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LECTURE 7 - Properties: High fire

resistance, pest resistant,


Mortar Composition weather resistant
- Portland cement (bonding
agent) Brick forming methods
- Hydrated lime (smoothness, a) Soft mud process (20 to 30%
workability, strength) water)
- Sand (where lime sets) b) Dry press bricks (>10%
- Water (workability) water)
- Admixtures c) Stiff mud (12-15% water)

Mortar Functions: Classes of Brick


- Cushion a) Adobe
- Seal (keeps water and air b) Kiln-burned
from penetrating) c) Sand-lime
- Bonding agent d) Concrete
- Surface enhancer
LECTURE 8
Mortar Basic Types
Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU)
Compressi - Properties: good fire rating,
Typ ve Property and thermal storage capability,
e Strength Use good resistance to sound
(psi) transmission, economical
N 750 general
purpose CMU Screen Units
exterior - For privacy, separation
veneer,
spaces, architectural details
walls
(NLB/LB(
S 1800 high flexural How to install CMU:
strength 1. Install mortar bead
load bearing 2. Lay CMU
walls subject 3. Tooled joints
to wind 4. Control joints
forces/seism
ic loads 5. Paint (opt)
O 350 low strength
interior, NLB Stone Classification
M 250 low
workability Classificati
Type Uses
high on
strength Granite Igneous Wall
*strength: M<O<N<S facing
Paving
Flooring
Brick
Limeston Sedimentary Wall
- Cells should not exceed 25% e (gray) facing
of volume Copings
Sills - Properties: lightweight, fire-
Marble Metamorphic Wall resistant, interior, controlled
facing light transmission, good
Counterto insulation, condensation
ps
protection, good sound
Sandston Sedimentary Ext wall
e (earthy facing
reduction
colors) Paving *parang glass block
Slate Metamorphic Paving - Limitations: NLB, not
(blue, green, Roof moisture resistant
red, black) shingles
Wall Ceramic Tiles
facing - Clay minerals, feldspar, silica
Travertine Metamorphic Wall
(gray) facing
Ceramic Tile Wet Processing
Flooring
1. Batching
Masonry Wall Classifications
2. Mixing & grinding
- Rubble/Ashlar/Cut stone
3. Filter pressing (removal of
- Solid/Composite/Cavity
water)
4. Spray drying (removal lang
Masonry Deterioration
ulit)
a) Freeze/thaw cycle
5. Forming
b) Wet/dry cycle
6. Drying
c) Thermal
7. Glazing (coating)
expansion/contraction
8. Firing (strengthen, porosity)
d) Salt crystallization
*surface: efflorescence
Fiber Cement Boards
*under surface: crumbling
- Sand, cement, cellulose
fibers, water, additives
Masonry Cleaning (and their
- Resistant to moisture
probs)
a) Water mist (moisture
LECTURE 10
entrapment)
b) Chemical (etching)
Adhesive
c) Abrasive (surface damage,
- Must wet & adhere to
mortar removal)
surfaces, develop strength
after application & remain
LECTURE 9
stable
- Theories: adsorption,
Gypsum
electrostatic attraction,
- Composed of calcium
diffusion
sulfate dehydrate
- Properties: water-soluble,
Cementitious Adhesives
lightweight, brittle
- Cement + polymer additives
- Tile adhesive/tile grouts
Gypsum Blocks & Boards
- Properties: high tensile
strength, high tensile
adhesion strength, early Gloss - Most durable
tensile adhesion strength - For trims,
cabinets, areas
- Raw materials: natural, semi- exposed to
synthetic, synthetic, heavy traffic
inorganics
Methods of Application
Oil-Based Paint - Spray, squeegee, roller,
- Good adhesion brush, _____
- Durable
- Tend to oxidize and get Paint Defects
brittle - Swirl mark marring, random
- Use when: deep marring, deep
o Repainting exterior scratching, water/acid
surfaces with heavy etching, hologramming
chalking
o Repainting surface LECTURE 10
with layers of old oil-
based paint Polymer Pipes
- Long-term service life
Latex Paint - Corrosion, abrasion &
- Easy to clean chemical resistant
- Durable, with chalk - Strong, durable, flexible,
resistance lightweight
- Doesnt get brittle - Low labor requirements
- Dries faster for installation
- Cheap
Sheen
- Flatter, easier to hide Grades of Polymer Pipes
surface imperfections a) Schedule 40 & 80 (for
- Glossier, more durable Drain-Waste-Vent, water
and washable lines)
- Glossy: mildew resistance b) Pressure Pipes (water
(less porous) lines)
c) Non-code pipes (Septic
Sheen Properties tank, outside drainage
Flat - Non-reflective pipe)
- Hard to remove
stains
- Living rooms, Types of Polymer Pipes
bedrooms
Eggshell - Washable Sheen Properties
- Hallways PVC - Semi-rigid
Satin - Durable - For cold water,
- Hallways gas lines
Semi-gloss - Stain resistant uPVC - Resistant to
- Washable aggressive
- Bathrooms, environments
kitchens - For drinking
water pipes, c) HH High heat resistance
sewers d) W wet applications
CPVC - Hot water
e) X flame retardant
applications
- w/ f) N nylon coating
threaded/cemen (oil/gasoline resistance)
ted fittings
PE/HDPE/LDPE - Cost effective
- Potable water,
wastewater,
slurries,
chemicals,
basically
errthing
ABS - Low cost
cemented pipe
- DWV

Geosynthetic Materials
- Purpose: separation,
drainage, filtration,
protection, reinforcement,
barrier

Electrical Wiring Materials


- Copper/aluminum
- Styles: bare, insulated,
insulated stranded wires
- Types: non-metallic,
armoured

Wire Codes
a) T Thermoplastic
b) H Heat resistance