntab(discussedpreviously)becomesavailable
whenyouselectthechart.YoucanusethebuttonsontheDesigntabtoquicklychangethe
overallappearanceandstyleofyourchart.

AnothertabthatcanbeveryhelpfulwhenworkingwithchartsistheLayouttab.Whenyou
createachart,andselectitbyclickingonit,youshouldseeaLayouttabnearthetopofthe
Excel2007screen.ClickthewordLayouttoseethistabsoptions.

ThemostimportantsectionsoftheLayouttab(intermsofcharts)aretheLabelsgroup,the
Axesgroup,theBackgroundgroup,andtheAnalysisgroup.

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Toseehowthesetoolswork,takethefollowingExcelchartasanexample.

Ifweclickonthecharttoselectit,wecanthenclicktheLayouttabtoseewhatlayoutoptions
wehaveforthischart.

IntheLayouttab,ifyouclickontheChartTitleButton(IntheLabelsgroup),youwillreveala
smallmenuoftitleoptions.

Currentlythechartinthisexamplehasnotitle,sotherearetwooptionsonthistitlemenuthat
wecanuse.YoucandisplayatitleabovethechartbyclickingtheAboveChartoption,oryou
canplaceatitleoverthechartbyclickingtheCenteredOverlayoption.
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LetsusetheCenteredOverlaytitle.

Ifwedecidewedontlikethatone,wecaneasilyswitchtotheAboveChartoption.

Onceyouhavechosenatitleoption,youcanclickonthewordsChartTitletodisplayacursor.
Whenthecursorappears,youcantypewhatevertextyouwantforyourcharttitle.

YoumayhavenoticedaMoreTitleOptionsitematthebottomofthetitlemenu.Ifyouclick
thisitem,aFormatChartTitledialogboxwillappear.
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Thiswillallowyoutochangevirtuallyeveryaspectofyourtitle.

IfyouclicktheLegendbuttonontheLayouttab,aseriesofoptionsformodifyingthechart
legendwillappear.

Clickingonanyoftheseoptionswillimplementtheparticularstyleoflegenddescribed.

Youshouldnoticethateachlegendoptionhasasmalliconshowingthelocationofthelegend
inrelationtothechart.

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Ifyouwanttoapplylabelsdirectlytothedatainthechart,clicktheDataLabelsbutton.

Onceagain,thesmallimagesthataccompanyeachoptionwillgiveyouaroughideaofwhat
theresultsofthegivenoptionwilllooklike.

Hereisthechartwithoutdatalabels.

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Hereisthesamechartafteraddingatitleanddatalabels.Thechartwasalsoresizedby
draggingwiththemouseinordertomakethedatalabelslegible.

TheAxesbuttonwillprovideyouwithseveraloptionsformodifyingthechartaxes.

NoticethattherearetwomainoptionslabeledPrimaryHorizontalAxisandPrimaryVertical
Axis.Eachofthesetwomainoptionscontainsasubmenuofmodificationoptions.
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Thesesubmenusallowyoutochangethescaleandnumericalvaluesusedontheaxisto
coordinatethedata.

TheGridlinesbutton(alsofoundintheAxesgroup)willallowyoutoaddorremoveMinorand
MajorGridlinestoandfromyourchart.Youcanaddhorizontalgridlines,verticalgridlines,or
bothifyouwish.Thegridlineswillrepresenttheaxisunitsonthecharttogiveyouaclearer
pictureofthespecificvalueofthedataatagivenplaceinthechart.



Hereisthesamechartasbefore,withminorhorizontalgridlinesadded.


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YoucanalsoaddadatatabletoyourchartbyusingtheDataTablebuttonontheLabelsgroup
intheLayouttab.

Adatatablewillhelptoclarifythemeaningofyourchartbydisplayingthedatagroupingsin
yourchartintabularform.

TheTrendlinebuttonintheAnalysisgroupcanbeusefulforpointingoutaspecificbehavioror
trendinyourchartsdata.

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Underthisbutton,youwillseeanumberofoptions.

Onceagain,theimageaccompanyingagivenoptionshowsapreviewofwhattheoptionmay
looklikewhenimplemented.

Ifyouwanttoadderrorbarstoyourchartdata(toshowarangearoundthevaluesdepictedin
thechartthatthedatamayormaynotassume)justclickontheErrorBarsbutton.

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Hereisthesamechartasbeforewith5%errorbarsaddedtoit.Theerrorbarsshowthevalues
thatthedatacolumnscouldassume,ifwehaveanestimateof5%error.

Ifyouareworkingwith3Dcharts,theBackgroundgrouphassomeusefulandconvenient
options.

Letstakethefollowing3Dchartasanexample.

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IfyouclicktheChartWallbuttonontheLayouttabintheBackgroundgroup,youwillsee
optionsforshowingorclearingthechartwall.Thefollowingimageshowsthesamechartas
above,withthechartwallcleared.

Asyoucansee,thechartwallrepresentsthebackplaneandbottomplaneofthechart.These
areasshowtheunitsthatthechartdataismeasuredby.(Ifyouclearthechartwall,thedata
unitsandgridlineswillremain,justthefillcolorwillberemoved.)

Thechartfloor,ontheotherhand,representsthebottomorsideplaneofthechart,wherethe
datalabelsareshown.Hereisthesamechartwiththewallfillcoloraddedandthefloorfill
colorcleared.ThiswasdonewiththeChartFloorbutton.

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Theorientationofthechartfloorandchartwallmaydependonthetypeofchartthatyou
create.Hereisa3Dchartwiththefloorremoved.

Hereisthesamechartwiththeflooradded.Asyoucansee,theorientationofthefloorand
wallofthechartdiffersfromthechartinthepreviousexample.

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Whenyouareworkingwith3Dcharts,youcanalsousealloftheoptionsintheLabelsgroup
andtheAxesgroup.

ThisLabelsgroupwasdiscussedpreviouslyinthecontextof2Dcharts.Thebuttonsandmenus
workwith3Dchartsinasimilarway.Hereisa3Dchartthathasbeenmodifiedwiththe
LayouttabandDesigntab.

Remember,theresultsyougetwhenyouusethebuttonsontheLayouttabmayvarybetween
charttypes,differentsizedcharts,andbetween2Dand3Dcharts.

Itisusuallyfairlyeasytoundoachangethatyoumaketoachart,sodontbeafraidto
experimentwiththeLayouttab.
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ManipulatingaChart

Sometimesitmaybenecessarytoresizeorevenmoveyourchartaroundinyourspreadsheet.
Todothis,firstsingleclickinthechartareatodisplaythechartareaborder.

Ifyouplaceyourmousepointeronthecornerofthechartborderandletithover,youwillsee
yourpointerturnintoadoubleheadedarrow.
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Ifyoudragthechartcornerwithyourmouse,youcanresizethechart.

Draggingyourmousehorizontallywillresizethelengthofthechart.Draggingyourmouse
verticallywillresizetheheightofthechart.Finally,draggingyourmousediagonallywillresize
bothdimensionsofthechart.

Ifyoulookcarefullyatthesidesofthechartborder,youwillseeaseriesoffourdots.Ifyoulet
yourmousepointerhoveroverthesedots,youwillseeadoubleheadedarrow.
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Youcandragthesessideedges(withthedoubleheadedarrowpointer)toincreasethelength
orheightofyourchart.

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Ifyoudragthecornerofthechartinwardstowardthecenter,youwillmakethechartsmaller.

Tomovethechart,letyourmousepointerhoverovertheoneofthesidesoftheborder,or
overthetoporbottomedgeoftheborder.
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Whenyouseeyourmousepointerturnintotwocrossedarrows,youwillbeabletomovethe
chartaroundyourscreenbymousedragging.

Here,thecharthasbeenresized(smaller)andrelocated(dragged)underneaththedata.

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Ifyouwanttomakeachartanobjectinanotherworksheet,ormovethecharttoasheetofits
own,dothefollowing.

First,rightclickonthechartandchooseMoveChartfromthedropdownmenu.

ThiswilldisplaytheMoveChartdialogbox.

Inthisexample,theNewSheetradiobuttonhasbeenselected,whichwillplacethechartina
newsheetcalledChart1.(Youcanenterwhatevernameyoulikeforthenewsheet.)
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Afteryouareready,clicktheOKbuttontomovethechart.

Thecharthasbeennowbeenmovedtoasheetofitsown.

NotethatyoucanalsoclicktheMoveChartbuttonintheDesigntabtodisplaytheMoveChart
dialogbox.

Thistime,ifyouselecttheObjectInradiobutton,youcanspecifyanexistingsheettoplacethe
chartin.Inthiscase,wewilluseSheet2.


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Assoonasyouareready,clicktheOKbuttontomovethechart.

Now,thecharthasbeenembeddedasanobjectintotheworksheet.

Toremoveachartfromyourworksheet,clickinthechartarea,andpresstheBackspaceor
Deletekeyonyourkeyboard.

EnhancingaChartwithShapesandGraphics

Therearetimeswhenyoumaywanttoaddadditionalgraphicelementstoachart,suchas
arrowsorcallouts,topointoutandexplainimportantfeatures.

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Inachartlikethefollowing,youmaywanttopointoutthatconenumber4showsthegreatest
percentageofprofits.

Toaddacallouttothechart,clickthelowestdownpointingarrowbesidetheShapesgroupon
theInsertTab.

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Thisactionwilldisplayalargemenuofpresetshapeoptions.

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Findandselectacalloutfromthebottomoftheshapesmenu,andthendrawitoutbydragging
withthemouseoverthechart.(Forourpurposes,wellusethecloudcallout.)

YoucanentertextintothecalloutbyrightclickingonitandselectingEditTextfromthedrop
downmenu.

Youcanusethisproceduretoaddasmanyshapesorgraphicelementstoyourchartasyou
thinkarenecessary.


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Lesson1.2:WorkingwithCharts,Part2

Thislessonwillexpandontheconceptscoveredinthepreviouslesson.Inthislessonyouwill
learnhowtoapplyanewcharttypetoyoursourcedataandhowtochangethesourcedata
whilemaintainingthesamecharttype.Youwillalsolearnhowtocreatecharttemplatesand
howtoworkwiththechartaxisanddataseries.

ChangingtheTypeofChart

Whatdoyoudoifyoucreateachartbasedonyourspreadsheetdataandyoufindthatitjust
isntquitewhatyouwerehopingfor?IfyouareusingExcel2007,itisaquickandsimplematter
toapplyanewcharttypetoyourdata.

Tochangethecharttype,firstdisplaytheDesigntabbyclickingonthechartareaandthenclick
theDesigntab.Now,lookfortheChangeChartTypebutton.

Ifyouclickthisbutton,youwilldisplaytheChangeChartTypedialogbox.

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Withthisbox,youcanselectanewcharttypeorvariationbasedonthedataintheexisting
chart.Forexample,tochangethischarttoaclusteredpyramidcolumnchart,simplyselect
Columnfromthepanelontheleft,andthenclicktheclusteredpyramidcharttypefromthe
columnchartoptionsthataredisplayed.Afteryoumakeyourchoices,clicktheOKbuttonto
changethecharttype.

Yourchartwillbeautomaticallychangedaccordingtotheselectionsyoumake.
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Hereisanexampleofthenewcharttype.

YoucanalsodisplaytheChangeChartTypedialogboxbyrightclickingonthechartareaand
selectingChangeChartTypefromthedropdownmenuthatappears.
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ChangingtheSourceData

Asyouhavejustseen,Excel2007makesiteasytochangethecharttypeforagivensetofchart
data.ThegreatthingisthatExcel2007alsomakesiteasytochangethesourcedataforyour
chartwhileretainingtheoriginalcharttype.

Inthisexample,thepiechartaboveisbasedonsalesdataperregion.Ifyouwantedthechart
todepictExpensesperRegion,youwouldhavetochangethesourcedataofthechartfromthe
salesdata(cellsB2throughtoB5),totheexpensesdata(cellsD2throughtoD5).

ThefirststepindoingthisistorightclickonthechartareaandclickSelectDatafromthemenu
thatappears.

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ThisactionwilldisplaytheEditDatadialogbox.

Atthetopofthedialogbox,youwillseealongtextfieldlabeledChartDataRange.Thiswill
showtherangeofcellsthatserveasthecurrentdatasourceforthechart.Tochangethedata
source,useyourmousetoselectthenewdatarangefromthespreadsheet.Asyoudothis,you
willseethenewrangeenteredintothedatasourcefield.


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Whenyoucompleteyourdataselection,youwillseethenewdatarangeintheEditData
Sourcedialogbox.

ThenextstepistoclicktheOKbuttoninthelowerrightofthebox.Now,youcanseethatthe
sizeofthepiesliceshavechangedtoreflectthenewdata.


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Youmaynoticethatnow,havingchangedthesourcedata,thetitleofthechart(Sales)isnot
accurate.Tochangethetitle,rightclickonitandselecttheEditTextoptionfromthedrop
downmenu.Youcannoweditthetexttochangethetitletowhateveryouwish.(Inthiscase,
theappropriatetitlechoiceisExpenses.)

Keepinmindthatifyouenternewdatadirectlyintothespreadsheetcellsthatserveasthe
datasourceforthechart,thechartitselfwillbeupdatedautomaticallytorepresentthe
changes.Youdonothavetodoanythingspecialtoupdatedirectmodificationstothesource
datacells.

WorkingwiththeChartAxisandDataSeries

Inatypicalchart,theaxesarethehorizontalandverticalscalesthatyouusetocoordinateyour
data.Basically,dataischartedwithrespecttoitsnumericalpositionalonganaxis.

Aseriesisagroupofdata(normallyaselectionofcells)thatistobechartedagainstanaxis.
Youcanhavemorethanoneseriesrepresentedinacharttoshowhowthedifferentseries
(selectionsofdata)comparetoeachother.

Toaddmorethanoneseriestoachart,rightclickonthechartandclickSelectDatafromthe
menuthatappears.
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ThiswilldisplaytheEditDatadialogbox.Inthisdialogboxyouwillseebuttonsforaddingand
removingaseries.

ToaddanewseriestothechartclicktheAddbutton.ThiswilldisplayanEditSeriesboxwhere
youcanenteranamefortheseriesinthenamefieldthatisprovided.



Next,youcanenterarangeofdatafortheseriesbydraggingyourmousepointertoselecta
rangefromyourspreadsheet.(Inthisexample,weareaddingthesalesdatatoacolumngraph
thatshowsexpensedata.)Youcanenterdatasourcesandseriesbytypingarangedirectlyinto
itsfieldinadialogbox,butselectingwiththemouseisusuallysimpler.

Afteryouselecttheappropriatedata,clicktheOKbuttonontheEditSeriesdialogandthenon
theEditDataSourcedialog.
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Hereyoucanseethattwoseries(ExpensesandSales)arerepresentedinthechart.

IfyoudisplaytheEditDataSeriesdialog,youwillseetwonamesintheseriessectionofthe
dialogbox.

YoucanselecteitheroneoftheseseriesandclickRemovetoremoveitfromthechart.Youcan
alsoclicktheAddbuttontoaddevenmoredataseriestothechartifyouwish.

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Inthefollowingstackedlinechart,theSalesdataandProfitdataarerepresentedagainstaY
axisconsistingofdollaramounts.

IfyourightclickononeofthedollaramountsontheYaxis,youwilldisplayadropdownmenu.
Fromthismenu,youcanchooseaFormatAxisoption.

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ThiswilldisplayaFormatAxisdialogbox.

Inthisbox,youwillfindcontrolstospecifytheunitsandadjustthescale,tickmark,and
positionoftheAxislabels.

Ifyouselectadifferentheadingfromthepanelontheleftofthebox(theheadinghighlighted
inthisimageisAxisOptions)youcanchangethelinestyleoftheaxis,theshadow,andother
aspectsofitsformat.

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Ifyouwanttochangethelabelsonanaxis,invoketheSelectDatadialogbox.

YoucanseeaneditbuttonintheAxisLabelsarea(ontheleft)ofthedialogbox.Ifyouclickthe
Editbutton,anAxisLabelsboxwillappear,andyouwillbeabletoselectthelabelsyouwant
fromthespreadsheet.Justdragyourmousetoselecttheappropriatecellsormanuallytypethe
cellrangeintotheboxprovided.

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Hereisthesamechartthatwasshownpreviously,withitsaxisandlabelschanged.

AmoreconvenientwaytoquicklyselectachartlayoutistousetheChartLayoutsavailableon
theDesigntab.

Withthesebuttons,youcanquicklyapplynumerouslayoutstoyourchartbyclicking.Youcan
alsousethescrollbarattherightofthegrouptoviewmorelayouttypes.

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Hereareacoupleofdifferentlayoutsforthechart.Bothwerechosenwiththechartlayout
buttons.


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SavingaChartasaTemplate

Onceyougetyourchartlookingjustthewayyoulikeit,youcansavethecharttype,colors,and
formattingasatemplatethatcanbereusedtomakeonfuturecharts.

Assumethatthisimagerepresentsachartstyleandformatthatwearehappywithandthatwe
wouldliketouseinthefuture.

Tosavethischartasatemplate,displaytheDesigntabbyclickingonthechartarea.Onthe
Designtab,clicktheSaveasTemplatebutton.

ThiswilldisplayaSaveChartTemplatedialogbox;itsvirtuallyidenticaltotheregularSave
dialog.JustenteranappropriatenameforyourcharttemplateandthenclicktheSavebutton.
Bydefault,thetemplateswillbesavedinanExcelchartfolder.

Whenyouwanttousethetemplate,justselectadatarangeforthenewchartfromwhatever
spreadsheetyouareworkingonandthenclickthesmallarrowatthelowerrightoftheCharts
group.
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ThiswilldisplaytheCreateChartdialogbox.

IfyouselectTemplatesinthepaneontheleftofthebox,youwillseethecharttemplatethat
yousaveddisplayedontherightside.Justclickthetemplateicontoapplythetemplatetothe
selecteddata.

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Section2:GettingtheMostFromYourData

Inthissectionyouwilllearnhowto:
Useautomaticoutlining
Displayandcollapselevels
Groupdatamanually
Createsubtotals
CreateaPivotTable
SpecifydatainaPivotTable
RearrangePivotTabledata
ModifyPivotTablecalculations
FormataPivotTable
RefreshaPivotTable
ChartaPivotTable
CreateaPivotTablebasedonexternaldata
Createascenario
Createascenariosummaryreport
Savemultiplescenarios
Useaoneandtwoinputdatatable
UseGoalSeek
Usethesolver

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Lesson2.1:GettingtheMostfromYourData

Sometimes,aworksheetcanbecomesolargeandcontainsomuchdatathatitbecomes
unwieldy.Totalsandsubtotalsthatsummarizethedataarelostinscreenafterscreenof
numbers.Thankfully,Excel2007hasanexcellentfeaturetohelpwiththiskindofproblem.

Excelsgroupingandoutliningfeatureswillallowyoutocollapsealargeworksheettoshowor
printsummarydata,andtoexpandthesameworksheettoshowormodifythedetails.Youwill
findthesefeaturesintheOutlinebuttongroupontheDatatab.

UsingAutomaticOutlining

Excelsautomaticoutliningfeaturemakesoutliningaworksheetfairlystraightforward.
Automaticoutliningworksbestwithnumericaldataorganizedintogroupsandsubgroupsby
formulasorfunctions.Thefollowingworksheet,forexample,containsmonthlyfinancialdata
forabusiness,organizedintoquarterlyandyearlytotalsusingformulasandtheSUMfunction.


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Itcanbedifficulttodiscernquarterlyandyearlytotalsataglancebecausethesefiguresarelost
inamongsttheotherdata.

Toautomaticallyoutlinethisworksheet,clickthesmallarrownexttotheGroupbuttoninthe
OutlinebuttongroupontheDatatab.

Thisactionwilldisplayamenuwithtwooptions:GroupandAutoOutline.IfyouclicktheAuto
Outlinebutton,thespreadsheetwillbeoutlinedautomatically.

HereyoucanseetheresultsofExcelsautomaticoutline.Alloftheoriginaldataisshown,as
wellasoutlinegroupingindicatorsandcollapsebuttonsmarkedwitha().Youcanseethatthe
quarters(setsofthreemonths)aregroupedtogethertobesummarizedbyQuarterlyTotals,
andthateachyearhasbeengroupedtobesummarizedbyYearlyTotals.
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NoticealsothatthecolumnsSupplies,Wages,andRenthavebeengroupedunderTotal
Expenses,andthatthereisanoverarchinggroupofallcolumnsunderProfit.

HereyoucanseethesummaryresultsofExcelsautomaticoutline.Theoriginalinformationis
stillavailableinallofitsdetail,butitisnowpresentedinasummaryview,showingonlythe
yearlyprofittotals.Ofcourse,automaticoutlineswilldifferfromworksheettoworksheet
dependingonthewaythedataisorganized.

Toremovetheoutliningfromyourworksheet,choosetheClearOutlineoptionfromthe
submenuundertheUngroupbutton.

DisplayingandCollapsingLevels

Noticethatintheprecedingoutlineimage,therearenumberedbuttonsarrangedinarow
besidethecolumnlettersandinacolumnabovetherownumbers.Clickingononeofthese
numberedbuttonsarrangedinarowwillexpandtherowsintheworksheettoprovideagiven
levelofdetail.Clickingononeofthenumberedbuttonsarrangedinacolumnwillexpandthe
columnsinasimilarway.

Theviewofthedataintheprecedingimageisprovidedbythebuttonsnumbered1.
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Clickingonthenumber2buttonwillexpandtheworksheettothesecondlevelofdetailforthe
rows,columns,orboth.

Thisisthesameworksheetafterbothnumber2buttonshavebeenclicked.Theworksheet
rowsandcolumnhavebeenexpandedtoshowanotherlevelofdetail.Youcannowseerows
withquarterlytotalsaswellasyearlytotals.YoucanalsoseecolumnswithfiguresforSalesand
totalExpenses.

Ifyouclickonanexpandbutton(markedwitha+sign),aspecificsectionoftheoutlined
worksheetcorrespondingtothebuttonwillbeshown.Clickingthecollapse()buttonwill
collapsethecorrespondingexpandedsection.

Ifyouclickthenumber3buttonfortherowsandcolumns,alllevelsofdetailwillbeexpanded
toexposeallofthedata,asshownintheoriginalimage.

Rememberthatwithoutlines,onlythedatathatisvisibleonyourscreenwillbeprinted.Thisis
agreatwaytoprintonlythepertinentinformationfromanexpansiveworksheet.Youcan
expandandcollapsetheoutlinedworksheetwiththenumberedoutlinebuttonsorwiththe
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expansion(+)andcollapse()buttonstorevealthelevelofdetailyouwantinyourprinted
copy.

GroupingDataManually

Automaticoutliningmaynotbeadequateforworksheetswithnonnumericalvaluesorwithno
distinctivetotals(fromformulasorfunctions).

Ifautomaticoutliningdoesnot,orcannot,organizeyourdatainthewayyouwant,youcan
manuallygroupyourdataasrequired.Takethefollowingworksheetasanexample.

Wewouldliketogroupthedataaccordingtoteamsanddivisions,butifyouusetheAuto
OutlineoptionundertheGroupbutton,Exceldisplaysthefollowingalert.

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Becausethedatacontainsnoformulasorfunctionsprovidingnumerictotals,Excelcannot
implementautomaticoutliningfortheworksheet.Youcan,however,createyourown
groupingsbyselectingtherowsorcolumnsthatyouwanttogroup,andthenclickingtheGroup
button.

Forexample,ifyouselectthemembersofTeam1(cellsB4:B6)andclicktheGroupbuttonon
theDatatab,Excelwilldisplaythefollowingboxaskingifyouwanttogroupbyrowsor
columns.

IfyouselecttheRowsradiobuttonandclickOK,Excelwillprovideanoutlineindicatoranda
collapse/expandbuttonforthenewgrouping.

Youshouldalsonoticenumberedbuttonsinthetopleftcorner.Theseoutlinelevelbuttons
workthesameasbefore.Clickingonthenumber1buttonwillshowthefirstlevelofdetail,and
clickingonthe2buttonwillshowthesecond,moredetailedlevel.

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IfyoufollowthesameprocedureforcellsB8:B10,andthenselectcellsB2:B10andgroupthem,
youwillendupwithaworksheetlikethis.

Thisimageshownaboveisofthefullydetailedview.Ifyouclickthe2button,youwillseethe
followingviewofthedata.

Youcanseethattheindividualplayerinformationforthefirsttwoteamshasbeencollapsed
fromview.

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Clickingthenumber1buttonwilldisplaythehighestlevelview(lowestdetail)ofthemanual
groupings.

Inthisimageyoucanseethattheentirefirstdivisiongroupinghasbeencollapsedfromview.

Youcanalsoselectrowsorcolumnsforgroupingbydraggingyourmouseoverthecolumn
lettersorrownumbersaccordingly.Ifyouselecttherowsorcolumnsthisway,youwillnotbe
askedwhethertogroupbyrowsorcolumns,astheselectionyouchoosewillclearlyindicate
thistoExcel.

Toremovemanualgroupings,selecttherowsorcolumnscorrespondingtothegroupingyou
wishtoremoveandclicktheUngroupbutton.

WhenyouseetheUngroupdialogbox,selecttheappropriateradiobutton,andclickOK.The
selectedrowsorcolumnswillbeungrouped.

CreatingSubtotals

AnotherkindofoutliningorgroupingtechniqueavailableinExcelisthesubtotalsfeature.Ifyou
havenumericdataorganizedwithclearcolumnandrowheadings,youcanuseExceltocreate
automaticsubtotalsandgrandtotalsforthedata.

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Thefollowingworksheetcontainssalesinformationfordifferentproductsacrossgeographical
regions.

TouseExcelssubtotalfeature,selecttherangeofdatayouwanttoapplysubtotalstoandclick
theSubtotalbuttonontheDatatab.Besuretoincludethecolumnlabelsinyourselectionso
Excelwillbeabletodiscernwhatnumberstototal.Forthisexample,youcouldselectA1:E10
andclicktheSubtotalbuttonontheDatatabtoinvokethefollowingSubtotaldialog.

ThedroplistundertheAteachchangeinheadinggivesyouoptionsastothenumberofrows
thatwillbetotaled.(Totalswillbeappliedeverytimethevaluesunderthechosencolumnlabel
changes.)

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TheUsefunctiondroplistletsyouchoosefromalistoffunctionsincludingSUM,AVERAGE,
COUNT,PRODUCT,andSTDEVtoapplytoyourdata.Thefunctionyouchoose(normallySUM)
willbeusedtocalculatethetotals.

UndertheAddsubtotalstooptionlist,youcanselectwhichcolumnstoapplythetotalsto.
Youcanapplytotalstoasinglecolumnortomultiplecolumnsintheselectedrange.

Finally,therearethreecheckboxesatthebottomofthedialogboxthatwillallowyouto:

Replaceanypreexistingsubtotals
Putpagebreaksbetweentotaledgroupssotheywillbeprintedonseparatepages
Placethesubtotalsandgrandtotalsaboveorbelowthecorrespondingdata

IfyouchoosetoapplytotalstoeachchangeintheregioncolumnwhileusingtheSumfunction
fortheprofitcolumn,andwithnopagebreaks,theresultingworksheetwilllooklikethis.

Noticethatthereisasubtotalfortheprofitfiguresateverychangeintheregionvalue.Thereis
alsoagrandtotalfortheProfitcolumnattheendofthedata.YoucanalsothatExcelhas
providedoutlinedlevels,collapse/expandbuttons,andnumberedoutlinelevelbuttons
associatedwiththetotals.Thesebuttonsandoutlinesworkexactlyaspreviouslyexplained.The
lowerthenumberonthebutton,thelessdetailedinformationwillbeshown.

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Toremovethesesubtotals,selecttherangeofdatainquestion(A1:E14)andclicktheSubtotal
buttontoinvokethesubtotaldialogbox.Whenyouseethebox,clicktheRemoveAllbutton.

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Lesson2.2:PivotTables

Amajorfunctionofanyspreadsheetprogramistohelpyouderivemeaningfromyourdata.An
ExcelPivotTableisagreattoolforgettingperspectiveon,andanalyzingrelationshipsbetween,
thecolumnsandrowsofyourworksheet.

InthislessonyouwilllearnwhataPivotTableisandhowtocreateone.Youwillalsolearnhow
tospecifyandrearrangePivotTabledata.Finally,intheStepbyStepexercise,youwillpractice
creatingaPivotTable.

WhatisaPivotTable?

APivotTableisapowerfultoolforexploringandanalyzinginformation.APivotTablehelpsyou
organizeandmanipulatetherawdatainyourspreadsheet,givingyouinsightintopatternsor
relationshipsthatmightnotbeobviousatfirstglance.PivotTablesalsogiveyouthepowerto
viewyourdatainadifferentcontextwithoutchangingtheoriginalcontentorstructure.

YoucanbaseaPivotTableondatainyourcurrentworkbookorevenexternaldatafrom
anothersourceifyouwish.WithaPivotTable,youcanconvenientlydraganddropcolumnsof
yourdatatodifferentareasofthetabletoexaminerelationshipsortrendsthatmaynotbe
obviousinatraditionalExceltableordatabase.Youcouldbuildseveralseparatetablesto
explorehowcolumnsfromanExcelworksheetrelatetoeachother,oryoucanuseone
PivotTabletodothesamething.WithaPivotTable,youcanalterthetabledesignwithout
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cutting,copying,pasting,oradjustingformulasandcellreferences.(Thesetaskscanbe
frustratingwhendealingwithalargevolumeofdata.)Inshort,PivotTablesenableyouto
organizeyourdatainmeaningfulwayswithoutdoingalotoftediouswork.Youcouldsaythata
PivotTableislikeseveraldatatablesrolledintoone.

Ideally,sourcedataforaPivotTableshouldbestructuredlikeatraditionalExceltableor
database.Thesourcedatashouldhavearowofuniquecolumnheadingsdistinguishingthe
dataandthereshouldbenoemptycolumnsinterspersedwithinthedata.Also,blankrowsina
sourcelistordatabasecanlimittheusefulnessofyourPivotTable.

ThefollowingimageshowsablockofcontiguousdatathatiswellsuitedforaPivotTable.

Noticethattherearenoemptyrowsorcolumnsandthateverycolumnofdatahasaunique
label.

CreatingaPivotTable

TocreateanExcel2007PivotTable,justselecttherangeofdatathatyouwanttobasethetable
onandthenclickthePivotTablebuttonontheInserttabtodisplaythePivotTabledialog.

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WhentheCreatePivotTabledialogboxappears,youshouldnoticethatyouareallowedto
selectdatafromanExceltableorrangeorfromanexternaldatasource.Ifyouchoosethetable
orrangeoption,thePivotTablewillbebasedontheExceltableorrangeyouselect.

YoucanselectatableorrangebydraggingwithyourmousebeforeclickingthePivotTable
button(beforeyouinvokethedialog),orbyspecifyingarangewiththekeyboardormouse
afteryouinvokethedialog.(Whenyouselectyourdatasource,makesurethatthecolumn
headingsareincluded.)

IfyouchoosetheExternalDataSourceoption,youcanbaseyourPivotTableondataoutside
yourcurrentworkbook(suchasanotherworkbookorperhapsanexternaldatabase).Ifyou
selecttheUseanExternalDataSourceradiobutton,youwillbeabletodisplayadroplistof
existingconnectionsintheConnectionNamefield.Atypicalexistingconnectioncouldbea
MicrosoftQueryoraconnectionyoupreviouslymadetoanAccessdatabaseforsomeother
purpose.

Onceyouselectyourdatasource,youcanthenchoosetolocateyourPivotTableinanExisting
WorksheetoraNewWorksheet.Ifyouchoosetolocateitinanexistingworksheet,youcan
specifythelocationfortheupperleftcornerofthePivotTablebyenteringitdirectlyintothe
Locationdatafield(asacellreference)orbyclickingthetargetcellwithyourmouse.

Ifyouchoosethenewworksheetoption,yourPivotTablewillbelocatedintheupperleft
cornerofanewworksheetthatwillbeaddedtoyourworkbook.

Insummary,whenusingthedialogbox,makesurethattherangeofdatathatyouwanttouse
isvisibleintheTable/Rangefield.Usetheradiobuttonsnearthebottomofthedialogto
choosewhereintheworkbookyouwantthePivotTabletobelocated.Onceyouareready,click
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theOKbuttontocreateyourPivotTable.Whenyoucreateyourtable,aPivotTablefieldListwill
beplacedinthesameworksheetasyourPivotTable.

HereyoucanseeanewPivotTablearea,andthecorrespondingPivotTablefieldList,placedin
theexistingworksheetwiththesourcedata.

OnceyourPivotTableappears,youcanaddinformationtoitbyplacingchecksintheboxesnext
totheheadingsinthePivotTablefieldlist.
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Forthisexample,checkswillbeplacednexttotheMonthfieldheading,theSalesmanfield
heading,theRegionfieldheading,andtheProfitfieldHeading.

ThePivotTablewillnowbepopulatedwithdata.

Asyoucanseeinthisimage,theprofithasbeenorganizedbyMonthwithatotalprofitforthe
monthatthetopoftheSumofProfitcolumnheading.IthasalsobeenorganizedbySalesman,
withatotalprofitforeachSalesmanbeingshownintheSumofProfitcolumn.BecauseRegion
hasbeencheckedinthePivotTablefieldlist,youcanalsoseeaprofitbreakdownbyregionfor
eachsalesman.
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ThefollowingcloseupviewofthetabletellsusthatthetotalprofitforMonth1is4090.The
SalesmanA.Smithgeneratedatotalof1020inprofitwith780fromtheEastregion,and240
fromtheNortheastregion.

ThesalesmanB.Doegeneratedatotalof600inprofitfromtheNorthregion.Ifyouclickonthe
minus()signprecedingasalesmansname,thedataforthatspecificsalesmanwillbe
collapsed,andyouwillonlyseethetotalprofitforthatpersonasshowninthefollowing
example.

Ifyouclickonthe(+)signinfrontofaname,thedatawillbeexpandedagain.Thisholdstrue
forthe()signinfrontoftheMonthheadingsaswell.

CreatingaPivotTableFrame

YoucanalsocreateaPivotTablebycreatinganemptytableframe(alsoknownasaclassic
layout)andaddingandarrangingdatainthetablebydroppinganddraggingcolumnheadings
ontotheframe.

TocreateaPivotTableframe,clickthePivotTablebuttonontheInserttabtodisplaythe
PivotTabledialogbox.Fromthispoint,youessentiallyfollowthesameprocessasdescribed
beforeforcreatinganExcel2007PivotTable.
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Youselectarangeofdata,choosealocationforthetable,andclicktheOKbuttonwhenyou
areready.

Thistime,beforeaddingdatatothePivotTabletable,rightclickonitandchooseTableOptions
fromthepopupmenu.

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ThiswilldisplaythePivotTableOptionsdialogbox.

Intheoptionsbox,choosetheDisplaytabandthenputacheckmarkintheClassicPivotTable
Layoutbox.
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ThiswillchangetheExcel2007PivotTableintoaclassicPivotTableframe.(Ifyouarealready
workingwithaclassicPivotTableframe,youcanclearthischeckboxtoconvertittoanExcel
2007stylePivotTable.)

HereyoucanseeanemptyPivotTableframeenhancedwithblueborders.Besideittotheright,
youcanseethePivotTableFieldList.Youcaneasilyaddanyofthedataavailableinthe
PivotTableFieldListtoyourPivotTablebydraggingittothetablewithyourmouse.

SpecifyingPivotTableData

TomakethebestuseofyourPivotTable,youshouldunderstandwhatthevariousareasina
PivotTablearefor.

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YoucanseebyexamininganemptyPivotTableframethataPivotTableisbrokenintofourmain
areas:Page,Data,Row,andColumn.

ThePageareaisideallysuitedtocolumnheadings(fields)thatareusedtoidentifyperiodicor
organizationalgroupingsofthedatainyourothercolumns.Forexample,youmayhavecolumn
headingsforsales,profit,andexpenses,whicharegroupedaccordingtothespecificmonthor
yearoverwhichthesales,profits,andexpenseshaveoccurred.Inthiscase,themonthorthe
yearcolumnheadingwouldbeplacedinthepageareaofthePivotTable.Thiswouldallowyou
topopulatethetablewiththedatacorrespondingtowhateverpagefield(yearormonth)you
select.Youcanselectagivenpage(yearormonth)andthetablewilldisplaythedataforthat
yearormonth.

TheDataareaprovidestheunderlyingcontextfortherestofthePivotTable.Thecolumn
headingyouchooseforthedataareaofthetablenormallyhasnumericvaluesassociatedwith
it(likeunitssold,profit,orexpenses).Thisisthekindofdatathatcanbemeasuredandtotaled
torevealtrendsorindicaterelationshipsbetweennonnumericdata.

TheRowandColumnfieldsareusedtocategorizethedatayouwanttoexamine.Whenyou
choosecolumnheadingstobeplacedintherowandcolumnfields,youcanseehowyour
choicesrelatetoeachotherinthecontextoftheDatabeingexamined.

Asanexample,supposeyouselectaheadinglikeProductTypefortherowarea,Salesmanfor
thecolumnarea,andProfitforthedataarea.
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TheresultingPivotTablewillshowtheprofitfordifferentproducttypesacrosssalespeople.

NowthatyouhaveanideaofhowthepartsofaPivotTablerelate,itiseasytospecifydatafor
thetable.YoujustuseyourmousetodraganddropitemsfromthePivotTablefieldlisttothe
appropriateareasofthetable.

Onceagain,youshouldspecifyacolumnheading(field)thatrepresentsnumericvaluesforthe
dataarea.Fortherowandcolumnareasofthetable,draganddropitemsthatyouwantto
analyzewithrespecttothechosenitemforthedataarea.

Youcandraganddropmorethanonecolumnheadingtoatablearea.Theresultingtablewill
displaythecombineddatafromalloftheheadingsyouplaceinasingletablearea,asshown
below.

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Here,boththeproducttypeheadingandthesalesmanheadinghavebeendraggedtotherow
areaofthetable.Youcannowseethesalesbysalesmanandproducttypedisplayedacross
regions.

YouwillnoticethatthePivotTablefieldlistattherightofyourPivotTablewillhavecheckmarks
correspondingtothecolumnheadingsusedinthetableitself.



Ifyouclearacheckbox,theassociateddatawillberemovedfromthePivotTable.Ifyouputa
checkinacheckboxthatwascleared,thedatawillreturntoitsplaceinthetable.

RearrangingPivotTableData

OnceaPivotTablehasbeencreated,itiseasytorearrangethedataifnecessary.Notethatyou
mustbeusingtheClassicLayout(asdescribedinthelastlesson)torearrangedata.

Herewehaveatableshowingprofitbyproducttypeacrossregions.

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Ifwewantedtoshowsalesfiguresinsteadofprofitfigures,youcanremovetheprofit
informationfromthedataareabydraggingtheSumofProfitheadingintheupperleftcorner
ofthetableoutofthetableareatodropitanywhereoutsidethebluetableborders.

Thiswillemptythedataarea.

Oncethedataareahasbeencleared,itisjustamatterofdragginganddroppingtheSalesfield
fromthePivotTableFieldListtotheDropDataItemsHereareaofthetable.


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Inthisimage,theSalesheadingisbeingdraggedfromthefieldlisttotheDataareaofthe
table.Oncethemoveiscomplete,thisiswhatthetablewilllooklike:

NoticethatSumofSalesisintheupperleftcornerandtheSalesheadinghasachecknexttoit
inthePivotTablefieldlist.

Youcanrearrangeanyofthecategoriesofdatainyourtablebyfollowingthisprocessof
draggingheadingsoutofthetableandthenreplacingthemwithheadingsfromthePivotTable
fieldlist.

Youwillalsonoticethattherow,column,andpageareasofthePivotTablefieldlisthavedrop
listsassociatedwiththem,indicatedbysmalldownwardpointingtriangles.

Youcanusethesedropliststorearrangeyourdataaccordingtospecificelementsinagiven
category.
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Theproductdroplist,forexample,willletyouseedataforonlyType1,orType2,orfora
specificcombinationoftypes,dependingonhowyouconfigurethecheckboxes.



ThisisthedroplistfortheProductheading.(AnyoftheheadingsinthePivotTablethathave
droplistscanbeconfiguredinthesameway.)



ThistableonlyshowsdatafortheproductsofType1andType2,asspecifiedbyintheProduct
droplist.(Bydefault,thedroplistsareconfiguredtoshowall.)

Inthefollowingimage,theMonthfieldhasbeendraggedtothePageareaofthetable.The
droplistfortheMonthfieldcanbeusedtoshowthedataforaspecificmonth,orallofthe
months.



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Asyounowknow,youcanspecifyandrearrangedatabydraggingheadingsfromthePivotTable
FieldListtothePivotTableitself.

IfyouclosethePivotTableFieldList,youcanalwaysgetitbackbyclickingtheFieldListbutton
ontheOptionsTab.

TheOptionstabandtheDesigntabwillbecomeavailablewheneveryouclickinsidethe
bordersofyourPivotTable.

ThepreviousdiscussionhasdealtprimarilywithPivotTableframes,alsoknownasclassic
PivotTablelayouts.NowyouwilllearnhowtoarrangedatainthedefaultExcel2007PivotTable
layout.

YouwillrememberfromtheearlierdiscussionthatwhenyoucreateastandardPivotTablein
Excel2007,itlookslikethis:

HereyoucanseetheemptyPivotTableontheleftandthePivotTablefieldListontheright.

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AtthebottomofthePivotTablefieldlist,youwillnoticeapaneloffourdataboxes.



TheseboxesarenamedReportFilter,ColumnLabels,RowLabels,andValues.They
correspondtothePagefields,theColumnfields,theRowfields,andtheDataItemareasofa
classicPivotTableframe.

DragginganitemfromthePivotTablefieldlisttotheValuesdataboxproducessimilarresults
asdraggingtheitemtotheDataitemsareaofaclassicPivotTableframe.Thisholdstrueforthe
otherdataboxesaswell.

Asanexample,ifwedragMonthfromthefieldlisttotheReportfilterbox,Regionfromthe
fieldlisttotheColumnLabelsbox,ProductfromthefieldlisttotheRowLabelsbox,andSales
fromthefieldlisttotheValuesbox,ourresultingPivotTablewilllooklikethefollowing.

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Thecorrespondingpanelofdataboxeswilllooklikethis.

Youcaneasilydragfieldheadingstoandfromthedataboxesinthepaneltorearrangethe
layoutofthePivotTable.

HereisaclassicPivotTableshowingprofitperproduct,acrossregions.Noticethattheclassic
tablehasthickblueborders.

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Lesson2.3:MoreAboutPivotTables

ThepreviouslessondescribedhowtocreateaPivotTableandarrangethedatainit.Thislesson
willcarryonfromLesson2.2andexploreotherwaystomanipulateandpresentPivotTables
andtheirdata.

InthislessonwewilldiscusshowtomodifyPivotTablecalculations,howtoformataPivotTable,
andhowtorefreshPivotTabledata.YouwillalsolearnhowtocreateachartfromaPivotTable
andhowtocreateaPivotTableusingexternaldata.Intheexercise,youwilladddatatoa
PivotTable,formatthePivotTableData,changePivotTablecalculations,andcreateachartfrom
thePivotTable.
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ModifyingPivotTableCalculations

ThedefaultsettingforPivotTablecalculationsisSUM.Thismeansthatthetotalsshowninthe
GrandTotalareasofthePivotTablewillbederivedfromsummingthevaluesintherowsand
columns.

Tomodifythewaythesetotalsarecalculated,rightclickontheSumofProfitfieldintheupper
leftcornerofthePivotTable.ThisfieldrepresentsthedataareaofthePivotTable(youcould
alsorightclickonanycellinthedataareaofthePivotTable).Whenyourightclickonacellin
thedataareaoronthecellintheupperleft(SumofProfit),youwillseeapopupmenuwith
severaloptions.

Nearthebottomofthemenu(thirdfromthebottominthisimage),youwillseeanoption
calledValueFieldSettings.
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Ifyouclickonthisoption,youwilldisplaythePivotTableDataFieldSettingsdialogbox.

Inthisdialogbox,youcanswitchthetypeofcalculationtoCount,Average,MaxorMin,
Product,Standarddeviation,orVariance.Forthisexample,Averagehasbeenselected.

IfyouclicktheNumberbutton,youcanchooseaformatlikecurrency,accounting,ortextfor
thevaluesinthedataareaofthetable.

UndertheShowValuesAsbutton,youcanmodifythedataareavaluesfurtherbyexpressing
themaspercentagesordifferences.

ClickingOKwillincorporatethechangesintothePivotTable.

HereyoucanseethatthedatafieldlabelintheupperleftofthePivotTablenowsaysAverage
ofProfit,andthevaluesinthegrandtotalrowandcolumnareaveragesratherthansums.You
canmodifyanyfieldthatyouplaceinthedataareaofthetableinthissameway.
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FormattingaPivotTable

ToformataPivotTable,firstclickonanycellinthetabletodisplaytheOptionstabnearthetop
ofyourExcelscreen.

AttheleftoftheOptionsTab,inthePivotTablebuttongroup,youwillfindanOptionsbutton.
ClickingthisbuttonwilldisplaythePivotTableOptionsdialogbox.

UndertheLayoutandFormattab,makesurethePreservecellformattingonupdateboxis
checked(itshouldbebydefault).Thiswillensurethatanyformattingyouapplywillberetained
ifthetableismodifiedorrefreshed.

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UndertheTotalsandFilterstab,youcanspecifyifgrandtotalsforrowsorcolumnswillbe
shown.

UndertheDisplaytab,youcanconfigurehowfilterdropdowns,fieldcaptions,expand/collapse
buttons,andcontextualtooltipsareshown.

UnderthePrintingtabyoucanalterthelayoutofaPivotTableprintout.Finally,undertheData
tabyoucanspecifyPivotTabledataoptions,likehavingthetablerefreshedwhentheworkbook
opens.

ClickOKwhenyouarefinishedwiththePivotTableoptionsdialog.

InExcel2007,theeasiestwaytoformatyourPivotTableistousethenewPivotTableStylesthat
areprovidedontheDesigntab.WhenyouclickonacellinyourPivotTable,anOptionstaband
aDesigntabwillappearnearthetopoftheExcelscreen.

OntheDesigntab,youcanclickononeofthepresetstylesinthePivotTableStylesgroupto
quicklyapplypresetformattingtothetable.TherearealsocheckboxesinthePivotTableStyle
Optionssectionofthetabthatwillletyouspecifybandedcolumnsorrows,rowheaders,or
columnheaders.Attheleftofthetabarecontrolsthatyoucanusetovieworhidesubtotals
andgrandtotalsandtospecifyaPivotTablereportlayouttype.

HereisastylewithbandedrowsappliedtoanexistingPivotTable.

Ifyouwouldliketoapplyspecificformattingtoatablethatisnotavailableasastyle,youcan
alwaysselectarangeofcellsfromthetableandusethebuttonsontheHometabtoformatthe
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selectedrange.Anothermethodistoselectarangeofcellsfromthetable,rightclickinthe
selectedrange,andchooseFormatCellsfromthedropdownmenu.Youcanthenchoosefrom
aseriesoftabsintheformatcellsdialogboxthatwillletyouselectnumberformats,font
styles,borders,andprotectionoptions.

YoucanalsorightclickacellinthedataareaofthetableandselecttheValueFieldSettings
optionfromthepopupmenu.

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WhenyouseetheDataFieldSettingsdialogbox,clicktheNumberFormatbuttontoviewthe
numberformattingoptions.

Here,youcanselectanumberformatfromthelistandclickOKtoreturntotheDatafield
settingsdialogbox.ClickOKagaintoformattheentiredataareaofthePivotTablewiththe
chosennumberformat.

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ThepreviousimageshowsaPivotTablewiththeAccountingnumberformatappliedtothedata
area.NoticealsothatthewordsNorthandNortheastinthecolumnareaofthetablehavebeen
formattedinboldbyusingtheHometabbuttons.

RefreshingaPivotTable

ThedatainaPivotTableisnotlinkeddirectlytothesourcetableorrange.Instead,the
PivotTableisbasedonahiddencopyofthesourcedatathatiskeptinmemorybyExcel.This
meansthatchangestotheoriginalsourcelistordatabasewillnotbeautomaticallyupdatedin
thePivotTable.Ifyoumakechangesinthesourcedata,youmustrefreshthePivotTableto
updateit.

YoucanrefreshaPivotTablebyclickingtheRefreshbuttonontheDatataborontheOptions
Tab.YoucouldalsorightclickonacellinthedataareaofthetableandthenclicktheRefresh
Dataoptionfromthepopupmenu.

HereisarangeofdataandaPivotTablethatusesthedatarangeasitssource.

IfwechangethesalesforASmithintheEast,(inthesourcedatarange),therewillbeno
changeinthePivotTable.(ThedataincellE8hasbeenchangedto20000andthecorresponding
profitincellF8isnow40000.)

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HereisthesamedataandPivotTableafterthePivotTablehasbeenrefreshed.Noticethatcell
I4nowhasavalueof40500.

ChartingaPivotTable

InExcel2007,youcancreateaPivotChartfromscratch,oryoucancreateaPivotChartbased
onanexistingPivotTable.TocreateachartbasedonanexistingPivotTable,simplyclickacellin
thetableandthenclickonacharttypefromtheChartsareaontheInserttab.



Intheimageabove,abasiccolumncharthasbeenselectedandcreatedfromanexisting
PivotTable.Thisparticularchartshowsprofitsgeneratedbyeachsalesmanbrokendownover
regions.AnychangesorrearrangingoffieldvaluesinthePivotTablewillbeautomatically
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reflectedinthePivotChart.IftherearechangesmadetothesourcedataforthePivotTable,any
oftherefreshoptionspreviouslymentionedwillupdateboththePivotTableandthe
PivotChart.ThismakesthePivotCharteverybitasmalleableasthePivotTableuponwhichitis
based.

Ifabasiccolumnchartisnotwhatyouareafter,youcanselectanyothercharttypefromthe
InserttabexceptXYScatter,Bubble,orStockcharts.Onceyoucreateyourchart,youcanclick
onyourchartareaandthendisplaytheDesigntabwhichwillallowyoutoapplyapreset
formattoyourchartviathechartstylesbuttons.

KeepinmindthatallcharttypesmaynotbeequallysuitedfordisplayingyourPivotTabledata.
Pickthecharttypethatmostclearlyillustratesthepointyouwanttoputforward.

HereisthesamePivotTabledataasbefore,butnowitisdisplayedasathreedimensionalbar
chart.Again,changestothesourcedatawillbereflectedinthePivotTable/Chartafterithas
beenrefreshed.

YoucanalsocreateaPivotTable/PivotChartcombinationfromscratchbychoosingthe
PivotChartoptionfromthePivotTablebuttonspopupmenu.
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Remember,thePivotTablebuttonislocatedontheInserttab.

WhenyouclickthePivotChartoptioninthePivotTablebuttonmenu,youwillseethefollowing
PivotTablewithPivotChartdialogbox.

Inthisdialog,clickintheTable/Rangefieldtoplaceacursorinsideandthenselecttherangeof
cellsthatyouwanttousefromthespreadsheet.Youcanalsoselecttherangebeforeinvoking
thedialogifyouwish.Oncetherangeortablehasbeenselected,youcanchoosetoplacethe
newtable/chartonanewworksheet,orontheexistingworksheet,byselectingtheappropriate
radiobutton.Intheimageabove,theNewWorksheetoptionhasbeenselected.
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Assoonasyouareready,clicktheOKbuttontocreatethenewPivotTable/PivotChart
combination.

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Ifyouwish,youcanrightclickonthePivotTablearea,selectthePivotTableOptionsitemfrom
thepopupmenu,andthenchoosetheDisplaytabandchecktheClassicPivotTableLayout
optiontocreateaclassicframe.

HereyoucanseeaclassicPivotTableframe,emptyPivotChart,andPivotTablefieldlist.

YourPivotChartwillfirstappearempty,verymuchlikeyourbasicemptyPivotTable.Whenyou
dragfieldheadingsfromthePivotTablefieldlistovertoyourTableframe,thedatafromthe
fieldswillalsobegintopopulatethechart.Inasense,thelayoutthatyoucreatefortheactual
PivotTablewillbemirroredautomaticallyinthePivotChart.

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IfyouprefertobuildyourPivotTablewithoutswitchingtotheclassiclayout,thechartwillbe
createdautomaticallyasyoudragyourfieldheadingstothepanelofdataboxesatthebottom
ofthePivotTablefieldlist.

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HereisthechartandPivotTableafterdraggingfieldheadingsfromthePivotTablefieldlistto
theappropriatetablelocations.YoucaneasilyformatthePivotChartbyclickingonthechart
area,andthenusingtheStylesontheDesigntabtochooseapresetdesign.

(NotethenewtabsavailableforformattingandeditingPivotCharts.)
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CreatingaPivotTableBasedonExternalData

WhenyoufirstinvoketheCreatePivotTabledialogbox,youcanselecttheUseanExternalData
Sourceradiobutton.

Whenyoudothis,youwillbeabletoselectfromalistofexistingconnections(ifthereareany)
touseasadatasource.(Iftherearenoexistingconnections,youwillseetheChoose
Connectionbuttonasshowninthefigureabove.)

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WhenyouselectanitemfromthelistandclickOK,youwillseethePivotTableareaand
PivotTablefieldlistarrangementasbefore,thedifferencebeingthatnowthefieldheadingsin
thePivotTablefieldlistwillbefromtheexternaldatasourcethatyouselected.

Youcannowdraganddropthefieldheadingsintothepanelofdataboxestobuildyourtable.

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Dependingontheexternaldatasourceyouchoose,itispossiblethatyoumayhavetoentera
username/passwordcombinationtogetaccesstothedata(asshownbelow).

Onceyouhaveenteredtheappropriateinformationinthefieldsprovided,clicktheOKbutton
tobegincreatingyourPivotTable.

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YoucanalsoclickontheExistingConnectionsbuttonintheDatatabandthenselectadata
sourcefromthedialogboxthatappears.

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Onceyouselectoneofthedatasourceconnections,clicktheOpenbuttoninthelowerrightto
revealtheImportDatapanel.

Onceyouseethispanelofcontrols,youcanspecifyaTable,aPivotTableReport,ora
PivotChartandPivotTablereport,foryourimporteddata.Youcanalsospecifyaneworexisting
worksheetforyourPivotTablelocation.Onceyouarefinishedmakingyourselections,clickthe
OKbuttontocreateyourPivotTableframeandPivotTablefieldlist.

Ifyoudonothaveanyexistingconnections,youcancreateanewoneaslongasyouhave
accesstoanexternaldatasource.Tocreateanewconnection,usetheFromOtherSources
buttonontheDatatab.


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YoucancreateaconnectiontoanSQLserver,anAnalysisServicescube,orwithMicrosoft
Queryifyouwish.(SeeExcelIntermediatemanual,lesson5.5).Onceyouhavecreateda
connectiontoanexternaldatasource,youcanproceedtocreateyourPivotTablebyfollowing
thesameprocedureusedforanexistingconnection.

Youmayalsoremember(fromExcelIntermediatelesson5.4),thatyoucanimportdatadirectly
fromanAccessdatabasebyusingtheFromAccessbuttonontheDatatab.

Whenyouclickthisbutton,aSelectDataSourcedialogboxwillappear,allowingyouto
navigatetoagivenAccessdatabase.

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Whenyouselectadatabaseandclicktheopenbuttoninthelowerrightofthedialog,youwill
bepresentedwiththefamiliarImportDatapanel.

Onceagain,youcanusetheoptionsintheImportDatapaneltospecifythetypeandlocationof
thetableyouwanttobuildfromtheimporteddata.

HereisanAccessdatabasetablecontainingthesourcedata.

HereisaclassicPivotTableframeandfieldlistcreatedbyimportingthedatafromAccess.

OnceyoubuildaPivotTableusingexternaldata,youcanrefreshthetablebyclickingthe
RefreshbuttonontheDatatab.
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ThiswillupdatethePivotTablewithanychangesmadetopertinentdatainthesource
database.

YoucanalsorefreshthePivotTablebyrightclickingacellinthetableandselectingtheRefresh
optionfromthepopupmenu.

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Lesson2.4:ExploringScenarios

Inbusiness,itisoftenbeneficialtoexploremultiplescenariosforagivensituationtoseewhat
combinationoffactorsgivesthebestresults.WithExcel2007youcaneasilyexploremultiple
scenariosbasedonthesameworksheetlayout.

Inthislessonyouwilllearnwhatascenarioisandhowtocreateone.Youwilllearnabout
scenariosummaryreportsandyouwilllearnhowtosavemultiplescenariosforagiven
situation.

WhatisaScenario?

InExcel,ascenariocanbedescribedasasetofcellvaluesthatissavedandsubstitutedinto
yourworksheetasrequired.Ifyouhavemultiplescenariossaved,youcanloaddifferent
scenariosintoyourworksheetandcompareandcontrastthemtoseewhichonegivesthebest
results.Sincetheworksheetwillbefullycalculatedaccordingtothegivensetofscenariodata
beingused,youcancompareandcontrasttheresultsofonesetofdata(scenario)withanother
bysimplyswitchingbetweendifferentscenarios.Theendresultisthatscenariosprovidea
greatwayofperformingWhatif?analysis.

Youmightusescenariostorepresentdifferentbudgetoptions,evaluatedifferentfinancial
forecasts,ortocomparedifferentdataprojectionsbasedonanumberoffactors.Thedatathat
makesupyourscenarioissavedwithyourworkbook,butremainshiddenuntilyouusethe
ScenarioManagertoloadthescenariodata.Allofthescenariosyoucreatearejustversionsof
thesameworksheetlayout,witheachdifferentscenariohavingdifferentvaluesforcertain
cells.



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CreatingaScenario

TocreateascenarioinExcel,beginwiththeworksheetthatyouwanttoaddscenariostoand
clicktheScenarioManageroptionfromtheWhatIfAnalysismenuontheDatatab.

Whenyouclickonthisoption,theScenarioManagerdialogwillappear.



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Tocreateascenario,clicktheAddbuttontodisplaytheAddScenariodialogbox.

TheAddScenariodialogisusedtospecifyanameforthegivenscenarioandtoenterthecells
thatwillhavevaluechangesaccordingtothisscenario.

Toenteraname,makesurethatyourcursorisintheScenarioNametextboxandtypeaname
thatdescribesthescenarioyouarecreating.

Next,decidewhichcellsyouwanttochangewiththisscenario,andthenputyourcursorinthe
ChangingCellstextbox.Selectthecellsthatwillbechangingwithyourmouse,andremember
tousetheCtrlbuttonfornonadjacentselections.

IftheAddScenariodialogboxgetsinthewaywhenyouareselectingcells,youcandragitto
onesidewithyourmouse,orcollapseitbyclickingtheCollapseDialogbutton.

YoucanalsoaddsomeremarksdescribingthescenariointheCommentareaofthedialogbox
ifyouwish.

YouwillseetwocheckboxesatthebottomoftheaddscenariodialogthatarelabeledPrevent
ChangesandHide.IfyoucheckthePreventChangesbox,changestothisscenariowillnotbe
permittedifthecorrespondingworksheetisprotected.IfyouchecktheHidebox,thescenario
willbehiddenifthecorrespondingworksheetisprotected.

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Onceyouenteraname,selectthecellstobechanged,andaddsomecomments;clicktheOK
buttontoshowtheScenarioValuesbox.

Hereyouwillseeaseriesoftextfieldslabeledwiththecellreferencesforthecorresponding
changingcells.Ineachtextfield,youshouldentertheappropriatevalueforthisscenario.

Whenyouusethisscenario,thevaluesyouenterherewillbeloadedintothecorresponding
worksheet.Remember,youcanmovebetweentextboxesbypressingtheTabkey.

ClicktheOKbuttontocreatethescenario,andyouwillthenseetheScenarioManagerboxwith
yournewlycreatedscenarioavailableintheScenariosarea.

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Inthisdialogbox,youcanseethechangingcellsintheChangingCellsareaandanycomments
youenteredforthisscenarioarevisibleintheCommentarea.Ifthereisanassortmentof
scenariosintheScenarioManager,justselectoneandthenclicktheShowbuttontoseethe
resultsofthegivenscenariointhespreadsheet.

CreatingaScenarioSummaryReport

TocreateasummaryreportforagivenScenario,clicktheScenarioManageroptionunderthe
WhatIfAnalysisbuttononthedatamenu.

WhentheScenarioManagerdialogappears,clicktheSummarybutton.



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ThiswilldisplaytheScenarioSummarybox.HereyoucanchoosetocreateaPivotTable(based
onthescenariodata)orascenariosummarybyselectingtheappropriateradiobutton.

Inthisexample,theScenarioSummarybuttonisselected.Thenextstepistoselecttheresult
cellsthatyouwanttobeshowninthesummaryreport.Finally,clickOKtocreatethesummary.

Thesummaryreportwillbecreatedandinsertedintoanewworksheet.Thereportcontainsa
listofcellreferencescorrespondingtothechangingcellsinyourvariousscenarios.Italso
containsacolumnofcurrentvaluesforthechangingcells,aswellascolumnsofchangedvalues
correspondingtoeachoftheavailablescenarios(Currentvalues,Projection1,Projection2).

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Thereisalsoarowofscenarionamesacrossthetopofthecolumnstoidentifywhichscenarioa
givencolumnofvaluesbelongsto.(Thescenariosinthereportshownaboveare:Current
values,Projection1,andProjection2.)Atthebottomofthereport,youcanseethevaluesfor
theresultscellsthatcorrespondtoeachscenario.

SavingMultipleScenarios

Tosavemultiplescenariosforaworksheet,choosetheScenarioManageroptionfromthe
WhatIfAnalysismenutodisplaytheScenarioManagerdialog.UsetheAddbuttoninthe
ScenarioManagertocreateasmanyscenariosasyourequire.Allofthescenariosyoucreate
foragivenworksheetwillbeavailableinthescenarioslistintheScenarioManagerdialog.

Inthisexample,youcanseefourscenariosinthescenariolist.Thesescenarioswillbesaved
withthisworkbookwhentheworkbookitselfissaved.Whenyouopentheworkbook,youcan
seetheavailablescenariosbydisplayingtheScenarioManager.

Toloadascenariointotheworksheet,selectitfromtheScenarioslistandclicktheShow
button.Toremoveascenario,selectitandclickDelete.Tomakechangestoascenario,selectit
andclicktheEditbutton.

Youcanhaveadifferentsetofscenariosforeachworksheetinyourworkbook.Whenyou
displaytheScenarioManager,onlyscenariosforthecurrentlyactiveworksheetwillbeshown
intheScenarioslist.
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Lesson2.5:WhatIfAnalysis

OneoftheadvantagesofaspreadsheetprogramlikeExcel2007isitsabilitytoexplorewhatif
situations.Scenarios(discussedinLesson2.4)provideonewaytoexplorethepotential
outcomesfromdifferentsetsofpossibledata,butthatisnotallthatExcelhastoofferinthis
regard.

Excelalsoprovidesafewotheroptionsforexperimentingwithyourworksheetdataunder
differentconditionsorconstraints.Excelsoneandtwoinputdatatablefeaturescanshowyou
theresultsofworksheetformulasbasedondifferentrangesofhypotheticalvalues.ExcelsGoal
SeekandSolverfeaturescantakewhatifanalysisonestepfurtherbylettingyoufindoptimal
valuesbasedonconstraintsorconditionsyouimpose.

Inthislessonyouwilllearnaboutoneinputandtwoinputdatatables,ExcelsGoalSeek
feature,andExcelssolver.Inthestepbystepexercise,youwillpracticeusingGoalSeek.

UsingaOneandTwoInputDataTable

YoucanuseExceldatatablestoseehowyourformularesultschangewhenthedatathatthe
formulaisbasedonchanges.YoudothisbyspecifyingaseriesofhypotheticalvaluesforExcel
toevaluatetheformulaswithandthenviewtheresultsoftheevaluations.Forexample,you
couldexaminehowchangesinthenumberofclientsforabusinesswillaffecttheincomeor
profit.

Datatablessaveyouthetroubleofenteringseveralvaluesintotheworksheetandrecording
eachrecalculationoftheworksheetresultsforlatercomparison.Whenyouuseadatatable,
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Excelwillsubstitutearangeofvaluesintotheworksheetformulasforyouandtabulatethe
resultssotheycanbeviewedeasily.

InExcel,youcancreateasingleinputdatatableoratwoinputdatatable.Asingleinputtable
willsubstitutearangeofvaluesasasinglevariableinasmanyformulasasyoulike.Withatwo
inputdatatable,youcanspecifyrangesfortwoinputvariables,buttheseinputvariablescan
onlybeappliedtooneformula.

Thefollowingexampleinvolvesahypotheticalconsultingfirm.Ourfirstgoalistoexaminethe
effectofthenumberofclientsforthefirm,onthetotalprofit,totalexpenses,andtotalincome.

Currently,thefirmhas10clients.Thevaluesforwages,totalclientcosts,totalexpenses,and
profitareallcalculatedbyformulasdependentonthenumberofclientsthefirmcanretain.To
seewhatresultstheprofitformulaandotherformulaswouldproduceforarangeof
hypotheticalclientnumbers,wecanuseasingleinputdatatable.

Therearesomerulesyoushouldfollowwhenbuildingyourdatatabletohelpensurethatit
workscorrectly.First,listthevaluesthatyouwanttoinputintotheformulasinarowor
columnofadjacentcells.Forthisexample,acolumnofinputvaluesisused.Intherowjust
aboveyourinputcolumn,entercellreferencestotheformulasthatyouwanttoevaluate.
Makesureyouenterthereferencesstartingonecelltotherightofthecolumnofinputvalues.

Intheexamplespreadsheetthatfollows,theinputvariablesareinthecellrangeE5:E30.CellF4
containsthereference=C5,cellG4containsthereference=C13,andcellH4containsthe
reference=C15,forthetotalincome,totalexpenses,andtotalprofitformulasrespectively.

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Itisagoodideatolabelyourcolumnsappropriately,soyoucanclearlyunderstandthedata
tableresults.Inthisexample,thesamelabelsthatappearinthesourcedataareusedforthe
singleinputdatatable.

Noticethattheformulareferences(F4:H4)areinarowjustaboveandonecelltotherightof
thefirstinputvariable(E5).Thedatatableisnowready.Theinputvariablesarelistedinthe
Clientscolumnandtheformulareferencesareonerowaboveandonecelltotheright.Allof
theelementsinthedatatableareclearlyidentified.

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Thenextstepistoselecttherangeofcellsfromthedatatablecontainingtheinputvariables
andtheformulareferences.Inthisexample,therangeisE4:H30.

Next,choosethedatatableoptionfromtheWhatIfAnalysismenutodisplaytheDataTable
dialogbox.

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Therangeofinputvariablesandformulareferenceshasbeenselected,andtheDataTable
dialogboxisreadyforinput.

Becausetheinputvariablesarearrangedinacolumn,wewillusetheColumninputcelltext
fieldinthetabledialogboxratherthantheRowinputcellfield.IntheColumninputcelltext
field,enterC3,whichisthecellfromoriginaldataareathatcontainsthenumberofclients.
(Rememberthatthenumberofclientsisalsoourchoseninputvariable.)

ClickingtheOKbuttonintheDataTabledialogboxwillcompletethedatatable.
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Youcannowseeataglancehowthe26differentvaluesintheClientscolumninfluencethe
income,totalexpenses,andtotalprofitresults.

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IfyouchangethevaluesintheClientcolumn,thedatatablewillrecalculateinaccordancewith
thenewvaluesautomatically.Youcanapplyformattingstyles,borders,shading,andother
enhancementstothedatatableinthesamewayasyouwouldanyotherareaofyour
worksheet.

Ifyouwanttoexaminetheeffectsoftwoinputvariablesonasingleformula,youcanuseatwo
inputdatatable.

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Tobuildatwoinputdatatable,firstchooseanemptycellandenterareferencetotheformula
youwanttoexamine.Usingthesameconsultingfirmexampleasbefore,wewillchoosecellE2
andenterthereference=C15fortheProfitformula.

Thenextstepistocreatetwovariableranges.Onerangewillbeacolumnstartinginthecell
immediatelybeneaththeformulacellandtheotherrangewillbearowstartingonthe
immediaterightoftheformulacell.Thismeansthattheformulacell(E2)willbeattheupper
leftcornerofthetwoinputdatatable.Forthecolumnofinputvariables,wewillagainusethe
numberofclients.Fortherowofinputvariables,wewillusetheFeePerClient.(Theformula
fortheProfitvaluesisindirectlydependantonbothofthesevariables.)

AfterenteringsomehypotheticalvaluesforthenumberofclientsincellsE3:E15andsome
differentclientfeevaluesincellsF2:J2,wewillendupwithaworksheetsomethinglikethis:


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(Shading,labels,andcurrencyformattinghavebeenaddedtothedatatableforclarity.)

Thenextstepistoinvokethedatatabledialog.Thistime,theformulareferencedinE2willbe
evaluatedonceforeverycombinationofClientsandClientfees,thatexistsinthetable.

FirstwewillselecttherangeofdatacellsE2:J14andthenwewillchoosethedatatableoption
fromtheWhatIfAnalysismenu.

Thistime,wehavetwoinputvariables:onecorrespondingtotherowofClientfeesandone
correspondingtothecolumncontainingtheClientsdata.

IntheRowInputCelltextareatypeC4,becausetherowofclientfeescorrespondstocellC4in
theoriginaldata.Similarly,intheColumnInputCell,typeC3.TheDataTabledialogboxshould
looklikethis.

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ItisnowjustamatterofclickingtheOKbuttontocompletethetable.

Nowthedatatablecontainsspeculativeprofitvaluesbasedonthenumberofclientsandthe
feeperclient.

UsingGoalSeek

GoalSeekisanotherusefulwhatifanalysistoolprovidedbyExcel.WithGoalSeek,Excelwill
findavalueforaspecifiedcellthatmakesagivenworksheetformulaequaltoavaluethatyou
define.Inotherwords,youcansetaformulatoavalue(goal)thatyouwouldliketoattain,and
thenspecifyoneofthecellsthattheformulareferencesasacellthatExcelcanadjustinorder
toreachthegoal.

Takethefollowingworksheetasanexample.

Theworksheetclearlyshowsanegativeprofit(loss)forthecurrentworksheetvalues.Wecan
useGoalSeektofindabreakevenpointbasedonchangestoacellthatisreferenced(directly
orindirectly)bytheprofitformulaincellB8.TheprofitformulaisTotalIncomeTotal
Expenses,orB4B7.CellB2containsthenumberofunitssold.Thiswillbethecellthatwewill
adjusttobreakeven.
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First,selectcellB8(thecellwiththeprofitformula),andtheninvokeGoalSeekbychoosingthe
GoalSeekoptionfromtheWhatIfAnalysismenuontheDatatab.



CellB8isenteredintotheSetCelltextfield,becausethatisthecellthatyouselectedjust
beforeinvokingGoalSeek.IntheToValuetextfieldtype0andintheByChangingCellfield
enterB2(bytypingitindirectlyorbyclickingwithyourmouse).TheresultingGoalSeekbox
shouldlooklikethefollowing.

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IfyouclicktheOKbutton,GoalSeekwillfindavalueforCellB2(Unitssold)thatwillmakethe
profitequalto0(breakeven).

TheGoalSeekStatusboxreportsthatasolutionhasbeenfound.Youcanseethevalue300in
cellB2.Thismeansthatifallothervariablesremainunchanged,youmustsell300unitsto
breakeven.ClickingtheCancelbuttonwillrestoretheoriginalworksheetvalues,andclicking
OKwillentertheGoalSeeksolutionvaluesintotheworksheet.

YoucanjustaseasilyuseGoalSeektofindthepriceperunitorthecostperunitthatwould
maketheworksheetbreakeven.

UsingSolver

Sometimes,whendealingwithmorecomplexproblems,ExceldatatablesortheGoalSeek
featurecannotprovidethekindofforecastoranalysisyouarelookingfor.Inthistypeof
situation,Excel2007sSolverfeaturemightbeabletohelp.

ThesolverisanExcelfeaturethatisdesignedforoptimizingsystemsofequationssubjectto
specificconstraints.Thesolvercanbeusedtofindoptimalsolutionsforlinearprogramming
problemsinvolvingmultipleequationsandmultipleunknowns.Anoptimalsolutionmightbe
onethatmaximizesprofit,oritcouldbeonethatminimizescosts.Basically,theoptimal
solutionwilldependonthecontextofthesituationandwhatyouarelookingfor.

Ifyouaretryingtosolveacomplexproblem,thesolverwillrequirecertaininformationforitto
workcorrectly.Youwillhavetodesignateaformulathatreferencestheunknownsyouwantto
solvefor,andyouwillhavetodefineconstraintsthatmodelthegivensituation.Thebestway
togetanideaofhowsolverworksistoseeitusedinanexample.

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First,sincesolverisanExceladdin,itmaynotyetbeinstalled.Youcancheckthisbyclicking
theDatatab.YoumayseetheSolverbuttontothefarrightofthetab.

Ifthereisnosolveroption,theSolverhasnotyetbeeninstalled.Toinstallthesolver,display
theOfficemenuandclicktheExcelOptionsbuttonatthebottom.

WhenyouseetheExcelOptionswindow,chooseAddInsfromthepanelontheleft,andthen
usethedroplistatthebottomtospecifyExcelAddins.

Whenyouareready,clickGotodisplaytheExcelAddins.

WhenyouseetheExcelAddInsbox,putachecknexttotheSolverAddinoptioninthe
availableaddinslistandclickOK.WhenExcelfinishesinstallingtheSolver,youshouldbeable
toaccesstheSolveroptionontheDatatab.

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InordertousetheExcelsolver,youmustsetuptheworksheetcorrectly.Thisrequiresasolid
understandingoftheproblemyouaretryingtosolve.

Thefollowingexampleinvolvesabusinessthatassemblesandsellscomputers.Thebusiness
sellstwodesktopmodels:theBudgetPCandthePowerPC.TheBudgetmodelislesspowerful
thantheothermodel,butthepriceisveryreasonable.ThePowerPChasmorecomputing
powerandstoragethanthebudgetmodel,butitisalsomoreexpensive.

Fromtheworksheet,youcanseethatittakes3hoursofhardwarelabortoassemblethe
BudgetPCand4hoursofhardwarelabortoassemblethePowerPC.Oncethehardwareis
assembled,ittakes1hourofsoftwarelabortoinstallandconfiguretheoperatingsystemand
otherprogramsontheBudgetPC,and2hoursofsoftwarelabortoinstallallthenecessary
programsonthePowerPC.

Ourgoalistofindouthowmanyofeachtypeofcomputerweshouldmaketomaximizeour
weeklytotalrevenue,andwhatthemaximumtotalrevenuewouldbe.Tocomplicatematters,
thebusinessemploysoneparttimesoftwareinstalleravailablefor30hoursofsoftwarelabor
perweek,andtwofulltimehardwaretechniciansthatprovide80hoursofhardwarelabora
week.Also,thecompanythatsuppliesthebusinesswithprocessorscansupplyonly10Power
PCprocessorsaweek.

Thismeansthatthetotalsoftwarelaborusedmustbelessthanorequalto30hoursforthe
weekandthetotalhardwarelabormustbelessthanorequalto80hours.Furthermore,the
numberofPowerPCmodelswecanmakeinaweekmustbelessthanorequalto10.

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Thefollowingworksheetisthesameasthepreviousone,exceptthatthecellformulasarenow
visible.Takeyourtimeandexaminethecellreferencesintheformulascarefully.

CellsB4andC4holdthenumberofhardwareandsoftwarelaborhoursrequiredtobuilda
BudgetPC.Similarly,cellsB5andC5containthenumberofhardwareandsoftwarehours
requiredtoassembleaPowerPC.TherevenuesfromtheBudgetcomputerscanbecalculated
bymultiplyingthenumberassembledbythesaleprice.(ThisiswhattheformulainF4does.)
TherevenuesfromthepowercomputersarecalculatedbyasimilarformulaincellF5.

Noticethatinbothcases,therevenueformulasdependonthenumberofcomputers
assembled(cellsD4andD5).Becauseofthis,thetotalrevenueformula(F6)isindirectly
dependentonD4andD5.

Theformulawewanttooptimize(alsoknownastheobjectiveformula)representsthetotal
revenue(F6).Thecellswewillchangetomaximizethetotalrevenueformularepresentthe
quantitiesofeachtypeofcomputerassembled(D4forBudgetPC,andD5forPowerPC).

Theconstraintsforthisproblemareshowninthegreenhighlightedarea.Itisnotabsolutely
necessarytolabeltheconstraintsastheyareshownhere,butclearlyidentifyingthemonthe
worksheethelpswhenenteringtheconstraintsinthesolver.Basicallytheconstraintsspecify
thatthehardwarehoursaretobelessthanorequalto80,thesoftwarehoursaretobeless
thanorequalto30,thenumberofPowerPCsthatcanbeassembledislessthanorequalto
10,andthenumberofeachtypeofcomputerassembledhastobegreaterthanorequalto0.
Thislastconstraintmayseemobviousandsilly,butitisimportanttoincludeitsothesolver
knowsthatusingnegativevaluesinthechangingcellsisnotanoptionwhenoptimizingthe
objectiveformula.

TheformulasthatcalculatethetotalsoftwarehoursandhardwarehoursusedareincellsG4
andH4respectively.Youshouldnoticethattheseformulasarealsodependentonthenumber
ofeachcomputertypeassembled.

Tosummarize,inordertouseExcelssolveryoumusthaveaformulatooptimize(calledthe
objectiveformula)andyoumusthavecellsthatcanbechangedtooptimizetheobjective.The
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cellstobechangedshouldbeprecedentstotheobjectiveformula;thatis,thecalculationofthe
objectiveformulashoulddependonresultsintheprecedentcells.Ifconstraintsareinvolved,
theformulastobesubjectedtotheconstraintsshouldalsobedependentonthechangingcells.

Intheprecedingworksheet,CellsG4andH4containformulasthataresubjecttothe
constraints.CellF6containstheobjectiveformula,andcellsD4andD5arethechangingcells.
YoushouldnoticethattheformulasincellsG4,H4,andF6,arealldependentonthechanging
cells(eitherdirectlyorindirectly).

Note:Itisassumedthroughoutthatthereisenoughdemandtoensurethateverycomputer
madewillbesold.

Tousethesolver,clicktheSolverbuttonontheDatatabtodisplaytheSolverParameters
dialogbox.

PlaceyourcursorintheSetTargetCelltextboxandclickontheworksheetcellthatcontains
yourobjectiveformula(cellF6fromtheprecedingworksheet).

Sincewewanttofindthemaximumtotalrevenue,selecttheMaxradiobuttonnexttothe
Equaltolabel.Toenterthechangingcells,placeyourcursorinthetextareaundertheBy
Changingcellsheading,andselecttheappropriatecellsfromtheworksheetwithyourmouse.If
theyarenonadjacentcells,presstheCtrlbuttonwhenselectingthem.Fortheproblemshown
here,thechangingcellsareD4andD5.

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ThenextstepistoaddtheconstraintsbyclickingtheAddbuttontotherightofthelargewhite
constraintsarea.ThiswilldisplaytheAddConstraintbox.

PlacethecursorintheCellReferencetextfield,andthenselectacellwithaformulayouwant
toconstrain.Inthisparticularexample,cellG4isselected,whichcontainstheformulafor
calculatingthetotalsoftwarehoursused.FollowthesameprocessfortheConstrainttextfield.
Inthisexample,cellH11;containingthevalue80isentered.Next,usethedropdownlistinthe
centertospecifythetypeofrelationshiprequiredbetweenthetwocells.Inthiscase,the
constraintreadsG4<=H11(thatis,totalsoftwarehours<=80).

ClickOKtoentertheconstraintintotheSolverParametersdialogbox,whichnowlookslike
this.

ClicktheAddbuttonagainandfollowthesameprocesstoenterthecellreferencesfortherest
oftheconstraints:
Totalhardwarehours<=30(H4<=H10)
NumberofPowerPCs<=10(D5<=H12)
NumberofPowerPCs>=0(D5>=H13)
NumberofBudgetPCs>=0(D4>=H13)

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HereistheresultingSolverParametersdialog.

Hereisthecorrespondingworksheetwithformulasshown.

Examinetheworksheetsothatyouunderstandtherelationshipsbetweenthetargetcell,the
changingcells,andtheconstraintsspecifiedintheSolverParametersbox.

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Toimplementthesolver,clicktheSolvebuttonintheSolverParametersdialog.Ifyoudesigned
theworksheetcorrectly,andenteredthecorrectcellreferencesandconstraints,youshould
seethefollowingSolverResultsbox.



Thevaluesthatmaximizethetotalprofitwillnowbevisibleinthechangingcells(D4andD5).
Thevalueofthemaximumprofitwillbevisibleinthetargetcell(F6).Thekeepsolversolution
radiobuttonwillbeselectedbydefault.IfyouclickOKthenewvalueswillremaininthe
worksheet.IfyouselectRestoreoriginalvalues,thesolutionsthatthesolverfoundwillnotbe
enteredintotheworksheetandtheoriginalvalueswillberetained.

Youhavetheoptiontosavethesolverresultsasascenariothatyoucannameandreloadinto
theworksheetatalaterdate(refertolesson1.4).Youcanalsoselectoneormorereporttypes
fromthelistattherightoftheSolverResultsbox.Theseformattedreportswillbegeneratedon
separateworksheets.

MicrosoftOfficeExcel2007Foundation 130

Thisfollowingimageshowsananswerreportbasedonthesolversolution.Itisgeneratedona
separateworksheetifyouselectAnswerfromthereportlistinthesolverresultsbox.

ThisisthesameworksheetafterthepriceoftheBudgetPChasbeenchangedto750;andthe
solverhasbeenappliedwiththesametarget,changingcells,andconstraintsasbefore.Notice
thatbecausethepricehasbeenchanged,thesolutionisnow20BudgetPCsand5PowerPCs
foratotalrevenueof21000.

MicrosoftOfficeExcel2007Foundation 131

Index

Chart
Chartfloor ................................................................................................................................. 21
Creatingachart........................................................................................................................... 3
Moving ...................................................................................................................................... 27
Resizing ..................................................................................................................................... 24
Charts
Addingacharttitle.................................................................................................................... 12
Addingtrendlines...................................................................................................................... 18
Asanobjectinanotherworksheet........................................................................................... 29
Axes......................................................................................................................... 11,16,17,23
Calloutsin.................................................................................................................................. 32
ChangesinExcel2007................................................................................................................. 2
Changingaxislabelsin .............................................................................................................. 45
Changingthesourcedata ......................................................................................................... 38
Changingthetype ..................................................................................................................... 35
Chartwall .................................................................................................................................. 21
Datalabels................................................................................................................................. 15
Datatable.................................................................................................................................. 18
DesignTab......................................................................................................4,11,30,35,47,49
Errorbars ............................................................................................................................ 19,20
Formattingthechartarea........................................................................................................... 8
Formattingthelegend .......................................................................................................... 5,14
Formattingtheplot..................................................................................................................... 7
Gridlines .................................................................................................................................... 17
LayoutTab................................................................................................................................. 11
Savingasatemplate ................................................................................................................. 49
Seriesin..................................................................................................................................... 41
Styles ........................................................................................................................................... 9
Typeofchart ............................................................................................................................... 2
DataTab ...................................................52,53,57,60,88,99,100,101,102,105,121,123,126
ExcelOptions
Installingaddins ..................................................................................................................... 123
GoalSeek....................................................................................................... 51,111,120,121,122
HomeTab................................................................................................................................ 85,88
InputTables
Creatingsingle......................................................................................................................... 113
Creatingtwoinput .................................................................................................................. 117
DataTabledialog ............................................................................................................ 115,119
Formatting .............................................................................................................................. 117
Rules........................................................................................................................................ 112
MicrosoftOfficeExcel2007Foundation 132

Single....................................................................................................................................... 112
TwoInput ................................................................................................................................ 112
InsertTab .................................................................................................2,3,32,64,68,89,90,91
Outlining
Automatic.................................................................................................................................. 52
Collapsinglevels........................................................................................................................ 55
Expandinglevels........................................................................................................................ 55
Groupingdatamanually ........................................................................................................... 56
Removingsubtotals .................................................................................................................. 62
Ungroupingdata ....................................................................................................................... 59
Usingsubtotals.......................................................................................................................... 59
PivotChart ..................................................................................................................................... 95
Creating................................................................................................................. 90,91,92,100
DesignTab................................................................................................................................. 90
Frames....................................................................................................................................... 93
Inserting .................................................................................................................................... 89
Populatingwithdata................................................................................................................. 93
Refreshingdata ......................................................................................................................... 90
Styles ......................................................................................................................................... 90
PivotTable .................................... 51,63,64,73,79,80,81,83,85,88,89,90,93,94,95,96,109
AndtheImportDatapanel ..................................................................................................... 100
Basicsof .................................................................................................................................... 63
Calculations......................................................................................................................... 82,83
ClassicLayout ........................................................................................... SeePivotTable,Frames
Creating........................................................................................64,78,90,91,92,98,100,102
Dataarea....................................................................................................................... 72,75,76
Databoxes ................................................................................................................................ 80
Databoxesvs.dataareas ......................................................................................................... 79
DataFieldSettings .................................................................................................................... 83
DesignTab........................................................................................................................... 78,85
Expandingandcollapsingdata ................................................................................................. 68
Fieldlist ..................................................................................................66,67,74,76,77,79,93
Frames..................................................................................................68,70,71,72,78,93,102
Manuallyformatting ................................................................................................................. 85
Numberformats ................................................................................................................. 83,87
OptionsTab......................................................................................................................... 78,88
Pagearea................................................................................................................................... 77
Placing ....................................................................................................................................... 65
Populatingdata......................................................................................................................... 73
Rearrangingdata..................................................................................................... 74,75,76,80
Refreshingdata ................................................................................................................. 89,103
Removingdata .......................................................................................................................... 74
Rowandcolumnareas........................................................................................................ 72,76
Sourcedata ............................................................................................................. 64,65,71,88
MicrosoftOfficeExcel2007Foundation 133

Styles ......................................................................................................................................... 85
TableOptions .................................................................................................... 69,70,78,84,85
Usingexternaldatasources........................................................................................ 65,96,101
Whatis? .................................................................................................................................... 63
Scenarios
Adding ..................................................................................................................................... 106
Creating................................................................................................................................... 105
Deleting................................................................................................................................... 110
Editing ..................................................................................................................................... 110
Savingmultiple........................................................................................................................ 110
ScenarioManager ................................................................................... 104,105,107,108,110
Showing................................................................................................................................... 108
Solverresultsand.................................................................................................................... 129
Summaryreports .................................................................................................................... 108
Whatare?................................................................................................................................ 104
Solver
Addingconstraints .................................................................................................................. 127
Examples ................................................................................................................................. 128
Implementingsolution............................................................................................................ 129
Installing.................................................................................................................................. 123
Launching ........................................................................................................................ 123,126
Reports.................................................................................................................................... 129
Results..................................................................................................................................... 129
Settingupworksheettouse ........................................................................................... 124,125
SolverParametersdialog ........................................................................................................ 126
Whatis? .................................................................................................................................. 122